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Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms

Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms

Автором Dale Crane и ASA Editorial Team

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Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms

Автором Dale Crane и ASA Editorial Team

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1,882 pages
25 hours
Издано:
Nov 13, 2020
ISBN:
9781644250570
Формат:
Книге

Описание

Dale Crane’s ultimate reference book contains more than 11,000 accurate, aviation-specific terms and definitions, updating and gathering all the terms in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, glossaries from FAA handbooks, advisory circulars and manuals, the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) and Pilot/Controller Glossary, as well as definitions not found in government publications. Nearly 500 illustrations further define and aid visual recognition of the terms, and useful tables and lists are included in appendices.

In an industry of acronyms and technical language, this comprehensive dictionary is an essential reference book for anyone involved with aviation and/or space organizations—administrators, pilots, maintenance technicians, drone operators, colleges and universities, air traffic controllers, manufacturers, engineers, government agencies, airlines, and corporate flight departments, as well as newcomers to the industry, and those who speak English as a second language.

The ASA Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, now in its Seventh Edition, is a vital reference tool that belongs on every aviation bookshelf.

Издано:
Nov 13, 2020
ISBN:
9781644250570
Формат:
Книге

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Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms - Dale Crane

Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms

Seventh Edition

by the ASA Editorial Staff, based on the original compilation by Dale Crane

Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.

7005 132nd Place SE

Newcastle, Washington 98059

asa@asa2fly.com | 425-235-1500 | asa2fly.com

© 1991–2020 Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.

Seventh edition published 2020.

See the ASA website at asa2fly.com/reader/dat for the Reader Resources page containing additional information and updates relating to this book.

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher assumes no responsibility for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.

None of the material in this book supersedes any operational documents or procedures issued by the Federal Aviation Administration, aircraft and avionics manufacturers, flight schools, or the operators of aircraft.

ASA-DAT-7-EB

ISBN 978-1-64425-057-0

Additional formats available:

Print Book ISBN 978-1-64425-056-3

Kindle ISBN 978-1-64425-058-7

eBook PDF ISBN 978-1-64425-059-4

Preface to the Seventh Edition

There is no aspect of modern technology that encompasses so many disciplines as aviation: physics, chemistry, aerodynamics, thermodynamics, structural and fluid mechanics, electronics, acoustics, reciprocating and turbine engine technology, meteorology, navigation, and human factors. In addition, aviation is governed by an extremely complex set of federal regulations.

Each discipline and regulation has its own unique vocabulary, and it is difficult to find a single reference source that includes terms specific to the aviation application of these fields. To this end, ASA’s editors have searched aviation periodicals, aviation-related textbooks, service manuals, manufacturers’ literature, engineering reports, military training manuals, and especially all of the publications produced by the FAA for applicable terms.

The seventh edition of ASA’s Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms is more than a lexicon; it explains as well as defines over 12,000 accurate, aviation-specific terms and includes nearly 500 illustrations and four appendices. Expanded coverage for this edition reaches into terms associated with human factors, aerodynamics, air carriers, and other developments in the industry, plus changes to regulations and procedures including ADS-B and drone operations. Especially helpful is the list of acronyms and abbreviations in the Appendix; for an unfamiliar acronym go there first to find the fully spelled-out term, and then look up the definition in the main text.

The officially recognized definitions for many of the aviation terms are included in 14 CFR Part 1 Definitions and Abbreviations. In all instances where a definition in this dictionary is taken directly from this document, it is identified by the prefix 14 CFR Part 1:, and the definition is in quotation marks. In addition, there are now terms from 14 CFR §401.5, Commercial Space Transportation — Definitions and these are identified in the same manner.

The information contained here is as accurate and up-to-date as it has been possible to make it, but because of the speed with which changes are taking place in aviation, some of the terms are taking on new meanings, and their relative importance is changing. Because of this, and because of ASA’s dedication to working together for excellence, we will appreciate any criticism, or suggestion you have that will make subsequent revisions of this work more useful for you.

Editor’s Note: If you do not find a word or acronym you were looking for in the Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, please email ASA at cfi@asa2fly.com and we will try to find the definition for you. Also, be sure to visit the Reader Resource webpage for this book (asa2fly.com/reader/dat) to check for updates as new terms and definitions are collected in between book printings.

A alfa

AAM (air-to-air missile). A missile carried on an aircraft for use against other aircraft. The missile is guided to its target by radar or infrared sensors.

A&B hydraulic brake system. A form of backup brake system used in some large aircraft multiple-disk power brake installations. Wheels using the A&B system have several small actuating cylinders built into the brake housing. Half of the cylinders are actuated by fluid from the A-hydraulic system and the others by fluid from the B-system. The brakes operate normally with either system.

A&P mechanic. A person who holds an aircraft mechanic certificate with both the airframe and powerplant ratings. This certification is issued by the Federal Aviation Administration under the provisions of 14 CFR Part 65.

Mechanic certification with an A&P rating is now referred to as Aviation Maintenance Technician (AMT) certification.

AAR (airport acceptance rate) (air traffic control). A dynamic input parameter specifying the number of arriving aircraft which an airport or airspace can accept from the ARTCC per hour. The AAR is used to calculate the desired interval between successive arrival aircraft.

AAS (airport advisory service). A service provided by FAA Flight Service Stations located at airports not served by a control tower.

AAS provides information to arriving and departing aircraft concerning wind direction and speed, favored runway, altimeter setting, pertinent known traffic, pertinent known field conditions, airport taxi routes, traffic patterns, and authorized instrument approach procedures. AAS information is advisory in nature and does not constitute an ATC clearance.

abampere. A basic unit of electrical current in the electromagnetic-centimeter-gram-second system. One abampere is equal to 10 amperes in the absolute meter-kilogram-second-ampere system. The abbreviation for abampere is aA.

A-battery. A dry-cell battery used in vacuum tube radios to supply power to the heaters, or filaments, of the tubes.

A-batteries usually have a voltage ranging between 1.5 to 6.0 volts and are capable of supplying a reasonable amount of current.

abbreviated briefing. In meteorology, this is a shortened weather briefing to supplement the widely-disseminated aviation weather data.

abbreviated IFR flight plan (air traffic control). An authorization by ATC requiring pilots to submit only that information needed for the purpose of separation and control. An abbreviated flight plan includes only a small portion of the usual IFR flight plan information which may be only aircraft identification, location, and pilot request.

