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.., ..

2009

., .

2009
2

621-315-592
: -. , .-.,
..
:
.--. ..
.-.. ..
.., ..
, , 2009, 325 .
ISBN: 5-8066-1780
. 60-70 , , .

, , , ,
, , , .
.
. , ,
-, , , . , .
, , ,
- . , , , .

-
,
(,), ,
. CdxHg1-x ,
.
, ,
.

160410000

655(74) - 2009

.., ..


......................................................................................9
............................................................................................ 14
I . ..............................................................21
1.1. ..................................21
1.
................................... 23
1.2.
.....................................................................29
1. -.
..........................................................29
2. .
- ................................................33
3. -- ....................................................34
4. - .................................................................35
5. ..........36
6.
...............................................................37
1.3.
...............................................39
1. .............40
2. .............43
1.4. ............... 45
1. .................................................................................... 46
2. ............47
II .
................................................... 53
2.1. .........................................53
1.
.................54
2.
HgTe HgSe ................................................................................57
3. ......................................59
2.2.

...........................63
1. ................................63
2. InSb InAs ..............................69
3. HgSe HgTe .................72
4. -
CdxHg1-xTe ..................................................................78
5. - Ag2e Ag2Se ..................82
6. Bi2Te3 Bi2Te2,7Se0,3 ...............85
7. ...86
2.3.
.........................................................................................90
1. ...................................90
2. ......................92
3. -
InSb-NiSb ...........................................101
4.
................................................106
5. ................109
III .
......................................................116
3.1. ........................116
3.2.
..........................................................................119
1. ....................................................................119
2.
......................................................................121
3. ...................122
4. ............................................123
5. L.
..........................................................................125
3.3. ..................................129
1. ........................................................129
2. PbTe, PbSe, PbS
..............................................................132
3. Ag2Te Ag2Se ......................135
4.

Bi1-Sb ..............136
5. InSb ...140
6. Cd3As2 .........141
3.4.
........................................................................... 142
1. ...................... 142
2. ............................................145
3. ...........148
3.5.
............................149
1.
..................................................................................149
2.
............... 160
3.6.
Cd1-xHgxTe ....................................................................167
1. CdxHg1-xTe .....167
3.7.
.......................172
IV . CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-xSnxTe ....181
4.1. -
CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-xSnxTe .....................................................184
4.2. -
CdxHg1-xTe ....................................194
1. CdxHg1-xTe ............194
2. -
- ............................207
4.3.
CdxHg1-xTe Ag2Te .......................................................................209
1.
.............................209
.. 210

CdxHg1-xTe ...................................................................................212
2. Ag2Te ................222

4.4.
CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-xSnxTe
..................................................................230
1.
CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-xSnxTe .......234
2.
.....................................248
V .
.......................................................264
5.1. ....264
1.
- ...............................................................274
2.
.............................................................278
3.
............................................................................279
4. Ag2S AgFeS2 ......................285
...................................................................................288
, ......288
...........300
..................................................................308



. ,
,
.
30-40 50-60 .
(), .
.

.. (1960), , .
,
.
, , n-SnSb
,
,
. (m*(n))
.
, - , . ( H ) R ( H )
, m*(n) , ,
, , -

.
,
, .
.

.
-- HgSe.
3,710176,01018 -3
15103-24103 2-1-1 30250 =24 .
.
, 30250R ,
-. ,
2

2
). ,
3 e
.
, ,
, , .
, , , 30-250 - () .
L()
L(n) , .

, - UH

= 1 ,
c
, .
( L0 =

10

, . , ,

.
, , .. -.
, , ,
, .
, (
)
.
- .
(,), UH
=.

c
, .
Cd0,2Hg0,8Te, 4-100. , , , (,),
, ,

. /
30 16 10 .
, .

InSb-NiSb ,

11

NiSb InSb -
InSb.
-
-.
,
, ,
. ,
,
.
,
, .
,
.
, , .
,
()
. ,
.
. ,
. L. (n) L(n) HgSe,
HgTe, PbTe, PbSe, PbS , Ag2Te, Ag2Se,
Cd3As2, Bi1-xSbx, InSb. , n T
L ,

12

. ,
L, , , -
.

CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-x SnxTe.
. , ,
.
-, .
-,
, , ,
.
, .
, , .
, , ,
.

.. - , .

13



, , , .
, . 30- , .
..
.. .., ..,
.., .., .. .
50-60- . . ,
(). . ,

,
, . , .
, , , , .

.
, , , ,
.
..
1960 ,

14

.
,
. , .
, (1957) InSb ,
()
..
. m*(n).
, m*(n) ,
.
, - ( H ) , . ( = 0 ( H ) )
( H ) , m*(n),
(n),
, ,

.
,

, , .
.
,

, -

15

.
, , .



, .. -- .
HgSe. 3,71017 61018 3
30-300 24
. , , -. (,)
( = L ) L (), L (n). , L (,n) 30-250
L0. ,
.
. HgTe, PbTe, PbSe, PbS , Ag2Te, Ag2Se, Bi2Te3, Bi1-xSbx, Cd3As2 .
, ,
30-250
, - - () . , , . , L (, ), . HgSe. , 40-200 ,
, , ,
(60150R) (5%).
60 30-20
. ,
, -

16

, .

, - - ~90-150
UH
= 1 , ,

,
UH
> 1.

, - , , - -
2

UH L0

> 1 , .. L
- -
(L0/L L/L0).
, ,
. , ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
, , . (), .
, InSb c 1,8 .% NiSb

17

, InSb NiSb 50 <1 . NiSb .


NiSb,
. I, .
,
,
H- , nInSb . .

-
. , , . .
Cd0,2Hg0,8Te 2-100
. (,),
. ,
, , (,), , . (16) 2,4, =24 1,5. , V
>>10-15 . , /g
, ..
: 30; 24; 16 1,6;
3,5; 14,2 .
, , .
. .

18


Ag2Te Ag2Se.
.
, , ,
, .
,
, .
n(T)~Tk, n(T) ,
k n~Tk
, (k=3/2).
.
, ,
.
- .
,

.
- . , -
, ( )
, .
- . , , , ,

, .

19

, , , .

20

I


1.1.
, , ,
, .
: , - .
, ,
W (. 1), , , W
(. 1).
-
( ) = ( ) ( 0 ) - -

( = ( 0 ) ( ) )- --.
V1
- (. 1), - - (. 1.1, ). , ( ), .
()
z
1886 [1],

- [1, 2]. : -
V
T
Ex (H)-Ex (0)=Ex == [ ( H ) ( 0 )] = Q
,
(1.1)
X
X
-
V
T
Ey = = Q + H z
(1.2)

21

. 1.1. :
) : - (V) - ();
) : - (V) - (); W ; .

T T
T
=
= SH z
Y

--

(1.3)

0 ( )
,
(1.4)
0
, ,
, , (), (0), Q|| Q
, () (0) , S
-, (0) ()

22

=0, 0, - --, .
-
Tx, ..
z
,
z

. -

.
-
.
- , (0)

.
. , . ,
. ,
- , .
,
(1.1)-(1.4) . ,
, .
1.

.. [3]
.
, .
[4] [5] .
, .

23

,
( ). , :
, : , , .
, , , , . , , , , , . , - 305-593, ~373
Q().
- --. , z=6650 =19%. - (- ).

11017 -3, , . , ,
, .
Zn-Sb, Cd-Sb
Bi-Sb [6, 7]
Zn-Sb Cd-Sb 50.% Sb Q- .
, .
, Bi-Sb. - ZnSb Sb- ,
, z.
-
[6, 7] [8]. 8000 .

24

-
.. [9]. ,

,
-. ,
. , , , c. ,
Q. , ,
, . 50- [33-37].

[10-33]. [10, 15]

.
-. -, ,
15
Q = Q . Qa S ,
8
. ,
, .
, ,
-, , , .
[12]
Q ,
.
. - /, .
-

25

- .. ...
.. [14, 15] , , -. , - .
U M kT
QM
, U , U

Q U
, , - .

-
[16] .
,
,
.. [17]. [18] .
..
- , .
, ,

.. .. [21-23]
.. [24]
. .. ..[36]

.
- .. .. [31]. ,
, .
.. .. [39] -

26

n-. [40]
, .
[41]
.
.

, ,
.
.. [3],
.
,
, . , , .
, , , .
, .
,
.
, [43]
YnSb ,
() ,
.
. , ,
. ,
- -

27

,
, ..

m* .
.
, ,
. .
,
.

UH
>> 1 )
(
c
[44] - HgSe. (30-300)
.
, ,
.
, . - -
UH
,
= 1 ,

,
UH
> 1 [45-50]

[51, 52],
, (40-250) - () .
, , ,
UH/c

28

[53]
- - .

-,
[62].

,
, n(T)~Tk , .
, ,
.
,
. [3, 55-61, 88-91]. , ,
,
.
1.2.
.
1. -.

n- , Hz, . , , , ,
. -
. ,

29

, .. -.
.

( ,
).
.
-, , ,
( ).
. ,
.
-

,
.
[3, 57] , , , .
l R
l VTeH
R =
= ,
(1.5)
r
mcv

=
, . mc
, , .
,
. , n, V1x(0) ,
n2 V2x(0)>V1x(0)
n1v1x(0)=n2v2x(0) Hz, Y -

30

.
,
j envx ( H )( 1 2 ) ~ [ (V1 ) (V2 )] ,
(1.6)
, , ,
(-)
. ,
, ((V1)>(V2)),
(-) (Ey>0).
. , ,
(V2)>(V1), (-) E<0, .
,
(-)
.
, (-) -()=-(-), .. .

2

UH

<< 1
c
k UH T
1

E y = r ar
2
e

(1.7)

UH

>> 1
c
1

k UH T
1

E y = r Cc
,
(1.8)

2
e

3 ( 3 / 2 + 2r )
16

r =
, Cr =
= ( 3 r ) ( 2 + r )
2
9
4
(2+r )
, UH/c,

31

UH
,
. , c
UH
UH
1 , E y
,


. (1.7) (1.8) ,
-
. , r ,
. , r.
(1.20), (1.7) (1.8) , - Q , -2. , Q ,
UH
,

.
, Q , , . [3]

Q - y =
.
T
/ e
x

(,).
. 1.2 UH
r=0; 1 2, y

UH 1
<

(1.7), (1.8)

3
UH
UH
> 3 [3].
= 1 .

(-2).

32

. 1.2. UH/c.
1 r=0, 2 r=1, 3 r=2. 3 .

2. .
-

-
Hz ( = ( ) ( ))
, , . , . ,
,
.
.

33


V2x(0)-V1x(0)
. . ,
V ( H ) V2 x ( H )
, 1x
>
, , ,
V1x ( 0 ) V2 x ( 0 )
[ V2 ( ) V1x ( H ) ] , (H) >(0). , V ( H ) V2 x ( H )
<
, , 1x
V1x ( 0 ) V2 x ( 0 )
, (H)<(0), , ..
, . .
, ,
, .. . ()
2

k UH
( H ) = ( 0 )
L1 ( ) ,
e

(1.10)

L1 ( ) =

( F3 / 2 )2
F3 +1 Fz + 2 F2r Fz + 2 ( F2r + 1 )
( Fz +1 )5
2

3
( F2 +1 ) F3 z +1 + Fz +1 F 1 F2r +
2r +
2
2

1

L1 = r ( a22 2b ) ,
2

9 ( 3r + 1 )
b =
16 3 ( r + 2 )
3. --

(1.11)

(1.12)
(1.13)

-- ()
z.

34

UH 1 ( ) ,
K( H ) = K + K0

A0
c

F + 3 Fr + 2

A0 = r

Fr + 1 Fr + 1
M 1( ) =

(1.24)

( ) 2F

Fr + 1
F
F3
4 4r
2

F3

( )

3r

F3 F1 , (1.25)
2
2

M 1 = 2 ( 13 8r + 4r 2 ) ; 0=r+2
4

(1.26)

4. -
1

1 UH 1 F7 2 F5 2
S= 0

H 0 F3 2 F3 2

(1.27)


1
K0 1 UH
5
S=
(1.28)

2( r + 2 ) K H c
(18.12),
(18.13), (18.14), (18.17) [57].
, ,

.

2

K
UH
(1.14)
K( H ) = K + K0 T 0
L2 ( ) ,
e
c
0 0 - , L2() (16.17) [57],
:

35

(1.15)
L2 =(4r 2 -r+2)b2 -(r-1/2)2 ar2
, ,
L2=0, L2=2/3.
,
, ,
, , , , , , .
-.
UH


c
-

UK
(1.16)
TL3 ( )
K +
L3() (16.25) [57]
1
3
L3 = [( r + )2 ]ar
(1.17)
2
2
S=

L3 =

5.


.
-
1
K 1 UH
Q =
(1.18)
0 ( )
H
F2 +1
(1.19)
, M 0 ( ) =
[ F3 / 2 F3 r F3 / 2 F2 r ]
( F3 / 2 )2

36

M0 =

2 KT
1

r
3
2

(1.20)

K F1 / 2
(1.21)

y
e F3 / 2


K 5
1K

(1.22)
( H ) = ; = r
e 2
2 e

,
,
, 0.

(H ) =

( H ) =
= ( H ) ( 0 ) =

2 k K

3 e

(1.22)

K 2 K
1

z
e 3
2

(1.23)

6.

, . , . .
, , ,
,
.
, -
.
-

37

, , - .
- , n p
,
,
. -, ,
.
- , , ,


.
,
, H
, , .
, , ,
, .
. , , ,
. ,
( ) , . (
) ,
, .
- -
. , -

38

. ,
=()- (), ,
,
, ,
=const. . K
A ,
e
,
k

, ( ( 2 + r ) ).
e

, (

), , e
. ,
,
.

, ,
() . ,
, , , .. UH/c,
( ) .
1.3.


, . ,

39

,

, . , , . .
, -
, .
[63-69]. [43]
.
[63] . [69] . [70].

. .
1.


, .
(), () m()
. :
1

( 2mn ) 2
k( ) =
1 +
h
g

2
m( ) = mn 1 +

40

(1.29)

(1.30)

KT

r 1 / 2

( ) = 0 r ( T )


1 +
g

2
1 +

(1.31)

0r (r) [57].
, n .
()=(32n) 2/3
(1.32)

2

2h 2
= g 1+
(1.32)
3 2 n ) 3 1
(
2
mn g

2
2

2h 2
2
3
m( ) = mn 1 +
(1.33)
( 3 n )
mn g

,
. , 1016
51018 -3, m* InSb 4 [57].
(1.32) (1.33)
m( )
1
(1.34)
= g
2 mn

,
[66],
:
n dm ( )
=3
(1.35)
m( ) dn
=0.

