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Practice Makes Perfect German Verb Tenses 2/E: With 200 Exercises + Free Flashcard App
Practice Makes Perfect German Verb Tenses 2/E: With 200 Exercises + Free Flashcard App
Practice Makes Perfect German Verb Tenses 2/E: With 200 Exercises + Free Flashcard App
Электронная книга550 страниц6 часов

Practice Makes Perfect German Verb Tenses 2/E: With 200 Exercises + Free Flashcard App

Автор Astrid Henschel

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Go Beyond Conjugation and Learn the Correct Verb Tenses for Speaking and Writing in German

If you're looking for help memorizing German verb conjugations, any German verb book will do. But if you are interested in becoming fl uent, you'll need to learn how these building blocks are used in everyday, natural language. That's where Practice Makes Perfect: German Verb Tenses comes in.

You will, of course, get plenty of practice, practice, practice using your new verb selection and conjugation skills. Whether you are learning on your own or taking a beginning German class, Practice Makes Perfect: German Verb Tenses will help you master German in no time at all.

Practice Makes Perfect: German Verb Tenses will help you:

  • Learn when and why to use different verb tenses
  • Reinforce your knowledge with everyday examples covering a wide range of topics
  • Build your verb skills using more than 200 engaging exercises
ЯзыкEnglish
ИздательMcGraw-Hill Education
Дата выпуска7 июн. 2013 г.
ISBN9780071805100
Practice Makes Perfect German Verb Tenses 2/E: With 200 Exercises + Free Flashcard App
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    Practice Makes Perfect German Verb Tenses 2/E - Astrid Henschel

    Copyright © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education, LLC. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

    ISBN: 978-0-07-180510-0

    MHID:       0-07-180510-9

    The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-180509-4, MHID: 0-07-180509-5.

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    All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps.

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    McGraw-Hill’s Language Lab App

    Twenty-five Progress Checks are available via app to test your understanding of key tenses covered in this book. Go to www.mhlanguagelab.com to access the online version of this application, or locate links to the free mobile app for iOS and Android devices.

    TERMS OF USE

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    THE WORK IS PROVIDED AS IS. McGRAW-HILL EDUCATION AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill Education and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill Education nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill Education has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill Education and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

