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737 Performance Reference Handbook - EASA Edition

737 Performance Reference Handbook - EASA Edition

Автором Maurits Hulshof

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737 Performance Reference Handbook - EASA Edition

Автором Maurits Hulshof

Длина:
284 pages
1 hour
Издатель:
Издано:
Aug 18, 2011
ISBN:
9781446705995
Формат:
Книге

Описание

NOW ALSO AVAILABLE AS iPAD APP (continuously updated). CHECK THE APPSTORE for B737 PRH! The book (edition 2014) is NOT being updated!
This handbook explains European aircraft performance rules (EASA) for large civil twin aircraft (Class A) in general and for the Boeing 737NG in special. It contains lots of colourful pictures and operational information for the airline pilot.

"An excellent book which finally simplifies and brings together aircraft performance information."

"It is the best performance book I ever held in my hands. Just brilliant!"

"This book makes 737 performance transparant and understandable."

"A must for every 737 pilot!"
Издатель:
Издано:
Aug 18, 2011
ISBN:
9781446705995
Формат:
Книге

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737 Performance Reference Handbook - EASA Edition - Maurits Hulshof

iPRHEASAcover

FOREWORD

Conversations with colleagues, discussions during cruise flight coupled with my experiences when conducting performance courses in the classroom have led me to draw the conclusion that aircraft performance is not easily understood by airline pilots in their daily operation. Aircraft manufacturers and airlines provide pilots with numerous performance data but it is not always clear when or how this should be used.

It is because of this that the wish arose for a small guide containing all the performance rules which might be faced by aircrew both occasionally and on a daily basis.

This Performance Reference Handbook (PRH) is the result.

This handbook contains European (EASA) performance regulations applicable to large civil twin-jet aircraft in general and the related data plus application for the Boeing 737 NG specifically. It is complete with many clarifying pictures and flowcharts, as we pilots prefer. In addition, due to its handy size it will easily fit into your flight bag.

Anyway, I hope that this PRH will assist in making performance calculations and related decisions and help you become more familiar with what specific performance data represents. Moreover, the computerised era has dawned and this affects many of us, influencing performance calculations with laptop tools and EFB. The lack of transparency in computerisation means that many pilots will lose their overview of this aspect of the operation.

So with respect to the PRH, use, enjoy and don’t hesitate to criticise it, because I’m looking forward to any remarks, comments and/or feedback!

Maurits Hulshof

Aeronautical  Engineer BSc.

CPT/TRI 737NG

Order and update info

You can order your own copy of the PRH from www.performance737.com. The PRH is available as hard-copy (A5-size, full color or B/W, coilbound) or as e-book. An FAA edition is also available. This site will also inform you about updates.

Language

In accordance with the Boeing Manuals, this PRH is written in US English. However, the EU-OPS regulations, which are quoted exactly, are written in UK English. E.g. you may find the word airplane (as text) as well as aeroplane (as quote) in this handbook.

Where the pronoun ‘he’ is used in the PRH, the pronoun ‘she’ could be inferred.

Disclaimer

Although a major part of the contents of this handbook consists of regulatory data, the PRH is not authorized by any airline, local aviation authority, or by the manufacturer of the 737NG.

Although this guide has been put together carefully, the author guarantees neither currency nor accuracy and cannot be held responsible for faults. Therefore company, manufacturer and state procedures must always take precedence over this handbook.

Contact

For any remark, comment, feedback or error reporting, please contact: prh@performance737.com.

Copyright © 2014 M.M.Hulshof

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the explicit written permission of the author.

Cover

Design and photograph © by the author.

PRH logo

INTRODUCTION

Every public transport aircraft taking off has to meet several minimum performance requirements in order to be able to reach an acceptable level of safety throughout the flight from takeoff to the subsequent landing.

These minimum requirements, with respect to aircraft performance, are laid down in aviation regulations which cover both the aircraft certification and operation.

Worldwide there are two major aviation rulemaking organizations, EASA and FAA.

EASA, the European Aviation Safety Agency, established in 2003 and absorbed the JAA (Joint Aviation Authorities) by 2008, develops, adopts and implements requirements concerning aircraft design, certification, operation, maintenance and crew licensing.

Certification requirements for large civil aircraft, as is the Boeing 737NG, are laid down in Part 25 of EASA’s Certification Specifications (CS-25), replacing the former JAR-25 (Joint Aviation Requirements), and almost identical to the FAA (USA’s Federal Aviation Administration) equivalent FAR-25.

