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Vladimir Putin A Geostrategic Russian Icon A Slavic People A Russian Superpower A Charismatic World Leader The Global Upheaval Trilogy

Vladimir Putin A Geostrategic Russian Icon A Slavic People A Russian Superpower A Charismatic World Leader The Global Upheaval Trilogy

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Vladimir Putin A Geostrategic Russian Icon A Slavic People A Russian Superpower A Charismatic World Leader The Global Upheaval Trilogy

Длина:
723 страницы
6 часов
Издатель:
Издано:
30 янв. 2019 г.
ISBN:
9780359395057
Формат:
Книга

Описание

A trilogy about Russian President Vladimir Putin based on three previously published books from 2011 until 2016. The books clarify Putin's ongoing strategy to make Russia a global power again after the dissolution of the USSR.

The trilogy is based on articles by international experts and the author's own analyzes that deal with the issues in a global strategic perspective.

From the chaotic Yeltsin years with a much-weakened Russia; further during the sixteen years when Vladimir Putin developed relations with China within BRICS as well as SCO; moreover, Malaysia MH 17 airliner over Eastern Ukraine. The trilogy refers to the Syrian Civil War, ISIL; the situation around the South China Sea and the Philippines; finally, in Sweden.

Right up until the drama of the presidential election in the United States, the reader can get an impartial illumination of the greatest global and political-economic-military upheaval of our time.

The author predicts today's global situation in a surprisingly clear way.
Издатель:
Издано:
30 янв. 2019 г.
ISBN:
9780359395057
Формат:
Книга

Об авторе

Goeran B. Johansson is a retired teacher who has previously been a leisure politician and has served in the UN forces in Cyprus from 1967 to 68. He has traveled a lot and lived in different countries in Southeast Asia for a long time. Mainly in the Philippines. His primary interests are history, political ideologies, and independent geopolitical analysis focusing on the ongoing global power struggle between the United States, NATO vis à vis Russia, and China within the BRICS and SCO. But also fiction and some of his most recent, read works are, The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov and last but not least The Dwarf by Pär Lagerkvist and The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli. He is also enthusiastic about chess and its strategic thinking. He is a multi-instrumentalist and plays piano, violin, classical guitar, and various accordions at a high level. He is fluent in English and Russian. He has also written two short stories published in Swedish and English, A Swedish Fellow in Asia, published in Swedish and English, and Lymene Holy Mother of Divine Grace.


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Vladimir Putin A Geostrategic Russian Icon A Slavic People A Russian Superpower A Charismatic World Leader The Global Upheaval Trilogy - Goeran B Johansson

VLADIMIR PUTIN

A GEOSTRATEGIC RUSSIAN ICON

A SLAVIC PEOPLE

A RUSSIAN SUPERPOWER

A CHARISMATIC WORLD LEADER

THE GLOBAL UPHEAVAL

            TRILOGY

    GOERAN B JOHANSSON

Copyright © 2017 Goeran B. Johansson

First Edition

All rights reserved.

ISBN 978-0-359-39505-7

Cover: The Author

Background motive

Can Stock 4777504 Stock Illustration - Blue internet background (Global and Communication concept)

Front-page motive. Vladimir Putin, in a Russian navy uniform. Watercolor painting by Glory Abueva. GATXS Art Gallery, Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, Philippines.

BOOK 1

Vladimir Putin A Geostrategic Russian Icon

Goeran B Johansson

© 2016 Goeran B. Johansson.

All rights reserved.

ISBN: 978-91-982879-0-5

Original Title

Vladimir Putin. En geostrategisk rysk ikon

© 2012 Göran B. Johansson. All rights reserved.

