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Atlas of the Seven Continents

Atlas of the Seven Continents

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Atlas of the Seven Continents

150 страниц
2 часа
19 нояб. 2014 г.


Atlas of the Seven Continents contains amazing continental maps and detailed information on population, beliefs, climate and vegetation, ecology and environment, economy, and politics and history.
This is the best book for Geography class and for anyone who need information about any continent on Earth. Describes the continents in great detail!

19 нояб. 2014 г.

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Atlas of the Seven Continents - My Ebook Publishing House


Europe is the continent that shelters the varied and harmonious relief of our country. The land of Europe was uninterruptedly inhabited by individuals that have created a prosperous civilization. The Europeans have instrumented great geographical discoveries that have led to the population of America and Australia. On the land of Europe, our ancestors have lived continuously, in the same home.

Establishment, borders, shores.

On Earth, Europe is entirely placed in the Northern hemisphere. The most part of the European territory is found in the temperate area. In the North, there are regions that appertain to the cold area. The land of Europe is uninterruptedly linked to the continent of Asia. The Urals (Ural Mountains), the Ural River and the Caspian Sea mark the border between Europe and Asia in the East side. In the South, the Mediterranean Sea divides Europe from Asia. The Mediterranean Sea unites with the Black Sea through the Dardanelles and Bosphorus (Bosporus) straits, between which the Marmara Sea is interpolated. These constitute another border between Europe and Asia. In the West side, Europe is doused by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, from which the English Channel, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea differentiate. The Northern side of the continent is doused by the Barents Sea and the White Sea, which also appertain to the Atlantic Ocean. The shores of Europe are strongly engrailed, forming numerous bays, peninsulas and islands. The most extended peninsula is the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Iberian Peninsula is doused both by the Atlantic Ocean, as well as by the Mediterranean Sea. In the Mediterranean Sea, the Italian (Apennine) Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula advance. The two peninsulas demarcate, within the Mediterranean Sea, water expansions denominated the Tyrrhenian Sea, The Adriatic Sea, The Ionian Sea and the Aegean Sea.

The vaster European islands are the British Islands, Iceland, Ireland, The Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Crete. The shores of Europe are diverse: some are lowered, with wide beaches, others are rocky, with seafronts that elevate like a wall from the level of the water and so on.

The relief of Europe.

Europe has a varied relief, formed of plains, meadows, hills, plateaus, young mountains and old mountains. The Alps and the Carpathian Mountains extend as an enormous spring of heights and mountainous crests, especially in the central and southern side of the continent. These are young, massive mountains, of rough rocks, high, with sharp peaks and precipitous slopes, separated by valleys, piers, transients and depressions.

In the Alps, the highest peak of Europe is found – Mont Blanc, of 4807 meters. The Alps are taller and more massive than the Carpathian Mountains. The Carpathian Mountains have a total length of 1600 kilometers, from which more than half is found on the Romanian territory. The mountainous Carpathian chain starts from the Danube, in Vienna’s basin and unfurls uninterruptedly in the shape of a curve, ending beyond the Danube, in Timoc’ valley. The Carpathians are located in the continuance of the Alps. As against the Alps, The Carpathians are easy to cross because of the numerous transients and valleys that pervade them. In the Carpathian Mountains, numerous depressions are located. The highest peak of the Carpathians is located in the Tatras (The Tatra Mountains) and has 2655 meters. The Moldoveanu (Moldovan) Peak from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains has 2543 m. The old mountains are formed of rough rocks, but they are slightly tall, fretted because of their prolonged shaping by wind, frostiness and debacle, rivers. The Măcin Mountains of our country are old mountains, such as the Urals or the ones from the British Islands or Scandinavian Peninsula.

In the Italian Peninsula, the Apennine Mountains are located, and in the Balkan Peninsula, the Balkan Mountains and the Pindus Mountains are located. The Dinaric Mountains guard the Eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea. The Pyrenees Mountains divide the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe. The Caucasus Mountains extend between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Some mountains of Europe have formed by volcano eruption. They can be recognized after their cone shape. Mount Etna and Mount Vesuvius are active. The Vesuvius Mount has covered with lava, during the Roman period, two cities: Herculaneum and Pompeii. Today, these cities, having been excavated, present special testimonies about the life of the Romans. Also, the region of the Iceland Islands is an active volcanic area until the present. The formation of an island was able to be filmed because of a deep-sea volcano eruption. In Europe, numerous plateaus are located. The Transylvania plateau is surrounded, as a citadel is surrounded by walls, by the three branches of the Romanian Carpathians. The Central Russia – Valdai, the Czech, the Ardennes, the one of the Iberian Peninsula plateaus. The sub-Carpathian hills and the ones from other regions of Europe make the transit from the mountains to the lower regions. Europe’s plain extends from the Pyrenees Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean to the Urals and Caspian Sea.



