Наслаждайтесь миллионами электронных книг, аудиокниг, журналов и других видов контента

Только $11.99 в месяц после пробной версии. Можно отменить в любое время.

World Mythology Lite: World Mythology Lite, #1

World Mythology Lite: World Mythology Lite, #1

Читать отрывок

World Mythology Lite: World Mythology Lite, #1

Длина:
560 страниц
4 часа
Издатель:
Издано:
27 нояб. 2020 г.
ISBN:
9781393368137
Формат:
Книга

Описание

This is a book about myths and legends from around the world. Some of these myths and legends are better known than others. Read about the ancient deities and heroes of other cultures.

Издатель:
Издано:
27 нояб. 2020 г.
ISBN:
9781393368137
Формат:
Книга

Об авторе

I'm single and I currently live in the desert.


Связано с World Mythology Lite

Похожие Книги

Похожие статьи

Предварительный просмотр книги

World Mythology Lite - Frederick Holiday

World Mythology Lite

By Frederick M. Holiday

––––––––

World Mythology Lite

Volume 1

By the same author

World Mythology Lite Vol. 2

World Mythology Lite Anthology

Jokes for Kids Vol. 1

Jokes for Kids Vol. 2

Indoor Games for Kids

With bibliographical references.

––––––––

Copyright © 2020 Frederick M. Holiday

All rights reserved.

In memory of Herman Slater

Introduction 

––––––––

Many of us study a version of history at some point in our life.

Religious history is usually mentioned in most history classes in

some vague way in my experience. We are generally taught that

some of the ancient civilizations were Pagan and that’s about all

that’s mentioned about it. We’re rarely told the actual name(s) of

any ancient Pagan deity and are left wondering who they

were/are. This is my attempt to address that.

This isn’t a perfect world regardless of the desires of humanity.

Humans have not been able to make it perfect. I’m fairly certain

that the ancient Pagans who worshipped the deities mentioned in

my book thought they had a perfect religion. Their neighbors may

have had a different opinion of the matter if they worshipped even

slightly differently. Forgetting the failures of the past will probably

only make it possible to repeat the failures of the past though. In

the end it’s better to have reminders of a past failure so that we

don’t make the same mistake twice. It’s better to not be infamous

for making the same mistakes repeatedly. It’s a bit less

embarassing too.

This book contains information about past religions that might

otherwise be lost to the curious. It also contains the names of

some of their cultural heroes. We all like to discuss our respective

cultural heroes. Everybody doesn’t necessarily know about

everybody else’s cultural heroes though and maybe they should.

Every culture has its flaws but many times the positive things are

forgotten or don’t get discussed. I have tried to include as much

information as I can in a condensed format. I try not to bash any

culture for the role of their deities or heroes.

The modern world is too apt to go to war because of different

religious beliefs. We have pandemics and other catastrophes that

are far more worrisome than who is worshipped at a particular

altar at any given time. If your religion doesn’t permit you to be

concerned about pandemics, global warming or other disasters

then maybe you need a new religion or maybe an old one. We’re a

generation of catastrophes and depending upon the outcome we

might not want to be famous for them. I don’t prefer waiting for

others to understand because they might never understand. A big

thank you to those of you working to ensure that we all have

access to basic necessities and services.