Cover photo: Dome of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, Moscow, Russia. Can Stock Photo

Cover Designer: David Johansson

Translated from Swedish by

Mezerah Book and Translation

Translator:  Ahad Ghorbani Dehnari, Sweden

Editor:  Gillian Beal, England

This work is licensed under the Creative

Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

License. To view a copy of this license, visit

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/

or send a letter to Creative Commons

171 Second Street, Suite 300San Francisco, California 94105

Prologue Sweden

That morning, Wednesday, March 24th, 1999, I, a music teacher, was on my way to, lo and behold, teach a lesson in German. The new teaching rules said that teachers must be able to go in and teach a lesson on any subject. They were expected to watch the students while they did their private individual studies. This was so that the school would not have to hire substitutes and thereby save money. Yes, yes, nice thought but students were not as much interested in, because they wanted a teacher who mastered the subject. Although I had a complete mastery of music, here in the German class, I felt quite lost.

    I took a deep breath for courage and entered into the hall with steady steps. Articulated with attractive labial plosive and thunderous voice, out came my poor vocabulary of German words from elementary school repertoire without any time to think about it:

-  Guten Morgen Swedische  Jugend!

  The students responded with a single voice:

-  Guten Morgen Mein Fuhrer!

The boys stood up together like men and made a Hitler salute. The girls were apparently not so amused and had downturned mouths showing signs of unease and fear.

  The old German doyen, who at the moment was teaching in the hall next door, opened the door, looked in, smiled sweetly and then the lesson continued very well. The students studied in silence according to the instructions I gave to them.

    After class, I took a break and went to the cafe to have my morning coffee before the next lesson, but it was canceled and this free time I spent at the coffee table with a delicious cheese sandwich and freshly brewed coffee with a Mazarin pastry and read newspapers. Cafeteria staff turned on the TV and the news trumpeted that NATO ¹  had just attacked Yugoslavia and Serbia. I now had to reluctantly see something really vulgar and distasteful as the American pop singer Mariah Carey, lying lightly dressed on the wing of the B-1 bomber, singing mushily, caressed the wing plate as if it were an erotic object. This nasty process had an extremely strong negative impression on me.

I will always remember the day when the USA and NATO attacked sovereign Yugoslavia in the Kosovo War without UN Security Council approval

A Brief History of Russian Geopolitical Development

What a colossus, I say, when I look at the Russian Empire map from the 1800s. Alaska still belonged to Russia at this point, although later it was sold to the USA.

On the globe, the dark green areas show the Russian Empire, when it was at its greatest, from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. The light green areas show spheres of Russian influence. Wikipedia: The territories, that were at one time or another, part of the Russian Empire. April 22nd, 2011. Graphics: Shadowxfox

The expansion, expansion and again expansion. The result of a necessity to defend the geographically vulnerable European part – the core of the country. There is no natural geographical protection in the form of rivers, mountains or swamps along the borders. People were forced to rely on climate and forests for defense.

    But forests only stopped the Mongol riders temporarily.  In the early 1200s, the Mongols occupied the Russian more or less independent principalities - remnants of Kievan Rus.  Then Russia came to be occupied by the Mongols for the next 250 years.

    First, with Ivan III (Ivan the Great) in the late 1400s began the process of consolidation around Moscow, and the Russian expansion, mainly north towards the Arctic and also towards the Ural Mountains, accelerates through the constant battles against the invaders.

    Ivan IV, nicknamed Ivan the Terrible, fought against Sweden, Poland, Lithuania and the state of Teutonic Order in the effort to conquer and secure areas westwards. The expansion of Russia continued southwards to the Caspian Sea, the Crimea and Grozny. The latter would be a very strategic point in the Caucasus during the Chechen Wars after the dissolution of the USSR in the late 1900s. They also conquered Siberia with the Cossacks and had in the mid-1600s under the Romanov dynasty reached to the Pacific Ocean.

  In the 1700s, Peter the Great came to the Baltic Sea and the new capital of Russia, St. Petersburg, was founded. His successor, Catherine II, secured the vulnerable flanks around the Baltics and Ukraine. Through the centuries, Russia had become geopolitically a huge empire that stretched itself from Eastern Europe through the Asian continent to the Pacific and from the Arctic in the north to the Black Sea and Asian deserts in the south.

Russia hardly needed to fear any attack from the Arctic in that situation. Nor from Siberia where the Tien Shan Massif, an offshoot of the Himalayas, provided good protection.