41

, <<1
H
=
- ,
mn c
.
-.
kU
Q =
L0 ( , )
(1.36)
e c
3
1
0

r0+1,2 2r
L0 ( , ) = 20 ,0 ( r0+1,2 ) r0+1,2 2r
(1.37)
+ 1 ,4
+ 1 ,4

3
2
2
-
2
K UH
( H ) = ( 0 )
L1 ( , )
e

( ) (

L1 ( , ) = 30
+

0
0
r + 1,2 2r + 1 ,4
2

,0

1
3r ,6

5
0
r + 1,2

2
0
r + 1,2

0
1
1
3r ,6 r +1,2 r +1,2 +

1
r + 1,2

0
2r + 1 ,4
2

(1.38)

--
2

K
UH
K( H ) = K + K0 0
L2 ( , )
e

( ) (

L2 ( , ) = 30

,0

6
0
r + 1,6

1
2 ( 0 )2 + 0 ( 1 )2 + 2 0 0
r + 1,2
r + 1,2
r + 1 2r + 1 ,4 2r + 1 ,4
3r ,6 r +1,2
2
2

0
2 3r1 ,6 r1+1,2 ( r1+1,2 ) ( r1+1,2 ) 2r
+1
2

(1.39)

,4

) (

1
2r + 1 ,4
2

)(

2
0
r + 1,2

(1.40)

S=

U k
L3 ( , )
K + K 0 c e

42

(1.41)

L3 ( , ) = 30
2

0
1
r + 1,2 2r + 1 ,4
2

,0

1
0
r + 1,2
0
2r + 1 ,4
2

2
2
0

2r + 1 2 ,4 ( r +1,2 )

2
1
r + 1,2

(1.42)

Q :
k U kT
1
Q =
(1.43)

r
*
2
2

k UH 2 kT
1

3 *
2

U ,

* =
=

h 2 ( 3 2 n )

(1.44)

(1.45)

2m( )

2h 2 mn ( 3 2 n )
g m 2 ( )

3ndm
mdn

(1.46)

(1.38), (1.40) (1.42) nm,k ( , )


=

kT

=0 nkm Fn+k().
2.


UH
>> 1 .

-
1
k 1 UH

Q =

0 ( , )
e

43

(1.47)

( )

1 0

0 1
3 2 2 r ,2 3 2 ,0 2 r ,2
-
1

k 3 2 ,0
( )

=

e 30 ,0
2

1
1

k 3 2 ,0 r +1,2

= ( H ) ( 0 ) =
30 ,0 r0+1,2
2

--
2
2
k UH
K ( H ) = +
0 1 ( , )
e e

M ( , ) = 30

( )

1 ( , ) = r0+1,2 30
2 21 r ,2 31 ,0 30
2

,0

,0

(1.48)

(1.49)

(1.50)

(1.51)

( )

2
0
2 r ,2 3 2 ,0

( )

+ 20 r ,2 31

,0

-
2
1
k 1 UH 0
2 ( , )
S( H ) =

(1.52)

(1.53)

31 ,0
,0
2
(1.54)
2 ( , ) = 0 0 2
3 ,0 3 ,0
2
3
Q
(1.47) (1.50) :
32

k 1 UH 2 kT
1

(1.55)

H 3 *
2

k 2 kT
1

(1.55)
=

r
3 *
2

, , -
Q =

44

(1.55) (1.45), * , ,
.
Q , ..
- .
, , (r-1/2),
().
.
1.4.



iK iK ,
. ,
, ,

, , ,
, ,
.
.
iK ,

[226] iK ,
iK . [227],

f
jx = 11 x = l
W '
( )( / )2 x (1.56)
2

45

[228]. ,
, , , .
jy , [228]
j y = 12 = ( S / H ) x
(1.57)
u S .
, 12
,
. ,
[227],
.
1. -


[230] .
, [71], .
[7174]. -
[75] , , CdxHg1-x .
[71-74], , .
1. Q
. , ,
=0 , (, )
, .
-

46

, .
2. Q ,
,
, , Q , , .. , Q , .
, Q gH()
gH()~(-)-1/2.
, ,
( ) Q
. Q [75],

Q = A( T ) G(V0 )
(1.58)
V0=Vb/2=eH/2mncKT, () , ( ).
, Q

( ).
2.

,
() ()
(H) (H).
, , (H), (). .

47


iK iK
+ 12 12
(1.59)
( H ) = 11 112
2
11 + 12
(>>1)
(12 12) .
>> 1 , = eH
mc

12>>11, 12>>11
(1.60)
(H)

( H ) = 12 12
(1.61)

( (

11 = ecn H j y = 12 = ( S H ) xT

( ) = S en
(1.62)
, S
[76],
[77] .
12 12 (1.61) ()
,

1
k
f
(1.62)
( H ) = ( 2 2 RnkT ) 0 ( ) K z ( ,N , )d

0
R = ( h H ) - .
, , .. (,N,). () [74].
12

K Z ( ,N , ) =

2m h ( ) N ,

(1.64)

N , = ( N + 1 2 ) h + g * 0 H ,
mn<<m0

48

B( ) = ( 1 +

),
g

g* =

m0
20
mn 3g + 20

(1.65)

0 (1.63)
Kz(,N,)=0, ..
0 ( 1 + 0 g ) ( N + 1 2 )h g * 0 H = 0
(1.66)
(1.63)
.
. kT
<< 1, , g =
g

kT
> 1 g

, . , (1.66) g .
N . [55] (H)
(23,41) (23,43).
( v0 << 1 )
( v0 >> 1 ) (23,41 [55]) [79] ,

.
[80, 81]
, n-InSb
(23,45 [55]).
, ,
[81, 82].
. ,
dK z ( F ,N , )
2 k kT
2
2 k kT
( H ) =

g H ( F ) [1.67]
3 e n ( 2R )2
d F
3 e N

49

g H ( F ) - F . ,
, . [82, 83].

[84].
1

1
k kT( 2mn ) 2 B
2
( H ) =
(1.68)

B( F ) N ,
2
e 12R h n F N
(1.68) , () = 0 ( N , ) .
.. , B( F ) N , = 0 . , ( H ) .
, ( H )
. , ,
, , . H Nmax
, g* - .
, , .
( ), (1.68) N=0,
=1/2. ( H )
F ( H ) . (N=0, =1/2) :
1

2

m h R 2 ( 2R )4 h 2 n 2
+
( H ) = ( H ) 1 + 2 g n
, (1.69)
mo mn g
2mn g

kTmn
k
(1.70)
( H ) =
e 12 2 h 2 R 4 n 2
(1.70) .
(1.69) : -, n -

50

F < 0 ( 0, Y2 ) ,
1

2
h c 4 4 n 2 m0
mn
2 2
2

>
2
R
n
g
H
<

(1.71).
(
)
mo
e g mn

[ F 0 ( 0 + 1 )] >> kT
2
(1.69) - . ,
. , nInSb n=51016 -3 =105 .
50% , . 0 (

1

mn
k
kT
CH ( H ) =
2
5 2

e 12 h R n g

, CH ( H )~H
-1

1
2
2
3 2
2
1 + 2( 2 nR )

(1.72)

( H )~H 2 , R~H 2 . (1.72) , , ()


, CdxHg1-xTe,
Eg/mn. ,
, .
(H) . [85] n-InSb
n=41015 -3 4K, , >15 .
(/0) .
(/0) . (/0) , n-InSb n-InSb .
[86] ()
n-CdxHg1-x =0,16,

51

.
=4,2 n-CdxHg1-x
n=4,11016 -3. 24<<60 , (H)~H2,6. n-InSb

(H)~H2,5 [78]. ,
[78], . ,
( ) ,
UH


>> 1 , .. C

(). () , (), ,
. , () CH ( H )~H 2,5 , ~H 2 .
[87] (H), (H) (H), HgSe 42 41 .
,
.

52

II

, , ,
.
, ,
, , . , .
.
() ,
. ,
. , , .
2.1.
.

, , , .
, , .
,
-, , , .

53


,
, .
,

InSb, InAs
, , .
,
-- -, . ,
-,
, - - UH
= 1 , ,


UH
> 1 ).
, (

.
1.

,
.
, , ,
, 35 ,
, . 35
[92-94]. 35, K=0
, Ge Si. ,
35 . -

54

, GaP AlSb [100] (- ).


[100]. , GaP AlSb Si. 35
(6-). ,
, SnSb. SnSb . 2.1.
InSb [17-18].
(. 2.1), , V1 , . , V1 . V2-
V3--
(+ )( + + 0)=k2p2(+ +2/30)
(2.1)
,
6, =2k2/2m0=+0, m0 - , =(0)-(8) k=0,
(2.2)
P=-i( h m0 ) S px X
- ,
, S X - , px -
.

0 =-3 ( h 4m02 c 2 ) X (VXP ) g X

(2.3)

- .
(1.1) , k=0
:
=0;
v2 = g ;
v3 = g 0 ,
(2.4)

55


V2 ,V3 (. 2.1). (2.4)
(2.1), k
2 k 2 k 2 p2 2
z h 2k 2
(2.5)
+
=
+
=
2m0
3 g 0 + g 2mn
h 2 k 2 2k 2 p 2
h 2 p2
v2 = g +

= g
(2.6)
2m0
2 g
2m2

k 2 p2
h 2k 2
= g 0
(2.7)
2m0 3( g + 0 )
2m3
mn, m2, m3 - , - , .
S= 2 p
(2.8)
3 h

1
1 = S2 2 + 1

+ m ,
mn

+
g
g
0
0

2
1 = 2S 1 ,
(2.9)
m2
m0
g
v3 = g 0 +

m3

h 2k 2

=S

( 0 + 0 )

m0

, (2.2) (2.8) S . (2.8), g, 0


mn, m2, m3. , S108 /.
k (2.1) (2.5)-(2.7).
,
.
>>g, InSb. (2.1) ,

56

:
2
g 2S h k
(k ) =
+ 1 +

2m0
2 g

h 2k 2

12

g
2

(2.10)

g 2sh k 2 g
h k
(2.11)
v2 =
+ 1 +
,
2m0
2
g
2
(2.8). 0>>g
, InSb mn<<m0, (2.19), .
g=2mnS2
(2.12)
1/m0, (2.10)
2 12

g 2S h k

(2.13)
= 1+
1

2 g

.
0<<g 0 , .. , Sk<<0<<g.
(2.6).
2

2. HgTe HgSe

,
36 35, HgTe HgSe.
CdTe CdSe IbSb,
CdTe (=1,50 , 0=0,95 , mn=0,09m0)
CdSe (=1,83 , 0=0,41 , mn=0,0119m0), ,
InSb, . 36.
, [96, 97]
,

57

6, 35,
8 (. 2.3).
- - 6 8 ( CdTe), , 6 (
CdTe). - (. 2.1),
, , .. HgTe HgSe .

. 2.1.

, HgTe .
, HgTe ,
(6)-(8). CdHg1-Te. , =0=0,16 CdHg1-Te (6)=(8), .. g=0
, (. 2.2).

58

. 2.2. CdxHg1-xTe. <0


- , >0 .

, =<0,16 ( ), >0,16
( ).
3.

PbTe, PbSe PbS . . , .


[58]. ,
.
, ,

k
(111), . L-. L , (111), , . , -

59

.
PbTe, PbSe PbS ,
PbTe PbTe
PbS. PbS .
(k) .
, , .
, [98].
.
, ,
, (mn=mp=m0). , , (m||n= m||p= m||0),
,
g h 2 k
-h 2 k||2
+ g +h 2 k||2
(2.14)
=

2m||0
2m||0
2m

(2.14),
1

2
2
2
h 2 k2
h 2 k||

+ h 2 k||2
g g
+ g
+
=
(2.15)

2m0
2m||0
2m||0
2 4



, k,
2 2
h k||
<< g (2.15) 2m||0


. k , , .
r=m||/m , m||
, m .

60

,

[98].
PbSe PbS,
PbTe. g. g HgTe . , , HgTe, g . g
[99-101]. , SnTe
PbTe PbTe Pb1-SnTe. ,
01, g

g ( x ) = ( 1 x ) g ( 0 ) x g ( 1 ) ,
(2.16)
g(0) PbTe, g(1) SnTe. , PbTe, g SnTe,
, : 4.2 g(1) =0,3 . (2.16) ,
SnTe g() ,
, =0=g(0)/(g (0) +g(1)) g(1). . 2.3.

. 2.3. Pb1-xSnxTe .

61

g(0) g(1) 4,2, 0=0,38,


, . . .
>0 (L6 , L8 ), . ,
0, g0 .
g0 :

g ( k ) = h ( s2 k2 + s||2 k||2 ) 2 ,
1

(2.17)

s = 2 P h s|| = 2 P|| h .
3
3
PbTe. , [102-106] PbTe ,
PbSe PbS, PbTe .
PbTe : .
. -PbTe [104]
PbTe , . 2.4. , , 0,17 .
. g , . 400-500,
. ,
-PbTe
. ,
(dg/dT=0).
,
,
.
-

62

,



, , . .
,
.

. 2.4. PbTe [104].

2.2.

1.

,
.
, , .
,

.
.

63

, .. m*.
.
m*
[107]. , H
eH
= *
(2.18)
mc
H
m*. m* , . , ,
.
.
. .
. m*
.
[108]
1,52 10 1 n2 H
=
,
(2.19)
n0 m*
, n , n0 .
. ,

m*(T, n).
. m* [107, 109].
,
n2min
m*
=
,
(2.20)
m0 ( 1 )8,97 10 22

64

- n .

. ,
m* .
. ( - ) m0* [55, 57].
N- xx H:

N =

2n 2

mx
x + k 0 g( x )
m0
K

(2.21)

g- m0* .
-
m* [55, 57]:
e
1
(2.22)
= * ,
H m 0
1

- , 0 - H
. 0 m*. , ,
, ,
--, .
.
-
( ).
-.

( ) -

65

.
, . , ,
,
. m*x

.
, ,
,
( =/).
,

, :
3
1
*
2

2m
KT
(
)
K0 I 3 2 ,0
0
*
=
(2.23)
I 03 ,
; n=
2

e I 30 ,0
3 2 h 3
2

m
*
I n ,k ( 1 ) - , -

kT

- = 0 - g
k0T
, .
, =0
=0, -
(U c >> 1 ) .
[57], * =

, m0* g. m0* , , .

(*5) - -
, , , . , , -

66

:
2

( H ) =

k02 3 m*T
eh ( 3n )

R = R =

1
nce

(2.24)

e 3h 3 3
m =e/ m = 2
(2.25)

T 8eR
. 2.5 ()
HgSe ,
.
*

. 2.5.
() [119].

,
().

.
, , k=0, ( Bi2Te3
),
(HgSe) .

67

AH 2
H2
1 BH 2
= +

(2.26)
2
( H ) A

1 + BH
2/ 2 ,
=/ [34, 35, 110],
.


( H ) =

UH L
1+

c L0 ,
(2.27)
= ( H )
2
UH L

c L0
,
[111] L/L0,
L - , , L0 , 2

2 k
L0 = .

