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E-Z American Sign Language

E-Z American Sign Language

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E-Z American Sign Language

Длина:
779 pages
2 hours
Издано:
Sep 1, 2011
ISBN:
9781438082943
Формат:
Книге

Описание

This heavily illustrated, self-teaching guide to ASL--American Sign Language--is useful both for the deaf and for those men and women who teach or work among deaf people. E-Z American Sign Language presents ASL's 10 key grammatical rules and emphasizes the use of "facial grammar" as an important supplement to manual signing. Most of the book's content takes the form of a presentation of more than 800 captioned line drawings that illustrate signs for their equivalent words and then show how to combine signs in order to communicate detailed statements.

Barron's E-Z Series books are updated, and re-formatted editions of Barron's older and perennially popular Easy Way books. Titles in the new E-Z Series feature extensive two-color treatment, a fresh, modern typeface, and more graphic material than ever. All are self-teaching manuals that cover a wide variety of practical and academic subjects, written on levels that range from senior high school to college-101 standards.
Издано:
Sep 1, 2011
ISBN:
9781438082943
Формат:
Книге

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E-Z American Sign Language - David A. Stewart

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Facial Grammar

In one study, it was noted that a signer, in the middle of telling a story, produced a signed message such as MAN FISH CONTINUOUS, which we would translate as the man was fishing. However, other ASL users, watching the signer, would translate the message as the man was fishing with relaxation and enjoyment. The source of this extra information was a particular facial expression in which the lips were together and pushed out a little, with the head slightly tilted. This nonmanual signal was clearly ­capable of functioning as the equivalent of an adverb in English and was an integral part of the message.

—GEORGE YULE

The Study of Language

HOLD THAT SIGN …

What’s in a sign may not be what’s in the mind. To capture the sense of what a signer is signing, you must read the signer’s face and body. When you listen to someone speak, you listen not only to the words but also to how the words are spoken. The tone of the voice, the rise and fall of the pitch, the length of the pause, and the steadiness of voice are all features that you latch onto with little effort in your spoken communication. These traits are nonexistent in signing, but they do have parallel traits that are crucial to ASL’s grammar. The raised eyebrow, the tilted head, the open mouth, and a sign held slightly longer than others shape the meaning of the signs that are made by the hands. We call these nonmanual signals facial grammar, which allow you to use facial expressions, your body, and gestures to add meaning and additional information to your signing. Mastering ASL cannot occur without a mastery of facial grammar. Read this chapter and you should be ready to use your face to say what your hands cannot.

THE FIRST RULE OF SIGNING:

MAINTAIN EYE CONTACT

ASL is a visual language, and eye contact is the starting profile of any two people who are about to sign to each other. You cannot understand signing if you are not watching someone sign. That’s the easy part. What is harder to learn is how to maintain eye contact even when you are signing. That is, even when you have someone’s attention, you must continue to look at this person while you are signing.

You achieve eye contact with someone by drawing their attention to you. Deaf people will lightly tap a person on the shoulder to indicate that eye contact is desired so that a conversation can begin. Looking away from someone can mean several things. Perhaps you are finished with a conversation. Or it may be that you are distracted by something. Or, just as likely, your eyes are being called upon for a role in structuring an ASL ­sentence.

BREAKING THE FIRST RULE OF SIGNING

Eye contact is not always maintained throughout a conversation. The eyes will gaze elsewhere but only if such movement is relevant to what is being signed. Eye contact and eye gazing send several signals to the other person. These signals are influenced by the signs that are made as well as by the facial expressions that accompany the signing. Some grammatical signals are associated with the eyes and an example of each follows:

1. Ask a particular type of question. The sentence Are you ready? is translated as YOU READY? in ASL. In the absence of any nonmanual signals from the face, signing YOU and READY would give us the sentence You are ready. To indicate that a question is being asked, the signer looks directly at the person, raises the eyebrows, and tilts the head slightly forward. Nonmanual signals for other types of questions require a different set of facial expressions and body movement.

2. Draw attention to a particular place in the signing space in which a person or thing has been established. ASL signing relies heavily upon establishing reference places in the signing space. After establishing a reference place, the signer can point to it or look at it to draw attention to the referent that is in that place. In this way, the eyes can incorporate referents that are in the signing space into a sentence.

3. Highlight key information in a sentence. Eye contact accompanied by a raised eyebrow, the head tilting forward, and a sign held slightly longer than other signs can indicate the topic of a sentence.

4. Reinforce the direction in which certain signs might be moving. A signer can make the sentence I watched him walk past me by simply gazing from the right to the left side of the signing space.

5. Reveal emotions about a topic. Adjectives such as surprised and suspicious can be expressed by opening the eyes wide or narrowing them.

Each of these examples as well as others will be expanded upon in this book. They are mentioned here to emphasize the importance of the eyes in enhancing the meaning when signing.

COMMON TYPES OF NONMANUAL SIGNALS

1. Questions

a. Did you see the game last night? (LAST NIGHT, GAME SEE FINISH YOU?)

b. What time did you arrive home yesterday? (YESTERDAY, YOU HOME ARRIVE, TIME?)

Both of these sentences ask questions. Asking a question calls for a particular kind of nonmanual signal. To know what type of nonmanual signal to use, you must first know what type of question you will ask. Sentence a asks for a yes or no response and is called a yes/no question. Sentence b is a wh-question and asks for information about something.

For all types of questions, the signer maintains eye contact with the person to whom she or he is signing.