    Contents

    Introduction

    Basic Terminology

    PART I

    The Present Tense

    Unit 1 Conjugation of Verbs in the Present Tense

    Usage of the Present Tense

    Formation of the Present Tense

    Unit 2 The Present Tense of haben, sein, and werden

    Unit 3 Verbs with a Vowel Change in the Stem

    Verbs with Stem-Vowel Changes from a to ä and au to äu

    Verbs with a Stem-Vowel Change from e to i or to ie

    Unit 4 Verbs with Inseparable and Separable Prefixes

    Inseparable Prefixes

    Separable Prefixes

    Prefixes That Can Be Separable or Inseparable

    Unit 5 Modal Auxiliaries

    Conjugation of the Modal Auxiliaries

    Modals Used with Infinitives

    Modal Position in a Subordinate Clause

    Omission of the Infinitive

    Unit 6 wissen and kennen

    Conjugation of wissen

    Meanings of wissen and kennen

    Unit 7 legen/liegen and stellen/stehen

    Unit 8 Imperative Verbs

    Formal Commands

    Familiar Commands

    The Command Forms of sein and werden

    Unit 9 Impersonal Verbs

    Impersonal Weather Verbs

    Impersonal Sensory Verbs

    Impersonal Verbs That Take the Dative

    es gibt or es ist, es sind

    Unit 10 Review Exercises in the Present Tense

    PART II

    The Future and Past Tenses, lassen, Reflexive Verbs, and Infinitives

    Unit 11 The Future Tense

    Adverbs of Time

    Position and Form of Modals

    Expressing Probability

    Unit 12 The Past Tense

    Usage of the Past Tense

    Weak Verbs

    Strong Verbs

    Mixed Verbs

    haben, sein, and werden

    Modal Auxiliaries

    Unit 13 The Present Perfect Tense

    Usage of the Present Perfect Tense

    Formation of the Present Perfect Tense

    Present Perfect Tense of Weak Verbs

    haben or sein as the Auxiliary Verb in Perfect Tenses

    Present Perfect Tense of Strong Verbs

    Present Perfect Tense of Mixed Verbs

    Present Perfect Tense with Separable Prefixes

    Present Perfect Tense with Inseparable Prefixes

    Present Perfect Tense with Verbs Ending in -ieren

    Present Perfect Tense of Modal Auxiliaries and of sein and haben

    Subordinate Clauses and the Present Perfect Tense

    Unit 14 The Past Perfect Tense

    Unit 15 The Future Perfect Tense

    Unit 16 lassen

    Unit 17 Reflexive Verbs

    Reflexive Verbs with Accusative Pronouns

    Reflexive Verbs with Dative Pronouns

    Reflexive Constructions to Show Personal Interest

    Each Other

    Reflexive Commands

    Perfect Tenses of Reflexive Verbs

    Unit 18 Infinitives

    Infinitives Without zu

    Infinitives with zu

    Unit 19 Review Exercises in the Future and Past Tenses, lassen, Reflexive Verbs, and Infinitives

    PART III

    The Passive Voice, Subjunctive Mood, and Conditional Tense

    Unit 20 The Passive Voice

    Active Voice Versus Passive Voice

    von or durch

    Impersonal Passive Constructions

    sein and the Passive Voice

    Substitutes for the Passive Voice

    Unit 21 Subjunctive I

    Mood: Indicative and Subjunctive

    Use and Formation of the Subjunctive I

    Unit 22 Subjunctive II and würdeConstructions

    Use and Formation of the Subjunctive II

    The würde Construction

    Unit 23 Conditional Sentences

    Conditions of Fact

    Unreal Conditions

    Speculation About the Past

    Omitting wenn

    Unit 24 Review Exercises in the Passive Voice, Subjunctive Mood, and Conditional Tense

    Final Review

    Appendix A: Verb Summary

    Appendix B: Principal Parts of Verbs

    Appendix C: Verbs with Prepositions

    Answer Key

    Introduction

    Practice makes perfect is an old proverb that carries a lot of truth. Practice and more practice bring about mastery. This truth also applies to the learning of German verbs, which can be quite challenging to the student of German. Seeking to lead the student down the road to mastery of German verbs, Practice Makes Perfect: German Verb Tenses presents complete and clear explanations followed by numerous exercises in a systematic and logical manner. The scope of the material covered includes all conjugations for every tense. Through the contents of this book, the student will come to a clear understanding of how German verbs are formed and used.

    Practice Makes Perfect: German Verb Tenses is perfect for beginning and intermediate students, promoting confident use of verbs. It should be an invaluable aid for students who want to advance more quickly, as well as for those who need additional practice and understanding in order to master classroom assignments. This book is also of particular value for individualized instruction and practice.

    The book is divided into three main parts:

    Part I: The Present Tense: The first part, divided into ten units, covers the conjugation of regular and vowel-change verbs and of verbs with inseparable and separable prefixes, followed by the treatment of modal auxiliaries, imperative verbs, and impersonal verbs. You will also find exercises dealing with the problematic verb pairs wissen/kennen, legen/liegen, and stellen/stehen.

    Part II: The Future and Past Tenses, lassen, Reflexive Verbs, and Infinitives: The second part, in nine units, deals with the five indicative tenses: future, past, present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. The verb lassen is dealt with in the present and present perfect tenses. In addition, the reflexive verbs and infinitives are studied.

    Part III: The Passive Voice, Subjunctive Mood, and Conditional Tense: The third part, in five units, deals with the passive voice, the subjunctive I and II, and the würde constructions, followed by the conditional.

    Each part provides concise but complete explanations, ample exercises within each unit, and a comprehensive review section unit to end each part. A new Final Review for even more practice has been added to this edition.

    Additional valuable information is included in three appendixes: a detailed verb summary, a table of the principal parts of verbs with their English meanings, and a list of verbs with their proper prepositions.

    An answer key is also provided. This is especially useful for the student who undertakes the study of German on his or her own.

    Practice Makes Perfect: German Verb Tenses will be helpful for students who are starting the study of German or are returning to studying German and are in need of a good review workbook. Practice Makes Perfect: German Verb Tenses is the answer to these needs. It would also be an excellent companion workbook to any basic text of German. Furthermore, it can be used as a reference source by both teachers and students of German.

    It is my sincere hope that this book will be a valuable tool for those studying German and that its use will bring about greater competence and confidence in speaking, reading, and writing the German language. Lernen macht Spaß!