3 e

. [63,
64] -
Q -
=

,
U
U=R . , Q , ..

U
:

, ,

h 2 e ( 3 2 n ) 3
Q
*

= 0 +
,
m =
(2.28)
R
2 KT
[11] (2.28) 2

68

h 2 e ( 3 2 n )

Q L
+
(2.29)
KT
R0 L0

(2.28) .
m*
, , , .
, (2.28)
(-), . Q ,
,
, , :
LT
,
(2.30)
Q = Q
K0
(-).
, . ,
, ,
[111-115] , -,
V = V Ty
(2.31)
m =
*

HgSe HgTe, , (2.28) (2.31) Q , [111-117].


2. InSb InAs

,
m*(),

69

1
1
=
,
(2.32)
m( k ) ( h k ) k
m*() ,
. m() m(n)
(k).
.
n-InSb
:
1

2
g
g
2 1
1 2 2
+ 1 +

(2.33)
( k ) =
h k
2m0
2 g mn m0
2

, (2.32), m*(k) :
1 1
mn
m0
1
1
(2.34)
=
+
1
*
2
m ( k ) m0

2 1
1 2 2
1 + g mn m0 h k
mn - .
(2.34),

h 2k 2

k( F ) = ( 3 2 n ) 3 , m*(n)
2

2
2
m* ( n ) m0
m* ( n ) m0
2h
m( n )
2
3
=
+

, (2.35)
1
1
3
n
(
)

1 m* ( n ) m0 1 m* ( n ) m0 g mn
m0

, m*(n),
2

m( n ) m0
2/3
n ,
n ,
1
m(
n
)
m

, g mn. . n-InSb (2.35)


:

70

2
2

2h
m* ( n ) = m*n 1 +
( 3 2 n ) 3
(2.36)
g mn

m*(n) n-InSb [63, 64] .


, n<1019 -3, ..
n, 1019 -3 ,
. InSb, ,
[68, 90].
m*(n) InAs 51018 -3 [118].
( R) ( ). , n<1018 -3 m*(n) (k). n, (k) m*(n) .

m*(n)=0,023. m*(n) m() 51018 -3 m*=0,023+1,3n2/3 m*=0,023+1,3510-15 k2 (-2). p2
(k), -
*
h 2 3 ( 1 m0 m0 )
(2.37)
P2 =

2m0* 2 g + 1 g +

InAs 80 g=0,4 B, =0,43 B, m0*=0,023m0.


[112]
InAs 1,710186,21019 -3. -. / 3% 22%,
(2,30),
(2.31). InAs. ,

71

K 300 /, n51018 -3
-.
m*(n) 6,21019 -3.
[118] .
3. HgSe HgTe

[119].
3,71017-51019 -3
m*(n). m*
(, R)
(2.26), (2.27).
2 (<30) . m*(T) 40 300. . 2.6 m*(n)
2

m*

m0

2/3
*
m* , n . , m (n)
1 m0
HgSe .
m* m0
m*(n)=0,02m0 g=0,2 B. . 2.7
m*(T). . 2.7 ,
. , 95 300
m* HgSe 20%. , m*(T) g().
m*(T)
HgTe.

72

. 2.6. m*(H) HgSe [119].

HgTe
. , .
. , , ,
. , HgTe, [42-45, 113, 120, 121]. [122]
. n-HgTe 21017 51018 -3. m*(n) . 2.8
2

m*

m0

2/3
m* , n .
1 m0
, n-HgTe m*(n) , . , m*(n) 200 300 . m*(n)

73

. m0 g
v2

3h 2
P = * g =8,2108 .
4m0

. 2.7. m*(T) HgSe [119].

74

. 2.8.
m*(T) HgTe Cd0,1Hg0,9Te [120, 122].

. 2.9. m*, m0* () HgTe


[120, 122].

. 2.9 , m*
m0* . -

75

, m0* g
g ( )
m0* (T)= m0* (0)
(2.37)
0 ( 0 )
m0* g 300 g(0)
(2.37) m0*() (. 2.9). , m0*()
, g(0) m*().
, - HgTe
g

> 0 ( 6 8). , m ()

m0
, ..

T
, , -.
[123] :
g g g
(2.38)
=
+
,
T T 0 T V

g

,
T 0
g

- . ,
T V
(2.38)
[66],

g g
g
+

,
T V T H .. T ..

(2.39)

g
-

T H ..
g
-

T ..

76

g
g
> 0 ,

< 0 T H ..
T ..
. [122] ,
g(T), m0 ( T ) m ( T )

, , g
,

V
. [123]. , .
, ,
g ( T ), m0 ( T ) m ( T ) HgTe .
,

. -HgTe
CdHg1-Te. , nHgTe, . HgTe (5-6)1019 -3.
[124]. (Q, R, , ). Q - ( (2.28)). ,
, =51018 -3,
HgTe.

m*po = 0, 45m0 , m*p (4-5)1019 -3 1,7 ,
HgTe 6
. m*p

77

0,550,0 21019 -3 = 300.


m*p = 0,64m0 , -

m*p , .
HgTe . -

, 11019 -3 m

=0,4,
p
>11019 -3 3 . , , -HgTe 51018 -3
>51018 -3, ..
, .
4. -
CdxHg1-xTe

, HgTe 6 8 (. 2.2) g=0 ,


CdHgTe .
g = 0 , m0* - ,
Cd. Cd, , . g m0* g =0 , g =0

( ).
, ,
-. ,
g =0 m*, -
, , . g =0 m* , 0 m0.

78

,
. , , .
[120, 121, 125]
CdHg1-Te (0<0,2) =0 n=41017-51018 -3, =0,05
n=21017-3, =0,06; 0,08; 0,15 0,20 n=11017-61017
-3. (), R(T) R(H) . 300,
( 1-2%).
m0* , m*
300. . 2.10 2.11.
=0,1 HgTe m*(n)
(. 2.8) , ..
(k) . , ,
m0* g , m*(n) CdHg1-Te c =0,1, , g
m0* .

- (. 2.2).
m*(n) (
-). m0* - (2.34).
m0* , m* ,
, g 0, m0 0 m* . g

g ( , ) = 0,3 + 5 10 4 + ( 1,91 10 3 ) ,
(2.40)

=(18+3)

79

(2.41)


[125]:
g (,)=1,59-0,25+5,2.33(-104)(1-208)+0,332
(2.42)
, 300 (2.40), (2.42).
(2.41) . m0* ( x )
m*() n . 2.10.

. 2.10. m*(x) m0* ( x ) Hg1-xCdxTe () [120, 122].

, 300
=0,093, m*() , .

80

,
-,
, (r)
,
( H ) = 0 ( H ) . , m*. U().
, [121]
CdHg1-Te Cd, Te, x.
.

. 2.11. 0 Hg1-xCdxTe () [120, 122].

81

5. - Ag2e Ag2Se

(Ag2e) (Ag2Se) .
, , - 70- ,
,
Ge, Si, A3B5 . .
, [111, 114, 116, 126-137]
. , Ag2e
Ag2Se .
390-420 -, , -, , .. I . ,
. . [62].
Ag2e Ag2Se ,
Ag2e , , , , Ag2Se ,
, .

. Ag2e Ag2Se

.
(400-480). ,
- ( ).
[111, 114, 116, 126-129] , ,
Ag2e Ag2Se. [126] , , Ag2e n=1,21018

82

-3. m* =0,05m0 m* , R. m* =0,06m0 . m*(n)


[127]
6,81017 1,231019 -3 77-300. , R, ,
(H) -.
m*(n) . , m* , m* 2 2
*
;n 3 m (n)
*

m
m
0

.
m0* ( T ) g -Ag2e. ,
Ag2e , g
, g ( g =0,035 0).
Ag2Se [128, 129] 1,85431018 -3. Ag2Se
m0* =0,13m0, g =0,45 .
, , m*, m0* Ag2Se,
. ,
g , m0*

3h 2 m* 2
.
P = * g 1 0
m0
4m0

, , I . , Ag2e Ag2Se -

83


- [114, 116, 136].
, [114-116] . : (), R(T ,H), (T, H) Q(T, H)
- - Ag2e
Ag2Se. m*(n), m0* g
- -. , Ag2e , Ag2Se (. 2.12).

. 2.12. () : 1- Ag2Te, 2- Ag2Se.

, ,

, ()
. , , ,
( g , m*, m0* ). 3- (Ag2Te, Ag3Se Ag2S) - -.

84

6. Bi2Te3 Bi2Te2,7Se0,3

[139]

, k- (Bi2Te3 ),
. , , ,
, k-, .
[140] Bi2Te3. [141, 142] Bi2Te3 Bi2Te2,7Se0,3 n=(0,69,0)1019 c-3 (1,012,7)1019 c-3 80-300.
, Bi2Te3 m d
. m d (n) 2

m 2 3

d
,n . m d m0
(n0) g=0,15 . ,
md / m0 () md0 / m0 () Bi2Te3 -

g(T).
[142], [143],
, m1/m2, m1/m3, m2/m3
. . ,
n=1,51019 -3 m3/m2=0,239, m1/m3=0,236, m1/m2=0,056,
md=0,0512m0 . md=N2/3(m1.m2.m3)1/3,
m1, m2 m3 m3=0,155m0, m2=0,648m0 m1=0,037m0.
n=2,11019 -3 m3=0,165m0, m2=0,676m0 m1=0,036m0.

n-Bi2Te2,7Se0,3. ,
Bi2Te3 ,

85

. ,
, , , Bi2Te3. , Bi-Te-Se Se g , , md0 ( T ) md ( T ) .
Z
Bi2Te2-Se.
, md0 ( T ) ,
md ( T ) g().
m* g.
[143] m*() Bi-Te-Se . , g
[58]. [58] . ,
g() md ( T )
,

g. g() md ( T )
Bi-Te-Se , m*
g. HgTe CdxHg1-xTe, () m*()
.
,
Bi2Te3 Bi2Te2,7Se0,3 , , , .
7.


2.1.

86

.
.

k-.
PbTe , <111>.

, R. ,
PbTe, PbSe PbS , , <111> ( L).

PbTe PbS.
PbS .
, .

. ,
.

VI . PbSe , PbS .
PbTe-PbSe PbSe-PbS , .
PbSe PbS , (
), PbTe
, , .
PbTe . PbSe . PbSe, PbS.
, PbTe PbS, , .
-

87

.
PbTe
[93]. R (())
-PbTe
5,41017-41019 -3. m*d ( E )
.
. m*d

0,13m0 , - .
g=0,12 I [43], 0,08 II [95].
[144]
n-PbTe 21018
11020 -3,
. ,
. 2

m
d

m0
n3/2. md=0,12m0, g=0,18 .
, md
g n<51019 -3.
n
, .
, PbTe ,
. , .
g=0,16 .
, I [43],
, II [18] . , -

88

, .
[145] PbS. PbS,

:
g( ) = N e

( 2m1m2 m3 )

( 0 )

mn,e
= ( N e2 m1 m2 m3 )

3
(2.43)
nh
mn 2

mn = md = N e 3 ( m20 m|| ) 3 . 2

[144] PbS. md 0 ( T ) Pb1-2SeTe PbS1-2Te2. md 0 ( T ) g(T) , [58] .


, ,
PbS-PbSe, PbS-Pb-Te, PbS-PbSe-PbTe PbS 90 .%
md 0 ,
md 0 ~T0,6.
. . ,
[58].
.
g/T (2.38).
(2.38) , g
g/:
g
3
g

= T ,P
(2.44)

T
P

89

- , T,P - . (2.44) , [58], , (g/T)0=210-4 /.


g/T, , PbTe .
.. [146] , ,
,
ln m ln g
(2.45)

=
T V T V
ln m ln g
(2.45) c
=
T 0 T

3T ,P
ln m

T 0

ln m
P

(2.46)

(2.46)

= ln m
, , -
lnT
, , PbTe m*(T) ,
.
2.3.

1.


.. [154]. . , . , ,

90

,
.
q2k, k
. , 1/q , .
(T<). , , - CV(T)~T-3.
():
, - , , .. (q<2k).
,
,
.
.
l, , ,
l, (l<l).
, ( ).
, , , .
Ge Si,
, [147], InSb [148],
HgSe [44], InP [149], GaAs [150], CdxHg1-xTe [151] Ag2S [152].
,
, .

.
, , , . , . ().
~-3 ~-1

91

, .. .

k m* v02
=

,
(2.47)
e KT
m* - , v0
, ,
,
, , . (2.47) ,
,
. (),
/. , () ,
( )
. () ,
~T3/2 (U=e/m*),
. ,
. , ~T-7/2,
-3.
2.

( -) - [156, 157], , (,)


-
. , ,
UH = >> 1
c
( H ) .

92

CdxHg1-xTe (, ) ,
, Cd0,14Hg0,86Te
[151, 151, 153]. [62, 152] , n- , >0,16. n-Cd0,2Hg0,8Te n=3,71014
-3 U=14000 2-1-1 ( 4,2 ).
, 1005 , , 60 , ,
~20 , 8
.
() ,
.
( 8 30100). 1,54 (, ),
,
(, ) (. 2.13).
(, )
,
( ). , .. , .

, . g
=0. ,
[57]
( H ) = p ( n , n , ef ,Rlf ,Ref ,H ) + n ( e , n , lf ,Rlf ,Ref ,H ) + (2.48)
, n , nf ,
.

(UH c )
( H ) = g ( H ) = g ( 0 )
( H )
2
1 + (UH c )
2

93

(2.49)

(n, p)
(Un, Up) [151].

. 2.13. Cd0,2Hg0,8Te
[61]. g().

g() . 2.13 . , 4090 . . 2.14


.
, ( 12 ) ()
,
,
,
, .. -

94

. -
(, ) (. 2.15). , ,
10-12 70. (, ) , (, ), ,

g(, T).

. ,
- , ,
g() [3].

. 2.14. (,)
: 6-12 [61].

95

.

[155, 156],
.
,

, [157].
, . , . () ( -) -.

. 2.15. () [61].
: 1-1,9; 2-3,5; 3-5,5; 4-9; 5-12,2 .

(),
Q.
() [158]:

96

( H ) =

k 1
1 A ( )


+

e D m 1 + 2 m 1 + 2

(2.50)
A ( )

2
2
m 1 + m 1 +
D ( (13.30) [55]).
, (, )
() .
:

(2.51)
( T ) = ( , ),

- . (2.51) ,
, . , A ~ 11 ~ T 4 A ~ 21 ~ T 2 ,
g. ()
(2.49)
(, ), ( 0 = ( )0 ). , A ( ) () , , (
), k0T << h 0 ,
N q0 ~ exp ( h 0 / KT ) , ,

, 0. ( H )
, ,
, :
k 2 E 2 m2
( T ) = 0 31 n .
(2.52)
e 3 h 1
(m() ),
()~m2(), ,
.
(>>1) -

97

, g, :
k
(2.53)
( ,T ) = 0 A ( ) ,
e
, () A ( ) ,
.
(=0) (0) :
A ( )
m ,
( 0 ) = k
(2.54)
e

m
:
A ( ) m

( 0 )
= m
(2.55)
g ( 0 )
x
m
m
(0) =0. (2.55) ,
.
, ,

.
(,) .
() ,
. . 2.16 (,) : 24, 16 10, (2.14).
A ( , ) (. 2.17) , (,). , A ( , )
, () (16)
(1), 10 (3), .
, () (, ) (. 2.16),
.