Sincerely,

F. Holiday

Nov. 2020

Table of Contents

––––––––

Section 1.  Amorite Mythology     9 

Section 2.  Anatolian Mythology  17 

Section 3.  Arabian Mythology  21

Section 4.  Australian Aboriginal Mythology  32 

Section 5.  Babylonian Mythology  43

Section 6.  Basque Mythology  49 

Section 7.  Brazilian Mythology  53

Section 8.  Buddhist Mythology  63 

Section 9. Carthaginian Mythology    72 

Section 10. Celtic Mythology  78

Section 11. Chinese Mythology  128 

Section 12. Colombian   142 

Section 13. Egyptian Mythology    147 

Section 14. Etruscan Mythology    164 

Section 15. Ghana Mythology    173

Section 16. Greek Mythology    176 

Section 17. Haitian & Louisiana Voodoo  187 

Section 18. Hindu Mythology    201

Section 19. Japanese Mythology    213

Section 20. Kassite Mythology    229

Section 21. Native American Mythology    235

Section 22. Norse Mythology    309

Section 23. Phoenician Mythology    326

Section 24. Roman Mythology    333 

Section 25. Slavic Mythology    448

Section 26. Sudanese Mythology    456 

Section 27. Sumerian Mythology    460 

Section 28. Zoroastrianism    480 

Bibliography   

The Conquest of the Amorites by James Tissot, {{PD-US}}

––––––––

Section 1

Amorite Mythology

Introduction

––––––––

The Amorites were a Semitic people who appear to have

emerged from western Mesopotamia (Syria) prior to the 3rd

millennium B.C. They were variously known as Amar by the

Egyptians, Amurru by the Akkadians, Amorite by the Hebrews

and Tidnum or Martu by the Sumerians; all of these mean

‘westerners’ or ‘those of the west’. They worshipped their own

pantheon of deities. There is no record of what they called

themselves.

Their origins are unknown, and until they settled in cities like

Babylon, Mari and Ebla their precise history is a mystery. They

had a profound impact on the history of Mesopotamia from their

first appearance in historical record and they’re probably best

known for their kingdom of Babylonia under the Amorite king

Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C). The Amorite Period was between

2000-1600 B.C. and is the period of time that their impact on the

area is clearly discerned. Their impact was felt long after this

period and there’s no doubt that they influenced the people of

many cities long before that time.

They first appear as western nomads who regularly made

incursions into established kingdoms and territories. It’s not

certain that they were a specific ethnic group. It’s possible that

early references to the Amorites refers to any nomadic people who

threatened the stability of established communities. At some

point ‘Amorite’ was defined as a certain tribe of people whose

culture was based off of living off the land and taking whatever

else they from the communities they encountered along the way.

They eventually threatened the stability of those in the

established cities of the region because of the power they acquired

as they gained more land.

During the latter part of the Ur III Period this situation came to

A crisis when King Shulgi constructed a wall 155 miles long to

keep the Amorites out of Sumer. The wall could not and was not

properly manned to its length and it also wasn’t anchored at

either end to anything; an invading force had to merely walk

around it to bypass it, and it seems the Amorites did so.

The Amorite incursions of this period led to the weakening of Ur

and Sumer in general, which encouraged the region of Elam to

invade and break thru the wall. Sumerian civilization ended when

the Elamites sacked Ur in 1750 B.C. This was possible because of

the earlier migrations and incursions into the region by the

Amorites which undermined the trade and stability of the cities.

The Amorites played a pivotal role in the development of world

culture at this time according to Biblical scholars. The Book of

Genesis states that the patriarch Terah took his son Abram

(Abraham), daughter-in-law Sarai (Sarah), and Lot the son of

Haran from Ur to reside in the land of Haran. Terah’s family were

not Sumerian. They have long been identified as Amorites or

people of Amurru.

The Biblical Amorites are depicted as the pre-Israelite

inhabitants of the land of Canaan and definitively separate from

the Israelites.The Biblical Book of Deuteronomy describes them

as the last remnants of the race of giants who once resided on

earth. The Biblical Book of Joshua describes them as enemies of

the Israelites who are destroyed by General Joshua. The Israelites

went to great pains to separate their identity from that of the

Amorites for whatever reason.

It is thought that Terah retained the tribe’s original ethnic

identity by taking his family from Sumer to Canaan where

Abraham, then Isaac, then Jacob would establish that culture as

‘the children of Israel’. The Book of Genesis tells the story of

Joseph, youngest son of Jacob and his sojourn in Egypt and his

rise to power there. The Book of Exodus relates how the

Egyptians enslaved the Hebrews and how Moses later led the

Hebrews from captivity to freedom back in Canaan.

These narratives would have served to separate the national

identity of the Israelites from their actual ancestral heritage by

creating new histories highlighting their uniqueness among the

people of the known world. It is thought that the Hebrew writers

of the day created the narrative to explain their presence in

Canaan due to the fact that there is no archaeological evidence of

any kind to support the narrative nor is there any other ancient

work that substantiates their claim.

The Amorites were repeatedly referred to negatively throughout

the early books of the Old Testament. They were viewed as any

nomadic people who interfered with established communities. It

also seems to be a reference to the early people of the land of

Canaan who were conquered by Joshua and his Israelites. The

Amorites nearly always traditionally considered ‘the other’ by

Hebrew scribes for centuries down to the creation of the Talmud

in which Jews are prohibited from engaging in the practices of the

Amorites. There seems to be more evidence supporting the theory

that the Amorites through appropriation and transmission of

Mesopotamian myths, produced the Biblical narratives of the Old

Testament than there is against it.