Abbreviated flight plans are frequently used by aircraft which are airborne and desire an instrument approach, or by aircraft which are on the ground and desire a climb to VFR-On-Top.

abcoulomb. A basic unit of electrical charge in the electromagnetic-centimeter-gram-second system. One abcoulomb is equal to 10 coulombs in the absolute meter-kilogram-second-ampere system. The abbreviation for abcoulomb is aC.

abeam. A relative location approximately at right angles to the longitudinal axis of an aircraft. When an object is beside the aircraft, it is said to be abeam of it.

abeam fix. A fix, NAVAID, point, or object positioned approximately 90 degrees to the right or left of the aircraft track along a route of flight. Abeam indicates a general position rather than a precise point.

abfarad. A basic unit of electrical capacitance in the electromagnetic-centimeter-gram-second system. One abfarad is equal to 10⁹ farads in the absolute meter-kilogram-second-ampere system. The abbreviation for abfarad is aF.

abhenry. A basic unit of electrical inductance in the electromagnetic-centimeter-gram-second system. One abhenry is equal to 10–9 henries in the absolute meter-kilogram-second-ampere system. The abbreviation for abhenry is aH.

ability bias. The belief that one is better than most people when it comes to personal virtues, skills, and abilities.

abmho. A basic unit of electrical conductance in the electromagnetic-centimeter-gram-second system. One abmho is equal to 10⁹ mhos in the absolute meter-kilogram-second-ampere system. The abbreviation for abmho is (aΩ)–1. An abmho is also known as an absiemens, aS.

abort. To terminate an operation prematurely when it is seen that the desired results will not be obtained.

aborted start (gas turbine engine operation). Termination of the start procedures in a gas turbine engine when it is seen that normal combustion has not taken place within the prescribed time limits.

aborted takeoff. A takeoff terminated prematurely when it is determined that some condition exists which makes takeoff or further flight dangerous.

abradable seal (gas turbine engine component). A general term for a knife-edge seal inside a gas turbine engine that wears away (abrades) slightly to produce an extremely close fit between a rotating and a stationary part of the engine.

abradable shroud (gas turbine engine component). A special shroud ring built into the outer turbine case of a gas turbine engine. The shroud fits tightly around the outside of the turbine wheel, which is equipped with special knife edges around its periphery.

If the turbine blades creep (grow in length because of heat and high centrifugal loads), the knife edges will wear away the abradable shroud and do no damage.

abradable strip (gas turbine engine component). A strip of material in the compressor housing of some axial-flow gas turbine engines. The tip of the compressor blade touches the abradable strip and actually wears, or abrades, a groove in it. This groove ensures that the blade operates with the minimum amount of tip clearance.

abradable tip (compressor blade tip). The tip of some axial-flow compressor blades made in such a way that it will abrade, or wear away, when it contacts the compressor housing. The abradable tip wears away to allow the engine to have a minimum amount of tip clearance between the blade and the housing.

abrade. To wear away a surface or a part by mechanical or chemical action. A rough surface may be made smooth by mechanically abrading it with sandpaper. Extremely smooth surfaces may be roughened enough for paint to adhere by rubbing the surface with abrasive paper or by chemically abrading it with an etching solution.

abrasion. A form of damage to a surface made by roughening or wearing it away with scratches or gouges. Abrasion is often caused by foreign matter trapped between two surfaces having relative motion between them.

abrasion resistant. The ability of a material to resist damage by abrasion.

abrasive. A material containing minute particles of a hard substance used to wear away a softer surface. Aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, and glass beads are abrasives commonly used in aircraft maintenance.

abrasive blasting. A method of removing carbon and other contaminants from machine parts. In abrasive blasting, the parts are sprayed with a high-velocity blast of air containing fine particles of abrasive material such as sand, aluminum oxide, or glass beads.

abrasive tip (turbine blade). A turbine blade with a hardened insert at the tip that is able to cut into the turbine shroud ring. See abradable shroud.

abscissa. A coordinate representing the distance from the Y-, or vertical, axis in a plane Cartesian coordinate system.

The abscissa is measured along the X-, or horizontal, axis and the ordinate along the Y-, or vertical, axis.

absolute accuracy. The ability to determine present position in space independently, most often used by pilots.

absolute altimeter. An electronic altimeter used to indicate the exact height of an aircraft above the terrain. See radio altimeter.

absolute altitude. The actual distance between an aircraft and the terrain over which it is flying. Absolute altitude is measured with an electronic altimeter.

absolute ceiling. The altitude at which an aircraft has no excess of power, and only one speed will allow steady, level flight. Consequently, the absolute ceiling of an aircraft produces zero rate of climb.

absolute humidity. The actual amount of water vapor present in a specific volume of air. If one cubic meter of air contains 100 grams of water, the absolute humidity of the air is 100 grams per cubic meter.

absolute instability (meteorology). The state of a layer of air within the atmosphere in which the vertical distribution of temperature is such that a parcel of air, if given an upward or downward push, will move away from its initial level without further outside force being applied.

absolute pressure. Pressure measured relative to zero pressure, or a vacuum. Absolute pressure is measured with a barometer, and in aviation usage is often expressed in inches of mercury. Manifold pressure in a reciprocating engine is an example of an absolute pressure.

absolute pressure controller (reciprocating engine control). A type of turbocharger controller which limits the maximum discharge pressure the turbocharger compressor can produce while the aircraft is flying below its critical altitude.

absolute pressure gage. A pressure measuring instrument that measures pressure referenced from a vacuum. An aneroid barometer is one of the more accurate types of absolute pressure gages. It measures the changes in the dimensions of an evacuated bellows as it is affected by the pressure of the ambient air.

absolute pressure regulator (pneumatic system component). A regulator valve at the compressor inlet in an aircraft high-pressure pneumatic system. Regulating the inlet air pressure prevents excessive speed variation and/or compressor overspeeding.

absolute temperature. Temperature referenced from absolute zero, the temperature at which all molecular movement has ceased.

There are two absolute temperature scales, Kelvin and Rankine. The Kelvin scale uses the same size increments as the Celsius scale, and the Rankine scale uses the same size increments as the Fahrenheit scale. See temperature.

absolute value. The numerical value of a number without considering whether its sign is plus or minus. For example, positive eight (+8) has the same absolute value as negative eight (–8).

absolute vorticity (meteorology). The swirling motion, or vorticity, imparted to the atmosphere by the combination of the rotation of the earth and the circulation of the air relative to the earth.

absolute zero. The temperature at which all molecular movement inside a material stops. Absolute zero is 0° Kelvin, 0° Rankine, −273° Celsius, and −460° Fahrenheit.

absorptance (electromagnetic radiation). The ratio of the total unabsorbed radiation to the total amount of radiation falling on the object whose absorptance is being measured.

abstractions. Words that are general rather than specific. Aircraft is an abstraction; airplane is less abstract; jet is more specific; and jet airliner is still more specific.

abvolt. A basic unit of electromotive force in the electromagnetic-centimeter-gram-second system. One abvolt is equal to 10–8 volts in the absolute meter-kilogram-second-ampere system. The abbreviation for abvolt is aV.