( )

98

. 2.16. ()
(=UH/c) Cd0,2Hg0,8Te [61]. : 1-16; 2-24; 3-10.

. 2.17. (,) Cd0,2Hg0,8Te : 1-16; 2-24; 3-10

99

, (,), (,) . , , , , ,
. (), k ~Tk,
, .

A ( ) . ()
. () (=0+),
1 + 2
(2.56)
( ) = ( ) 2

. 2.18. () [61] : 1-16; 2-24;


3-10.

, ,
, .. () .
() (. 2.18) (2.56)
A ( ) .

100

, ( 16)
A ( ) =2,4, =24 A ( ) =1,5. , nCdHg1-Te ,
>>1, .
(0 )

, g ( 0 )
30; 24 16 1,6; 3,5 14,2, , ,
, ..
, .
3. -
InSb-NiSb

(InSb)98,2 (NiSb)1,8 % , InSb


NiSb ~50 d<1
[159]. NiSb
. - InSb-NiSb
300-500 ,
I, W NiSb ,
, - [159-162].
[163] : , R, /0, , - InSb-NiSb, n=11016 c-3
(0,01 .% ) n=11017 -3 300.
77-300
H, I, W X. . 2.19()
IX I||X.

InSb ,
, -

101

. . 2.20
. , n=11017 -3 1,5
, n=11016
-3 =6 170,
. ()
.

. 2.19. R(H) InSb-NiSb [161-163].

, , , [164]. I||X
( ), .. I||X=InSb(1-X)+ NiSbX, X
. , I||X , . , , .

102

. 2.20. /(), () (-) InSb-NiSb [161-163].

103

. 2.19() R
I||X, IX||H IXH. R
, , , InSb.
KR, , , KR . RI ..., KR, (), . ()
KR(T) .
KR ,
( 1 6 ) R .
,
.
. 2.20() /0
( I,H X). /0 . /0
, ,
NiSb, , .
InSb,
InSb-NiSb I, H X. ,
, KR. /0
, 11017 -3, .

(WX W||X)
. W||X 1/
.
-

104

W, H X
. 2.20(). , /0,
WX, .. -.
,
,
- W||X. . 2.20(),
, .
, , , -. WX||H InSb ,
WXH , R, (KR Ky ).
/0
( ,
), ()
, , , , -.
, :
2

y e

ZT.M. =
(2.55)
K
ZT.M. 300 (=6000 ) W||XH 0,510-3 -1, ZT.M. InSb
10 , Z 2 . InSb , .
, ,
.
(InSb), -

105


NiSb ( )
InSb.

[164].
4.


.
, . , -, () (
()) .

, , . , , ,
, , ,
.
,
. [85] InSb
n=41015 -3 4, >15 . ().
(/0) (/0)..
: n-InSb: g=0,23 , |gx|=50, mn=0,013m0.
(r=0). n-InSb
.

106

[86] n-ClxHg1-xTe
=0,16, ,
.
(1.72). [86]
() n-ClxHg1-xTe
n=4,11014 -3, (1.72) 3< ()<82.
25< ()<60 , ()~H2,6.
(H)~H2,5 [78], (1.72).
, , ..
.. [78],
[86].
,
; ,
()~H2,5, ()~H2.
[87] /0 ||/0
||/0
/0 ,
V HgSe
n=4,11017 -3
65000 -2-1-1.
, ( ) .
, ( ) ,
n-InSb n-InAs

[165]. : , , [166].

107

, (N6), [167] ,
, .

n=4,31017 -3, n,
(4,11017 -3).
. [166].
-,
:
.
(
1
3,18 106
, AN=6,4; 7,4; , N=6,7) = 32

HN
n AN
n=4,31017 -3.
14
,
HgSe.
() .
. 2.21.
, d (
) , -
1/, .
, ... .
Z, Y ( ), Vy,
.
, -

108

, .
.
.. .. [168] n-InSb
4,2; . ,
. [167]
,
--, - ( ).

, ,
. ,
n-InSb n-InAs,
[167, 232]. , , , [167, 169],
, .
5.

, , ,
, -
.
, , .
.
, .
..

109

.. [170, 171]. . ,
k, -,
. .
(, ),
.
, ,
, .
, ,
,
, . () , .
, .

U( )H
e( )
, U( ) =
- =
c
m( )
.
- (), n :
()=(32)1/3
(2.56)
:
d d dn
(2.57)
=
d dn d
(2.56)
2
1
(2.58)
dk = ( 2 2 n ) 3 3 2 dn
3

110


2
dk dk d
=

= 2 ( 3 2 n ) 3
dn d dn
1
1
d
,
= 2
, (2.56) (2.58)
m( ) h k( ) dk

3 2 n ) 3 m( )
(
d
=
d( )
2h 2
(2.57) :
d 3n d
=

d 2 * dn

* =

h 2 ( 3 2 n )

(2.59)

(2.60)

(2.61)
m( )
, ,
:
1. :
ecn
= enU =

(2.62)
H
2. :
K 2 kT

=
1 + 2 )
(2.63)

* (
e 2

n d
2 =
(2.64)
dn
3. :
2

2 K
K( 0 ) = 0T
(2.65)
3 e
K( 0 )
,
T
, .

111

4. :

R=

2
r2
1 3 2 kT

1 +

enc
4 * 1 + 2

(2.66)

5. :
2

3 2 kT
2 2
=

r
(2.67)
0
4 * 1 + 2
6. -:
2 K kT

Q=

2
(2.68)
2 e * H( 1 + 2 )
7. :
2 K kT
= ( H ) ( 0 ) =

(2.69)
2 e * 1 + 2
8. :
2
2 k 0T
K( H ) = K +
(2.70)
3 e 1 + 2
9. -:
K ( H )
S( H ) =
(2.71)
H K( H )
() .
(2.68) (2.69) U=(c)/H:

=
(2.72)
HQ
(2.62) :
H 0
(2.73)
n=
ec
(2.63) (2.69) :


(2.74)
r =
2

+
2
1+
(2.63) (2.68) *, -

112

m*() .
, , (, Q) , , : , . (R, /) .
, , ,
UH
UH
<< 1
>> 1 .
c
c
, r, ,
, .
k2( )
, ,
, n =
3 2
2
1

(2.75)
r = r
3
2

:
3n dm
r =
(2.76)
m dn
, .
2
dm/dn=0 r = r 1 2
3
. ((25.29), (25.30), (25.31)) [57], (2.72) , .
(2.66)-(2.71)

1
(2.77)
R=
1 +

ntc

113

c
Q
(2.78)
U
K

Q
=
(2.79)
0 K + K0 Q
R (>>1) , Q,
Q,, - - -
, (2.78) [66]. [44, 72-79] ,
( , ~30-300) .
.

[175].

, , ,
InAs 1,71018 6,21019 -3
80-300. : U(n,T),
r, , m*(n).
,
: 80-200
, >200 ( ).
, 51018-6,2109 -3 80-200 , ,
, .
, , 6,11019 -3 m*=0,13m0, 5,21018 -3
m*=0,055m0. ~781018 -3. ,
. , .
, ( 0 ) ( ) =

114

, , Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3
(HgTe).

115

III

-- HgSe
, , ,
, - (=L0T)
[44]. c [176] ,
L0 .
,
, .
, . , , ,

. , , , .
3.1.

,
, .
?
1858 [177] ,
. [178] , ,

K
(3.1)
= L = const,
T
L ,

116

--. 1928 . L [179].


, , , , , L=3(K/e)2,
, . [180] -
L=2(K/e)2, .
[176], ,
-,
:
2

2 K
L = L0 = ,
(3.2)
3 e
.

,
L=L0=const. 0 0, L0 >D (3.2). L

( ). L .
60-
, , ,
, , ,
, , ( ),
.
,
.
,
,
:
=L=LT/
(3.3)

117

.
, >D ,
(3.3) . (W=1/). W0 Wi. D/10 W :
W=W0+Wi,
(3.4)
,
.=0+i
(3.5)
0=const , , , , . i . i, Wi - . :
=vl/3
(3.6)
, l , v . W0 l
, ~T, v=const,
1
3

W0 =
=
= ,
(3.7)
K0 Cvl T
(3.3) (3.7) :

W0 = 0 ; .. = 0
(3.8)
LT
L
Wi.
( ) 3, l , .. l~T-3.
W0, C~T, v=const. :
3
(3.9)
Wi =
0T 2
CvT
, (3.4) :

W = 0 + 0T 2 = 0 + 0T 3
(3.10)
T
LT
Wi , W0 , W
. 0 , -

118

(3.10) :

W T = 0T 3 +
(3.11)
3
W 0.
W , . 0,
,
. , , ( 0) .
3.2.


(, , ,
) .
. ,
. [91].
1.
, .
[182, 183].
>D, L=L0=const, ~1/T =LT=const. ~(1/T),
,
A
(3.12)
. = K P + K = + B
T
, ..

,
[182], 220 . .() 240 2 : 1) 4010 (
>>) 2) <10 (
) . 4010 0 , 2,7 [184]. -

119

T<10
~T2,7.

. .

.=+=+LT
(3.13)
. =0.

. 3.1.
. 1 dx/d=2(k0/e)2T,
2 dx/d=2/3(k0/e)2T.

, (I . 3.1),
(II . 3.1).
- ,
=f(),

, , ( ).

120

2.

[181] . UH
>> 1 ) (
e
, 1934
., [181, 195].
. ,
,
,
.()= + ()= +L(H)T
(3.14)

. 3.2. .

,
. .() ();
() (. 3.2).
, L .
. , L
, , 1,7 Pb L(H)=const, .. ,
4,1 L . . -

121

L() .
L(H) ,
, L(0). , [91].
3.

, T<Tc ( )
, ( , K s . > K s ). . 3.3 -

K s

= f T In [186].
Tc

/0,20,1, K ,

K n

K s . = K Ps . , , ,
K Ps , ,

- . , , . T>Tc
Ks
n ( ) K .
. , ,
. ,
,
, , ,
[187, 188].

122

K S

= f T In.
K n
T0
0 .

. 3.3.

4.


.
[44] HgSe.
. , (UH/c<<1, <<KT), , --,
:
K = K H =0 K ( H ) = K . K P = K H ( H )
(3.15)
,
1
K ~ 2 . H
,
. , >
(=eH/m*c , m* -

123

), [57]:
( UH << 1 )
c
K ( H ) = K ( 0 ) AH 2
(3.16)
( UH >> 1 )
c
K (0 )
K ( H ) = 2
(3.17)
BH
, *=/, [57], (0)
. (3.17) , , ()0.
[189] , (()=
(0)), [44]. ,
K ,H ( 0 ) = K P ( H ) + K ( H ) = K P ,H ( H ) = K P ( 0 ) (3.18)
. 3.4 n-HgSe [44]
, :
K ( 0 ) K ( H ) = K( H ) =
(3.19)
= K P ( 0 ) + K ( 0 ) K P ( H ) K ( H ) = K ( 0 )

, , [44] HgSe 200-300 , UH >> 1 .
c
AH 2
(3.20)
K( H ) = K ( 0 ) K ( H ) =
, 0<H <
1 + BH 2

[44-50,
194, 195]. (3.20) (0) , :
H2
1 BH 2
= +
(3.21)
K( H ) A
A

124

H2
= f ( H 2 ) /,
K( H )

A
(3.22)
B
, , . .
1. ,
UH >> 1 UH << 1 .
c
c
2.
. ( 5%).
3. ,
,
.
- .
4. ,
(>).
5. ,
,
.
K ( 0 ) = K H ( H ) =

5. L.

, ,
. m* -, (), () () (2.27).
(,()).
[57]
:

125

K ( H ) =

c)
(UH c )

1 + UH

K ( H ),

(3.23)

()
UH/c1 (,
4-5%).
() ( 3.23) ()= (0), L. ( (3.3)). [44-50, 190, 191].

(). (3.23) , L/L0 [53]:
2
L
1 + UH
c
L0

(3.24)
K ( H ),
K ( H ) =
2
UH L

c
L0

, L/L0 ( )
()
. , (3.24) L/L0 (3.3) .
, (), U/c (
). [53]:
2

UH L

c L0
(3.25)
K ( H ) =
K
2

UH
L

1+
c L0

, (3.25) L/L0 (3.3).


.
-. [53] -

126

:
2

UH L

c L0

( H ) =
,
(3.26)
2
UH L

1+
c L0
-
2

L UH

L0 c

+
HQ =
,
2
L UH
1+

L0 c

(3.27)

(3.26)
L
Q (0 )
=
(3.28)
L0 R
-

HQ =
(3.29)
L UH

L0 c
, (3.26), (3.27) (3.29) (),
Q L/L0 (3.3)
.
, ()
UH/c, () () (3.26) L/L0.
[53] ,
- - :
UH L

c L0
UH
(3.30)
H
=
2
2
c
K P UH L L
1 +
1+

L0 T c L0 L

127


y =

UH L

c L0

(3.31)
2
2
E UH L
1 +

K c L0

,
- -
UH/c=1, ,
. (3.30) (3.31) ,
, UH/c=1,
(UH/c)max L/L0,
(UH/c)(L/L0)=1, .. UH/c=L/L0. , UH
UH
y
sH
c
c
, . , [44-50, 112-117]. , .
, ,
. , ,
. ,
Ka, Ge, Si, InAs, GaSb .
- . ,
(Te, Ag2S, InSe ) -
.
,

,
:
,
. , , -

128

(+),
(L), () () .
, L
2

2 K
= 2,4410-8 -2, L0 =
3 e
() , ,
. ,
,
. ,
: HgSe, HgTe, CdHgTe, PbTe, PbSe, PbS, Ag2Te, Ag2Se,
Cd3As2, Bi2Te3, InSb ,
.
, ( InSb), ,
,
, ,
.
3.3.
1.

(HgSe) (HgTe)
2B6. ,
, , 6 3B5,
8.
( 6 ) ( 8 ) = g . gSe g=0,19 , HgTe g=0,22 [110, 119, 120-122],
50-60000 2-1c-1.

30-40% . , -

129

-- -.
[44]
11- gSe 3,71017 61018 -3 ( 77).
. 3.4
() gSe 90. ,
c () . [5, 7, 17] ()
(3.20), (3.21). ,
. ()
, . K
.
=(0) -() L =
T

. 3.4. () HgSe [44].

