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World Mythology Lite

World Mythology Lite

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World Mythology Lite

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441 страница
3 часа
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Издано:
15 дек. 2020 г.
ISBN:
9781005759308
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Описание

This is a book about world mythology. Inside you'll find descriptions of ancient deities and heroes.

* Learn about ancient Pagan deities.
* Learn about ancient Pagan heroes.

Издатель:
Издано:
15 дек. 2020 г.
ISBN:
9781005759308
Формат:

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I'm single and I currently live in the desert.


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World Mythology Lite - Frederick Holiday

Amorite Mythology

Introduction

––––––––

The Amorites were a Semitic people who appear to have emerged from western Mesopotamia (Syria) prior to the 3rd millennium B.C. They were variously known as Amar by the Egyptians, Amurru by the Akkadians, Amorite by the Hebrews and Tidnum or Martu by the Sumerians; all of these mean

‘westerners’ or ‘those of the west’. They worshipped their own pantheon of deities. There is no record of what they called themselves.

Their origins are unknown, and until they settled in cities like Babylon, Mari and Ebla their precise history is a mystery. They had a profound impact on the history of Mesopotamia from their first appearance in historical record and they’re probably best known for their kingdom of Babylonia under the Amorite king

Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C). The Amorite Period was between 2000-1600 B.C. and is the period of time that their impact on the area is clearly discerned. Their impact was felt long after this

period and there’s no doubt that they influenced the people of many cities long before that time.

They first appear as western nomads who regularly made incursions into established kingdoms and territories. It’s not certain that they were a specific ethnic group. It’s possible that early references to the Amorites refers to any nomadic people who threatened the stability of established communities. At some

point ‘Amorite’ was defined as a certain tribe of people whose culture was based off of living off the land and taking whatever else they from the communities they encountered along the way.

They eventually threatened the stability of those in the established cities of the region because of the power they acquired as they gained more land.

During the latter part of the Ur III Period this situation came to A crisis when King Shulgi constructed a wall 155 miles long to keep the Amorites out of Sumer. The wall could not and was not

properly manned to its length and it also wasn’t anchored at either end to anything; an invading force had to merely walk around it to bypass it, and it seems the Amorites did so.

The Amorite incursions of this period led to the weakening of Ur and Sumer in general, which encouraged the region of Elam to invade and break thru the wall. Sumerian civilization ended when

the Elamites sacked Ur in 1750 B.C. This was possible because of the earlier migrations and incursions into the region by the Amorites which undermined the trade and stability of the cities.

The Amorites played a pivotal role in the development of world culture at this time according to Biblical scholars. The Book of Genesis states that the patriarch Terah took his son Abram

(Abraham), daughter-in-law Sarai (Sarah), and Lot the son of Haran from Ur to reside in the land of Haran. Terah’s family were not Sumerian. They have long been identified as Amorites or people of Amurru.

The Biblical Amorites are depicted as the pre-Israelite inhabitants of the land of Canaan and definitively separate from the Israelites.The Biblical Book of Deuteronomy describes them

as the last remnants of the race of giants who once resided on earth. The Biblical Book of Joshua describes them as enemies of the Israelites who are destroyed by General Joshua. The Israelites

went to great pains to separate their identity from that of the Amorites for whatever reason.

It is thought that Terah retained the tribe’s original ethnic identity by taking his family from Sumer to Canaan where Abraham, then Isaac, then Jacob would establish that culture as

‘the children of Israel’. The Book of Genesis tells the story of Joseph, youngest son of Jacob and his sojourn in Egypt and his rise to power there. The Book of Exodus relates how the Egyptians enslaved the Hebrews and how Moses later led the Hebrews from captivity to freedom back in Canaan.

These narratives would have served to separate the national identity of the Israelites from their actual ancestral heritage by creating new histories highlighting their uniqueness among the

people of the known world. It is thought that the Hebrew writers of the day created the narrative to explain their presence in Canaan due to the fact that there is no archaeological evidence of

any kind to support the narrative nor is there any other ancient work that substantiates their claim.