    Basic Terminology

    In the following section you will find a brief explanation of some of the more common grammatical terms found in this text.

    Verb: A word describing an action or state of being: schlafen (to sleep), er isst (he eats), ich spiele (I play), wir kamen (we came).

    Finite Verb: The verb in the sentence that changes to agree with the subject. The verb forms tanzt (dances) and kann (can) are finite verbs in the following sentences:

    The verb form tanzen in the second sentence is not finite. It did not change; it is an infinitive.

    Infinitive: A verb in its basic form. It has not been changed or conjugated. It does not agree with a subject and is not in a tense. It is the basic form found in dictionaries: gehen (to go), kommen (to come). In English, all infinitives include the word to (to go, to come). In German, all infinitives end in either -en or -n: spielen (to play), lächeln (to smile).

    Conjugation: Changing the verb from its infinitive form (basic form) to agree with the subject: from to dance to The girl dances. Dances is the conjugated verb.

    Verb Stem: In German, infinitives end in either -en or -n (spielen, lächeln). When you drop these endings, you are left with the verb stem. The stem of spielen is spiel; the stem of lächeln is lächel. In order to conjugate a verb, you need the verb stem and the proper ending that agrees with the subject.

    Verb Ending: What you add to the verb stem to get the proper conjugation (ich: -e; er: -t; wir: -en). The verb endings are determined by the person and whether it is singular or plural. There are three persons:

    Tense: The tense of the verb tells you when the action takes place: in the present, the past, or the future.

    Past Tense: A verb form that shows that something has happened in the past.

    Future Tense: A verb form that shows that something will happen in the future.

    Strong Verb: A verb that changes its stem vowel, and sometimes its consonants, in the formation of the past tenses. Examples:

    This change also occurs sometimes in the second- and third-person singular of the present tense (ich lese, du liest, er liest).

    Weak Verb: A verb that does not have the strength to change its stem vowel in the past tenses and in the second- or third-person singular of the present tense, and therefore stays the same.

    kaufen, gekauft, du kaufst, er kauft

    machen, gemacht, du machst, er macht

    Auxiliary Verb: The German auxiliaries are haben, sein, and werden. They are used to form tenses and the passive voice.

    Modal Auxiliaries: Helping verbs usually used with other verbs to modify the action. They can also be used by themselves if the meaning is obvious. The modal verb is conjugated; the action verb is left in the infinitive.

    Past Participle: The participle, or verb form, that indicates a former action or condition.

    Separable Verb: A verb that has a prefix that is separated from the conjugated part of the verb.

    Inseparable Verb: A verb that has a prefix that does not separate from the verb. The past participle does not have a ge-.

    Reflexive Verb: The verb pattern of these verbs has a pronoun because the subject does the action to him- or herself. The reflexive construction is found much more frequently in German than in English.

    The pronoun used with this verb pattern is called a reflexive pronoun.

    Indicative Mood: This form of the verb expresses or denotes a state, act, or happening as actual. It is not conditional. Most verbs are in this mood.

    Imperative Mood: This form of the verb expresses commands.

    Subjunctive Mood: This form of the verb expresses an act, event, or state as possible or conditional rather than actual.

    PART I

    THE PRESENT TENSE

    Unit 1

    Conjugation of Verbs in the Present Tense

    Usage of the Present Tense

    In German the present tense is used when stating something that is taking place now, takes place often, or will take place in the near future. Therefore, Wir essen Sauerkraut. may mean:

    We are eating sauerkraut now.

    We eat sauerkraut often or regularly.

    We are/will be eating sauerkraut soon.

    (Let’s hope there is some good pork with all this sauerkraut!)

    The present tense is also used with seit and the dative to express actions, conditions, or states that are still continuing but began in the past. In English, the present perfect tense is used in this case:

    There are no progressive forms in German as there are in English (am, are, or is followed by the present participle ending in -ing) or emphatic forms (do or does). Thus:

    he is coming = er kommt

    he does come = er kommt

    he comes = er kommt

    Personal Pronouns

    A pronoun takes the place of a person or thing. The book is replaced by it; the man is replaced by he. The following is a chart of personal pronouns in German:

    Du, ihr, and Sie all mean you. The familiar form du is used in speaking to a child

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