Operating requirements are documented in EU-OPS.

This edition of the PRH reflects the EASA aircraft performance regulations recognized in CS-25 and EU-OPS. Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and Interpretative / Explanatory Material (IEM) form a part of these regulations and are also referenced.

(An FAA edition of the PRH is also available on www.performance737.com.)

This handbook contains 4 parts:

Part A: Basic Performance Notes

covers and explains regulatory (EASA) requirements.

Part B: Performance Data 737NG

covers the manufacturer's supplied performance data which are normally available to pilots, and

explains data adjustments.

Part C: 737NG Performance Data Application

contains a practical as to how the available performance data have to be applied, both in logical steps and in flowcharts, and

contains additional operational information.

Part D: Appendices

includes snowtam and runway state decoder,

glossary, and

abbreviation list.

LEGEND

Explanations of the icons, dimensions and quotations used in this PRH.

Icons

action   Action or Check

info   Additional information

allowance   Allowance

attention   Attention

definition   Definition

equation   Equation, Formula or Statement

restriction   Restriction

Dimensions

Quotations

CS-25.xxx  Quotation of EASA’s Certification Specification Part 25.

AMC-25.xxx  Quotation of EASA’s CS Part 25 Acceptable Means of Compliance.

CS-AWO xxx  Quotation of EASA’s CS Part All Weather Operations.

EU-OPS 1.xxx  Quotation of EASA’s Operational Requirements.

IEM-OPS 1.xxx  Quotation of EU-OPS’s Interpretative Explanatory Material.

PANS-OPS xxxx  Quotation of ICAO’s Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Aircraft Ops.

CFM  Quotation of the manufacturer of the CFM56 engine.

Section 1

1. TAKEOFF SPEEDS

     DEMONSTRATED AND OPERATIONAL SPEEDS

1.1. DEMONSTRATED TAKEOFF SPEEDS

Four speeds are demonstrated during the certification process: the stallspeed (VS), the minimum unstick speed (VMU) and the minimum control speeds on the ground (VMCG) and in the air (VMCA).

1.1.1. Stall speed – VS

definition Stall speed (VS)The minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable.

Corresponds to the point where the lift can no longer be sustained.

VS1G is the one-g stall speed corresponding to the maximum liftcoefficient (CL) where the loadfactor is still equal to 1 (i.e. just before the lift starts decreasing with increasing angle of attack AOA). 

equation VS1G > VS

Stall speed

The stall speed used in airplane certification is the reference stall speed, VSR.

definition

equation VSR ≥ VS1G

1.1.2. Minimum Unstick speed – VMU

definition

Demonstrated in flight tests.

Determined at the maximum angle of attack that is physically attainable by the aircraft while on the ground.

Unstick speed

1.1.3. Minimum Control speeds

1.1.3.1. Minimum control speed - Ground – VMCG

definition

Crew must be able (without any special skill required) to arrest the lateral motion caused by an engine failure within 30 feet of the runway centerline, using only aerodynamic controls (no nosewheel steering).

Vmcg

VMCG is determined with: 

the remaining engine at maximum takeoff thrust (bleeds off)

most unfavorable (farthest aft) center of gravity

maximum takeoff weight

airplane trimmed for takeoff

attention In determining the minimum control speeds the effects of crosswind are not taken into account.

1.1.3.2. Minimum control speed - Air – VMCA

definition

Maximum 20° heading change during the recovery (without special skill required) is allowed.

VMCA is determined with: 

the remaining engine at maximum takeoff thrust (bleeds off)

most unfavorable (farthest aft) center of gravity

maximum takeoff weight

aircraft trimmed for takeoff

most critical configuration but with gear up

negligible groundeffect

equation VMCA ≥ 1.2 VS

1.2. OPERATIONAL TAKEOFF SPEEDS

From the demonstrated speeds the following operational speeds are derived:

1.2.1. Takeoff Decision speed - V1

definition Takeoff Decision speed (V1): The speed used as a reference in the event of engine or other failure in deciding whether to continue or reject the takeoff.

Regulations require a single value of V1 for the rejected and continued takeoff.

Regulations account for one second of recognition and reaction time between VEF, the speed at which the event is assumed to take place, and the pilot’s first action to reject the takeoff.

definition

equation V1 ≥ VEF ≥ VMCG

Minimum V1 is equal to VMCG. This minimum allowable V1 is referred to as: V1MCG.

Maximum V1 is equal to VMBE and may not exceed VR.

definition Maximum Brake Energy speed(VMBE): The highest

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