The Amorites were repeatedly referred to negatively throughout the early books of the Old Testament. They were viewed as any nomadic people who interfered with established communities. It also seems to be a reference to the early people of the land of Canaan who were conquered by Joshua and his Israelites. The

Amorites nearly always traditionally considered ‘the other’ by Hebrew scribes for centuries down to the creation of the Talmud in which Jews are prohibited from engaging in the practices of the

Amorites. There seems to be more evidence supporting the theory that the Amorites through appropriation and transmission of Mesopotamian myths, produced the Biblical narratives of the Old Testament than there is against it.

The Amorites merged with the Sumerian population in southern Mesopotamia following the sack of Ur in 1750 B.C. They had ruled Babylon since 1984 B.C. and they had already been

established in the cities of Ebla (1800 B.C.) and Mari (1900 B.C.). The Amorite King Sin-Muballit assumed the throne of Babylon in 1812 B.C. and ruled until he abdicated in 1793 B.C. His son

Hammurabi (Ammurapi) succeeded him. All Amorites were apparently not Amorites dues to the fact that an Amorite king ruled in Babylon prior to the fall of Ur.

The Amorites of Babylon seem to have been regarded more positively than than the roaming Amorites causing instability in the region. The Amorites of Babylon, and other city dwelling Amorites worshipped Sumerian deities and worte down Sumerian myths and legends. Hammurabi engaged in numerous successful military campaigns and expanded the old city of Babylon. His defeat of the rival city Mari in 1761 B.C. brought the vast region from Mari to Ur under the rule of Babylon and established it as

the center of Babylonia (an area from Syria to the Persian Gulf). The political, diplomatic and military skills of Hammurabi served to make Babylon the largest and most powerful city in the world

at that time. His son did not possess those same talents and, after his death, the kingdom he built began to disintegrate.

Hammurabi’s kingdom was attacked by the Assyrians, Hittites, Kassites and then by the Assyrians again until the Amorite Period in Mesopotamia finally ended by 1600 B.C. Individual Amorites

continued to reside in the area as part of the general population. They continued to pose problems for the Neo-Assyrian Empire as late as 900-800 B.C. but it is unclear if they were culturally Amorites. The Amorites eventually were referred to as ‘Aramaeans’ from the land of Aram. After the decline of the Neo-

Assyrian Empire around 600 B.C., Amorites are no longer mentioned by the name of ‘Amorite’ in historical records.

Here are examples of their Pagan deities and heroes:

Amurru: AKA Belu Sadi, Amor or Lord of the Mountains. He’s the

chief deity.

Belit-Seri: AKA Asirat or the Lady of the Desert. She‘s the wife of

Amurru.  She’s either an evening star or solar Goddess.

Various Sumerian deities.

Section 2

Anatolian Mythology

Introduction

––––––––

Anatolia is also known as Asia Minor, and it’s the peninsula of land that constitutes the modern Asian portion of Turkey. It was one of the great crossroads of ancient civilizations and it lies

between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. It lies to the east of Greece and across the Aegean Sea. It juts west from Asia to within a half mile of Europe at the city of Istanbul, where three

suspension bridges over the Bosphorus Strait link the two continents. It is bordered by the Sea of Marmara on the northeast.

It was in the hands of the Hittites about 2,000 B.C., who migrated from the area east of the Black Sea. Their civilization rivaled those of the Babylonians and Egyptians until it fell to the

Assyrians in the 12th century B.C. Small seaboard states grew up to later fall to the Greeks, who colonized the whole Aegean coast in about the 8th century B.C. They first laid siege to the city of Troy during the Trojan War. Croesus mounted the throne of Lydia in Asia Minor in about 560 B.C. and was sson the ruler of all of the Greek colonies. He was later overthrown by Cyrus the Great of Persia. Alexander the Great spread Greek rule there two hundred years later.

Asia Minor enjoyed centuries of peace after it was conquered by Rome in the 2nd century B.C. It was part of the Byzantine Empire during the Middle Ages and it became the guardiam of Roman and Greek culture and it became the center of Christianity. A chief medieval trade route passed thru the area at one point.

Mongols and Arabs finally invaded as the power of the Empire declined. The Ottoman Turks conquered the peninsula in the 15thcentury and made Istanbul (Constantinople) their capital. The Ottoman Empire lasted until 1922. Asia Minor became the larger part of the Turkish Republic under the leadership of Kemal

Ataturk in 1923. He set up a new government in Ankara, which became the new capital of Turkey.