    The Caspian Sea protected Russia from Iran and along the border in Central Asia was mostly lowland consisting of deserts that made any attack virtually unfeasible. Apart from a small area at the border to Afghanistan, a weak point which concerned Russia through the ages.

Tsar Cannon in the Kremlin. Watercolor by the author.

The Last Decades of the Soviet Union

The year 1945 marked for Europe, and particularly the European part of the Soviet Union, the end of the devastating Second World War.

    Harry Truman, the U.S. President at the end of the war, was ultimately responsible for the mass murder of unarmed civilians on August 6th, 1945 when the USA dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, which abruptly ended the war in the Pacific Ocean area.

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union). Wikipedia. Graphics: Ssolbergj. March 30th, 2009.

The Soviet Union, the biggest single winner in the Second World War and the only power that could defeat Nazi Germany in a land war, had now secured its borders and exercised control up to the Elbe River in eastern Germany. East Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Poland were part of the Soviet Union sphere of influence.

    The Baltic States were incorporated into the Soviet Union and thus the number of republics that the Soviet Union consisted of finally came up to fifteen. So, the open landscape along the North German plateau and Poland which tempted outsider powers for centuries to attack Russia had been blocked.

    The Soviet Union also incorporated a German territory around the former Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) and the southernmost of the Kuril Islands, which even in the current situation is looked upon with disapproval by the defeated powers in WW2.

After the war, there was a long period during the Cold War which was characterized by a massive arms race between the two superpowers, the USA and the USSR. It was a heavy burden for the Soviet system that was wrestling with bureaucracy and inefficiency. Mikhail Gorbachev’s  ²attempts to reform the Soviet economy and democratize the society resulted in the dissolution of the Soviet Union on December 26th, 1991.

In close contact with the Russian soul

In the 1970s my interest in Russia was aroused, first in music, then in the country.  I found the depth; power and the melodic sound of Russian folk music were so intertwined with the drama of the eternal struggle against invaders which characterized Russian history through the centuries. I started to read Russian. I married Russian, and we had children.

I continued to play Russian accordion in a balalaika orchestra in Stockholm. Thanks to the orchestra, I had contact with several prominent Russian musicians at the time.

    One of them was Dmitri Pokrovsky from Moscow, who devoted his life to recording and popularizing the authentic folk music that still existed in rural areas.

I visited Moscow and met Pokrovsky as often as I could. I sang along with his fellow artists, and not just in their rehearsals.

  Once Pokrovsky invited me to follow him to a concert in Suzdal, a small town with a very old and well-preserved architecture from ancient times. I wanted to join him but did not have a valid visa to go there.

It will be all right, said Pokrovsky. It was in the 1980s. Very strict rules were in force at the time, with quite refractory acts from Russian intellectuals.

We went with the whole group of 40 people by a private bus from Moscow to Suzdal and on the way, we stopped to drink tea with piroshky buns. We will have some coffee at an airport, said Dmitri, because nowhere else was open then.

    It was a military airport. I realized that when we met two armed guards at the gate. They came into the bus to check passengers but Pokrovsky who was known by the guards said that everything was okay. They did not see me at all because one of the singers suddenly showed an interest in me. She leaned towards me with a smile and endowed me with a wonderfully cool and controlled kiss.

    We went through a closely guarded area and came to a building, where there were only soldiers and airmen in uniform. Outside the apron, some aircraft were arranged, which I recognized as Mikoyan MiG-25. I had my heart in my mouth all the time because if someone noticed me without my passport, which remained at the hotel, I would certainly have been arrested and deported for life. I was really nervous, though I admit it was exciting.

    The guards never noticed that a foreigner was in the group, the piroshky tasted excellent, so everything went well. At the concert in Suzdal, I was on stage and was honored to sing a song introduction which one singer usually does in Cossack songs.

On another occasion, I and another balalaika orchestra member sang when Pokrovsky gave a concert for the Soviet party elite in a cozy church on the Red Square in Moscow. We sang a Russian Cossack song with a very ancient text that described a beautifully ornate Viking ship. We were greeted with tumultuous applause. But the KGB³  security director in charge of the event got no further appreciation, as I heard later. He was not even aware of the uncontrolled foreigners who would perform in front of top party officials! Yes, Pokrovsky knew the art of teasing power. Despite the fact he was so popular, he was not allowed to travel out of the country and perform in the rest of the world.

