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The Value of the Maori Language: Te Hua o te Reo Maori

The Value of the Maori Language: Te Hua o te Reo Maori

Автором Huia Publishers

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The Value of the Maori Language: Te Hua o te Reo Maori

Автором Huia Publishers

Длина:
602 pages
9 hours
Издатель:
Издано:
Nov 6, 2015
ISBN:
9781775502821
Формат:
Книге

Описание

Twenty-five years ago the Maori Language Act was passed, but research still finds that the Maori language is dying. This collection looks at the state of the language since the Act, how the language is faring in education, media, texts and communities and what the future aspirations for the language are.
Издатель:
Издано:
Nov 6, 2015
ISBN:
9781775502821
Формат:
Книге

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The Value of the Maori Language - Huia Publishers

Cover

He Ruruku – Foreword

Pita Sharples

Toi te kupu, toi te mana, toi te whenua.¹

‘Ki te toitū te kupu, arā te reo Māori,

ki te toitū te mana o te iwi Māori,

ki te toitū te whenua, ka mau te Māoritanga.

Otirā me pēnei;

ki te ngaro te reo Māori,

ki te ngaro ngā whenua Māori,

ka ngaro te mana Māori.’²

Mā te whakatauākī a Tinirau e herea ai ō tātou reo ki ō tātou iwi, ki ō tātou whenua hoki. Ko ēnei taonga tuku iho, he mea whakawhirinaki tētahi ki tētahi kia tū hei poutokomanawa mō te ao Māori, me te mea nei, ko Tāne tērā e toko ana i a Ranginui ki runga kia tū tangata ai ō rāua uri i runga i a Papatūānuku, i te ao mārama.

Ka kīia ko tōna reo te tohu o te mana Māori motuhake o te tangata whenua. Nō reira, ko te pakanga kia mana tonu ō tātou reo, he pakanga kia tū tonu ō tātou iwi hei tangata whenua. Ko tā te pukapuka nei, he tirotiro whānui ki ngā āhuatanga o tō tātou reo tīpuna, mai i te whakamanatanga o te Ture Reo Māori i te tau 1987. Ko ngā kōrero e whai ake nei, he whakamārama i ngā piki me ngā heke hoki o te whakaora i te reo Māori – ngā huarahi kua takahia, ngā mahi kua oti, ngā taumata kua ekea, ngā whakakitenga kua ara mai i te pae i mua i ō tātou aroaro. I tua atu i tērā, kei te wānangahia ētahi kaupapa, ētahi tikanga, ētahi whakaaro ārahi i a tātou kia tutuki pai ai ā tātou mahi whakarauora i te reo.

Kia hoki ake aku mahara ki te wā i kōkiritia ai e Ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te reo Māori mā te tono ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko te whakaaro nui: he taonga te reo, kua raruraru taua taonga, nō reira, me tiaki e te Karauna i runga anō i ngā mātāpono o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Engari, e ai ki ngā kupu a te Tiriti, ko tā te Karauna mahi, he whakarite, he whakaae ki ngā rangatira, ki ngā hapū, ki ngā tāngata (Māori) katoa ‘te tino rangatiratanga o … ō rātou taonga katoa’ – tae atu ki tō rātou reo. Ko tā ngā kōrero kei roto i tēnei pukapuka, he whāwhā, he wherawhera, he wetewete i ngā āhuatanga o tēnei mea te tino rangatiratanga o te reo, ahakoa he whai puku, he whai muna.

Nā Hirini Moko Mead tētahi o ngā tāpaetanga kōrero ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti. Ka whakapapa atu te koroua rā i ngā āhuatanga o te rangatiratanga. Ka tīkina atu ngā kōrero a Te Rangikaheke o Te Arawa me ā ētahi atu tīpuna nō te ao kōhatu, mō ngā mahi a te rangatira. Ko te mau rākau tētahi, ko te whakahaere pakanga tētahi, ko te hohou i te rongo, ko te hanga whare, ko te whakairo rākau anō ētahi o aua mahi rangatira. Ko te whakapae a Hirini, ka taea katoatia ēnei mahi mā te reo; ki te kore te reo, ka kore te rangatiratanga o te aha noa atu. Toi te kupu. Toi te mana. Toi te whenua.

He aha ētahi āhuatanga o te rangatiratanga o te reo e kōrerotia nei i roto i tēnei pukapuka? Tuatahi, ko tā ngā kaietita tokorua nei, tā Rawinia Higgins rāua ko Poia Rewi, he whakatakoto i te papanga o ngā kaupapa reo, o ngā marau reo, o ngā tirohanga reo kua whakakaohia mai i tēnei pukapuka – ko te hua, ko te wāriu o te reo Māori. Ka wānangahia ngā pūtake o te mana Māori, me tētahi whakaaro hou e hao ai te nuinga ake o te iwi ki te whakamahi i tō tātou reo rangatira. Kātahi ka whāia ko tā Iritana Tawhiwhirangi, kotahi atu ki te rae, arā, me tū rangatira te iwi, kātahi ka noho mana te reo. E ai ki a ia, ko te whakarauoratanga o te reo i ngā tau rua tekau mā whitu kua pahure, he whakaorenga i te iwi kia tū tangata i runga anō i ā tātou tikanga tuku iho.