The Amorites merged with the Sumerian population in southern

Mesopotamia following the sack of Ur in 1750 B.C. They had

ruled Babylon since 1984 B.C. and they had already been

established in the cities of Ebla (1800 B.C.) and Mari (1900 B.C.).

The Amorite King Sin-Muballit assumed the throne of Babylon in

1812 B.C. and ruled until he abdicated in 1793 B.C. His son

Hammurabi (Ammurapi) succeeded him. All Amorites were

apparently not Amorites dues to the fact that an Amorite king

ruled in Babylon prior to the fall of Ur.

The Amorites of Babylon seem to have been regarded more

positively than than the roaming Amorites causing instability in

the region. The Amorites of Babylon, and other city dwelling

Amorites worshipped Sumerian deities and worte down Sumerian

myths and legends. Hammurabi engaged in numerous successful

military campaigns and expanded the old city of Babylon. His

defeat of the rival city Mari in 1761 B.C. brought the vast region

from Mari to Ur under the rule of Babylon and established it as

the center of Babylonia (an area from Syria to the Persian Gulf).

The political, diplomatic and military skills of Hammurabi served

to make Babylon the largest and most powerful city in the world

at that time. His son did not possess those same talents and,

after his death, the kingdom he built began to disintegrate.

Hammurabi’s kingdom was attacked by the Assyrians, Hittites,

Kassites and then by the Assyrians again until the Amorite Period

in Mesopotamia finally ended by 1600 B.C. Individual Amorites

continued to reside in the area as part of the general population.

They continued to pose problems for the Neo-Assyrian Empire as

late as 900-800 B.C. but it is unclear if they were culturally

Amorites. The Amorites eventually were referred to as

‘Aramaeans’ from the land of Aram. After the decline of the Neo-

Assyrian Empire around 600 B.C., Amorites are no longer

mentioned by the name of ‘Amorite’ in historical records.

Here are examples of their Pagan deities and heroes:

Amurru: AKA Belu Sadi, Amor or Lord of the Mountains. He’s the

chief deity.

Belit-Seri: AKA Asirat or the Lady of the Desert. She‘s the wife of

Amurru.  She’s either an evening star or solar Goddess.

Various Sumerian deities.

Section 2

Anatolian Mythology

Introduction

––––––––

Anatolia is also known as Asia Minor, and it’s the peninsula of

land that constitutes the modern Asian portion of Turkey. It was

one of the great crossroads of ancient civilizations and it lies

between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. It lies to the

east of Greece and across the Aegean Sea. It juts west from Asia

to within a half mile of Europe at the city of Istanbul, where three

suspension bridges over the Bosphorus Strait link the two

continents. It is bordered by the Sea of Marmara on the

northeast.

It was in the hands of the Hittites about 2,000 B.C., who

migrated from the area east of the Black Sea. Their civilization

rivaled those of the Babylonians and Egyptians until it fell to the

Assyrians in the 12th century B.C. Small seaboard states grew up

to later fall to the Greeks, who colonized the whole Aegean coast

in about the 8th century B.C. They first laid siege to the city of

Troy during the Trojan War. Croesus mounted the throne of Lydia

in Asia Minor in about 560 B.C. and was sson the ruler of all of

the Greek colonies. He was later overthrown by Cyrus the Great

of Persia. Alexander the Great spread Greek rule there two

hundred years later.

Asia Minor enjoyed centuries of peace after it was conquered by

Rome in the 2nd century B.C. It was part of the Byzantine Empire

during the Middle Ages and it became the guardiam of Roman

and Greek culture and it became the center of Christianity. A

chief medieval trade route passed thru the area at one point.

Mongols and Arabs finally invaded as the power of the Empire

declined. The Ottoman Turks conquered the peninsula in the 15th

century and made Istanbul (Constantinople) their capital. The

Ottoman Empire lasted until 1922. Asia Minor became the larger

part of the Turkish Republic under the leadership of Kemal

Ataturk in 1923. He set up a new government in Ankara, which

became the new capital of Turkey.

Here are some examples of ancient Anatolian deities and heroes:

––––––––

Arma: AKA Kushukh. He’s the lunar God.