AC (Advisory Circular). Information published by the FAA explaining the Federal Aviation Regulations and describing methods of performing certain maintenance and inspection procedures. Compliance with ACs is not mandatory, and the information in the ACs is not necessarily approved data.

AC (alternating current). Electrical current in which the electrons continually change their rate of flow and periodically reverse their direction.

ACARS (aircraft communication addressing and reporting system). A two-way communication link between an airliner in flight and the airline’s main ground facilities.

Data is collected in the aircraft by digital sensors and transmitted to the ground facilities. Replies from the ground may be printed out so the appropriate flight crewmember can have a hard copy of the response.

ACC (active clearance control). A system for controlling the clearance between tips of the compressor or turbine blades and the case of high-performance turbofan engines.

When the engine is operating at maximum power, the blade tip clearance should be minimum, and the ACC system sprays cool fan-discharge air over the outside of the engine case. This cool air causes the case to shrink enough to decrease the tip clearance. For flight conditions not requiring such close clearance, the cooling air is turned off, and the case expands to its normal dimensions. Control of the ACC system is done by the FADEC, or Full-Authority Digital Electronic Control.

accelerate. To increase the speed of an object, or make it move faster.

accelerated flight. A condition in which the forces acting on an aircraft are not balanced and a net acceleration exists.

accelerated-life test. A form of operational test of a system or component in which unusual conditions are used to cause a premature failure. An accelerated-life test is used to locate weak points and predict the service life the system or component will likely have under normal operating conditions. The test conditions used in an accelerated-life test are much more severe than will ever be encountered in normal operation.

accelerate-go distance. For multi-engine flying, the distance required to accelerate to V1 with all engines at takeoff power, experience an engine failure at V1, and continue the takeoff on the remaining engine(s). The required runway length includes the distance required to climb to 35 feet by which time V2 speed must be attained.

accelerate-stop distance (aircraft performance). The length of runway needed for an aircraft to accelerate to a specified speed, and then, in case of engine failure, be able to stop on the runway.

accelerating agent. A component or substance used to hasten a chemical action or change.

accelerating pump (carburetor component). A small pump in a carburetor used to produce a momentarily rich fuel-air mixture to the engine when the throttle is suddenly opened.

The fuel supplied by the accelerating pump prevents the hesitation that would otherwise occur between the time the engine stops operating on the idle metering system and the time there is enough air flowing through the carburetor for it to supply fuel through the main metering system.

acceleration. The amount the velocity of an object, measured in feet per second, is increased by a force during each second it is acted upon by that force. Acceleration is normally expressed in terms of feet per second, per second (fps²).

acceleration caused by gravity. The acceleration of a freely falling body caused by the pull of gravity. Acceleration caused by gravity is expressed as the rate of increase of velocity over a given unit of time. This rate, in a vacuum, near sea level at a location of 40° north latitude is 32.2 feet, or 9.8 meters, per second, per second. This acceleration decreases with an increase in altitude until it becomes zero outside of the earth’s gravitational field.

acceleration check (gas turbine engine maintenance check). A maintenance check of a gas turbine engine in which the time required for the engine to accelerate from idle RPM to its rated-power RPM is compared with the time specified for this acceleration by the engine manufacturer.

acceleration control unit. See ACU.

acceleration error (magnetic compass error). An error in the indication of a magnetic compass that shows up when the aircraft accelerates or decelerates while flying on an easterly or westerly heading.

The float in an aircraft magnetic compass is unbalanced to compensate for the downward pull of the vertical component of the earth’s magnetic field (dip error), and the inertia caused by a change in speed acts on this unbalanced condition.

When the aircraft accelerates on an easterly or westerly heading, the compass indicates that the aircraft is turning to the north, and when it decelerates on either of these headings, the compass indicates that the aircraft is turning to the south.

acceleration switch. A switch in a piece of airborne electronic equipment actuated by an abnormal acceleration. Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) have an acceleration switch that causes them to begin transmitting if the aircraft crashes and subjects the ELT to an abnormally high longitudinal acceleration. Acceleration switches are also called inertia switches.

acceleration well (carburetor component). An enlarged annulus around the discharge nozzle of some float-type carburetors. The acceleration well fills with fuel when the engine is idling, and when the throttle is suddenly opened, this additional fuel discharges into the engine through the main discharge nozzle.

accelerator (plastic resin component). A substance added to a catalyzed resin to shorten the time needed for the resin to cure.

accelerator system (carburetor system). A system in an aircraft carburetor used to supply additional fuel to the engine when the throttle is suddenly opened. If an acceleration system were not used, the engine would get a momentarily lean mixture until enough air is pulled through the carburetor to meter the correct amount of fuel into the cylinders.

accelerator winding (voltage regulator component). A series winding on the voltage regulator coil in a vibrator-type generator control unit.

Current flowing through the accelerator winding produces a magnetic field which helps hold the points tightly closed against the force of a spring. As soon as the points begin to open, this field collapses, and the spring snaps the points open quickly.

accelerometer. A sensitive instrument that measures the amount of force exerted on an object because of its acceleration. Accelerometers are calibrated in G-units (Gravity units). One G-unit is a force equal to the weight of the object.

acceptable data. Data found in such aviation maintenance documents as manufacturer’s maintenance manuals, service bulletins and letters, and AC 43.13-1 and 43.13-2. Acceptable data may be submitted to the FAA for a particular repair or alteration, and it may or may not be approved, depending upon its applicability to the specific job.

acceptable risk (risk assessment, aeronautical decision making). A result of risk assessment, when a pilot determines that a certain level of risk or hazard is manageable and acceptable for a certain flight. As the first task of system safety, all possible hazards or risks are identified within practical limitations; then those risks are assessed as to their manageability in flight, or whether they can be reduced through some other prior action. The resultant level of risk is then subject to a decision as to whether or not to expose oneself to that level of risk; this decision is the pilot’s responsibility and affects the go or no-go of each flight. See unacceptable risk and residual risk.

acceptance test. A test made by a person who buys equipment to be sure the equipment is exactly as specified in the purchase contract. All large and expensive aircraft are given extensive acceptance tests before the customer accepts them.

acceptor atom (solid state electronics). An atom of a chemical element alloyed with silicon or germanium to give the material a deficiency of electrons, making the material into a P-type material. See acceptor impurity.

acceptor impurity (solid state electronics). A trivalent chemical element alloyed with a semiconductor material to produce atoms that accept free electrons to complete their covalent bond.

Boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium are elements commonly used as acceptor impurities.

access door. A door which provides access to the inside of an aircraft structure.

accessories (engine components). Devices used with an aircraft engine that are not parts of the engine itself. Magnetos, carburetors, generators, and fuel pumps are commonly installed engine accessories.

accessory drive gearbox. A portion of an aircraft engine containing the drive gears to operate such accessories as fuel pumps, air pumps, and generators. These accessories mount on pads on the accessory-drive gearbox.

accessory drive shaft. A shaft used in some gas turbine engines to drive the accessory gearbox. The accessory drive shaft is driven by bevel gears from the compressor shaft.

accessory end. The end of a reciprocating engine away from the propeller on which many of the accessories are mounted. The accessory end is also called the antipropeller end.

accessory gear train. A group of gears that drive an accessory from the crankshaft of a reciprocating engine or from the compressor drive shaft of a gas turbine engine.

accessory section (reciprocating engine). The portion of an aircraft engine crankcase on which such accessories as magnetos, carburetors, generators, fuel pumps, and hydraulic pumps are mounted.

access panel. An easily removable panel that allows access to some portion of an aircraft structure for inspection and maintenance.

accident. An event that happens by chance or from some unknown cause. An accident is usually thought to be an unfortunate situation or event.

accommodation. The process of the eyes’ focusing. It is also a binocular cue to depth perception.

accountable organization. In a safety management system (SMS), the accountable organization is responsible for accurately reporting the condition considered to be a hazard or potential hazard to flight operations. Reporting the condition must be accomplished by ensuring that procedures are developed to establish NOTAM origination and coordination responsibilities.

accountability location. This is the location identifier of the location in the NOTAM computer that keeps track of the NOTAM numbering.

accumulated error. The sum of all the errors occurring in the operation of a system or in the manufacture of a part. If the errors are in opposite directions, they cancel, but if they are in the same direction, the accumulated error is greater than any of the individual errors.

accumulator (British terminology). An electrical storage battery.

accumulator (electronic computer). A device in a digital computer that stores a number and, upon the receipt of a second number, adds the two and stores the sum.

accumulator (hydraulic system component). A component in a hydraulic system that allows a noncompressible fluid, such as oil, to be stored under pressure. An accumulator has two compartments separated by a flexible or movable partition such as a diaphragm, bladder, or piston. One compartment contains compressed air or nitrogen, and the other is connected into the source of hydraulic pressure.

When oil is pumped into the accumulator, the partition moves over and increases the pressure of the air. This air pushing against the partition holds pressure on the oil.

An accumulator in an aircraft hydraulic system acts as a shock absorber and provides a source of additional hydraulic power when heavy demands are placed on the system.

accumulator air preload (precharge). The charge of compressed air or nitrogen in one side of an accumulator. The air preload is normally about one third of the system hydraulic pressure. When fluid is pumped into the oil side of the accumulator, the air is further compressed, and the air pressure and the fluid pressure become the same.

If the air preload pressure is too low, there will be almost no time between the regulator reaching its kick-in and kick-out pressures, and the system will cycle far more frequently than it should.

If there is no air pressure gage on the accumulator, the amount of air preload may be found by watching the hydraulic system pressure gage as the pressure is slowly bled off the system. The pressure will drop slowly, until a point is reached at which it drops suddenly. This point is the air preload pressure.

accuracy. A measure of the amount of error, or difference between an actual value and its indicated value. Accuracy is usually expressed in terms of percentage of the full range of measurement.

For example, if voltage is measured on a voltmeter having a full-scale range of ten volts, and the meter has an accuracy of plus or minus 2% of its full-scale reading, the voltage indication will be accurate to within 2% of 10 volts, or it will be accurate within plus or minus 0.2 volt.

accurate. Free from error, or conforming exactly to a standard or pattern.

AC/DC (type of electrical component). Electrical components that can operate equally well on alternating current or direct current.

ACDO (air carrier district office). An FAA field office staffed with Flight Standards personnel. ACDOs serve the aviation industry and general public on matters related to the certification and operation of scheduled air carriers and other large aircraft operations.

ace. A term used in warfare to identify a pilot who has downed five or more enemy aircraft. This term was first used during World War I.

acetone. A flammable liquid ketone used as a solvent and as an ingredient in many types of aircraft finishes.

acetylene gas. A colorless, nontoxic flammable gas (C2H2) generated when calcium carbide is dissolved in water. Acetylene gas is used as a fuel gas for welding.

acetylene regulator. A single- or two-stage pressure regulator that is used to decrease the pressure of acetylene gas to a value that is appropriate for the torch being used. Most regulators have two pressure gages, one to indicate the pressure of the gas in the cylinder and the other to indicate the pressure being delivered to the torch.

AC flared tube fittings. A series of flare-type fittings used in some of the older aircraft hydraulic systems. AC fittings have a 35° flare cone, and they may be distinguished from a similar appearing AN fitting by the threads on an AC fitting extending all the way to the flare cone, while there is a slight shoulder between the cone and the first thread of an AN fitting.

AC 43.13-1. An advisory circular in book form issued by the Federal Aviation Administration, giving examples of acceptable methods, techniques, and practices for aircraft inspection and repair. The procedures described in this advisory circular are considered by the FAA to be acceptable data and can be submitted to them for approval for specific repairs.

AC 43.13-2. An advisory circular issued by the Federal Aviation Administration, giving examples of acceptable methods, techniques, and practices for aircraft alterations.

A-check. See maintenance checks.

acid. A chemical substance that contains hydrogen, has a characteristically sour taste, and is prone to react with a base, or alkali, to form a salt and to accept electrons from the alkali.

acid diluent (finishing system component). A component in a wash primer used to mildly etch the surface of a metal being primed. The etched surface provides a good bond between the finishing system and the metal.

acid-resistant paint. A paint used on the portion of an aircraft structure near the battery box. Some acid-resistant paints have a rubber or tar base, but polyurethane enamel is the most generally used modern acid-resistant paint.

Acknowledge (air traffic control). A request meaning Let me know that you have received my message.