Me pēhea e whai tikanga ai te reo rangatira hei reo kōrero i ngā wā katoa? E mea ana a Mamari Stephens, kua kore te reo Māori e kōrerotia i ngā mahi kāwanatanga, ā, ka werohia e rāua ko Timoti Karetu te Ture Reo Māori, mēnā rānei e whai niho ana. Ahakoa tērā, kua whakaara hoki a Timoti i te korenga o te ao Māori e tahuri mai ki tōna reo. E ai ki a Te Ururoa Flavell, arā ngā takahanga tapuwae nā reira e kitea ai te whakamahia o te reo Māori i roto i te Whare Pāremata. Waihoki, ahakoa ngā pakanga kia riro mā te iwi Māori tētahi rautaki reo Māori e whakatakoto mā te motu, kāore te kāwanatanga i pai mai. Ko tāku, he pēnei pea i runga i te pōhēhē ko tā te Karauna he tiaki i te taonga, ehara i te mea kei a ia katoa te tino rangatiratanga o te taonga.

Ka kitea te rangatiratanga o te reo i tōna kōrero whānui. E ai ki a Hana O’Regan, nā ngā taonga pēnei i te reo, te pounamu hoki, te rangatiratanga o te whenua i whakapūmau. Nā konei te kaha o Ngāi Tahu ki te kōrero i tō rātou ake reo i roto i ngā kāinga o te iwi. I Ōtepoti, kua whakakotahi ngā kura tuarua i raro i te maru o te kapa haka kotahi. Nā, e ai ki a Katarina Ruckstuhl, ko te hua nui katoa ko te reo Māori, nāna i whakakotahi te hapori kia taea ai e tēnei rōpū, te tuatahi o tana momo i Ōtākou, te uru atu ki te whakataetae nui ā-motu. Ko Ngāti Kahungunu anō hoki tērā, hei tā Jeremy Tatere MacLeod, me tana mahere rautaki reo e kawe ana i tō rātou reo mai i te tāmate ki te ora. Ka whakamārama mai a Pakake Winiata i te mahere whakapakari iwi o Ngāti Raukawa, o Ngāti Toa, o Te Ātiawa e kīia ana ko Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, me te wāhi ki te whakapakari i tō rātou reo. Hei tā Mike Ross, he reo ōkawa anake te whai wāhi atu o te reo Māori ki roto i te Kauhanganui o Waikato-Tainui, ā, ehara i te reo e kawe ana i ngā kaupapa kōrero i te hui. Ka huri a Korohere Ngapo ki ngā reo taketake o te ao ki te wherawhera i ngā tohu oranga, i ngā tohu mate o ngā reo moroiti, me te turou i te reo Māori e kore ai ia e ngaro i ngā tirohanga a te ao ki ngā reo e ahu ana ki te orotītanga.

Ko tētahi mahi a te rangatira, he tiaki, he manaaki i ngā uri whakatipu. He pānga nui tā te tamaiti, tā te mokopuna ki te rangatiratanga o te reo – ko te whakatipu tamariki i te reo, ko te whakaako i ngā kura kaupapa, ko te tuku i te reo tika. Me whai wāhi te iwi whānui ki te whāngai i te reo ki ngā tamariki, tae atu ki ngā kawenga reo hou, pēnei me te reo irirangi, me te reo tātaki, me te ipurangi hoki.

Kei konei katoa ngā kōrero e whakaatu ana i te rangatiratanga o te reo. Hei tā Te Wharehuia Milroy, mā ngā ‘mātua rau’ o te tamaiti ia e whāngai te reo, ngā tikanga o te hapū hoki. Ko tā Arapera Royal Tangaere, he rangahau i te mahi a te whānau ki te whāngai reo ki ngā mokopuna i Te Kōhanga Reo. Kei te whakaae mai a Toni Waho rāua ko Arapine Walker, me pupuri e te iwi Māori te mana whakaako tamariki. Ko tēnei te aranga ake o ngā kura kaupapa Māori. He aronga anō tā te wāhanga ki a Tabitha McKenzie rāua ko Rawiri Toia, ko tā rāua he whakatō i tētahi kaupapa whakapakari reo i roto i ngā kura auraki hei āwhina i ngā kaiako o reira, ko te ara i whāia e rāua ko te huarahi hangarau. E whai mai ana ko Karena Kelly me ana whakakitenga mō te takoto o te reo e tika ai, e rere ai, e Māori ake ai i runga anō i ngā hua a te wete reo.

Ka tatū mai ki te mana o Te Ataarangi me te wāhanga ki a Te Ripowai Higgins, he hokinga whakamuri ki te wā i tīmata ai tēnei kaupapa nui, kātahi ka whāia mai ngā kōrero a Maureen Muller rāua ko Andrea Kire i roto i ā rāua rangahau i te kaupapa me te ara whakaako a Te Ataarangi. Mai i te kaupapa whānui nei te titiro ki te kaupapa whāiti noa iho nei, e whakapae ana a Paraone Gloyne ko Te Panekiretanga o te reo tētahi kaupapa nui katoa e taea ai ngā tūmomo reo o inamata te mau tonu i a tātou o te ināianei. Hei tāna me tū ngātahi te reo me ngā tikanga Māori e pūmau ai te mana Māori motuhake.