I presented Pokrovsky with the latest model of Sony Walkman with high-quality recording - handy on his many trips out to the remote Russian villages where he recorded old songs and he gave me a beautifully decorated single-row accordion. A handmade Saratovskaya Harmonica ⁴  with handmade clocks and carved woodwork. I wondered how I could get the treasure out of the country.

    My little son, however, was with me on the trip, so I simply put the accordion open in his buggy. When we went through customs at the Sheremetyevo Airport, we were checked by the customs officer who was a young woman. She became so distracted by the little charming troll with brown eyes and blond forelock that she did not see or even pay attention to the Saratovskaya harmonica, which swung back and forth behind the loudly babbling toddler where its brass bells rang so beautifully.

On another occasion, I managed to get another rarity home to Sweden – a Viennese accordion - which is a Viennese harmonica from the 1800s, but with Russian character, a so-called B-system, the same as the Norwegians have on their accordion, while we in Sweden, have the A-system such as in Italy.

    On the train at the border control near the Finnish border, a Soviet border officer wanted to see the instrument's export permit.  I had none. I bought the accordion from an antiquarian trader in Moscow and never thought of any receipt. After a brief argument with the officer, I took the accordion in my lap and played a Russian polka with as much power and energy as I could manage.

    The officer smiled and took the accordion from me and then he played the same polka that I just played with a passion that I had rarely heard before. I was astonished. But the officer appreciated my musical art too. So, I took the accordion home with me without any permission.

I helped some Swedish orchestras to buy musical instruments of high quality in the Soviet Union via Vneshposiltorg, Foreign Trade Ministry. Here the instruments changed their country legally without the border officers’ negligence or arbitrariness.

    But negotiations could be stressful especially when you were invited to drink vodka, which happened to me once. I managed to gorge myself on some sandwiches with smoked salmon before vodka with accessories was served. This saved me from falling under the table at the end of the negotiations. A full liter of Pshenichnaya vodka - the best variety I've ever tasted - was served for each participant. When the agreement was secured, I could get back to the taxi on my own legs but was unsteady. For most people, it was not so good. Some of them just tumbled on the floor.

The KGB agents took an interest in me but they were very nice and polite and mostly wondered what attracted me to Russian music and if I knew Pokrovsky. I also got a lift to the hotel in their curtain equipped Chaika car. It could not have been more dramatic.

Soviet Union's Last Years

Mikhail Gorbachev tried feverishly by means of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) to change the Soviet political system to a model similar to the Swedish Social Democratic. How naive can you be really? A social system like the Swedish one was developed under parliamentary forms during almost a century. Did Gorbachev suddenly forget the Western Capitalists needed a split and weak Russia to get access to its wealth? Russia was indeed made to experience this throughout the 1990s.

The Soviet Union's first and last president was already in the hands of the Western geostrategists. The economy was on the brink of collapse as a result of the arms race during the Cold War and the West knew this very well. The United States during Ronald Reagan’s presidency ⁵  had accepted help from Saudi Arabia to push down the price of oil, which resulted in the Soviet Union becoming insolvent. This situation, providing full press freedom, and also establishing free elections in a union, which consisted of so many nationalities and that had hitherto been governed within the framework of the Soviet Communist Party ideology, was doomed to failure in advance.

      Gorbachev was rewarded with the Nobel Peace Prize which was also a sign that his policies went down well in the West.

In July 1991, Gorbachev traveled to a G7  ⁶meeting and expected absolutely that he would be welcome there. Gorbachev made it clear that he would not manage the changes entirely on his own authority and took to the parable like mountain climbers on one rope can the world countries either climb together up to the top or fall together into the abyss.

But at the G7 meeting, he got word that shock therapy was needed; otherwise, the other G7 countries would cut the rope and let him fall alone. It was clear already that he was completely duped by the West. He had completely forgotten that they were striving to get access to Russia's energy assets. The Soviet Union was in a precarious position now and Gorbachev was grimly informed of it. Later that year, the Soviet Union asked for debt relief from the IMF⁷  and the World Bank, whose manager was the American Joseph Stiglitz ⁸  but got a flat refusal. The debts must be paid.