Vegetation and specific animals.

The climate of Europe is temperate, with the exception of the northern side, which surpasses the Arctic Circle. Within the same warmth area, with 4 seasons, there are more types of climate, which discern among themselves because of the relief’ influence, the remoteness or approximation of seas and of the Atlantic Ocean, the direction of winds.

The oceanic climate (or maritime) is the climate of Western Europe. The temperature variations between winter and summer are not particularly great. The winters are gentle, and the summer doesn’t have chocking heats. All seasons have rainfalls, but they are more abundant during winter. The small differences between summer and winter are explained by the presence of the Atlantic Ocean water. The sea water is warmer than the dryness during winter; during summer, it is colder. The winds that blow from the sea, soften the temperatures from land during winter, and cool the air during summer. In the regions with oceanic climate, there are many days with a humid weather. The weather is, generally, unstable. The sun is quickly covered by mud. The soft rain, quite dense, comes from the Atlantic, brought by the winds that blow from the west. These are burdened with water vapors above the ocean. The climate of the coasts of northwestern Europe is softened by the Current of the Bay, a sort of immense river of warm water that crosses the Atlantic Ocean. It is formed in the warm zone and takes the stored heat from the Equator to the north. In the areas with an oceanic climate, deciduous forests with meadows and beautiful meads grow. The most frequently encountered arbors are oaks, beeches, maples, linden, and elm trees and so on. In the deciduous forests, animals such as the marten, the roebuck, the deer and numerous songbirds live. On the mountains, coniferous forests grow.

The continental climate characterizes the central and eastern Europe, namely the regions that are farther from the ocean. Greater temperature variations are recorded from one season to another, and the precipitations are more reduced than in the west. In the plain of Eastern Europe, these variations towards the oceanic climate are even greater, the winters are long and harsh, with low temperatures, frost and great snow banks, and the summers are shorter and warmer, with storms and heavy rains. In the areas with a continental climate, the same deciduous forests as in the ocean regions and at height coniferous forests are encountered. But, in the north of the Black Sea and of the Caspian Sea, including in the Romanian (Wallachian) Plain and in the Great Hungarian Plain, the herbaceous steppe spreads, an immense extension that, in natural state, covers itself, in the spring, with herbages that dry along with the warmth of the summer. In former times, here, herds of wild horses and herbivore animals used to live. Nowadays, cereals that have favorable conditions and give rich crops are grown. The expansion of the steppe is interrupted at large distances of the forests and bushes. In the steppe zone, animals such as the rabbit, the gopher, the hog and the field mouse live. The skylark is the specific bird of the flat plains. In some areas, the great bustards,which were hunted without remorse, are still encountered. In the steppe zone (for example, The Baragan plain), fertile soils called chernozems are still encountered. The area of coniferous forests (taiga) is continuously tautened between the Scandes (The Scandinavian Mountains) and the Urals. The taiga is the tautest plain of Europe. The forest is shadowy. Beneath the fir of the spruces or other conifers, grass or shrubs don’t grow, the bottom branches are dry. Here, the wolf, the fox, the moose, the stoat (with a valuable fur) and birds live.

The Mediterranean climate.

It’s specific to the southern Europe, to the littoral of the Mediterranean Sea. The winters are gentle and rainy, and the summers, warm and arid: In the summer, even if it rains, the lack of water is experienced. But in the autumn, it starts to rain and, until springtime, the soil accumulates the necessary water to the specific cultures. Sometimes, especially during autumn, heavy rains fall which inflate the streams that are almost dry during summer and which carry, downstream, the dried and cracked soil. The vegetation of the Mediterranean lands has its own aspects adapted to aridness. Being hot all year long, the arbors are always green (they change their leafage by turn). Here, the cork oak tree (that has, underneath his bark, the cork that screens him from dryness), the olive tree, the fir tree, the oleander tree,

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