Ko ētahi e titiro ana ki te pae tawhiti. Ko te pātai a Rangi Matamua: ‘me pēhea te āwhina a ngā reo irirangi Māori e ora ai ngā mita ā-iwi?’ Ko tā Jo Mane he tiro ki te manawa o te tangata nāna i pupū ai te aronga ki te reo irirangi. Kei a Joe Te Rito tana whakahoki mai i te tirohanga a Te Reo Irirangi o Ngāti Kahungunu. E tahuri atu ana ki te pouaka whakaata, ka whakautu mai a Tainui Stephens me ana kōrero mō Whakaata Māori me ngā whakapaoho tuatahi i kitea i te pouaka whakaata. Ko Te Taka Keegan rāua ko Daniel Cunliffe ngā kaitō i ngā whakaaro o te kaipānui ki te ināianei, ko tā rāua he titiro ki ngā momo hangarau e puta ake ana hei huarahi mō te tuku i te reo ki ngā whakatipuranga o ēnei rā. Ka waiho mā Wayne Ngata ngā kōrero katoa e whakakapi, e whakatepe i runga i te mana o te hanga e mōhiotia ana e tātou he mōteatea, koia tērā te tauira kua pūmau katoa nei ahakoa te urutomo mai a te Pākehā ki te ao Māori.

Kāti rā. I te wā tonu i puta mai ai tēnei pukapuka, e matapakitia ana te Ture Whenua Māori, me ngā tikanga whakamahi i ngā whenua tipuna. He nui ngā whenua Māori e takoto koraha ana, he noho marara nō te tangata whenua, he kawea kētia nō te whakaaro Māori e te pōharatanga, he tokoiti rawa nō ngā whānau e kaha ana tā rātou whakakotahi i ō rātou whenua hei oranga mō rātou. Ki a au nei, kei te pērā tonu te rangatiratanga o te reo i tēnei wā. Āe, me whakatika i ngā ture patu i ngā tikanga Māori, waihoki rā, kia whakarangatira rawa te iwi i a ia anō, kātahi ka kitea te rangatiratanga o ngā taonga tuku iho nei. Mā ngā taonga hoki te iwi me ngā uri whakatipu e whakarangatiratia ai, e rangatira ai!

Toi te kupu. Toi te mana. Toi te whenua.

Tākuta Pita Sharples

Minita Kaupapa Māori

Minita Mātauranga Tuarua

Minita Te Ara Poutama Tuarua

Rārangi Pukapuka

Ihaka, K. (1957). Proverbial and Popular Sayings of the Maori: Nga Whakatauki me Nga Pepeha Maori. Te Ao Hou, 20, 42–43.

Notes

1 Nā Tinirau o Ngāti Rangi, o Whanganui tēnei kōrero.

2 Nā Kingi Ihaka tēnei kōrero (1957: 42).

He Tuku Mihi – Acknowledgements

E hia kē nei ngā tāngata i tautoko i a māua i roto i ēnei mahi. Ki a Ngā Pae o Te Māramatanga, nā koutou te mānuka i whakatakoto, ko tā māua he amo ake kia kitea he aha te hua o te reo i ngā tau rehurehu ki te muri, ināianei, kia whakatata mai te pae tawhiti, ko Te Kura Roa tēnei e mihi ake nei. E koutou, Te Ahukaramu, Marilyn, Daniel Patrick, Daniel Hikuroa, Joe, Donna mā, nei rā te mihi ki a koutou.

Kāore i tua atu i a koutou ngā kaituhi i whakaae kia takoha mai i ā koutou kōrero, ō koutou whakaaro ki tēnei putunga kōrero. Heoi, mei kore koutou kua kore tēnei. Nā te reo Māori tātau i whakakao kia riro mā tēnei kaupapa e whakaatu ōna āhuatanga katoa. Tuarua, he mihi tēnei ki a Robyn kōrua ko Brian Bargh i whakapono ki te kaupapa nei. Ko kōrua ērā, otirā, koutou ngā kaimahi o Huia, e whakatairanga ake ana i tō tātou reo, kia kitea ā-kupu tā nei te reo Māori mā ā koutou pukapuka. Ka mihi ki a koutou.

Kei ngā kaupapa reo Māori i roto i ngā hapori o tēnei motu, ko koutou ngā ringaringa me ngā waewae o te kaupapa whakaora reo. Koutou te hunga whakapono he hua tō te reo. Mei kore ō koutou werawera kua kore e whai manawataki tēnei pukapuka.

Ki ō māua hoa mahi o Te Tumu me Te Kawa a Māui, Te Whare Wānanga o Otāgo me Te Whare Wānanga o Te Ūpoko o Te-Ika-a-Māui; ngaro ana māua, nā koutou i pīkau ngā taumahatanga o te mahi. Tae atu ki a koe e te hoa, Len Hetet, nāu i whakamāori ngā kupu e pā ana ki te kaupapa o Te Kura Roa, ā, ka puawai ko te waituhi kai te uhi o tēnei pukapuka. Ka mihi rā.

Heoi, ko ngā papa o ēnei mahi roa ko ngā whānau, ko ngā hoa, ko ā māua tamariki, mokopuna. Me pērā – ko te reo te take.

Kāti rā, Delyn Day kōrua ko Vincent Olsen-Reeder. Ko kōrua ngā tino pou whirinaki i roto i ngā mahi nei. Whītikiria ana e kōrua ngā hope, whakatepea ana e kōrua ngā kō e hua ai te whakaaro ki te kupu, i te kupu ki te mata, i te mata ki te hinengaro; huri atu, huri mai. Tēnei māua e kupu nei i te mihi, heoi, tītiti kē ake ana te mānawa i ō māua ngākau i ngā mahi nui i tutuki i a kōrua tahi. Nō reira, Delyn, kōrua ko Vini, e kore e mutu ā māua mihi ki a kōrua. Ka mihi, ka mihi, ka mihi rā.

There are a number of people we would like to acknowledge for supporting this book. Firstly, the contributors, whose ideas and thoughts are compiled here in this collection. It is the language that first drew us together so that others can appreciate the benefits of the Māori language that we believe in. We are extremely grateful for your time, patience and the contributions that you have made.