L() . 3.5
.
- (
35). .

130

. 3.5.

L0

L (

T ) HgSe [205].

L/L0 , >100
60% . , L/L0 ~40
, .. , . , L/L0
35. , . , L>L0, , gSe. , L()
, (~3-30).
L L0 ,
, T50
HgSe
LL0. , 2

2 K
, K = T
3 c
.

131

n-HgTe [192, 194], ,


, U
,
. 77 24500 2/. , L/L0 , . ge , 30 . ()
.
L/L0=0,78,
, (). , ge. [193, 194] ,
L/L0 50 ,
80-180 L/L00,7,
280-320 , .. ,
, . ,
50-240 .
gSe
[200]. 400 . , 50400 gSe . <50,
, ( ) L=L0, ..
,
, .
.
2. PbTe, PbSe, PbS

[195]
PbTe, PbS, Pbs 3-100. . 3.6

PbTe, , >40,

132

gSe, L 70%
L0 ( ). L
, ..
.
, . L(, n)
PbSe , , , PbTe,
, L PbSe
0,4, .. L/L0.

. 3.6.

L0

L (

T ) PbTe [195].

PbS .
[195] , >20 (PbTe, PbSe Pbs)
.
[176] ,
, . , ,
,
gSe [44], -

133

. <30,
, L , . L L0.
n-PbTe,
, [173], , PbTe
. ,
,
,
, . ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
.

, , . [196]
PbTe-SnTe, PbTe-PbSe PbTe-PbS =80-85
30 .
L L0. ,
( ) PbTe.

n-Pb0,8Sn0,2Te [197]. ,
--,
- -
4-240.

134

L/L0 () . , L 50-250
, , 1,5-2,5 , .

[51, 52], , - . , , ,
35%, .. Pb0,8Sn0,2Te ,
- .
3. Ag2Te Ag2Se

Ag2Te .
-,
(g0,035 ).
,
, ~400,
.
Ag2Te , ,
. ,

.
Ag2Te
.
/
, .
. , , . ().

135

(85-250)
L(, n). [45-48], ,
11016 -3 L L0 , L
L0. L/L0<1 .
Ag2Te
Ag2Se. ,
Ag2Se , Ag2Te,
. , - Ag2Se
. .
.
[130] Ag2Se
80-250 2,51018 3,51019
-3. , 4 .
Ag2Se ,
. .
. () 0
100 200 . Ag2Te (
) , Ag2Se. ,
Ag2Se 10 . L=/T. , n
Ag2Se , L0. L/L0 [51, 52]. , Ag2Se , , .
4.
Bi1-Sb

, Bi -

136

.
Bi1-Sb. .
[49, 50, 190, 191, 206] Bi0,88Sb0,12 ,
,
L(). ,
( ) .
, <30 L0. , L - . Bi , , .
[49, 50, 190, 191]
-- (--), - (-) (-) Bi0,88Sb0,12,
0,2 .%. 3.
n=51018 -3 100
20000 2-1-1.
.
.
,
, ,
. [51, 52, 173]. [173] , -. : i
, . , , r/rU=L/L0,
r rU - ,
. ,
-

137

, .

L .
, L. , r .
[53] , . , (),
HQ, H, y : (3.26), (3.27), (3.30), (3.31), ():
2
2
L
1 + UH
c L0
(3.32)
K( H )
K ( H ) =
2
2
L
UH
c L0
, ,
L . ,
, UH/
L/L0. UH/,
SH

L
L
Q

=
(3.33)
H Q
L0
R
L0

.
Bi1-Sb
, L/L0
. ,
L/L0<1 ( ).
() ,

138

(H) UH/=(56),
(89), .. , ,
.
,
UH/=1, UH/>1,
. , -, , . , (UH/)(L/L0)
, . (-S) -
,
(UH/)>1. (-SH)
(UH/). (-SH) /(LT) (3.30),
(L/L0). L/L0
[52], .
, Bi0,88Sb0,12
, . ,
5-7%.
i 80-100
, 30 [198]. , i
, . [44, 47, 201] ,
, , , .
Bi0,88Sb0,12
, -

139

, ,
, . , Bi0,88Sb0,12 .
5. InSb

, 35 (). 35 InSb .
, ,
. . . [199] InSb n=11019 -3 100-500.
, InSb
100 / 5-6%, 200 14%. . 150-250 , L/L0 100 200 0,75 0,6,
. 200 - . 200-500 L
HgSe [200]. .

1
1
(3.34)
Wp =
=
K p K K
.
) ,
,
W (3.34) =L0T .
) W (3.34) =LT,

140

LT=L02. =.,
,
[173, 195], .
) 100-200 W (3.34) =LT, L,
(L=()/T). 200-500 W
W=. ,
QD InSb QD=200K QD W
W~.

L. , L
L0, 200 .
L() , 100-200
InSb ,
.
6. Cd3As2



, , . [202]
2-100. Cd3As2
n=21018 -3 U=3104 100,
U=6104 2-1-1 1,5. , ~10 .
[202]
L . , L() , 30 L0 .
30 ~20, L ,
. 10-30
. , T<30

141

.
3.4.

1.

HgSe, HgTe,
PbTe , [44, 195, 203].
, ,
- - (-SH) UH/=1,
UH/>1. . [52, 53, 204] ,
, ,

UH/>1.
[173] ,

. ,
. : , , . , :
f
f
f = 1 0 V( e ) + 2 0
VT
(3.35)
E
E T
V - , 0 , , - .
1 2
. 1 . 2 ,

142

1 ,
.

,
.
(3.35)
=.
, 1 (-), , .
, , (3.35),
-, , .
,
[52, 173].
, ,
1 1 .
, .
4 Bi-Sb ,
, ,
.
HgSe,
HgTe, Ag2Te PbTe,
(3.26), (3.27, (3.30)-(3.32).
K UH
c ,

K (H)

143


S UH

HgSe HgTe (. 3.7 . 3.8).

. 3.7. K

,

K ( H )
( H )
UH/c HgSe HgTe [190-194].

. 3.8. - y UH
HgTe [113].

144

1, 2 , 1 2
.
2.

,

. .

.
[176], .
, , .
, ,
- ,
.
, [176] , , , . , L [44-50, 194, 195] , .
, [51, 52,
173, 204]. [51,
204]. , (*>>1),
, (*>>0, ), :
L

W

U L0
= 1 + ee +
1 ,

L0
W0 U on L
o

145

(3.36)

W0=(L0T)-1 - , Wee - ,
, U -
, U - .
, , ,
. :

VF

e3 ( KT )2 K F r Un
Wee
= 2 4
B( r )
W0
2 h 3 K F3 VF4
, F

r =

2
4e ( )

(3.37)

, -

3en
- ,
2 2
- , n - .
B(r) :
2
2 r 4 r3

(3.38)
( r ) = ( 1 + r 2 ) 1 arctgr +

1 + r2 1 + r2

- , ( ) =

r = ( 2K F ) << 1
2

U on =

h 3 F ( er 1 )2

1
o

2em ( )l r
2
F

1
S12 S13

(3.39)

L0
3 r2 S 21 AS22 1 S 22 AS 23

= 2

L
2 S12 AS13 3 S12 AS13
:
( g )
A=
2
( g + 2 )
2 K F r ( i 2 )
( e r 1 )2
( 2t )K e ( t )
r
Sik =

dt
2 t
2( K 1 ) 0
2
r(
t
)
e ( 2K F r )
4 ( 1 + t )( e 1) r
2

146

(3.40)

2( i 1 )

(2.16)

+t

r( t ) = r o
1+t

t = ( q ) , rt - 2

(t) , r r(t)
2
t = ( 2K F ) , q = 2K F m* , m* -
.
,
, L.

. 3.9.

L0

L (

T ) HgSe [44, 205].

, 250
.
L/L0 HgSe
[205] (. 3.9). PbTe, HgTe, Ag2Te, Ag2Se,
Pb0,8Sn0,2, Bi0,88Sb0,12.

147

3.

-
[58]. ,
,
. ,
,
f : ,
(-)V(-T), , eVE (e
).
. 3.10. ,
V(-T) , (. 3.10, ).
, , , . , , .
(. 3.10, ).

. 3.10.
[58].

148

,
-, , , , .
. , , . ,
.
,
, ,
.
, , . , .
, , .

,

50-300 .
3.5.

1.


, . , ,
,
,
.
-

149

.
, ().
[118],
n-InAs
. m(n). , InAs .
. ,
.
n-HgSe [119, 203].
(2-300) (3,7101751019 -3) .
. , . n (2-30)
. (,), (,) , . , HgSe
(2-50) , ~80 2101851018 -3 ( ); . ,
n11018 -3 ()
, .
[207-209]
In0,5Ga0,5Sb 31017-61018
-3, 80-300. , R, , .
. , ()
2

m* 2 3
,n
.
*
1 m
m0*=0,025m0 g=0,36 . , g

150

In-Ga-Sb g InSb GaSb, 0,18<g<0,69 . InAs HgSe *


n dm
= *
. , ,
m dn
n2/3=2,5 -2, 0,27. ,
.
(n) (n) , 80 , , .
(n) n61017 -3.
, , , , . ,
,
.
[113] HgTe. - -, ,
, R - n-HgTe. Q
= .
R
HgTe [194, 210],
<80, =(65250). . ,
- - [53] UH
> 1.

c
-, , , :
LT
.
Q = Q
K
, -

151

.
, Q : V = V Ty . . 3.11 . 3.12.
. 3.11 HgTe n=6,51017 1,161018 -3
=300 -
UH/c. n=1,161018 -3 . , . ,
UH/c=1, HgTe 300
[53]. ,
UH
r
2
1 1 21

KT

c
,
r = ,
=

y
2
2 * 1 + UH
c

r r = ( r 1 ) r =
.
2
3

UH
+1+

c
2
UH
1+

c
,
, .
-
. , , ,
:
UH
c
SH =
,
2

KP
UH
1+
1 +

LT c

152

. 3.11. UH/c HgTe:


1 n=1,161017 c-3; 2 n=0,851018 c-3; 3 n=1,161018 c-3.

. 3.12. (-) UH/c HgTe.


( n )
y ( n ) . ,
().

153

, n-HgTe , HgTe, (~20%) 80-200 [194, 210],


=300
. HgTe , [211] , U(n).
, -Ag2Se [128, 129, 213] m*(T). , (). Ag2Se
g .
,
m*(T, n),
-Ag2Se.
m*( n) , . , m*( n). , m*(T) .
[115] , R, ,
y (1,81018-4,41019 -3) (80-600)

h 2 e ( 3 2 n ) 3
2

Q L

2 KT
R L0

L/L0 . .
m*(n) 100; 200 450.
m* =

2
m*
;n 3 .

*
1 m
(. 3.13).
m* g.

154

. 3.13.
AgSe: 1 100; 2 300; 3 450.

, Ag2Se
m*() ,
[213]. g(), .
, g().
m*
m0 -Ag2Se, . ,
,
. Ag2e -Ag2Se , -Ag2e , , m* m*0
:

155

2
3h 3
m*
P = * g 1 0 .
m0

4m
, =3,310-8
.
.
,
. , Ag2Se , m* m*0. ,

, .
,
, , .
[116] Ag2Se Ag2Te. . , Ag2Te
, R .
n m*. R
n. n
g m*,
Na.
() R(T) g - - , Ag2Te

g ( g=0,03 g=0,12 ). g
(/=10-4 -1) , g Ag2Te , (g=0,17 ), ..
. , g
ni, .
m*n m*p - -. N m*

, R, n, -

156

- -.
m* m*n
- - , m* m*n .
g, m*n m*p ni - -. ,
Ag2Te ni~2 R , 3 (. 3.14).

. 3.14.
ni Ag2Te (1) [61, 239].

R(T) (T) 300-500 , ,



, .. , , Ag2Te

. , .. .
R, Ag2Se -

157

. , Ag2Te Ag2Se
n- . R, .
m* , m0*
g - - Ag2Se , ,
Ag2Te, .
-.
, R , m* , m0*
g , ( R ). , Ag2Se
, Ag2Te, m* , m0* g, , Ag2Se .
[115] Ag2Te
(5-100). ,
Ag2Te Ag.
Te Ag ,
,
, ,
.

Ag 1 .% 0,7 .%,
51020 -3.
, 0,75
.% Ag2Te , Ag 0,5%
.

:
UH L
UH L
y = f
= f
,
c L0
c L0
UH L
K
- SH = f
y = HQ .
e
c
L
0

158


- , . 3.13
, ,
, [53]:
UH L
c
L0

a.*
y =

+
2
e
L

UH
K 1+

c L0
(3.42)
UH L
c
L0

2
e

K
K 1 + P 1 + UH L L
c
L
L
L0 T
0
0

L
c L0
(3.43)
=
2
2
L


1 + UH
c L0

L. , 50
(UH/c)1,5 (UH/c)1 ( 20 (UH/c)1,1). L 3.42 3.43
Q

L
L
=
=
(3.44)
L0
L0 R
HQ UH

c
, Ag2Te 10. ,
20, , ,
,
.
, L()
,
=L, =.-.
UH

* - ( ) .

159

2.

,
. . [51, 53, 214] ,
.
.
, ,
. [215]
.
, , ()
[216]
d ln m 2
1

(3.45)
= r 3
r =
d ln n 3
2

r ,
m* [66], r , 0, 1, 2 ,
. [51, 53, 114] ,

fr(P/P0),
r, :

d ln f r P
P0
2
1

'
r = r 2 ( 1 + P )
(3.46)
,
3
2
dP

160

= 1 P + 1 1 P ,P = 1 1 , P0 = 1 * 1 , (3.47)
3 P0
P

m
m

0
0

x
m0 - .
fr(P/P0)
2,3 1 P 10,3 P 2
f0 P =

,
P0 12 20 P0
12 P0
2

b c 1
c 1
P c + 3d P
f1 P = +
c + 3d + ( c + 3d ) +
(3.48)
P
0 4 2 16
16 P0
2 8
P0
b 1
b 1
P b + 3c P
f 2 P = a + ( b + 3c ) + ( b + 3c ) +

P
0
2 16
16 P0
2 8
P0

1
1

a = ln 1 +
1+

4
1

8 ln 1 +
b=4+
1+

c = 2 12 +
d=

4
1

+ 12 2 ln 1 + ,
1+

(3.49)

4
4
1

8 + 16 2 +
16 3 ln 1 + ,
3
1+

m0 e 2
m
,
h 2 3 2 n 1 3
( )
- , m0 -
.
(3.49) ,
. , (3.48) fr(P/P0)

. , [51],
,
g. (3.49)
- .
=

161

(3.46) [36]
S
r. = ( 1 S )'r ,
(3.50)
3
L
( 1 S ) = -
L0
L0.
[55, 57] ,
, ,
:
2

k h 3 k0 mT p.
= 0
( r + 1 )
e h 2 ( 3n )2 3

(3.51)

(UH c )
2
1 + (UH c )
2
A . . (UH c )
y =
r
2
K
1 + (UH c )
e
2

( H ) = Ar. .