ACLT (actual calculated landing time) (air traffic control). The frozen calculated landing time of a flight. ACLT is an actual time determined at freeze calculated landing time (FCLT) or meter list display interval (MLDI) for the adapted vertex for each arrival aircraft, based on runway configuration, airport acceptance rate, airport arrival delay period, and other metered arrival aircraft.

ACLT is either the vertex time of arrival (VTA) of the aircraft, the tentative calculated landing time, or the actual calculated landing time (TCLT/ACLT) of the previous aircraft plus the arrival aircraft interval (AAI), whichever is later. ACLT will not be updated in response to the aircraft’s progress.

acorn nut. A nut with a domed top. The threaded hole does not go completely through the nut, but the end of the threads is covered by the dome. Acorn nuts, also called cap nuts, are used on the bolts to produce a finished, smooth appearance.

acoustical liners (turbine engine component). Sound absorbing liners used in an engine nacelle or around the tail pipe to reduce the amount of noise produced by the engine.

acoustics. The science of the production, transmission, reception, and effects of sound.

AC plate resistance (electron tube characteristic). The ratio of a small change in the plate voltage to the small change in the plate current it causes. The AC plate resistance, measured in ohms, is actually the internal resistance of the tube to the flow of alternating current.

acrobatic category airplane. An airplane certificated under 14 CFR Part 23 for flight without restrictions other than those shown to be necessary as the result of a required flight test. An acrobatic category airplane is stressed for a limit maneuvering load factor of +6.0, and −3.0.

acrobatic flight. An intentional maneuver involving an abrupt change in an aircraft’s attitude, an abnormal attitude, or abnormal acceleration not necessary for normal flight. Loops, spins, and rolls are normally considered to be acrobatic flight.

acrylic lacquer. An aircraft finishing material consisting of an acrylic resin vehicle and certain volatile solvents.

acrylic resin. A transparent, thermoplastic material used for aircraft windshields and side windows. Lucite®, Plexiglas®, and Perspex® are registered trade names for materials made from acrylic resin.

actinium. A radioactive chemical element found in uranium ores. Actinium’s symbol is Ac, and its atomic number is 89. Actinium is used as a source of alpha rays.

activated charcoal. Powdered or granulated charcoal. Because activated charcoal is full of tiny pores, it has an extremely large surface area for its volume. Activated charcoal is used as a filter for liquids and as a medium to absorb gases.

active clearance control. See ACC.

active component (electrical component). An electrical component that can control current or voltage for switching or amplification. Vacuum tubes, transistors, and magnetic amplifiers are active components.

active current. The current in an AC circuit in phase with the voltage. It is active current that produces true power in an AC circuit.

active detection systems. Radar, radio, and sonar systems that require the transmission of energy. Active systems are distinguished from passive systems that receive but do not transmit energy.

active infrared detection. The method of detection in which a beam of infrared rays is transmitted toward a suspected target. Reflected rays from the target are used to detect and identify it.

active noise reduction (ANR). Also known as active noise control or noise cancellation, ANR systems used in aircraft and crew headsets reduce noise caused by the aircraft engines and airframe by transmitting sound waves of the same frequency and amplitude of the unwanted noise, but 180-degrees out of phase (antiphase), thereby cancelling the noise waves.

active runway (air traffic control). Any runway or runways currently being used for takeoff or landing. When multiple runways are used, they are all considered to be active runways.

active waypoint. The waypoint used by the FMS/RNAV as the reference navigation point for course guidance.

Actual Navigation Performance (ANP). A measure of the current estimated navigational performance Also referred to as Estimated Position Error (EPE).

actuating cylinder (fluid power system component). A cylinder and piston arrangement used to convert hydraulic or pneumatic fluid pressure into work. Fluid under pressure moves the piston that does the work.

actuating horns. Levers attached to aircraft control surfaces to which control cables are connected to move the surfaces.

actuator (fluid power system component). A device which transforms fluid pressure into mechanical force. Actuators may be linear, rotary, or oscillating, and they may be actuated by either hydraulic or pneumatic pressure.

ACU (acceleration control unit) (turbine engine fuel control). The section in a turbine engine fuel control that schedules the rate of increase of the fuel to the nozzles when the engine controls call for acceleration. The ACU prevents the engine from stalling during acceleration.

acute angle. An angle of less than 90°. An acute angle is also called a closed angle.

acute fatigue. Short-term transient fatigue that often dissipates after some rest or a single sleep period. See cumulative fatigue.

AD (airworthiness directive). A regulatory notice sent out by the FAA to the registered owner of an aircraft informing him or her of the discovery of a condition that prevents the aircraft from continuing to meet its conditions for airworthiness.

Airworthiness directives, called AD notes, are covered by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 39 (Airworthiness Directives). They must be complied with within the specified time limit, and the fact of compliance, the date of compliance, and the method of compliance must be recorded in the aircraft maintenance records.

ADAHRS. See air data attitude and heading reference system.

adapter. An apparatus that modifies a device so some component can be attached to it. Adapters, for example, are used on the ends of air hoses to attach them to air drills and rivet guns.

ADC. See air data computer.

Adcock antenna (radio antenna). A type of directional radio transmitting antenna made of two vertical conductors from which electromagnetic energy radiates. These conductors are connected in such a way that the signals radiated from them are opposite in phase. An Adcock antenna radiates its signal in a field shaped much like a figure eight.

adder (electronic computer). An arrangement of logic gates in a computer that adds two bits (binary digits) and produces a sum and a carry bit.

addition (mathematics). The process of computing with sets of numbers to find their sum.

additive (lubricating oil component). A chemical added to an engine lubricating oil to alter its basic characteristics. Additives are used to prevent foaming, improve viscosity index, and increase corrosion inhibiting properties.

additive primary colors. Primary colors which can be mixed to produce other colors, but which cannot be formed by the mixing of colors. The additive primary colors used to produce color television images are red, green, and blue.

address (electronic computer). A binary numerical word used to designate a specific location in a computer memory where data is located.

Adel clamp. The registered trade name for a cushioned clamp used to attach fluid lines and wire bundles to an aircraft structure.

adequate airport (ETOPS). An airport than an airplane operator may list with approval from the FAA because it meets the landing limitations of Part 121 and is either an airport that meets the requirements of Part 139, Subpart D (excluding those that apply to aircraft rescue and firefighting service), or is an active and operational military airport. See suitable airport (ETOPS).