Attis: AKA Atys. He’s a vegetation God and the lover of Cybele.

Hannahanna: Mother Goddess & the grandmother. She’s

associated with childbirth, creation & destiny.

Hulla: The daughter of Luwian & Wurusemu.

Ishtar: AKA Shaushka. She’s the Goddess of love & war.

Istana: The male sun deity.

Kurunda: AKA Tuwata, Ruwata and Runda. He’s the hunting

deity.

Luwian: AKA Tarhun, Tarhund, Taru & Teshub. The weather,

chief deity & bestowed kingship and victory in war.

Mezulla: She’s the daughter of Luwian & Wurusemu.

Nerik: He’s the weather deity. He’s the son of Luwian &

Wurusemu.

Telipini: The son of Luwian & Wurusemu. He’s the weather deity.

Unnamed solar deity of the underworld or setting sun.

Wurusemu: AKA Arinitti. She’s the wife of Luwian & Goddess of

the city of Arinna. She’s the patron Goddess of state & sun deity.

She may have originally been an underworld deity

Zababa: AKA Wurunkatti & Hesui. He’s the war God.

Zintuhi: She’s the granddaughter of Luwian & Wurusemu.

Section 3

Arabian Mythology

Introduction

––––––––

Arabs are Semitic people, who trace their origins to the Arabian

Peninsula, and they have had unprecedented influence on the

world since recorded history. Their first civilizations and cultural

practices have been globalized to a larger extent than any other

culture, including those of Europe and China. Three major world

religions, the Abrahamaic faiths of Islam, Judaism and

Christianity, have sprung from them. They had their beginnings

on the Arabian Peninsula, but the most influential civilizations

and cultures of early note are attributed to those who left the

peninsula for Africa, Palestine, and Mesopotamia.

There have been three major historical instances of growth and

transformation within the Arab world:

The growth of Semitic civilizations in Mesopotamia 4,000

years ago.

The spread of Judaism and Christianity 2,000 years ago.

The emergence of Islam 1,500 years ago.

The lush climate of southern Arabia led to a sedentary way of

life among the Sabaeans (AKA Yemenites or Himyarites). This

area was ruled by priest kings via a city-state system but this

gave way to a secular monarchy by the first millennium C.E.

There were four major city-states within this area; the Saba’

(Sabaeans), Ma’in, Hadramawt, and Qataban. They did not

form political or ethnic unity amongst themselves. The Saba’

instead grew to be the most powerful and it eventually

expanded its political influence to include all of the major

southern kingdoms by 300 C.E.

Their wealth was legendary throughout Northern Africa and

the Fertile Crescent. Its spices, exotic plants and luxury goods

commanded high trade prices throughout Asia and the

Mediterranean. A land based trade route that ran up and down

the coast of the peninsula and an ocean-trading route between

India and Africa were the two main trade routes. Major cities

grew up along the land route and one of them, Mecca was later

the birthplace of Islam.

The northern Arabs are ethnically one people but culturally

two differing peoples; sedentary and nomadic Arabs. A nomadic

tribal existence was necessary due to a much harsher

environment. Pastoralism was possible; agriculture was not.

They came to be known as Bedouins due to pastoral nomadic

lifestyle. They moved their herds from place to place in search

of water and scarce resources. They were small tight-knit

tribes.

The oases that surround the periphery of the Arabian Desert

were settled by a number of Bedouin tribes. Military campaigns

brought control of these areas. Powerful political rivals, such as

the Sabaeans or Mesopotamia had to become more difuse or

weaker before before the nomadic Bedouins were able to seize

control of these areas. Many of the mahor sedentary

settlements weren’t established until the first millennium. By

the time of Islam, the culture of sedentary Arabs was still very

close to that of their nomadic cousins.

These settlements were on the trade route connecting the

Mediterranean World with India and Africa. The sedentary

Arabs became trade intermediaries because of this, bringing

them prosperity and power.

This group experienced three distinct historical periods before

the advent of Islam.

The first period began with the decline of the southern

Sabaeans as well as the Greek Seleucids in the Middle East.

The second period began with the expansion of Roman,

then Byzantine, and then Sabaean power during the period

of client-states. The Arab cities became client to three major

world powers: the Sabaeans of the south, the Persians of

the east, and the Byzantine empire in the north. Judaism

and Christianity spread quickly during this period.