(3.52)
(3.53)

(3.51)-(3.53) r. . (3.50),
'r (3.46),

1 P P
1
(3.59)
3 P + 1 P0

,
.
() ()
n-HgTe [215]. :
m0 = 0,006, g = 0,19 [122], =12 [217] (. 3.15).
2

m
2P0 h 2 ( 3 2 n )
P
=
1
+

m0 g
P0
2

162

(3.55)


K 2 KT 2m
=
. .
2
2
e 2 h 3 2 n 3

(3.56)

r=1 Q U , U (3,448)1017 -3
90; 200; 300.
200 300 n91017 -3. ,
,
,
.

. 3.15. - (UH/c)
Ag2Te [117]. ( )

mp =0,65, i=3,91017 -3 300 . 90 200 [218, 219].


. 3.16 . 3.17.

, n-HgTe ,

163

- .

. 3.16. -
HgTe [215]. .

[215]
Ag2Te [48] HgSe [205]. [48] (80300) (1,510181,211019
-3) , (); - Q , R . , Ag2Te
[45, 127, 201]. [48]
, Ag2Te

. ,
-. , 3- -

164

, ,
, .
.
,
.
,
. ,
,
, , , .

. 3.17. HgTe [215].


.

, ,
( , (80-205) )

-

165

, L
0,0350,2 0,50,7 .
L0
HgSe . , (3.51) ,
r=1, >2/3. HgSe
0<1/3, , .
,
, 1/3<<2/3. , HgSe
L
( 0,50,7)
L0
, .

- Q. , r=1,
(=0) , 1/6
. - , HgSe >1/6,
r=1, Q ,
.
,
, r

.
, r=1

HgSe . , r=1 .
<50
r, , .
, 46 r=1,5, .. . HgSe r
2. -

166

, < 80 HgSe .
3.6.
Cd1-xHgxTe


Cd1-xHgxTe, , . ()
.
(=0,16) ( 300 =0,09).
,
, .
, , , .
1. CdxHg1-xTe

R(H,T)

(H,T) , -

, ,
,
. . , Cd1xHgxTe
(
, ), .
R(T,H), (H,T), (T) R(T) =0,1
, >>n.

n-, UnnUpp. , RH0
(H50) , , =0,14 R (
RH127 ) . HgTe ,

167

. R(H) /0(H).
. [121, 125, 233] =0,1;
0,12; 0,14; 0,15; 0,20; 0,345 2300
022,2 . , . =0,10-0,15 () =810, =0,20
=56,
, ,
() , , .
, . , ,
R . , R R c (-) (+).
R(T) :
(=0,10) R(T), ( =0,120,15) R(T) ,
,
(. 3.18). R(T)
.
R(,T) CdHgTe -
,
. R() , R(H)
(-) (+). R(H)
1

1 n 2
: H 0 =
( U Up p
), , 0
,
, .
R(H) ,

168

. ,
(n, p, Un, Up), [234]
[61, 233, 235].

. 3.18. R(T,H)
CdxHg1-xTe (x=0,12; 0,15) [121, 233].

[233] Cd1-xHgxTe =0,12 =0,15.


, R0 H0 , -
H>22,2 , (n, p, Un, Up).
R(H) , :
pU p2 1 + (U n H ) nU n2 1 + (U p H )

(3.62)
eR =
2
2
2
2
2

( pU p ) 1 + (U n H ) + 2 pnU nU p 1 (U pU n H ) + ( nU n ) 1 + (U p H )
2

169

Ari
- (i=p) (i=k) Ri,
ni
i=eniUi ,
r(i) ,
, ,
Ar(i)=Ar(n)=1.
, - R() =0,10 =0,14 (. 3.19).
.
Ri =

. 3.19. R
CdxHg1-xTe (x=0,10; 0,14) [233].

170

. 3.20 3.21. , Up 4,2-30 ,


70 Up ,
.

. 3.20. n, p, Un, Up Cd0,15Hg0,85Te [284, 285].

Up(r).
n(T), . , ,

171

=0,10; 0,14 0,15,


( =0,14 =0,15). n(T) . 3.21. n(T) Cd1-xHgxTe ,
.

. 3.21.
CdxHg1-xTe (x=0,10; 0,12; 0,15) [233, 235].

3.7.

172

,
. ,
, . ,
, . , , , .
(). ,
II .
, , , , ..
( -).
. . , ,
.
, . , , ,
, , .
( H >= H C1 ) , .

0, .

,
.
. , , -

173

.
--,
.

.
. ,


, .
(),

(T>Tmax) .
, , .

. ,
, , , .


.
, .
, ,
, ,
(). () ,
.
, [62, 236, 237]
-

174

.
,
[238], =2,2 .

. . () ,
, 16-77 0,05, >77 0,1. 64-77
. (T, H) .

.. .
.
3.22 ()/0, 0
(H). , T90 ()/0
, (<80) ()=()-0.
() (6580). 76, 65 80 () .
, 90 Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox, <65 H C2 . ()/0 ,
75. ,
, . , ()/0
,
. ,
, , H~H1,
H>H1 ,
- .
.

175

. 3.22. Bi- : 1 90; 2 65; 3 80; 4 70; 5 76 [212, 233].

, ,

10-12 , (
) 1()=()-0 , 2()=()-0. , , .. =1-2.

, , -, - , ,

. , , ~12 ,
, ,
,
.

176

. (), () 0()
(. 3.23),
(. 3.24 3.25). () - (()=LT/) . (1) , .. () . () (2) (3) . ,
, .
() 70 .
30-200 , 30 ~20 . (4)
, <30, . () (5)
. ,
.

. 3.23. Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox:
1 ; 2 3 ;
4 YBa2Cu3Ox 5 [62, 236, 237].

177

, , .
, ().
, . , l () () ().

. S(T,H) (.
3.24) S() (. 3.25) ,
S , (. 3.25).
S , [239]. (). S

, (<70)
(. 3.24). S(H) >90.
().
S(T) , [239-241] S(T) ,
, - d-
. S <
[240, 241] . [241], S ,
. . 3.25 . , S() , ,
[239] .
S().
.
. 3.25 .

178

. 3.24.
[62, 236, 237].

. 3.25. .
- [62, 236, 237].

179

, ,
.
[242-245] .
.
<
(). , - , , , [245].


[247]. (,) Ba1-xRxBiO3 60 2,5-24.
, 5
()/0. .
[247]
. , ()/0 ( 3040), (). ,
15,2 ()/0 30%.

- [247 249].

180

IV


CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-xSnxTe


. , , . ,
, .
, . , , ., , , (-) , .. .

=0r-1/2, r , . , (T>D)
,
. ,
, ,
, .

r=0, . ,
, ,

181

. , 0>> (0
),
, .. r=0. ,
>>0r=1. ,
.
, r=2,
. r=0. ,
, , . .
,
: =0(2)r-1(/K).
.
.
, , .
-
, .. .
, ,
, .
, ,
,
. , .
(), ,
. .
-

182

, . - () .

(, ,
.), , .
, .., ,
, .
Ge Si
. . ,
n- 77 . -
,
n- [248-251], ..
.
, , , ,
, . .
CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-xSnxTe [252-279],
. ,
. , , .
. , [280-300] - Hg1-xCdxTe Pb1-xSnxTe .

183

4.1. - CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-xSnxTe

, , . , -
Hg1-xCdxTe
.
. .
, , ~300 (1H2 )
(0,150,25) .

:
.
, ,
.
[282-287] , , (50-100 ), . [280-286] ,
R . , ,
(2-300) (50-50000 ).
50-1000
,
( J V).

, Pn-Sn-Te ( 250).
, , -

184

(=10,6 ).
,
-
, , .
. 4.1 4.2 ,
=0; 0,01; 0,12; 0,15; 0,20 0,25
4,2300 0H22 .
-
. , - R . ,

, - (. 4.3).

. 4.1.
Cd0,12Hg0,88Te [283-285]: ;
D=0, =5,61017 -2, =D=1018 ., - =1,51018 2.

185

. 4.2.
Cd0,12Hg0,88Te [283-285]: ;
=0, =7,21017 -2.

, ,

. ,

.
4.1 4.2 R(H) .
R(H),
( ) .
. , 77, -

186

. 4.3.
Cd0,12Hg0,88Te [283-285]: ;
D=0, =7,21017 -2, =D=1018 .

UPH
>> 1
c
R
R(H), =1/R CdxHg1-xTe.
U H
. R(H) P << 1 c
n Un. R ( ) :
, ,

2
2
1 nU n pU p
H0 =

U nU p
pn

2
(4.1)


: p>>n, Un>>Up,

187

1 n
,
Up p
.
=(pUp+nUn), : n, p, Un, Up, :
1

eR = p n

= e ( pU p + nU n )

(4.2)
H = n
0 pU p

pU p2 nU n2

eR =
2

( pU p + nU n )
nU n2 >> pU p2 , (4.1) H 0 =

,
R(H) , .
.
. 4.1 4.2 , , R.
, R
. R . ,
. n-
, ,
. . = 1
1 ,
1

Un
U n =0
Un
i

188

- n- Uni
. , ,
. ,
77 ,
, . , , -
, ,
.
- .
H=n0+n
p=p0+p (n0 p0 )

()=0(0)/(1+U02H2)
. Un(T) U~Tm, m=1,31,5.
. 4.2
R(T) . R(T,
H) . ~77. =0,15, 4,2300 022
. , R(T)
, . R(T) .
, .
, .
R.
.
,
n ,
, R().

189

R() =0,1 =0,12 =0,15.


p-HgTe R,
. , ,
, .
,
=const,
.
. , ~H2
(n, Un, p,
Up). , . ,
, UiH/c .
(
).
, 2 ,
H~500-600 .
, / ,
-
.
=const :
2
1 2 ( 1 R1 2 R2 )

=
,
(4.3)
1 + 2 2
2
2
2

+ 1 2 ( R1 + R2 )
H
1, 2, R1, R1 .
,

190

, , . ,
, ,
/
, , ,
/ .
/ , . ,
,
. , / 200 .
, /
(nUn)2(pUp)2. /
, /
,
n. 200-300
/;
,
, /.
, , ,
/. , , CdxHg1-xTe, , /.

, / ,
. / , . ,
/ ,
.

191

, ,
.
, ( ) 433.
. 4.2 4.4
R(H), ( 340)
.
( 293 340) . , , 340 ,
.

. 4.4. Rx
Cd0,12Hg0,88Te, ;
=3,5 , =8,7 [283-286].

192


. , .
, CdxHg1-xTe, , . , ,
, , . , . . .
, (). , .
/
=0,12 =0,15 - ,
Cd / ( 77). - , / 300 . ,
77 3 , - . , , ,
, (n).
,
CdxHg1-xTe n/p, / . /
, . ,

.

193

4.2. -
CdxHg1-xTe
1. CdxHg1-xTe

CdxHg1-xTe . , . HgTe.

. , - ()
, , (
, , -,
). CdxHg1-xTe ,
, .
, -
, . , ()
, , . (, ) ,
. .
. , -

.

194

, CdxHg1-xTe ,
,
.
. ,
(4050) ,
, , , ( ~x=0,140,15).
=0,12,
270, 80 (. 4.5).

. 4.5. 0 Cd0,12Hg0,88Te
[283-287]: =0, =5,61017 -2, - =1,51018 -2.

, (4,2-300), .. , n- . , 018 () ( =0,14) =0,20,


860 , (. 4.6 4.7). ,

195

. 4.6. 0 Cd0,12Hg0,88Te
[283-287]: ; =0, =5,61017 -2.

. 4.7. Cd0,15Hg0,85Te
[282-287]: =0, =5,61017 -2.

196

( , =0,12;
0,15) . ()

n(T). =0,10 =0,20 () ,
. , [283-297] , () ().
() =0,14, . [282291]
(), (, ),
R(T) (T). R
, , , n, p
Un, Up
. . 4.8
. Un(T) Up(T) ,
425 , , 25 .
. 4.9
() ().
, ()
, ,
() .
, . ,
.
,
:
2
2
p ( H ) 2p 1 + (U n H ) + ( p n ) p n ( 1 U pU n H 2 ) n n2 1 + (U p H ) + Ay

H =
2
2
2
2
2

p 1 + (U n H ) + 2 p n ( 1 U pU n H ) + n 1 + (U p B )

197

(4.4)

. 4.8.
Cd0,14Hg0,86Te [291, 298]: 1 , 2 - , 3 , 4 .

. 4.9.
Cd0,14Hg0,86Te [291,298]. , (), .

198

k
Ay = p n ( E (y p ) E (y n ) ) (U p H U n H ) - , e
-; E yi - (i=p, n); i=eniUi ;
2
y ( 0 ) + (U i H ) i ( )
- .
y ( H ) =
2
1 + (U i H )
i(0) i() n, p, Un, Up *p n*
, . *p n* p(T) n(T)
m*p =0,4m0. i(0) .
. 4.9 . ,
20
.
,
.
() (, ),
=(0)-(0).
(4.5)
20
CdxHg1-xTe , ~(m*)2, m*p >> m*n , ,
.

(. 4.9). , , , () , ,
.
() ,
- .
() ,

199



- . ,
, .

. , ,
, , , (), 0.
. 4.10 ()
Cd0,14Hg0,86Te. (4.4) ().
, : =16; 22, 51 12. .
, .
, . , .. =-, =-.
,
[61, 298, 299].
-
CdxHg1-xTe . [288294]. .
4.5-4.7.
, , .
. .
n , .. -

200

. , (n p),
( ). . 4.7 ()
Cd0,15Hg0,85Te . , ,
,
, ( ) , , ,
().
, Up/Un<<1
p/n R . R(T) , R(T) . , R
=8,7 =30 R. R(T)
. R , .

.
.
-. , , , -
30% , .
, .
,
,
. , [252, 283] , n-CdxHg1-xTe
,

201

-
1
1
1
=
+
, U0
U0 Ui U L
, Ui UL
. [281-286] , KT
,
=
g
g . , ,
U0(T) , ,
. [284-287]
,
, -.
-
, (, ) - , ,
. ,
CdxHg1-xTe (=0; 0,10; 0,12; 0,15; 0,20; 0,25) , ,
,
n<p; Un>>Up. ,
.
-,
( Q)
, ,
- .
, , , , , -

202

. -
-.
, , , - n-, .
=61016 -3 >61017
2. n-
.
.
b=Up/Un<<1 p/n
R . R(T) , R ,
77, R .
R(T) . R , ,
,
.
.
,
. . 4.10
n-CdxHg1-xTe.
, . ,

,
, 1
1
1

, U0 =
+
U0 Ui U L

203

, U0 UL
.