ADF (automatic direction finder). A piece of electronic navigation equipment which operates in the low- and medium-frequency bands. ADF uses a directional loop antenna and a nondirectional sense antenna to find the direction to a radio station. This direction is shown on an instrument that looks much like the dial of a compass, with zero degrees representing the nose of the aircraft, rather than north. The needle on the ADF indicator shows the pilot the number of degrees clockwise from the nose of the aircraft to the radio station being received.

adherend. The surface to which an adhesive adheres.

adhesion. The tendency caused by intermolecular forces for matter to cling together.

adhesive. A material used to provide a bond between two surfaces by chemical means. The adhesive wets the surfaces, and as it dries, it pulls the surfaces tightly together.

adiabat. The plotted line on a thermodynamic chart that relates the pressure and temperature of a substance (such as air) that is undergoing a transformation in which no heat is exchanged with its environment.

adiabatic change. A physical change taking place within a material in which heat energy is neither added to the material nor taken from it. For example, if a container of gas is compressed, with no heat energy added to it and none taken from it, the gas will become hotter—its temperature will rise. This is an adiabatic change.

adiabatic cooling. The process of cooling the air through expansion. For example, as air moves up a slope it expands with the reduction of atmospheric pressure and cools as it expands.

adiabatic heating. The process of heating dry air through compression. For example, as air moves down a slope it is compressed, which results in an increase in temperature.

adiabatic lapse rate (meteorology). The rate at which air cools as it is forced upward or warms as it sinks, if no heat energy is added to it and none is taken from it. Under standard conditions, the adiabatic lapse rate of dry air is 3°C (5.4°F) per thousand feet.

adiabatic process (meteorology). The process by which fixed relationships are maintained during changes in temperature, volume, and pressure in a body of air when heat is neither added to nor removed from it.

ADI fluid (antidetonation injection fluid). A mixture of water and methanol, which is injected into the carburetor of an aircraft reciprocating engine to prevent detonation when the engine is producing its maximum power. The methanol is used primarily to prevent the water freezing at high altitude, and a small amount of water-soluble oil is added for corrosion prevention.

ADI system (antidetonation injection system). A system used with some of the large reciprocating engines in which a mixture of water and alcohol (methanol) is sprayed into the engine with the fuel when operating at extremely high power. The fuel-air mixture is automatically leaned to allow the engine to develop its maximum power, and the ADI fluid absorbs the excessive heat when it vaporizes.

ADI does not increase the engine power, but, by absorbing some of the heat released during full-power operation, the engine is able to develop more power without detonating.

ADIZ (air defense identification zone). Airspace over land or water, extending upward from the surface, within which the ready identification, the location, and the control of aircraft are required in the interest of national security. Domestic ADIZs are within the United States along the international boundaries. Coastal ADIZs are over the coastal waters of the United States.

adjacent side (mathematics). The two sides of a triangle that have a common angle. In the study of trigonometry, the adjacent side of one of the acute angles of a right triangle is the side of the triangle other than the hypotenuse that forms the angle.

adjust. To change a condition to make it more satisfactory or to make it operate better. We adjust the hands of a clock so they show the correct time, and we adjust the fuel-air mixture on the carburetor of a reciprocating engine to get the proper mixture ratio for the best operation of the engine.

adjustable-pitch propeller. An aircraft propeller which has provisions for adjusting the pitch of the blades on the ground when the engine is not running.

adjustable split die. A tool used for cutting external threads on round stock. The circular die has a split from the threaded hole in its center to its edge. An adjusting screw can spread this split to adjust the depth of the threads being cut.

adjustable stabilizer (airplane flight control). A horizontal stabilizer that can be adjusted in flight to trim the airplane, so it will fly hands-off at any given airspeed.

ADM. See aeronautical decision making.

Administrator (FAA). The politically appointed head of the Federal Aviation Administration. 14 CFR Part 1: "The Federal Aviation Administrator or any person to whom he has delegated his authority in the matter concerned."

admittance (electrical characteristic). The ease with which alternating current can flow in a circuit. Admittance (Y) is the reciprocal of impedance (Y = 1/Z) and is expressed in siemens. It was formerly expressed in mhos (ohm spelled backward).

AD oil (ashless dispersant oil). A mineral-base lubricating oil used in reciprocating engines. This oil does not contain any metallic ash-forming additives, but has additives that disperse the contaminants so they remain suspended in the oil, preventing their clumping together and forming sludge. The contaminants remain in the oil until they are removed by the filters.

ADS-B. See automatic dependent surveillance–broadcast.

ADS-B In. An appropriately equipped aircraft’s ability to receive and display another aircraft’s ADS-B Out information as well as the ADS-B In services provided by ground systems. See automatic dependent surveillance–broadcast (ADS-B), and ADS-B Out.

ADS-B Out. A function of an aircraft’s onboard avionics that periodically broadcasts the aircraft’s state vector (3-dimensional position and 3-dimensional velocity) and other required information. It is the capability necessary to transmit ADS-B messages. See automatic dependent surveillance–broadcast (ADS-B), and ADS-B In.

advance. To move forward.

advanced composites. High-strength structural materials made by encapsulating a fibrous material in a resin matrix. Advanced composites have superior strength and stiffness and are lightweight. Kevlar and graphite fibers encapsulated in an epoxy matrix are widely used in modern aircraft construction.

Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS) (ICAO). A system providing routing, guidance, and surveillance for the control of aircraft and vehicles, in order to maintain the declared surface movement rate under all weather conditions within the aerodrome visibility operational level (AVOL) while maintaining the required level of safety.

advanced timing (reciprocating engine ignition timing). Timing of the ignition of the fuel-air mixture in the cylinders of a reciprocating engine, so the mixture is completely burned by the time the piston reaches the top of its stroke. Advanced timing allows the maximum pressure to be produced in the cylinder as the piston starts downward.

advancing blade (helicopter rotor blade). The blade in a helicopter rotor system moving in the same direction the helicopter is traveling.

advection. A method of heat transfer by horizontal movement of a fluid. Advection is different from convection in that convection transfers heat by vertical, rather than horizontal, movement of the fluid.

advection currents (meteorology). Currents of air moving horizontally over a surface.

advection fog (meteorology). Fog that forms when moist air moves horizontally across a surface cold enough to cool the air to a temperature below its dew point. Moisture condenses and remains suspended in the air to obstruct visibility.

adverse loaded CG check. A weight and balance check to determine that no condition of legal loading of an aircraft can move the center of gravity (CG) outside of its allowable limits.

adverse yaw (flight operation). A flight condition at the beginning of a turn in which the nose of an airplane starts to move in the direction opposite the direction the turn is being made. Adverse yaw is caused by the induced drag produced by the downward-deflected aileron holding back the wing as it begins to rise.

advise customs (ADCUS). Terminology used by pilots to request ATC services advise customs on their behalf of information pertaining to the flight, most commonly the approximate time of landing at a destination airport.