We would like to acknowledge Robyn and Brian Bargh who believed in the value of this book. Along with the team at Huia Publishers, by publishing Māori language literature, you ensure a place for the language on our bookshelves. Thank you for your support.

We are also grateful to Ngā Pae o Te Māramatanga who set the challenge for us to examine the value of the language and explore the ‘pae tawhiti.’ We hope that Te Kura Roa has gone some way to drawing that ‘distant horizon’ nearer.

It would be remiss not to acknowledge the Māori language revitalisation movements, the believers, the brave, the courageous and the strong. Your efforts provide us with inspiration to ensure we do not relinquish our language. Many of you feature in these chapters; some of you are not named, but we acknowledge you through this book.

To our work colleagues of Te Tumu and Te Kawa a Māui as well as our universities, Otago University and Victoria University, thank you for the support while we have been researching. We know that many of you have had to shoulder the responsibilities that we would have taken on and we thank you for this. We would also like to acknowledge and thank Len Hetet who took our words about Te Kura Roa and created the design that features on the cover of the book.

This book would still be sitting on our desks were it not for two particular people. Their patience and energy has been unwavering. We are both indebted to them for pushing us to focus on the book and get through the editing, finding the references when the authors did not provide them, formatting and tidying up the manuscript and so many other things that we feel it is important to recognise them as part of the editorial team. Delyn and Vini, you have been loyal and true to both of us, but mainly to the kaupapa. We are indeed indebted to you both.

Finally, and on behalf of the whole editorial team, we would like to acknowledge our families who suffer the most during projects like this. Our parents, partners, friends, children and the new mokopuna (Toroa), we love you all. Thanks for understanding and tolerating us.

Rawinia and Poia

He Kupu Whakataki – Introduction

Ko tāu e tangi ai, e te reo:

‘Mā wai au e kawe ki ōku whenua haumako?

Mā wai au e marotiritiri kia pītau māta-a-tipu kia anga nui ki te rā,

kia kawea ahau e ngā hau kāinga, e ngā hau takiwā

ki a Pokotaringa, ki a Ngākau-nui, ki a Whakaihi mā?’¹

This book attempts to respond to the lament of the Māori language described above. It is a collection of voices: shared thoughts, experiences and research about the ongoing survival and success of the Māori language and its value to Aotearoa New Zealand. The Value of the Māori Language: Te Hua o te Reo Māori came from work being undertaken in the Te Kura Roa programme, a Ngā Pae o Te Māramatanga Pae Tawhiti: Te Reo Māori initiative. Te Kura Roa is a three-year research programme exploring the value of Māori language within New Zealand. As co-principal investigators of Te Kura Roa, Rawinia Higgins leads Whaihua: the Community Responsiveness project, in collaboration with Te Kōhanga Reo and Te Ataarangi. Whaihua aims to understand why people actively engage in te reo Māori and to identify the success factors of these movements for the development of Māori and whānau. Poia Rewi leads Waiaro: the State Responsiveness project of Te Kura Roa. The Waiaro project aims to understand state responsiveness (at a national and local level) towards the Māori language, the impact it has and the role it plays in the ongoing maintenance of the Māori language.

The primary focus of Te Kura Roa is the value of the Māori language. The editors’ research has highlighted that there is a dearth of literature about te reo Māori and, more specifically, the value of te reo Māori, since the language became official with the Māori Language Act in 1987.² A review of the perceived value, positive or otherwise, of the Māori language to New Zealand is timely. The discourse surrounding the struggle to gain official recognition is well documented and has become an entrenched part of our cultural history. However, the lack of literature since 1987 suggests we have achieved what those of the Te Reo Māori Society, Ngā Tamatoa, Ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo Māori and many others fought for over twenty-five years ago. We are all too aware that research continues to lament the demise of the Māori language, concluding that the struggles are still prevalent. Have the achievements of the past anaesthetised us from continuing to take action for the normalisation³ of the Māori language? Or are the initiatives described in this book part of the continuing struggle?

The success and regeneration of the Māori language is in many hands, and the contributors are varied. They represent language ‘pockets’ across the nation and cover multiple generations in different disciplines and professions. We specifically tried to balance the chapters between reflective pieces from the older generation, who actively participated in the struggles prior to, and subsequently from, the passing of the Māori Language Act 1987 and chapters from new and emerging scholars who are producing research in this field. As a general guide, contributors were asked to think and reflect on the last twenty-five years since the passing of the Māori Language Act. The purpose was to create a discourse of material relating to the Māori language, which reflects, reviews and analyses the recent past, in order for us to engage in a conversation about the future direction of the Māori language in Aotearoa New Zealand. The book is arranged thematically under four sections:

• The Māori Language Act and crown policy

Tracing the history of the Māori Language Act and the impact of crown policy on the value of the Māori language is the primary focus of this section, with chapters written by Mamari Stephens, Dr Timoti Karetu and Te Ururoa Flavell.

• Community initiatives

There are a number of community initiatives that have emanated from within Māori and some predate the 1987 Act. The actions of these community groups continue to right-shift their people towards language normalisation, at varying levels, across our communities in Aotearoa New Zealand and the world. This section includes chapters by Hana O’Regan, Dr Katharina Ruckstuhl, Tatere MacLeod, Pakake Winiata, Mike Ross and Dr Korohere Ngapo.