––––––––

Here are some examples of ancient Anatolian deities and heroes:

––––––––

Arma: AKA Kushukh. He’s the lunar God.

Attis: AKA Atys. He’s a vegetation God and the lover of Cybele.

Hannahanna: Mother Goddess & the grandmother. She’s

associated with childbirth, creation & destiny.

Hulla: The daughter of Luwian & Wurusemu.

Ishtar: AKA Shaushka. She’s the Goddess of love & war.

Istana: The male sun deity.

Kurunda: AKA Tuwata, Ruwata and Runda. He’s the hunting

deity.

Luwian: AKA Tarhun, Tarhund, Taru & Teshub. The weather,

chief deity & bestowed kingship and victory in war.

Mezulla: She’s the daughter of Luwian & Wurusemu.

Nerik: He’s the weather deity. He’s the son of Luwian &

Wurusemu.

Telipini: The son of Luwian & Wurusemu. He’s the weather deity.

Unnamed solar deity of the underworld or setting sun.

Wurusemu: AKA Arinitti. She’s the wife of Luwian & Goddess of

the city of Arinna. She’s the patron Goddess of state & sun deity.

She may have originally been an underworld deity

Zababa: AKA Wurunkatti & Hesui. He’s the war God.

Zintuhi: She’s the granddaughter of Luwian & Wurusemu.

Section 3

Arabian Mythology

Introduction

––––––––

Arabs are Semitic people, who trace their origins to the Arabian Peninsula, and they have had unprecedented influence on the world since recorded history. Their first civilizations and cultural practices have been globalized to a larger extent than any other culture, including those of Europe and China. Three major world religions, the Abrahamaic faiths of Islam, Judaism and Christianity, have sprung from them. They had their beginnings on the Arabian Peninsula, but the most influential civilizations and cultures of early note are attributed to those who left the peninsula for Africa, Palestine, and Mesopotamia.

There have been three major historical instances of growth and transformation within the Arab world:

1. The growth of Semitic civilizations in Mesopotamia 4,000

years ago.

2. The spread of Judaism and Christianity 2,000 years ago.

The emergence of Islam 1,500 years ago.

The lush climate of southern Arabia led to a sedentary way of life among the Sabaeans (AKA Yemenites or Himyarites). This area was ruled by priest kings via a city-state system but this gave way to a secular monarchy by the first millennium C.E. There were four major city-states within this area; the Saba’ (Sabaeans), Ma’in, Hadramawt, and Qataban. They did not form political or ethnic unity amongst themselves. The Saba’ instead grew to be the most powerful and it eventually expanded its political influence to include all of the major southern kingdoms by 300 C.E.

Their wealth was legendary throughout Northern Africa and the Fertile Crescent. Its spices, exotic plants and luxury goods commanded high trade prices throughout Asia and the Mediterranean. A land based trade route that ran up and down the coast of the peninsula and an ocean-trading route between India and Africa were the two main trade routes. Major cities grew up along the land route and one of them, Mecca was later the birthplace of Islam.

The northern Arabs are ethnically one people but culturally two differing peoples; sedentary and nomadic Arabs. A nomadic tribal existence was necessary due to a much harsher environment. Pastoralism was possible; agriculture was not. They came to be known as Bedouins due to the pastoral nomadic lifestyle. They moved their herds from place to place in search of water and scarce resources. They were small, tight-knit tribes.

The oases that surround the periphery of the Arabian Desert were settled by a number of Bedouin tribes. Military campaigns brought control of these areas. Powerful political rivals, such as the Sabaeans or Mesopotamia had to become more difuse or weaker before before the nomadic Bedouins were able to seize control of these areas. Many of the mahor sedentary settlements weren’t established until the first millennium. By the time of Islam, the culture of sedentary Arabs was still very close to that of their nomadic cousins.

These settlements were on the trade route connecting the Mediterranean World with India and Africa. The sedentary Arabs became trade intermediaries because of this, bringing them prosperity and power. This group experienced three distinct historical periods before the advent of Islam.

1. The first period began with the decline of the southern Sabaeans as well as the Greek Seleucids in the Middle East.

2. The second period began with the expansion of Roman, then Byzantine, and then Sabaean power during the period of client-states. The Arab cities became client to three major world powers: the Sabaeans of the south, the Persians of the east, and the Byzantine empire in the north. Judaism and Christianity spread quickly during this period.