    This became the deathblow to the Soviet Union and Gorbachev besides being evidence that the Soviet Union had committed a fatal mistake to make itself dependent on the West which had been the main enemy ever since the Russian Revolution of 1917.

  Mikhail Gorbachev was forced to interrupt the peaceful democratization process of the Soviet system and go to shock therapy, according to the Chicago school. ⁹This could only be implemented by means of violence. Something the West could conceivably accept.  The Economist magazine advocated a Pinochet-like¹⁰ figure who could replace the sluggish Gorbachev. But who would shoulder Pinochet's role in Russia?

Boris Yeltsin as the President of the Russian Soviet Republic felt prompted to take on the assignment. But the overall power was still in Gorbachev's hands. However, the Soviet Union crumbled now around Gorbachev when one republic after another declared its independence. As a result of an unsuccessful attempt at democratization of an authoritarian system where no Western-style democracy had ever existed before, caused a surge in nationalism. An outcome that really ought to have been foreseen by the Soviet strategists.

The geopolitical situation of Russia, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union on January 1th 1992 is shown above. Blue areas are NATO -countries and orange areas are CSTO (Collective Security Treaty Organization). Wikipedia: NATO-CSTO members. July 8th, 2010. Graphics: Datastat

On August 19th, 1991, a three-day military coup happened in which Gorbachev was under house arrest. Conservative forces in the Communist Party felt he had gone too far with his reforming zeal and during the writing of new Union contracts had given the republics too much independence. Gorbachev refrained from using Brezhnev doctrine¹¹  to knock down the independence aspirations. Maybe one reason was the economy could not stand it.

On Yeltsin's initiative, Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine, on December 8th, 1991 signed a union agreement and on December 25th, Yeltsin, in the presence of Jeffrey Sachs, ¹²announced that the Soviet Union no longer existed. The next day, on December 26th, the Soviet Union was officially dissolved, and Gorbachev resigned as its president.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia lost its quite secure geopolitical situation. The North Caucasus remained as a part of the Russian Federation but when Armenia and Georgia left, this sensitive flank could not be considered safe.

Russia lost its protection in the mountains and deserts of Central Asia and could not as effectively monitor any military activity that could threaten its security in the region.

    An independent Ukraine and Moldova brought the risk of a hostile invasion to Russia's doorstep, so to speak. Without the Baltic States and Belarus, the buffer against the Baltic Sea and Northern European plateau also disappeared.

In this situation now, Boris Yeltsin had full freedom to implement the economic shock therapy according to the Chicago school's version that Western financiers including IMF and the World Bank demanded.

The Geo-Strategy of the United States in a Historical Perspective

The USA has an extensive system of waterways that is very impressive. The linked length in kilometers of the United States’ river system is longer than that of the rest of the world put together. Waterborne transport is the most economical since it is at least ten times cheaper than road transport and half as expensive as the railway alternative. One dares to say that it is precisely these waterways which contributed to the USA later becoming a global world power.

Wikipedia: Map of the course, watershed, and major tributaries of the Mississippi River.  February 6th, 2010. Graphics: Jon Platek

The territorial growth of the USA over the years.

Can Stock Photo

From the first European colonizers who began to force the Native American Indians out (the continent's population since prehistoric times) to the 13 British colonies' Declaration of Independence in 1776, the journey of the future USA’s history began. The American territory continued to expand westward across the continent. French-owned Louisiana was purchased in 1803. The other Western areas were conveyed during most of the 19th century by Mexico and Spain. The Western States, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho became part of the USA through agreements with the United Kingdom in 1846. There was a well-thought-out strategy in this and it was that the United States wanted to secure the whole country from the East to the West Coast, as well as up to the borders with Canada and Mexico. The border district with Mexico has desert which forms a natural barrier and the border with Canada goes through rivers and forests.