. 4.10. Cd0,14Hg0,86Te
[291 298]. , : 1 12; 2 16; 3 22; 4 31; 5 51; 6 68.

. 4.11. Un ( 1, 2)
((1/Un))/ ( 3) nCd0,15Hg0,85Te [302].

204


.
- (), .
. 4.7 ()
Cd0,15Hg0,85Te .
.

, . . . 4.12 ()
Cd0,12Hg0,88Te 100, 200, 300.
, |()| , ()<0. 200 (()>0)
=5,61017 , =1,51018 2 () (2
). >2 (),
. 200 (, n, R, U) ().
() 100 . (1,5 ) .
. >1,5 0. , =1,51018 -2 () .

. ,
() 200 , , , .. .
() (

205

[1+(UnH)2] (4.4)). 100 =5,61017 -2 Un , , n>>p. 1,51018 -2 Un c 9,1104 6,8104 2-1-1,


|()|, n
() .

. 4.12. Cd0,12Hg0,88Te [284-286, 302].


HgTe Cd0,1Hg0,9Te .
-

,
, . [88] ,
n-CdxHg1-xTe : , .

206

2. -
-

, . , R - Q . - , . ,
[283] Ey
).
- - ( y =
k T
e x
. 4.13 4.14
( ) () ( )
Cd0,15Hg0,85Te =7,21017 -2. ,
, , ,
, (. 4.13). , 300 200 UH
>> 1 ) ,
(
c
. , - UH
= 1 ,

c
UH
,
= 1 . c
. , () 300
200 ( . 4.13) , ,
, UH
> 1 ). ,
(
c
- (. 4.14).

207

. 4.13. -
Cd0,15Hg0,85Te [286, 302]: =0, =7,21017 -2.

. 4.14. -
Cd0,15Hg0,85Te : 1 1,6 ; 2 14 ; 3 20 ; =0,
=7,21017 2 [302].

208

nUnpUp.
R(H,T) ,
(. 4.1 4.2).
(I, II ) p=n () , ,
2
1
U pH
U H
UH
>> 1 - y ~
.. n << 1 ~UnH,
.
c
c
c
p=n, , , .
(,) ,
, . Cd , .
4.3.
CdxHg1-xTe Ag2Te
1.

CdxHg1-xTe Cd. ,
n~Tk k
k>3/2.
, . k .

CdHgTe, .

209

()
, HgSe, HgTe, CdxHg1-xTe, Ag2Te,
PbxSn1-xTe .
,
. ,
,
. , n(T)
.
, , , mn mp. :
3

mn 2 F3

F3

( )

( ) = m p 2 F3 2 ( )
2

(4.6)

(4.6) , mnmp =0>0,


mn>mp - 0<0, mn=mp - =0. , mn/mp, =0 . ,
n(T) :

( 2mn KT )
n=

F3

( 0 ) ~ T
2

2
(4.7)
3 h
n~T3/2 [302305]. HgTe HgSe, mn<<mp,
, ,

2

mp 2 3
(4.8)
0 = ln 3

ln 0
2
4 mn
, n~T3/2 .
, n~T3/2 . n~T3/2 , -

210

. HgTe HgSe.
3

mn 2 I 30 ( , ) = m p 2 F3 ( ) ,
2

(4.9)

, mn ,
KT
=
, g g
. (4.9) n~T3/2.
, ,
CdxHg1-xTe =0,16 ( 4).
, :
( KT ) 3 2
3
2

(4.10)
F

2m

=
F3 ( )
(
)
(
)
3
p
2
S3

:
3

3m p S 2 2

= ln 3
(4.11)

4
KT

( 2mn KT )
n=

F3 ( ) n(T)
2
3 2 h 3
3

2
2

2m
S
KT
3

p
(4.12)
n( T ) = 2 3 3 ln 3


4
3 h S
KT

(4.12) , n(T) , n~T3,


, n~T3/2.
n~T3/2 ,
. Pb1-xSnxTe.
F3()=F3(-),
(4.13)
=0, .. =0
. , F3(0)=5,4,

(4.11)

211

n=

( KT )

3 2 h 3 S 3

F3 ( ) ,
n = 5,4

( KT )

~ T3

(4.14)
3 h S
, n(T), n~T3/2,
, n~T3 ,
. , n(T) .
[235, 284-286] n(T) CdxHg1-xTe, (. 3.20, 3.21)
4 (. 3.21), ,
n~T =0,10 =1,7; =0,12 =2;
=0,14 =2; =0,15 =2,5. 1550. ,
=0,10; =0,12 , .. , =0,14 =0,15 , () 2,34. CdxHg1-xTe .
. , , , .
2

CdxHg1-xTe


,
, . .
CdxHg1-xTe
[307-309]. , , -

212

mp
mn, ,
, (. 4.15).
0,
, , ,
g, g, 0 [310, 311].

. 4.15. ,
.


(. 4.16), g 0,2 =0 (HgTe) g=0
=0,16. . HgTe g=0,0022 .
CdxHg1xTe , mp>>mn . . ,
g=0 [55]:

exp ( i )
n ( i ) = 1 +

KT

213

(4.15)

. 4.16. CdHg1-Te. <0


, x>x0 .

g=0, , :
1

4 exp ( 0 F )
N d + P = n + N a 1 +
(4.16)

KT

, Nd Na , .
4
[313]. , ,

( 2m KT )
P=
p

F3 ( p ) ,

p =

(4.17)
2
3 h
KT

,
2m KT 3 2
( p ) F
P=
(4.18)
( )
3 2 h 3 3 2

,

2

214

( 2mn KT )

(4.19)
( , ) ,
,0
2
3 h
=F/KT =/g, g=(8)-(6).

(4.18) (4.19) (4.15), , ,
.
, (4.19) (4.18) n p.

. , , . , mp>>mn ,
, . :
n=

k =

h2

2mn

( 3 n )
2

I 30

( 2m KT )
p=

4 2 h 3
. :


n = N0 F
0

KT
= N0

m p KT
P = 3

4 mn 0

N0 =

exp ( p ) = N p exp ( p )

N o exp ( )

( 2mn 0 )

(4.20)

(4.21)

(4.22)

(4.23)
3 2 h 3
N0 , , .. n=N0, F=0. (4.22)
(4.16) =F/ [309, 312]:
3

3
mp 2
2
3 4
exp ( ) =
m
n

(4.24)
3
1

0 2 N d
0

Nd
=

1 + 4 exp KT
No
KT N o

. 4.17 -

215

CdxHg1-xTe [312]
mp/mn=18,

mp 2
3 4
=100.
mn

. 4.17. ( n/N0) (k0/0), [307, 309].

, n(T), , , .
( . 4.15). .
1. , Nd=0, Na. , ,
,
,
, ,
-.
2. , Nd<Na.
.
) =0 F<0, ,
, n=Nd<N0,

216

0.
F=0 , N0, , n=N0.
Na=0, , , n=Nd,

( 1 . 4.17).
) ,
, .. Na0. Na ,
F<0, . , ,
. ,
n.
, n(T), n(T)
CdxHg1-xTe Cd, .
, , , n(T) ( n(T))
( 2-5, . 4.17).
n(T), CdxHg1-xTe,
=0,10; 0,12; 0,14 0,15, (),
26. , ,
- , ( ), ,
, .

( ) .
, .. ..

217

HgTe. ,
, , .
, ..
,
, n(T).
n(T) [314,
315]. , [319-321] n(T)
, [233, 235, 286] (. 3.21), ..
n(T).
[310, 311], , (- Na)
,
, . ,

n(T) . ,
, , .
,
CdxHg1-xTe
.
3. , Nd>Na , =0 , .. F<0.
.
) Na=0, 2, n(T)
Nd, n ( 1, . 4.17b, n- ).
) Na0, ,
0 Na
Na=Nd-N0=N, n
n=N0, (4.23) ( Na=Nd-N0

218

=0 (4.21) n=N0).
Na ,
,
(. 4.17b).
) Na>(Nd-N0), 0
:
- .
, - . , Na<N0, n(T)
( 3-5, 4.17b).
n(T)
, ,
(). , n(T) R(T) (). ,
,
.
CdxHg1-xTe ,
.. ..,
n(T) (), ( 215), Na/Nd,
( n~) , .. [233, 235,
284-286] () . , CdxHg1-xTe (=0,10; 0,12; 0,14
0,15) n(T)
,
R(T), (T), (H,T), (H, T),
. ,
, [311, 312],
,
. , .
Cd0,15Hg0,85Te
,

219

( 4) n=3,71013 -3,
( Na) 1,71017 -3
(Na/Nd=4,61013), n~TK 30-100 =3,1. n=51013 -3, 30-100 (=2,5), 200-300
(=2,8) (. 4.18).

. 4.18.
Cd0,15Hg0,85Te
.

, , 2, (), Na. ,
( 1015) , <0
, . , , -

220

, . , , ( n(T)) n,
, .. n(T) .

,
n(T),
.
,
.
() . , ,
, , 4. ,
n(T) =2,7 ( 30-100) =2,9 ( 200-300) K(n, T).

n(T) , ,
.
=0,14 ,
, (n=91013 -3) =0,15, n(T) , (n~TK) K=2,9.
=0,14 , ,
(n=91013 c-3)
=0,15, n(T) K=2,9. ( ()).
=0,12 , .
(n=2,31014
-3), ,
, Na/Nd
, =0,15.
-

221

, ()
(=2,3).
=0,10 .

(n=3,71015 -3), ,
n- .
250 . ,
(nUn>>pUp). , , .
N(T),
n~T1,8, .. , (=1,5).
,
(2-300) T400.
2. Ag2Te

.
. [319-321] p-Ag2Te ~0,75 .%.
()
~65 200, R(T) 200300, () 100 270. .
. , Ag2Te
0,03 g()=(0,03-710-5 ) .
,
n()
,
n(T)
.

222

[322] Ag2Te. , Ag2Te, ,


n=11014 -3 =51016 -3, .. =n/p=0,002.
,

n/p
.
[322] n-Ag2Te n=61014
-3
=51016 3, n/p
=0,012, 6,2 , 0,75 .%.
R(H, T) () 2-300 , 20 ,
30 . Ag2Te
(~0,1 .%), Ag2Te .
. 4.18 R(H) . , 4,2 R(H) R . ( 77)
R(H) (-) (+). , R(H) . , R(T),
, (. 4.19). , RH0(T)
(UH/c<<1) 25 ,
~20 , 300. ( 1 3 ) R(T) 60
80, =5 R(T) ( ~3848) (-) (+), ~60-70 (+) (-),
R ~80 300.
R ,
(-) (+) ,
(+) (-) , .. .
, Ag2Te
.
(n(T), p(T), Un(T), Up(T)). , [234] [235],

223

. 4.18. R
Ag2Te [322].

. 4.19. Ag2Te [322].

224

. 4.20. Ag2Te [322].

: , RH0, RH, RH=H0.


n(T),
63 ,
n(T) (. 4.20).

(InSb, CdHgTe) (HgTe, CdxHg1-xTe, ZnxCd1-xTe).
n(T) , n(T)
(K>3/2) (). ,
.

225

[323] -CdxHg1-xTe , , , , , , .
,
.
, , (
Na>Nd) , n(T).
,
,
.
[307-312].
,
mp>>mn , ,
.
0
g. g (0=0,16 4) 0
. [309]
, mp>>mn (. 3.9). =F/KT (4.24).
4.17 , (4.24)
CdxHg1-xTe mp/mn=18,
3

mp 2

=100. ,
3
4 m
n

n(T) .
. Na<Nd, Na=0, n(T) (. 4.17), .. ,
n(T)-const, , n(T) .

226


, Na0, Nd<N0 F=0.
Na
(F<0) .
, ,
, , n.
,
n(T), .. n(T) ( 2-5, . 4.17).
, Nd>N0 Na0, , Na=Nd-N0=N

n=N0 n(T) .
, , Ag2Te
Nd<N0, Na0, , Nd/N00,8 N/N00,8=1 ( 2, . 4.17).
n(T) (T) , R(T)
. , Ag2Te
Nd/N0>1
N/N0>1,
. , Ag2Te g , , [319]. T50 .
n(T), , HgTe HgSe CdxHg1xTe (4.6). (4.6) , =g/KT, (n~TK)
>3,2. (g=0) -

227

(4.10), S = 2 p

3h
g=2mnS2.
(4.11). (4.11) n =

( 2mn KT )
2

F30 ,0 ( ) , n(T) -

2
3 h
(4.12), , n(T)
, n~T3, , n~T3/2.
Ag2Te R(H). ,
(n<p), R(H) (=0) .
p>>n, Un>>Up, nUn2>>pUp2, 0 [233, 285]:
1

1 n 2
(4.25)
H0 =

Up p
RH0, RH (n, p, Un, Up)
[233, 285].
R 8 ; 12 ; 14
22 n(T), p(T), Un(T) Up(T).
n(T)
Ag2e. , Ag2Te (n~TK) K>3 (~3,53,6)
(. 4.2), .. , . [322] ,
n(T)
. n(T)
R(T) (n~TK).
R(T)
p-CdxHg1-xTe [314-318]. .
[314], , , ,
, n- .
[304],

228

n- p- . ,
Ag2Te .
, R(T) (R(H)
. [323]
, , ,
,
. , ,
. ,
,
,
. , ,
, R(T).
[324, 325]
R(T) - . ,
CdxHg1-xTe . , (nd<Nd<Na).

= ,
, .
,
, .
[322] , R(T,H)
.
[322] , Ag2Te
. ,
R(T) (. 4.15).
, RH0, RH RH0 R(H) Ag2Te .
, R() (-) (+) =15

229

: n=1,51014 -3, Un=11000 2-1-1


=51016 -3, U=600 2-1-1 38 n=21014
-3, Un=10600 2-1-1 =5,81016 -3, U=610 2-1-1
68.
.
, R(T) c (-) (+).
,
(). , , n(T),
.
R(T) (+) (-) , . Upp<Unn,
(
).
4.4.
CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-xSnxTe

, CdxHg1-xTe ,

[151, 330].
,
, .
,
6
8. (dg/dP)>0, (dg/dP)<0.
|g|
, .
HgTe [15, 330-332], - .

230

,
, , . HgTe Hg
Cd, Zn. Cd
Hg 6 HgTe
CdTe. (,
, ) . , CdxHg1-xTe, , . g Cd
[333, 334, 345] , , 8-14
( ).
,
6 8 .
,
.
, , ,
( ).
. .
. , ,
. ,
[334].
, ,
. , =0,2 ( 573)
. . ,

231

,
.


().
( ). ,
n-CdxHg1-xTe (x=0,210,23) 463-600
100 ,
, .
[335] ,
CdxHg1-xTe

.

- . .
,
, . ,
. . (n, p, n, p).
, CdxHg1-xTe ,

.
, ,
[330, 336-344]. , 15-30 ,
.