3.  The third period concerned inner Arabia, particularly Mecca. This was a great period of prosperity and flowering of the Bedouin culture and military power. The Bedouins closely allied themselves with the central Arabian cities, such as Mecca and Yathrib (Medina). Classical Arabic became the language of poetry and culture at this time. There was a widespread diffusion of Bedouin narratives and poetry and the diffusion of Bedouin values during this period.

The Arabs forged an empire during the 8th and 9th centuries whose borders touched Sudan in the south, Asia Minor in the north, China in the east, and southern France in the west. This was one of the largest land empires to ever exist. The Arabs spread the religion of Islam and the Arabic language throughout much of this area via conversion and cultural assimilation. Many groups came to be known as Arabs by virtue of this Arabization rather than descent. Thus, over time, the term Arab came to have a broader definition than the original ethnic term: ethnic Arab vs. cultural Arab. People in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Sudan and elsewhere became Arabs via Arabization.

Here are some examples of Arabian Pagan deities and heroes:

––––––––

Abgal: He’s possibly a God of the Nomads.

Aglibol: He’s a lunar God.

Al-Kutba: He’s a Northern Arabian God.

Al-Quam: He’s the guardian of caravans & Nabataean war God.

Allah: God.

Al-Lat: An underworld goddess. She’s the daughter of Hubal. She’s one of the chief goddesses.

Al-Uzza: One of the three chief goddesses. She’s fertility, protection, & victory Goddess. She’s the daughter of Hubal.

Almaqah: Moon God of Sabah.

‘Amm: Moon & weather God, especially lightning.

Anbay: An oracle & God of justice.

Arsu: A God worshipped in Palmyra.

Asira: A God worshipped in Taima.

Astarte: AKA Ishtar or Astoreth.

Atagatis: She’s a fertility Goddess.

Atarsamain: AKA Attarshamayin, Attar-shamayin or Morning Star of Heaven. A deity of unknown gender who’s associated with Venus.

Awal: Bahrain. He’s a God of Bahrain.

Azizos: AKA Aziz or God of the Morning Star.

Baalshamin: AKA Baal Shamaim or Baal Shamem. He’s a northwest Semitic God.

Bajir: Minor God worshipped by the Azd Tribe.

Basamum: God worshipped in South Arabia. He’s possibly God of healing & health.

Bes: He’s the protective God of households, especially children, mothers & childbirth.

Chaabou: Virgin Goddess. She’s the mother of Dusares.

Datin: He’s an oracular God associated with justice & oaths in Northern Arabia.

Demolition of Dhul Khalasa: Temple & cult image.

Dhul Khalasa: Oracular God.

Dushara: AKA Lord of the Mountain. He’s a God worshipped by the Nabateaens

Dhat-Badan: AKA Zat-Badar, Dhat-hami or She of the Wild Goats or Sanctuary.

El: Supreme God?

Ghouls: AKA Ghul. They’re desert dwelling shapeshifters. They eat the dead, rob graves & prey on young children.

Hatif: He’s a Jinn who gave warnings, advice, and directions.

Haubas: Oracular God.

Haukim: God of law & arbitration.

Hubal: God who controlled acts of divination. He’s the God of prophecy.

Isaf: God.

Ishtar: She’s the Goddess of political power, war, love, justice, sex and beauty.

Jinn: AKA djinn or genie. They’re supernatural beings that possess free will. They can be either evil or good.

Malakbel: Sun God of Palmyra. He’s part of a trinity that included Baalshamin. He’s frequently worshipped. He’s the lunar God Aglibol.

Manaf: God of women & menstruation.

Manat: She’s one of the three chief goddesses. She’s the daughter of Hubal.

Monimos: He’s the God of the evening star.

Nai’ila: A Goddess with an unknown role.

Nakrah: He’s the God of salvation & protection in the Minaean Kingdom.

Nasnas: A half-human monster having half a head, half of a body, one arm and one leg, that hops very agily. It’s believed to be the offspring of a human & a demon called Shiqq.

Nasr: The patron God of the people. He’s a vulture God who’s condemned in the Koran as one of the five idols worshipped by the Sons of Cain.