The purchase of Alaska was the perfect option to avoid having Russia on the American continent.  It could be carried out because the Russians did not consider themselves able to resist an attack by Britain's fleet in defense of Alaska. It was purchased from Russia in 1867 for 7 million USD leasing for 100 years.

  Through a historical expansion process from the mid-18th century until 1959, when the United States officially recognized the statehood of Alaska in January and then Hawaii later in the year, the United States became what it is today. The American geography is impressive and the whole area around the eastern United States River system in the Mississippi Delta has the world's largest contiguous arable land. The United States has more food surpluses than all the other countries in the world put together. By a considerable margin.

Two gigantic oceans separate the U.S. from Asia and Europe.  Hawaii was annexed by political manipulation, as well as supporting a coup in 1898. This enabled the USA to ensure it could not be attacked by any Asian maritime power from the sea.

    How important Hawaii is strategically is also illustrated by the Japanese attack against Pearl Harbor in 1941. Naval war in the Pacific against Japan during the Second World War was of the utmost strategic importance for the USA. In connection with the defeat of Japan and the expelling of the Japanese from the Republic of the Philippines at the end of 1944, the USA got access to bases in the Republic of the Philippines, an island country which is an important strategic gateway to Asia.

In 1898 the USA conducted its first-ever naval war where it took over all Spanish overseas possessions, including Cuba. The USA kept Cuba until 1959 then lost it after the Cuban revolution.

    After the Spanish - American War, in principle, only one serious threat remained, and it was the British fleet. Great Britain, which in the 18th century had tried to stop the foundation of the USA.

    The solution here came at the beginning of the 2nd World War when Nazi Germany blocked the Atlantic with their submarines. Great Britain was forced to focus its entire fleet to combat the German blockade of the Atlantic Ocean. For this purpose, Britain needed ships and the Americans were willing to give them, around 40 destroyers, which were in mothballs in the USA. The USA put a price on providing these ships to the British, and the price was getting nearly all British naval bases under its control in the Western hemisphere. The best naval bases were in Nova Scotia and the Bahamas.

The two world wars caused great destruction for all the European powers involved. With both independent economic vitality at home and military forces and colonies in other parts of the world deprived, the European empires collapsed. The USA, however, survived without a single attack against its mainland. Not a single factory, was bombed. The USA not only functioned, but the country thrived with the wars in Europe and Asia.

    The USA now concentrated its force entirely on consolidating its global position. In principle, all naval forces in the West except the British had been destroyed during the 2nd World War and the USA now had a golden opportunity to take total control of all the seven oceans.

    NATO was founded in 1949, in which all the surviving naval forces after the Second World War joined together under the USA's strategic leadership. The membership of Great Britain, Italy, Iceland, and Norway in NATO guaranteed the American military control over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. All to prevent any European power comeback as an empire which could threaten the USA.

    A single attempt by the European powers to test their power was in the Anglo-French Sinai offensive (Suez crisis) in 1956. Both England and France then found that they lacked the strength to perform marine operations independent of the United States. The European powers failed miserably due to pressure from the USA and the Soviet Union.

    The USA went on the offensive regarding the control of the Pacific Ocean. The Japanese Pacific Empire lost its strength to the USA's benefit to the degree that Japan was under US military protection. An alliance with Australia and New Zealand in 1951 gave the USA control over the South Pacific.

The economic power of the USA was founded in 1945 in the so-called Bretton Woods system¹³  named after the small town of Bretton Woods in the American State of New Hampshire. The participants at the first meeting were 45 of the allies during the Second World War, who then tried to figure out how, through economic cooperation, they could prevent any major economic crises similar to the 1930s depression happening in the future. The USA with its strong financial position and the United Kingdom who was dependent on the large American loans led the Conference. The Soviet Union was involved in the design of the system but did not participate thereafter. Sweden did not participate either as it was a neutral country.

The agreement meant that countries were joined to a fixed exchange rate system in which the exchange rate for the currency of each country was established with reference to the US dollar. The United States guaranteed a fixed redemption price for the dollar in gold. Later, within this system the International Monetary Fund, IMF was formed. The Bretton Woods system was discontinued in 1971. This was after the dollar's exchange rate had, in practice, been floating from 1968 onwards. A strong contributory factor to this was the United States extremely costly Vietnam War.