Advise intentions (air traffic control). A request meaning Tell me what you plan to do.

Advisory Circular. See AC.

Advisory Service. Advice and information provided by an FAA facility to assist pilots in the safe conduct of flight and aircraft movement.

aeration. The process of mixing air in a liquid. When lubricating oil passes through an engine, it picks up a good deal of air and is said to be aerated. This air must be removed by a process called deaeration.

aerial (aeronautical). A term having to do with the air or with aircraft. It is used in such terms as aerial photography, aerial mapping, or aerial refueling.

aerial (radio communications). A term used for a radio antenna.

aerial perspective. A monocular cue to distance perception. Distant objects are seen as more blurred and bluish in color due to the greater degree of light scattering from particulate matter, while truer color and greater detail is seen when objects are closer due to reduced light scattering. This cue can lead pilots to overestimate an object’s distance on hazy days and underestimate it on exceptionally clear (usually dry as well) days.

aerial photography. The business of taking pictures from aircraft in flight. There are two basic types of aerial photography: oblique and vertical.

Vertical photography is used for mapping. In this process, the aircraft is flown at a high altitude, and special cameras take pictures of the terrain directly below the aircraft.

Oblique photography, in which handheld cameras are used to take pictures of objects on the ground, is used for news photography and advertising. Doors or windows are usually removed from the aircraft used for oblique aerial photography.

aerial refueling. A method used to extend the range of military aircraft by refueling them in the air. Flying tankers rendezvous (meet) with the aircraft to be refueled, and large amounts of fuel are transferred in flight.

Aerodrome. The name given by Dr. Samuel P. Langley to the flying machines built under his supervision between the years of 1891 and 1903.

aerodrome. A defined area on land or water intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure, and movement of aircraft. The term also includes any buildings, installations, and equipment in this area.

aerodrome beacon (ICAO). An aeronautical beacon used to aid in locating an aerodrome from the air.

aerodrome control service (ICAO). Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic.

aerodrome control tower (ICAO). A unit established to provide air traffic control service to aerodrome traffic.

aerodrome elevation (ICAO). The elevation of the highest point of the landing area.

aerodrome traffic circuit (ICAO). The specified path to be flown by aircraft operating in the vicinity of an aerodrome.

aerodynamic balance (aircraft flight control component). The portion of a control surface on an airplane extending ahead of the hinge line. Air striking this portion of the control surface produces an aerodynamic force that aids the movement of the control.

aerodynamic blockage thrust reverser. A form of thrust reverser used on turbojet or turbofan engines. Thin airfoils or obstructions are placed in the engine’s exhaust stream to duct the high-velocity exhaust gases forward. These forward-flowing gases create a large amount of aerodynamic drag to decrease the landing roll of the airplane.

aerodynamic braking. The use of reverse thrust from a propeller or a gas turbine engine to produce a great deal of aerodynamic drag. This drag is used to slow the aircraft on its landing roll, before the brakes are applied, or to allow the aircraft to descend at a steep angle without building up excessive airspeed.

aerodynamic ceiling. The point (altitude) at which, as the indicated airspeed decreases with altitude, it progressively merges with the low-speed buffet boundary where pre-stall buffet occurs for the airplane at a load factor of 1.0 G.

aerodynamic center. The point along the chord of an airfoil where all changes in lift effectively take place. The aerodynamic center is not affected by the camber, the thickness of the airfoil, nor the angle of attack. For a subsonic airfoil, the aerodynamic center is located between 23% and 27% of the chord length back from the leading edge, and for a supersonic airfoil it is located 50% of the chord length back from the leading edge.

aerodynamic coefficients. 14 CFR Part 1: "Nondimensional coefficients for aerodynamic forces and moments."

aerodynamic drag. The total resistance to the movement of an object through the air. Aerodynamic drag is composed of both induced and parasite drag. See induced drag and parasite drag.

aerodynamic forces. The basic forces acting on an aircraft in flight that are caused by the movement of air over the surfaces.

Thrust acts forward, drag acts rearward, and lift acts vertically upward. The weight of the aircraft produces a force that acts vertically downward. A downward-acting aerodynamic force produced by the horizontal tail surfaces balances the weight force about the center of gravity to provide longitudinal stability.

aerodynamic heating. The temperature rise caused by the friction of high-speed air flowing over a surface.

aerodynamic lift. A force produced by air moving over a specially shaped surface called an airfoil. Lift acts in a direction perpendicular to the direction the air is moving. Airplane wings and helicopter rotors produce vertical lift, and propellers produce aerodynamic lift (thrust) in a horizontal plane.

The amount of aerodynamic lift is determined by the density of the air, the speed of the air, and the direction the air is flowing as it approaches the airfoil.

L = (CL σ V² S)/ 295

L = Lift (pounds)

CL = Coefficient of lift (dimensionless)

σ = Air density ratio (dimensionless)

V² = Square of airstream velocity (knots)

S = Airfoil planform area (square feet)

295 = A constant used when velocity is given in knots

aerodynamic moment. The torque about the center of gravity of an aircraft moving through the atmosphere, produced by any aerodynamic force which does not act through the center of gravity.

aerodynamics. The branch of science that deals with the forces produced by air flowing over specially shaped surfaces called airfoils. Wings and helicopter rotors produce a vertical aerodynamic force, and propellers produce a horizontal force. Aerodynamic forces inside a turbojet engine produce pressure and velocity changes in the air as it passes through the compressor and turbine.

aerodynamic shape. The shape of an object with reference to the airflow over it. Certain shapes cause an air pressure difference across the surface which produces lift. Other shapes are designed in such a way that they produce the minimum amount of drag.

aerodynamic twisting force. See ATF.

aerodynamic twisting moment. The tendency of a propeller or rotor blade to twist toward high pitch. Centrifugal twisting moment opposes aerodynamic twisting moment.

aeroelastic tailoring. The design of an aerodynamic surface whose strength and stiffness are matched to the aerodynamic loads imposed upon it.

Aerofiche. The registered trade name for a form of microfiche used in the aircraft industry. Two hundred and eighty-eight frames of information can be placed on a single four-by-six card of film called a fiche.