Nuha: The North Arabian Sun Goddess. She’s part of a trinity that included Atarsamain & Ruda.

Orotalt: He’s the equivalent of Dionysus.

Qaynan: He’s possibly the smithcraft God of the Sabaean people.

Quzah: He’s the weather God of the Muzdalifah people.

Rahmanan: A deity with an unknown role & gender.

Ruda: He’s an important North Arabian God. He’s a God of

protection. It’s also a reference to Venus, the Evening Star.

Sa’d: He’s the God of fortune of the Banu Kinanah Tribe.

Salman: He’s a southern Arabian God & possibly the same as

Shalman or Shalaman.

Shams: She’s the south Arabian sun Goddess and the patron deity of the Himyarite Kingdom.

Sin: AKA Nanna-Suen. He’s a lunar God.

Suwa’: AKA Sowa. She’s a sun goddess who is condemned in the Koran as an idol worshipped by the Sons of Cain.

Ta’lab: He’s the protector of pastures and lunar God of the Sum’ay Tribes.

Theandrios: AKA Theandrates. He’s a God with an unknown role.

Uzza: Unknown attributes.

Wadd: He’s the national God and God of friendship & love. He’s one of the Gods condemned in the Koran as an idol worshipped by the Sons of Cain.

Yaghuth: He’s a God with an unknown role that is condemned in the Koran for being one of the idols worshipped by the Sons of Cain.

Yatha: He’s possibly the salvation God of the Sabaean &

Hinyarites of Yemen.

Ya’uq: AKA Ya’uk. He is one of the Gods condemned in the Koran for being an idol worshipped by the Sons of Cain.

Section 4

Australian Indigenous Peoples Mythology

Introduction

––––––––

Australian Indigenous people originally migrated from somewhere in Asia. There are 500-600 distinct groups but they do possess some unifying links. They have a tribal culture of art and storytelling and strong spiritual ties that tie them to the land as well as a difficult colonial history like other indigenous populations.

They call the beginning of the world the Dreaming or Dreamtime and their spirituality entails a close relationship between the land and humans. In the Dreamtime, Indigenous Ancestors rose from below the earth to form various parts of nature including the sky, bodies of water and animal species.

The Indigenous religious belief does not place humans apart from or on a higher level than nature. Indigenous people believe that some Ancestors metamorphosed into nature (as in rivers or rock formations), where they stay spiritually alive.

They have an oral tradition of storytelling that informs a vibrant cultural life. Songs illustrate the Dreamtime and other tales of nature, while sand art/ diagrams and dancing accompany oral tales.

Indigenous art in the Northern territory includes beadwork, baskets, sculpture and bark or rock paintings. Rock paintings and carvings can be found Nourlangie, Ubirr, and Arnhem Land. Many Indigenous people earn living by selling native art. Indigenous music is often recognized because of the didgeridoo. It’s a wind instrument typically made from bamboo that extends out about 5 feet and produces a low, vibrating hum. It is used in formal ceremonies like funerals, circumcisions, and sunsets.

––––––––

Here are some examples of Australian Indigenous Pagan

deities and heroes:

New South Wales

Birrahgnooloo: AKA Birra-ngulu. She’s a fertility Goddess who sends floods if properly asked and one of two wives of Baiame. Mother of Daramulum.

Baiame: AKA Biame, Baayami, Baayama or Byamee. He’s the creator God and Sky Father.

Daramulum: AKA Darhumulan, Daramulan, Dhurramoolun or Dharramaalan. He’s a sky hero and shapeshifter. His wife is an emu.

Dirawong: He’s a Goanna spirit and one of the creator beings of the Bundjalung that protects, guards, battles the rainbow snake and helps people with ‘Aboriginal astronomy, body designs, bullroarers, bush cosmetics, bush foods, bush medicines, cave paintings & designs made on trees, ceremonial headgear,

ceremonial poles, cultural lore, dances, dreaming’s, games, geographical locations, song lines, songs, stone artifacts, stone objects, stories, structures of society, symbols, technologies, the ceremonies performed in order to ensure continuity of life & land, values, how people are required to behave in their communities,

initiations, laws of community, paintings, rock art, rock engravings, rules for social behavior, sacred chants, sacred earth mounds, sacred ground paintings, wooden articles, wooden sacred objects, & the beliefs, values, rules

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