• Education

It is ironic that we invest resources for Māori Language acquisition into education considering it was historically the tool used to devalue and assimilate Māori into mainstream society. However, the cornerstones of Māori language revitalisation efforts are included in this section for their contribution to reversing language shift and manoeuvring our people to appreciate the value of the Māori language. Dr Wharehuia Milroy, Dr Arapera Royal Tangaere, Toni Waho and Arapine Walker, Tabitha McKenzie and Rawiri Toia, Karena Kelly, Te Ripowai Higgins, Maureen Muller and Andrea Kire, and Paraone Gloyne contribute chapters that examine the different sectors within education across varying levels of education.

• Māori language mediums

The final section relates to some of the mediums that have supported the revitalisation of the Māori language. These mediums act as tools for the acquisition and preservation of the Māori language and promote normalisation through their existence. This section includes chapters from Dr Jo Mane, Dr Rangi Matamua, Dr Joseph Te Rito, Tainui Stephens, Dr Te Taka Keegan and Dr Daniel Cunliffe, and Dr Wayne Ngata.

The rich material provided by each author overwhelmed us and we are grateful for their contributions. In organising the book, we have adopted the analogy of a pōhiri. The foreword, by the Minister of Māori Affairs, the Honourable Dr Pita Sharples, acts as a waerea (protective incantation) providing an overview of the contents of the book. His outline gives an insight into the voices contained within the book and anchors the language back to the land from where it originates. This is followed by a wero (challenge), a chapter written by the editors, which highlights some of the research findings of Te Kura Roa and challenges us to reorientate our minds and our positions in respect to the Māori language. The invited authors of this book are led by the kaikaranga (female caller), Dame Iritana Tawhiwhirangi, and, like the pōhiri process, allows for the woman’s voice to be heard first. The subsequent chapters follow particular themes and each one builds on the other in a manner similar to that of a whaikōrero (oratory). The book concludes with mōteatea (ancient songs) and the value of our language within this particular art form. Finally, we hope that at the conclusion of the book, you, the reader, will think of this book as a koha that we have laid down for you to enjoy.

The shared commonality is that all the contributors have a vested interest in the Māori language. They are all ‘Māori language avengers’ who possess particular skills and qualities that have gifted them with a potential to activate ZePA right-shifting of the Māori language.⁴ ZePA is an acronym formed by the editors to express fundamental attitudes towards engagement with the Māori language: Zero, Passive or Active. The ‘super power’ all contributors possess is an undying passion for the survival of the Māori language. The culmination of this passion, amongst the communities with whom they engage, demonstrates their investment in the succession of the Māori language from one generation to another (and within generations), therefore offering some insurance towards Māori language maintenance.

Contributions to this book have been presented in the authors’ language of choice, all of whom are bilingual. The chapters have been collated thematically as opposed to a division based on choice of language. We were quietly pleased, however, that when we received the chapters there was an almost equal number of Māori and English language texts. This not only allows a wider range of readers to engage with the material but also contributes to Māori language literature and corpus. We have chosen to adopt the orthographic conventions set out by Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori (2012), and authors have applied their dialect in alignment with the lexical, phraseological, idiomatic, semantic and syntactic practice of their tribal affiliations. However, unless it is a direct quotation, we have chosen to remove macrons from personal names as there appears to be an inconsistency with the application of these. A gloss of Māori terms is only provided if a particular word does not feature in The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. The exception to this is when any of the definitions provided by the dictionary does not fully encapsulate the meaning within a particular context of a chapter, in which case an alternative meaning is provided. Translations are provided in particular instances to ensure that the meaning is not lost for the reader. Specifically, translations are provided when an author has chosen to write primarily in English but has also included Māori phrases either from themselves or from participants in their research.

Finally, the contributions in this book celebrate the efforts that have been made thus far but also remind us that there are still more things to be done in order to achieve normalisation. The authors, in being posed the question: ‘What is the value of the Māori language?’ respond from diverse perspectives and experiences. There are overlaps and synergies, similarities and disparities, conversions and diversions, conflict and harmony, and so forth. From this action we have collectively created a discourse.

In an effort to support the right-shifting of people towards an active engagement with the Māori language, we need to de-programme our minds from the ideologies and romanticisms of a past time, and reorientate our actions towards supporting and increasing language use across the nation, through a sincere and shared understanding of the value of the Māori language in the present. These are the acts and actions of those who have responded to the lament of the Māori language at the commencement of this chapter, of those who value the language. They are ‘Pokotaringa’, ‘Ngākaunui’ and ‘Whakaihi’.

References

de Bres, J. (2010). Promoting a minority language to majority speakers: television advertising about the Maori Language targeting non-Maori New Zealanders. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 31(6), 515–529.

de Bres, J. (2008). Planning for Tolerability: Promoting Positive Attitudes and Behaviours towards the Māori Language among non-Māori New Zealanders. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington.

Boyce, M. (2005). Attitudes to Māori. R. Harlow, D. Starks & A. Bell (eds), Languages of New Zealand, (pp. 86–110). Wellington: Victoria University Press.

Boyce, M. (1992). Maori Language in Porirua: a study of reported proficiency, patterns of use, and attitudes. Unpublished MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington.

Deverson, T. & Kennedy, G. (eds). (2005). The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Harlow, R. (2005). Covert attitudes to Māori. International journal of the sociology of language, 172, 137–147.

Higgins, R. & Rewi, P. (2011, June). Indigenous Languages within the Entity. Paper presented at the Language, Education and Diversity Conference, Auckland.