Yes/No Questions

For yes/no questions, the signer (1) raises the eyebrows and (2) tilts the head forward. If the question is short, then the signer can raise the eyebrows and tilt the head throughout signing the question. This is the case with the following questions:

If the question is long, then the signer usually adds the nonmanual signal at the end of the sentence while signing those signs that are directly associated with asking questions. In the following sentences, the nonmanual signals should be added while signing the underlined phrases:

Questions Seeking Information

For questions that ask for information such as wh-questions, the signer (1) squeezes the eyebrows and (2) tilts the head forward. If the questions are short, then the signer can make the nonmanual signals throughout the question as in the following questions:

If the question is long, then the signer should add the nonmanual signals at the end of the sentence and especially on the sign that is asking the question. Nonmanual signals are typically added while signing the underlined phrases in the following sentences:

2. Rhetorical Questions

a. me-MEET-you WHEN? NEXT-WEEK THURSDAY. (I will meet you next week on Thursday.)

b. ME ARRIVE LATE WHY? MY CAR FLAT-TIRE. (I arrived late because I had a flat tire.)

Both of these sentences are examples of rhetorical questions. The signer asks a question and then answers it. No question is being asked to someone else. ASL rhetorical questions are not translated as questions in English. When signing a rhetorical question, the signer must use the appropriate nonmanual signals to indicate that a question was asked and that she or he will answer it. For rhetorical questions, the signer (1) maintains eye contact, (2) raises the eyebrows, (3) tilts the head forward, and (4) holds the last sign of the rhetorical question slightly longer than the other signs. Even though this last feature is not a facial expression, the time during which the sign is held is still a part of the nonmanual signals that the signer is sending. The signer typically relays the nonmanual signals while signing the entire rhetorical question, which tells the addressee (the person to whom the signer is signing) that what is being signed is a rhetorical question. Examples of rhetorical questions are underlined in the following:

Notice that the nonmanual signals for rhetorical questions are the same whether a yes/no question or a question seeking information is asked.

3. Topicalization: Topic/Comment Sentences

a. BOY THERE BROWN HAIR, MY SON. (That boy with the brown hair is my son.)

b. YOU TAKE-UP MATH, ME SHOCKED. (I am shocked that you are taking math.)

Both of these sentences are examples of a common ASL sentence structure known as topic/comment. The signer describes a topic and then makes a comment about it. The nonmanual signals consist of the following: (1) maintain eye contact with the person being addressed provided the eyes are not needed for relaying other grammatical information, (2) raise the eyebrows and tilt the head slightly forward when signing the topic, (3) hold the last sign of the topic a little longer than the other signs, and (4) pause slightly between signing the topic and the comment. When the comment is signed, the signer reverts to a neutral signing posture and facial expression, or uses eye gazing, facial expressions, and body posture suitable to the intended meaning of the comment.

The four parts of the nonmanual signals are conveyed during the signing of the topic, which is underlined in each of the following sentences:

4. Conditional Sentences

a. SUPPOSE ME SIGN FORGET, you-HELP-me PLEASE. (Please help me if I forget a sign.)

b. YOUR CAR BREAK-DOWN, YOU LATE WILL YOU. (If your car breaks down, you will be late.)

Conditional sentences require nonmanual signals to alert the addressee to the stated condition. The signal is (1) the eyebrows raised, (2) the head tilted slightly to one side, (3) the last sign of the conditional clause held slightly longer than the other signs, and (4) in some cases, the body inclined forward. The head is usually tilted forward, but it may be tilted slightly backward depending upon the style of the signer and the context of the sentence. If the intent of the sentence If you go to the store, I am taking your credit cards away is humor, then it might be signed with the head tilted slightly backward. The sign SUPPOSE in the first sentence is an obvious indication of a conditional sentence. In the second sentence, the signer must rely on nonmanual signals to inform the addressee of the condition, If your car breaks down. The conditional clauses requiring a nonmanual signal are underlined in the following sentences:

As with all signed sentences, if there is no grammatical reason for looking away, the signer should maintain eye contact with the addressee.

REVIEW AND PRACTICE

1. Describe four types of grammatical signals associated with the eyes.

2. Describe the nonmanual signals that accompany (a) a yes/no question, (b) a question seeking information, (c) a rhetorical question, (d) a topic/comment sentence structure, and (e) a conditional sentence.

3. In ASL, it is important to say with your face what you are signing with your hands. Many people do this most of the time when speaking. Many beginning signers, on the other hand, find themselves concentrating so hard on the formation of a sign that they often just have a neutral expression on their faces. With a partner or while standing before a mirror, practice making facial expressions to suit each of the following actions. Beside each action make notes about what happens to your eyebrows, head, shoulders, and hands.

(a) You are looking for someone in an auditorium.

(b) The ice cream you were given is not the one you ordered.

(c) Your car has two flat tires.

(d) You are thanking someone for finding your wallet.

(e) You find out that the money in your returned wallet is missing.

(f)  You are telling the stranger at your door to go away.

(g) You just spilled a can of soda pop on your computer keyboard.

(h) You have just tasted something that is very sour.

(i)  You are telling a friend that you have just won a new car in a raffle.

ANSWER EXPLANATIONS

1. Yes/No questions, questions seeking information, rhetorical questions, topic sentences, and conditional sentences.

2.

(a) Yes/No question: raised eyebrows and forward tilting head.

(b) Question seeking information: squeezed eyebrows and forward tilting head.

(c) Rhetorical question: raised eyebrows, forward tilting head, and holding last sign

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