Who Will be Able to Challenge the USA's Global Dominating Position?

The United States controls all North America and its security agreement with Canada and Mexico generally ensures American autocracy. Cuba in the Caribbean is an exception, as well as large parts of South America. But the USA has a naval presence in all of the oceans. It’s a must to be able to exercise global power.

The only threat that could come from the South is from a South American power with global ambitions. Such power does not exist today.

    What about Africa then? In the current situation, considering the political and economic problems that many African states are wrestling with, it is hard to imagine an African super state.

Only two parts of the world outside North America may be a future challenge against the USA’s global position. One of them is South America. Its population is mostly scattered along the coasts. The continent also has a river system which is not far behind that of the USA. But the Rio de la Plata region is shared by the four powers: Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, and the largest of them, Brazil. The problem here is that Brazil has a totally different culture and language. The establishment of a South American super state does not appear to be an issue at the moment, and this is mainly for political reasons.

The second area is Eurasia. However, this part of the world has enormous geographical differences. Here, the varied geography makes the foundation of a global power constellation, which can challenge the USA, very difficult, if not impossible. South Asia is another area that is a possibility but that would be most difficult as it has jungles, deserts, and high mountain passes, which therefore prevents the formation of a cohesive unit which can effectively challenge the USA. The Ganges River system area and arable land in India are the world's most lush. But the Ganges River is not navigable, and the low productivity, combined with the lack of a navigable river means the region remains poor and is overpopulated.

In the Middle East, the countries consist mainly of the desert with the population living mostly along the coasts. The areas are therefore vulnerable to the American Navy. The only parts which remain will be Northern Eurasia, Europe, the former Soviet territories, and China. This part of the world has more agricultural land than North America, but it is scattered in three areas: Northern European plateau, Central Asian steppe and the Yellow River basin in China. But the river system in Europe is not integrated. Although attempts have been made through the ages such as channels linking the Volga River, these freeze in winter. These three areas are not connected with an integrated river system. However, there is a potential for some kind of economic/military alliance.

Northern Europe's many navigable rivers make this area the world's second strongest capital region after the United States. A combination of European states along with the Yellow River area of China and Russia's vast energy resources could create an effective counterweight to the American hegemony.

The United States rule by division and negotiate defense agreements with countries who feel their existence physically threatened by their larger neighbors. Therefore the U.S. entered into agreements with countries such as Taiwan, which feels threatened by China. A good example in South-East Asia is perhaps South Korea which feels threatened by North Korea, which has the neighboring great power China as an ally. In the Middle East, Israel has been the U.S. priority for a long time because the country has the entire Muslim world against it. Saudi Arabia enjoys U.S. protection against Iran. The Philippines, the gateway to Asia, feel threatened by both China and Japan. This fear is caused by a territorial dispute in the South China Sea, and the U.S. has agreements with both Japan and the Philippines. In Europe, NATO extends close to Russia's western border.

But there is also another important strategy to keep Eurasia divided and it is through direct military intervention. Because any marine transportation of goods works out the cheapest, it is valid even for military transport at sea. And with its military dominance of maritime forces, the USA in principle intervenes anywhere on the planet.

    The USA's repeated intervention in Eurasia has an overall purpose and that is to prevent a European or Asian power threatening the United States. The United States intervened in both world wars to prevent Germany from becoming such a power. Then the United States occupied West Germany during the Cold War to prevent Soviet domination. This was done with help of NATO. Even the Korea and Vietnam War could be regarded as a way to limit Soviet domination.

    Iraq may also be seen in such a perspective. Namely, to prevent the emergence of a new Caliphate under al-Qaeda  ¹⁴leadership. A pan-nationalist coalition that would extend from Morocco to the Philippines. The war in Afghanistan arose to eliminate al-Qaeda leaders. Saudi Arabia and Syria, as well as Iran, have supported al-Qaeda in various ways. The United States lacked the military capacity to attack all three countries simultaneously. However, by striking Iraq, the USA made it clear to the other countries what the cost would

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