Selby, M. (2012, May 21). Te Wānanga o Raukawa. Retrieved 25 June 2013, from: http://robin.hosts.net.nz/~admin219/te-wananga-o-raukawa-3/

Statistics New Zealand. (2002). Final Report on the 2001 Survey on the Health of the Māori language. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand.

Te Puni Kōkiri. (2010). 2009 Survey of Attitudes, Values and Beliefs Towards the Māori Language. Wellington: Te Puni Kōkiri.

Te Puni Kōkiri. (2008). The Health of the Māori Language in 2006. Wellington: Te Puni Kōkiri.

Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. (2012). Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori: Guidelines for Māori Language Orthography. Wellington: Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori.

Notes

1 This is the language’s lament: ‘Who will carry me to my fertile lands? Who will protect/nurture and ensure that I unfurl towards the sun, that I may be carried on the home breeze and be heard in the homes and across the land by those who are passionate, committed and staunch?’ Editors’ translation. The original quote was coined by Te Wharehuia Milroy when he was considering issues relating to the demise of the language. The quote was later adopted by Te Kōhanga Reo and printed on the T-shirts worn by staff during the Wai 2336 hearings in Wellington in 2011.

2 It appears that the majority of the literature that has been produced during this time period have been government reports, particularly survey material on the health of the Māori language (Te Puni Kōkiri, 2008; Statistics New Zealand, 2002), and sociolinguistic research on language attitudes and language behaviours (Te Puni Kōkiri, 2010; de Bres, 2010, 2008; Harlow, 2005; Boyce, 2005, 1992).

3 The normalisation of a language literally means to make that language the ‘normal’ mode of communication for ‘socialisation’ (see Lewis, 2007: 49).

4 See chapter one by Higgins & Rewi.

ZePA – Right-shifting: Reorientation towards Normalisation

Rawinia Higgins and Poia Rewi

Since the Waitangi Tribunal recognised, in 1986, that the Māori language is a taonga under Article two of the Treaty of Waitangi, Māori have orientated their strategic efforts to reflect this. This recognition resulted in the Māori Language Act the following year and gave official status to the language, amongst other provisions. Twenty-seven years on from the Māori Language Act, we still lament the demise of the language¹, and many continue to struggle to advance the status of the Māori language in New Zealand society.

This chapter will examine the value of the Māori language in our society and how this has impacted on Māori language revitalisation efforts since 1987. It will challenge theoretical approaches that we have become accustomed to and propose an alternative view as to how we could reorientate our minds and efforts to normalise the Māori language in New Zealand society.

Te Hua o te Reo Māori – The Value of the Māori Language

The treatment of values and attitudes are identified as being interchangeable in academic literature. In New Zealand sociolin-guistic literature, value is not a subject that has been afforded much research, particularly the value of the Māori language. Attitudes are almost superficial in comparison to value, with Te Puni Kōkiri (2010: 9) defining value as a seemingly complex ‘underlying orientation’, and paired with this is a definition of attitudes as mere ‘opinions’.² Such superficiality possibly arises because attitudes are simpler to label; regardless of the manner in which they are expressed they can really only be fixed as positive, negative or a more neutral position somewhere in between (Te Puni Kōkiri, 2010a: 9; see de Bres, 2008: 14–15 for further discussion on attitudes). This is not, however, to discredit the study of attitudes – they are undoubtedly a most important factor in language regeneration as a whole. Likewise they are useful for making generalisations about language and language groups.³ However, when investigating a community, such as active speakers of te reo Māori, who arguably all have a positive attitude towards the language, articulating signs of difference based on attitudes alone becomes cumbersome and impractical. Although attitude is difficult to measure, there still exists a propensity to assess and categorise the attitude of an individual or cohort, albeit across the three major positions mentioned above.

For a bilingual speaker of Māori, gravitation towards a bilingual Māori-speaking community (and to speak Māori over English) is composed from layers of language values embodied in this ‘general underlying orientation’. Lewis (2007: 48–49) further illustrates this, presenting a model based on normalising the Māori language at Whakamārama Marae, where intergenerational transmission is a key objective. In this approach, the perceived value of the language is seen to motivate language choice, which, in turn, promotes a change in language practice by way of the normalisation of te reo Māori on the marae.

Smolicz, Yiv & Secombe’s (2007: 47) theory of core values further supports these ideas about language choice, suggesting that language choice is conditioned by a set of ‘internal dynamics’ or ‘underlying values and beliefs which are transmitted from our parents, grandparents or from our social environments’. Central to both of these arguments are language value perceptions and choice, illustrating the complex relationship between an existing community environment and subsequent language output within that community.

For a bilingual Māori-speaking community, perceptions of language value within a given environment could be what tips the balance from simply knowing two languages to choosing the appropriate one in which to fulfil the normal communicative needs and expectations of that community. Thus such speakers have real and valid decisions to make about which language to use, not just for the sake of revitalisation, but because the language used fulfils the desires of the group they are in. Additionally, perceptions of value seemingly create a knock-on effect: high value promotes choice and changes in language practice. Lewis’s marae-based example illustrates that a change in practice, which altered the language choice from English to Māori, normalised the language within the social environment of the marae. The crucial first step, then, is to identify possible core values and solidify these internal dynamics.