The third period concerned inner Arabia, particularly

Mecca. This was a great period of prosperity and flowering

of the Bedouin culture and military power. The Bedouins

closely allied themselves with the central Arabian cities,

such as Mecca and Yathrib (Medina). Classical Arabic

became the language of poetry and culture at this time.

There was a widespread diffusion of Bedouin narratives

and poetry and the diffusion of Bedouin values during

this period.

––––––––

The Arabs forged an empire during the 8th and 9th centuries

whose borders touched Sudan in the south, Asia Minor in the

north, China in the east, and southern France in the west. This

was one of the largest land empires to ever exist. The Arabs

spread the religion of Islam and the Arabic language throughout

much of this area via conversion and cultural assimilation. Many

groups came to be known as Arabs by virtue of this Arabization

rather than descent. Thus, over time, the term Arab came to have

a broader definition than the original ethnic term: ethnic Arab vs.

cultural Arab. People in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Sudan and

elsewhere became Arabs via Arabization.

––––––––

Here are some examples of Arabian Pagan deities and heroes:

Abgal: He’s possibly a God of the Nomads.

Aglibol: He’s a lunar God.

Al-Kutba: He’s a Northern Arabian God.

Al-Quam: He’s the guardian of caravans & Nabataean war God.

Allah: God.

Al-Lat: An underworld Goddess. She’s the daughter of Hubal.

She’s one of the chief Goddesses.

Al-Uzza: One of the three chief Goddesses. She’s fertility,

protection & victory Goddess. She’s the daughter of Hubal.

Almaqah: Moon God of Sabah.

'Amm: Moon & weather God, especially lightning.

Anbay: An oracle & God of justice.

Arsu: A God worshipped in Palmyra.

Asira: A God worshipped in Taima.

Astarte: AKA Ishtar or Astoreth.

Atagatis: She’s a fertility Goddess.

Atarsamain: AKA Attarshamayin, Attar-shamayin or Morning

Star of Heaven.  A deity of unknown gender who’s associated with

Venus.

Awal: Bahrain. He’s a God of Bahrain.

Azizos: AKA Aziz or God of the Morning Star.

Baalshamin: AKA Baal Shamaim or Baal Shamem. He’s a

northwest Semitic God.

Bajir: Minor God worshipped by the Azd Tribe.

Basamum: God worshipped in South Arabia. He’s possibly God of

healing & health.

Bes: He’s the protective God of households, especially, children,

mothers & childbirth.

Chaabou: Virgin Goddess. She’s the mother of Dusares.

Datin: He’s an oracular God associated with justice & oaths in

Northern Arabia.

Demolition of Dhul Khalasa: Temple & cult image.

Dhul Khalasa: Oracular God.

Dushara: AKA Lord of the Mountain. He’s a God worshipped by

the Nabateaens

Dhat-Badan: AKA Zat-Badar, Dhat-hami or She of the Wild Goats

or Sanctuary.

El: Supreme God?

Ghouls: AKA Ghul. They’re desert dwelling shapeshifters. They

eat the dead, rob graves & prey on young children.

Hatif: He’s a Jinn who gave warnings, advice, and directions.

Haubas: Oracular God.

Haukim: God of law & arbitration.

Hubal: God who controlled acts of divination. He’s the God of

prophecy.

Isaf: God.

Ishtar: She’s the Goddess of political power, war, love, justice, sex

and beauty.

Jinn: AKA djinn or genie. They’re supernatural beings that

possess free will. They can be either evil or good.

Malakbel: Sun God of Palmyra. He’s part of a trinity that included

Baalshamin. He’s frequently worshipped. He’s the lunar God

Aglibol.

Manaf: God of women & menstruation.

Manat: She’s one of the three chief Goddesses. She’s the

daughter of Hubal.

Monimos: He’s the God of the evening star.

Nai'ila: A Goddess with an unknown role.

Nakrah: He’s the God of salvation & protection in the Minaean

Kingdom.

Nasnas: A half-human monster having half a head, half of a body,

one arm and one leg, that hops very agily. It’s believed to

Вы достигли конца предварительного просмотра. , чтобы узнать больше!
Страница 1 из 1

Обзоры

Что люди думают о World Mythology Lite

0
0 оценки / 0 Обзоры
Ваше мнение?
Рейтинг: 0 из 5 звезд

Отзывы читателей