Aeromatic propeller. A patented propeller that has counterweights around the blade shanks and the blades angled back from the hub to increase the effects of aerodynamic and centrifugal twisting forces. This propeller automatically maintains a relatively constant RPM for any throttle setting.

aeronaut. A person who operates or travels in a balloon or airship.

aeronautical beacon. A visual navigational aid displaying flashes of white and/or colored light. These flashes indicate the location of an airport, a heliport, a landmark, a certain point of a Federal airway in mountainous terrain, or an obstruction.

The colors and meaning of the more commonly used beacons are:

Color: Meaning

white and green lighted: land airport

green lighted: land airport

white unlighted: land airport

white and yellow lighted: water airport

yellow lighted: water airport

green, yellow and white lighted: heliport

white (dual peaked) and green: military airport

white and red: landmark or navigation point

aeronautical chart. A map used in air navigation containing all or part of the following: topographic features, hazards and obstructions, navigation aids, navigation routes, designated airspace, and airports.

aeronautical data. A representation of aeronautical facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.

aeronautical decision making (ADM). A systematic approach to the mental processes used by pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances. The direct and best result of this type of decision-making is the action a pilot intends to take based on the latest information he or she has and processes correctly.

aeronautical information (AI). Information resulting from the assembly, analysis, and formatting of aeronautical data.

Aeronautical Information Manual. See AIM.

aeronautical information service (AIS). A service established within the defined area of coverage responsible for the provision of aeronautical information/data necessary for the safety, regularity, and efficiency of air navigation.

aeronautics. The branch of science that deals with flight and with the operation of all types of aircraft. Aerodynamics and aerostatics are both branches of aeronautics.

AeroNav (Aeronautical Navigation Products). Previously the National Aeronautical Charting Office (NACO), now AeroNav, or AeroNav Products. This FAA office (AJV-372) supports pilots, air traffic controllers, and aviation planners with products and services to promote safe aeronautical navigation. AeroNav develops and maintains the FAA’s instrument flight procedures, performance-based navigation procedures to support NextGen, and is responsible for the creation and publication of aeronautical charts and maintaining their distribution to the aviation industry.

aerosol. A liquid or solid that is divided into extremely fine particles and dispersed into the air. Smoke is an aerosol of carbon and ash, and a cloud in the sky is an aerosol of water droplets.

Modern aerosol products such as paint, hair spray, and insecticides are usually liquids broken into tiny drops and sprayed into the air by the use of a gaseous propellant such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, or Freon.

aerospace. The branch of science and technology that deals with travel in the space above the surface of the earth. Aerospace includes travel in the atmosphere, as well as in the vast regions outside of the earth’s atmosphere.

aerospace vehicle. A flight vehicle capable of flight in both the atmosphere surrounding the earth and in the space beyond the atmosphere. The space shuttle is an aerospace vehicle.

aerostat. A device supported in the air by displacing more than its weight of air. Balloons and dirigibles are examples of aerostats.

aerostatics. The branch of science that deals with the flight of lighter-than-air vehicles, such as balloons, dirigibles, or blimps. These vehicles are filled with hot air or with a gas lighter than the air surrounding it. This gas enables the balloon to rise in the air by displacing more than its own weight of air.

Aerostatic lift, which is produced by displacing a mass of air, is different from aerodynamic lift in that it does not require relative motion between the lifting body and the air.

aero-thermodynamic duct. See athodyd.

AFCS (automatic flight control system). The AFCS is part of flight control and flight guidance systems (FGS) that provides visual guidance for manual control of flight and direct control using computers or other means to achieve a desired aircraft trajectory (altitude, airspeed, track, etc.). Also called the autopilot flight director systems (AFDS) or automatic flight guidance systems (AFGS).

affective domain. A grouping of learning levels associated with a person’s attitudes, personal beliefs, and values that range from receiving (at the most basic level) to responding, valuing, organization, and characterization.

AFM. See airplane flight manual.

Affirmative (air traffic control). The term used by ATC for yes.

aft. The direction toward the rear of an aircraft.

afterbody (aircraft structure). The rearward portion of an engine nacelle or pod. The portion of the structure that surrounds the tail pipe.

afterbody length. Length from the step, to the stern of a float, or hull of a flying boat.

after bottom center (reciprocating engine piston position). The position of the piston in the cylinder of a reciprocating engine after the crankshaft, turning in its normal direction of rotation, has caused the piston to pass the bottom of its stroke and start back up.

afterburner (gas turbine engine component). A device in the exhaust system of a turbojet or turbofan engine, used to increase the thrust for takeoff and for special flight conditions.

Since much of the air passing through a gas turbine engine is used only for cooling, it still contains a great deal of oxygen. Fuel is sprayed into the hot, oxygen-rich exhaust in the afterburner, where it burns and produces additional thrust.

Afterburners, called reheaters in the United Kingdom, use a large amount of fuel, but the extra thrust they produce makes them efficient for high-performance aircraft.

afterfiring (turbine engine). Fire that continues in the combustor after the engine is shut down. Afterfiring is normally caused by a malfunctioning manifold drain valve.

afterfiring (reciprocating engines). A condition that can exist in a reciprocating engine when an excessive amount of fuel is taken into the cylinders. Some of this fuel is still burning when it is forced out of the cylinders, and it continues to burn in the exhaust system. Afterfiring is sometimes called torching.

afterglow (cathode-ray tube). The light, or glow, remaining on the phosphorescent screen of a cathode-ray tube after the electron beam passes.

after top center (reciprocating engine piston position). The position of the piston in the cylinder of a reciprocating engine after the crankshaft, turning in its normal direction of rotation, has caused the piston to pass the top of its stroke and start back down.

aft-fan engine. A turbofan engine with the fan constructed as an extension of some of the turbine blades, rather than as an extension of the compressor blades. This fan pulls large volumes of air around the outside of the gas generator portion of the engine.

aft flap. The rearmost section of a triple-slotted, segmented wing flap. See triple-slotted flap.

age hardening (aluminum alloy heat treatment). The process of increasing the strength and hardness of aluminum alloy after it has been solution heat-treated. Age hardening occurs at room temperature and continues for a period of several days until the metal reaches its full-hard state.

aging. A change in the characteristics of a material that takes place over a period of time under specified environmental conditions. Aging may cause the physical condition of the material either to improve or to deteriorate. Certain aluminum alloys do not have their full strength when they are first removed from the quench bath after they have been heat-treated, but they gain this strength after a few days by the natural process of aging.

agitate. To stir something or to shake it up to mix its

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