Although Lewis was specifically referring to the marae situation, the theoretical approach of understanding the internal dynamics and how this impacts on language choice can be applied to the normalisation of the Māori language beyond the marae. The findings of the Te Paepae Motuhake report, Te Reo Mauriora (2011: 63), identified seven primary values attributed to the Māori language:

• Intrinsic value

• Educational value

• Social value

• Cultural value

• Intellectual value

• Spiritual value

• Monetary value

These seven values regulate the attitudes that people have towards the Māori language. We propose that as a consequence of one’s relative orientation towards or away from these values, one’s perception, attitude and use of the Māori language is simultaneously orientated in the same direction. In terms of language acquisition, these values can be overwhelming for some people in learning the language and can have a positive or negative effect on a person depending on their particular position. In terms of resourcing Māori language initiatives, decisions and fiscal distribution are again conditional upon the values recognised by the service provider.

Of particular note, however, is that the Te Reo Mauriora report located intrinsic value as the overarching value, commenting that it is ‘the essence and foundation to the identity of the Māori people’ (Te Paepae Motuhake 2011: 63). Prior to the recognition that the language was in a state of demise, literature highlighting intrinsic value was limited. The Waitangi Tribunal (1986: 6.1.21; 2011: 385) further endorsed intrinsic value in its recognition of the language as a taonga under Article two of the Treaty of Waitangi, and a now often-heralded whakataukī from the late Sir James Henare also reminds us of the position afforded to intrinsic value, ‘Ko te reo te mauri o te mana Māori.’⁴ That is to say, the very essence of being Māori is at risk if the language is at risk.

The establishment of Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori also promoted the recommendation of the Waitangi Tribunal and produced the aphorism, amongst others, ‘Ko tōku reo, tōku ohooho. Ko tōku reo, tōku māpihi maurea. Ko tōku reo, tōku whakakai mārihi’⁵ to highlight this value and influence a change in attitude to the remaining six values highlighted above. Such adages have become mantra across the nation, recognising the language as a taonga and, more importantly, intrinsically valuable to Māori. However, despite the efforts over the past quarter-century since the establishment of the Māori Language Act, the discourse surrounding the Māori language continues to resonate a language under threat.

Te Rautaki Reo Māori – The Māori Language Strategy

In 2003 Te Puni Kōkiri developed a Māori Language Strategy that focuses on five primary goals. This often criticised strategy continues to be the only measure of language policy in the country, and although developed for Crown purposes, it has been adopted by Māori themselves as a guide to supporting language revitalisation efforts, particularly because a number of revitalisation initiatives fall within the first four goals of the strategy.⁶ The five goals are:

• Goal 1: The majority of Māori will be able to speak Māori to some extent by 2028. There will be increases in proficiency levels of people in speaking Māori, listening to Māori, reading Māori and writing in Māori.

• Goal 2: By 2028 Māori language use will be increased at marae, within Māori households, and other targeted domains. In these domains the Māori language will be in common use.

• Goal 3: By 2028 all Māori and other New Zealanders will have enhanced access to high-quality Māori language education.

• Goal 4: By 2028, iwi, hapū, and local communities will be the leading parties in ensuring local-level language revitalisation. Iwi dialects of the Māori language will be supported.

• Goal 5: By 2028 the Māori language will be valued by all New Zealanders and there will be a common awareness of the need to protect the language.

(Te Puni Kōkiri & Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori, 2003: 19–27)

The rationale and current situation analysis provided under each goal outlines some of the issues that would need to be considered when implementing the strategy. However, the framing of the goals is premised on the recognition of the language as a ‘taonga of Māoridom’ (Waitangi Tribunal 1986: 33) and the official status the language has under the Māori Language Act (1987): the former promotes neotraditionalism while the latter promotes nationalism.

While on the surface the goals of the Māori Language Strategy appear to promote language normalisation, closer analysis indicates that some goals are counter-productive. For example, targeting domains to specific Māori communities in Goal 2 is parochial in design; however, in relation to Goal 5, there is a sense of polarity between the two. The specific mention of marae promotes the notion that the use and value of the Māori language is limited to these particular domains. Furthermore, it suggests that the Crown strategy should target a domain that belongs to hapū and iwi. Analysis of the literature shows that because of limited resourcing, the focus of revitalisation efforts has not been equally distributed across the five goals, which has resulted, for example, in a considerable amount of effort and energy being expended in achieving Goal 1; with Goals 2–4 partially achieved.

The overall vision of the strategy states:

He Reo E Kōrerotia Ana, He Reo Ka Ora.

A spoken language is a living language.

By 2028, the Māori language will be widely spoken by Māori. In particular, the Māori language will be in common use within Māori whānau, homes and communities. All New Zealanders will appreciate the value of the Māori language to New Zealand society. (Te Puni Kōkiri & Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori, 2003: 5)

This vision is delimiting and does not promote a ‘living language’ because it is confined to the membership of one group, as if they live separately and autonomously from the rest of society. The vision also promotes the exclusion of the rest of New Zealand society from contributing to the life of the language through active participation, rendering them passive observers. Māori are located in all spheres of New Zealand society irrespective of their geographic, social, economic or political position. To design strategies that confine Māori to particular domains (whether physical or philosophical) only promotes a traditionalist notion of Māori. Modernity has been an essential aspect of Māori evolution since contact, and the development of the language is a testament to this. Modern societies, after all, ‘are integrated … through values, norms, and mutual understanding’ (Habermas, 2001, in Rata, 2007: 92–93), and language is a crucial ‘integrating agent’ in that process (Rata, 2007: 93). It is not surprising, then, that some argue modern-day government policy inhibits language revival by creating ‘ethnic groups [and] erecting boundaries between such groups’ (Rata, 2007: 93).

These boundaries, supported and enforced through legislation, essentially create a linguistic environment in which only certain sectors of New Zealand society are granted linguistic access to Māori – and only when those sectors congregate in certain areas for certain events. When language groups are identified in this way, they are effectively positioned stationary and at a distance, not only as linguistic opponents but also opponents in terms of ‘values, norms, and understanding’. Trying to change language access and use within a group, or between groups, is virtually impossible because neither is allowed movement and many Māori speakers themselves have, quite understandably, bought into the policy. As bilinguals, the Māori-speaking population face the most pressure because this imposed linguistic struggle resides internally. To put this simply, while Government’s policy creation remains the exercise of the modernist, language planning for Māori constantly conditions language use among bilinguals in favour of English. It does very little for the revival of Māori, and even less for the revernacularisation and normalisation of the language.

The subliminal (or apparent) subjugation of languages through government policy is not unusual in international literature, particularly in those countries which promotes monolingualism as a position of power. According to King and Benson (2008: 346–347):

One potential explanation is that such policies are directly undermined by what Dorian (1998: 11) describes as Western language ideologies, including an ideology of contempt for non-standard languages and a belief that bilingualism (and by extension multilingualism, all the more so) is onerous at both individual and societal levels. Despite the fact that most of the world is bilingual or multilingual – and people with such competencies reap numerous benefits … monolingual ideologies continue to undergird decision-making in much of the world.

Furthermore, these ideologies generate the plethora of arguments against the benefits and costs of promoting bilingualism (or multilingualism); consequently resources are not prioritised to support language strategies meaningfully (McGroarty 2008: 99). It is important to shift away from the ideology that the Māori language is only for Māori to speak, and within confined domains of our society. We need to expand the responsibility to wider society, and promote bilingualism and the equity to achieve bilingualism:

Not only would such a goal symbolically demonstrate the value of Indigenous languages across the wider society, but it would also directly benefit all members of society in pedagogical terms. For monolingual speakers of majority languages, programs designed to meet this goal would introduce them to bilingualism and biliteracy from a young age and add locally useful languages to their repertoires … For speakers from threatened language communities, education designed towards this goal would signal societal support for their languages and cultures. And for vernacular language speakers, the goal of bilingualism and biliteracy would help to ensure that education is meaningful and effective, both short- and long-term (King & Benson 2008: 350–351).

The development of a new Māori language strategy needs to reconsider the overall objective of the language and needs to consider whether as a living language, it can rest with only one portion of society. It should also be noted here that the recommendations from the Te Reo Mauriora report do not deviate significantly from the goals of the current Māori Language Strategy. This suggests that there is some value in the current strategy and that, either, it is the implementation and focus of the strategy that requires more attention, or, the nation is not ready for shared ownership of the Māori language and hence a reluctance by Māori to apportion their language to all of New Zealand for all New Zealanders.

Theoretical Measures

As described in the Māori Language Strategy (2003: 9), the basis for the development of the strategy was framed against research measuring the health of the language as well as international language planning models. This section will critique these theoretical measures and how they have become entrenched in our motivations towards or away from the language.

The Health of the Māori Language surveys, conducted by Te Puni Kōkiri, focus on five primary indicators: Status, Knowledge and Acquisition, Use, Corpus and Critical Awareness (Te Puni Kōkiri, 2008). However, the outcome of these surveys continues to project a bleak future for the language. Addressing one indicator alone does not create language normalisation; all indicators need to have some focus in order to achieve language stability. Analysis of these indicators presents us with the ‘chicken and egg’ scenario: which indicator should be the primary focus? These indicators could be represented in a circle (see Figure 1, below) where there is no specific beginning and end points, potentially creating a vacuum effect, despite all efforts to advance the health of the Māori language.

Figure 1: Indicators of the health of the Māori language (adapted from Te Puni Kōkiri 2008: 7).

It must be noted that this is not the fault of Te Puni Kōkiri or of the efforts Māori language initiatives have made. We are merely positing the view that under this structure these indicators, whilst important, are not necessarily helpful in advancing the strategy or the language.

Fishman’s Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale

Research relating to Māori language revitalisation has relied heavily on the work of Joshua Fishman. Stages of Reversing Language Shift: Severity of Intergenerational Dislocation, also known as the Graded Intergenerational Dependency Scale (or GIDS) has formed the theoretical basis for many Māori language revitalisation initiatives (Fishman, 1991: 395, 2001: 466). The eight-tiered scale (read from bottom to top) suggests a model from which intergenerational language revitalisation can be achieved if each tier is acquired. The framework of the GIDS, though useful in capturing the essence of his theory, dominates current discourse in opposition to the purpose and intention for which this book, and his own books, were written. Fishman (1991: 5) himself states:

What hope or purpose is there for a community’s sociocultural, econotechnical and political self-regulation if the upper societal spheres are dominated by another language? Well, there is still the opportunity to function in these latter spheres via societal bilingualism, i.e. via the co-mastery of the generally employed language of those spheres, by means of exposure to institutions of education and work and to other life experiences that go beyond intimacy, family and local community.

The notion of societal bilingualism was not fully embraced by the Waitangi Tribunal, who thought that making the language compulsory and, therefore, enforcing bilingualism on the nation was premature. The Waitangi Tribunal (1986: 6) stated:

We do not recommend that it [Māori language] should be a compulsory subject in the schools, nor do we support the publication of all official documents in both English and Maori, at least at this stage in our development, for we think it more profitable to promote the language than to impose it.

Despite the Tribunal’s cautious position, it is clear that they considered the issue carefully, yet, ‘… at least at this stage in our development’ (1986: 6), New Zealand society would not be prepared for a significant shift towards bilingualism. Today we may need to rethink whether New Zealand

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