232

() , .. ,
(10 ) .
() R(T) ( 6 )
R(T) (H10 ) [233, 281].
-.
HgTe CHgTe,
, .. .. [307, 309],

, Ag2Te [324].
.

, ( ). ,
.
,
.. ,
, ,
n(T). .
, ,
, . ,

:
[346, 347]. F
.
, F=A
,
. ., 9 32 .

233

[347, 348] ,
,
.
[349]
,
, ( 5 ) , . , ,

, [350, 351] . ,
?
1.
CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-xSnxTe

CdHgTe
70- [330, 341-344]. CdTe - . [352] HgTe . [344] (=0,220,31)
2,5 =25,
4,1105 -2. - (2,5-4,3)1016 -3 77.
n-.
8 1,51016
-3, 3,5 (. 4.1).
. ,
. .
50-75.
[343, 344, 353]
, -

234

. [354] . 2
77 320. n- (0,190,20; n=1,51015
-3; n=105 c/), 77
~41017 2,
41015 -3,
.
300-320 .

n-. [333, 338] - 320

. n- (
2,61014 -3, =5,78104 2-1-1)
5 80 51014 -2,
80400 ( 20 ). ,

dn/d=5,7 -1, n , =41014 -2 (n, max=1,1105 2-1-1). 340 n, n . 150225.
n .
CdHgTe.
[341] ( 10 80)
( 2 30 3,751014 -2), ( 14 ) , n, ( =0,2), . , 10 80, n ,

235

,
n (~n2).
=7 v=16 -1 v=3 -1
. ,
(=0,2) , , .
,
. , ,
.
, , .. ,
, , .
, , ,
, . , ( , - p-n-) , 300,
.
[355], n- p- (=0,240,28)
300 2
2,21018 -2. ( Rx |Rx|)
() 300-400.
n- Rx
,
Rmin=103 c3K-1 =78,
. - , -1018 2
(min=10-1 -1-1 78).
|Rx| -
(. 4.1). [341, 344], [355] ,
Rx - .
,

236


CdxHg1-xTe, ,
, :
. , [341-344] .
, [355]
, 300,
,
, . 300-430 , 350430, . , ,
,
300
, , .
[334] ,
.
. ,
.
, .

. [324]
( 0,200,29) -

237

2,3 300 10141018 -2 300420. -,


, . -
n- p- 5101521016 -3. - -
.
, -
(dH/d) ( 1 -1), ,
pn .
, , ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
.. . [253, 356-359]

CdHgTe. .. [361-365].
[360] , n- .
4,5 , , =0,6 ( ,
- 60). 1012 /2, 1015, 91015,
51016 -2, - 106, 107, 108 .
303.
77-300. ,
. , -,

238

, n- , .
[365] (25 ),
(1013-1015) -2, (1013-1014) -2.
( =0,2) .
R / 4,2300, 0,54 . , R(T)
. 1013 c-2 R(T) ()
.
51015 -2 Rx, 2 , n-CdHgTe.
R ( 2-3 ).
, , , , .. . [333] , - 5107 .
1 1,7 300 CdHgTe.
.
( =0,2) . -
25 . ,
, . [367] ,
Cd ( Cd , Hg Te)
In,
(41014 -3) 1015 /2. In . ( 21016 1015 -3) , , :
,
In,

239

. , ,
323 ( 2 ).
, , .

, .
,
CdHgTe ,
Cd ,
.
, , , ,
, . , . , , , , ,
.
[334] , CdHgTe - 50 1,2 60
61042105 . - .
,
CdxHg1-xTe (x=0,2).
- , , - (, n)
. : I n- n=2,21014 -3 n=6,7104
2/ ( 77), II =6,11017 -3 =1,1102
2/. - - ,

. 7 - I . II - .

240

- 105 . II -
. -, VHg II , . , , -
- , . . ,
[333, 357] , [334] , .
[368] (=0,190,21) n- p- - 60
109 . , - n- p- VHg. . . , -
( Hgi-VHg). -
( Hgi VHg)
- (Hgi) . ,
(VHg) .

,
. ,
[349, 369]
, . .. .

241

[253, 357]
- . ,
.
[367, 370, 371] -CdHgT, . , , p-n .
1015
-3, -.
[372]. 6,3 ,
9.
,
. , -.

CdHgTe [345, 360, 369].
[318]
CdHgTe
-. [352]
(0,180,35)
2 1013 1016 /2.
R
( 77300)
. , - ,
.
.
(0,180,20) . 0,3
. ,
. , ,

242

.

250 , 11015 -2. =0,23
=0,75 p-n . =0,23 77, =0,75
.
[373] , p-CdHgTe , , , . ,
,
, .
[374-376]
.
[377] . [373]
-
(=0,200,24) . ,

. , 4 /2 (0,200,24).
,
.
.
[361-363]
. [362] , 673 ,
Hg Te . ,

243

CdxHg1-xTe (=0,2)

[363]. ,
.
Hg
n-,
.
[365] 60 Hg1-xCdxTe.
, .
[365]
n-Hg0,8Cd0,2Te
3 10171018 -3 300. ,

,
. . ,
.
, ,
.

.
[370]

300, (0,51,0)1017 2.
(=1,50,3
). , , (0,51,0)1017 2
, (510)1017 2.
, ,
.
[378] - 60

244

(=343, D=4108 ) (77300)


n- p-
(0,50,95). ,
R ,
.
[379]
CdHgTe . , Hg .
Hg Hg. CdTe , CdxHg1-xTe >0,2 .
,
. Hg. , .
.
[378] , - CdxHg1-xTe (0,240,40). , n-CdxHg1-xTe (=0,24; 0,27; 0,30 0,40)
-,
.
,
.
[380]
(0,500,95), 3
343 10151018 2. , n- , R , n . p-
, p-n .

245

,
CdHgTe.
[382] , Pb1-xSnxTe ( ,
Mn In), 2-
<E.
. PbSnTe

=-0,017 , g=2. PbTe
Mn .
-
Pb1-xSnxTe.
[355, 381] (300, =6 , 8,31017 -2) Pb1-xSnxTe (=0,2).
, . .
Pb1-xSnxTe (=0,2), . ,
-Pb1-xSnxTe (=0,2).
[383] n-Pb1-xSnxSe (00,25) (=300, =48 , 4,11017 -2).
-, .
Pb1-xSnxSe , , -,
, .
, . , -

246

. , n-
, . , .
[384]
(=200450 ) (2 ) ( ) Pb1-xSnxTe. , .
[385] (18 )
-Pb1-xSnxTe (=0,2),
(=300, =6 , 8,31017 -2). ,

, , .

, . , .
, ,
, , . ,
(, ).
[344]
- Pb1-xSnxTe (=0,2), 6 (8,31017 -2).
,
--
18 . , . ,

.

247

2.

,
.
. , XXI .
,
. [333,
335, 340, 257, 370, 386-388] .
, ()
CdxHg1-xTe, CdZnTe .
(), , .
, ,
.
.
() . ,
. ,
CdHgTe.
, .

. [356]
CdxHg1-xTe.
CdxHg1-xTe (0,210,23) - , Cd0,96Zn0,04Te
(). . -

248

, . CdZnTe, , ,
. 30-50 ,
75050 . Nd104 -2, . , - () .
, 77,3
121017 -3, Up~300 c2-1c-1. ,
(0,52)1016 -3. , , .

, Ar-
488 514,5 . 78 GaAs-.

2
.
, 85, Ar+- 1 10 . CCD-

.
7 ,
CdxHg1-xTe.
HgTe.
=0 =0,25 1 Ar+-, 514,5
(2,401 ). ,
HgTe (LOHgTe)

249

=0,25. ,
. , LOHgTe
,
,
.
,
, ,
, . . , , ..
( ) .

,
.
,

2- .
2HgTe, 2LOHgTe, 2TOCdTe
LOHgTe+LOCdTe, TOHgTe+LOHgTe. [398-401], .
,
. [402] CdxHg1-xTe 0,2
233, 279,
315, 297, 256 -1, , , CdTe (=0,22,
=85) LO1=157,5 c-1, HgTe LO2=139,5 c-1,
O2=116,5 c-1. , , ,
415 -1, 3- (3). , ,

250

. , , , LO TO-, .
, . , ,
HgTe , CdTe, ,
( ).
, Te:HgTe=152,9 c-1,
Te:CdTe=146,9 c-1, Hg:CdTe=107,1 c-1 =0,22. Te-Te, ,
-=170,0 c-1.
,
-
L=32 -1, .
,
, .
[402] CdxHg1-xTe.
-
133-135 -1. ( )
CdxHg1-xTe.

. ,
- , 1, 4, 6. . 77-125 -

251

. .
.
Un(Un2/Hc=1/HH,
, . 100-125 , , . 77 5-8U2/Hc.
U~Tm, m=1,31,5. ,
, , .
, ().
, (Ga, As, Si).
.
, . ,
,
.
.
[371], .

, . -

252

- .

.
10121015 -2. : =150 , j=0,010,1 -2.
. , , , .
.

. ,
,
,

.

, : ,
.
, . .
, ,
(10-15 ) . , , =340380 4-6 ,

.

253


, HgTe
(0-7 ) ( 3 5,
-). ,
, .
,
. , , ,
. , ,
HgTe .
,
, , .
.

, .
[366], CdxHg1-xTe - =0,210,23, - . 125-300

. ,
.

, ,

. -

254

, , .

. () ,
.
,
. .
, .

.
.
, .
. , , . . , :
Ay Bi-y dy/dx ,
, , 100
- d , dy/dx<1/10001.
, ,
( ) -

255

.
[359]

77-300.
, .

: , ,
, -

, .
-
8-15 .
- , , . , -
. ,
, .
[358]
,
.

, ( ).
n- (=0,22, n0=51014 -3).
, . , 6-180 .

256


. GaAs- =0,9 .
2 =10,6 .

(
2-1 -1). . ,
-. ,

, -,
. ,

(). ,
,
.

,
(=3-20 ). , (3,4-4 , 4,5-5 , 8-14
16-23 ):
, .

,
. . p-n , , (
) - . -

257


.
,
,
CdxHg1-xTe, ,
. , , ,
g,
-.
,
, .. .
.
[403] CdxHg1-xTe Nd:YAG- 77. =3300-3600 ,
.
. ,
.
=0,46,
CdTe, [406]
10. =12 (=4100 ).
[403], -, , CdxHg1-xTe
3250-3450 . .
,

. CdxHg1-xTe.

.
,

258

CdxHg1-xTe 0 1,6 .
CdTe Cd0,2Hg0,8Te,

. 1
.
. CdHgTe Hg-Te,
. ,
, , .
. , , , Hg-Te.
. , Mn
Zn, (1,39 1,3), ,
(1,58). [407] CdxMnyZnzHg1-x-y-zTe
() (1-7%),
, , , .

Hg1-x-yCdxMnyTe . , ,
,
( 5%) Zn, Mn. , . ,


. , -

259

Mn Zn.
, Mn Zn .
,
.
,
HgCdTe
3-5 8-14 .
-

-. , : ( 473),
( 1010 -3), , . , ,
(
470). SiO2 , 1012 3 . [408]

(Si3N4), SiO2. - () HgCdTe, GaAs.
- - ,
(SiO2-SO3N4)
CdHgTe. SiO2 70 , Si3N4 30 . 0,3 2.
650 . -Hg0,80Cd0,20Te
.
, 70

260

.
. .
, ,
, . , , ,
. () , , , , -n
. ()
, ,
.
,
, .
[404, 405]
GsAs n-.

.
, ,
, . . ,
n-GaAs, . (15)1015 -3. GaAs, , .
, 3 (~300) ( 0,38 eV) 5 ( 390) (

261

0,90 eV) , 4 (340) ( 0,76 eV) , .


, . .
2, 3, 4 5
-
. , 3, 4 5 . 3 5
.
,
, ,
. , ,

. 10
. 3 (240) 2
(100) (, -) 4 5. , , 1 3 , -. n- , - 5,1 22, 12,4, 65 .

3 5
. 3 5
5 ( IAs,
) 3 ( VAs, ) .
, . . n- -

262

: V-, I0, V0, I+.


,
. , , ,
,
. , ,
3 5 . ,
3 5 ,
, .
.
2
( 0,18 )
, ,
500, 0,26
.
,
, .
, .

263

V


1.

,
,
. . , , ,
: , ,
,
.

. ,
, ,
, -.
<0,1 , . , , .

,
.
, ,
,
. , ().
, Ge, Si InSb, ,
(20). , HgCdTe,

264

HgCdSe, HgZnSe , . ( 3-4


), . ,
, , .
-. , p-n.
p-n-, , .

, , 2g, g.
, ,

, g
g. , g ( HgTe HgSe),
. g
. , g ( HgTe, HgSe)
,
(CdTe, CdSe, ZnSe), .. .
Cd CdxHg1-xTe g 0 ( =0,16) 1,6 ( =1, .. CdTe).
,
, - , :
8 14 3 5 .
-

265

, . 77 300.
, , .

. , -HgCdTe-n-HgCdTe, - p-n n-.

.
, -, . , ,
- . ,
, , () -.
. .
,
.

, .
, , ,
,
.

,
, , , . , , , : , ,

266

, . , ,
. ,

. .
, , CdHgTe,
InSb. Cd0,1Hg0,9Te, ,
SnSb Ni.
[254] ,
, .
, , ,
, - , , , CdxHg1-xTe,
Ag2Te . : , , ,
. ,
, : , , , .
. ,
. ,
,
.
-,
- (-).
-.
, , -1

267

E S

Qi B
,
W

Z, K-1
(Q B )
Z= i
S
-1/2
F, B -1/2
QB
F = 3 i1
,
1
4
c 4 2
D, -11/2
=

(5.1)

(5.2)

(5.3)

d
(5.4)
D =
1 + zT
k T
,
0,4 c
,
=
(5.5)

-, W/S - , , d - , , , - , . ,
,
(5.1) (5.5) -, . , , , .
(5.5) ,
- ,
-. , - , ,
, , ,
B=Un/Up>>1.
(5.2) , -

268

-,
.
(5.5) . ,
.
( ) . (5.4) , ,
. , - . ,
,
F, D, , F - , Z - .

, .
.
(Bi)
.
, ,
. , Bi . , -
Bi. /0 Q Bi
.
, Bi
- .
, . , ,
, Bi ni
200 , , , -. ,
.

269

Bi-Sb. , Sb
Bi
[269].
Sb , , B=Un/Up,
. ,
-
. Q(), , F Z
, Bi.
, - (Q)
, =0,5 Q , . ,
, (>n),
, Un>Ui.
Bi-Sb
. .
Bi-Ag. Bi ,
. Ag Bi 3
50 . , , () -. -,

, -, =+
. , , ,
- Bi-Ag , , Bi.
, ,
, , ( ).
InSb-NiSb. -

270

InSb-NiSb.
InSb 1,8 .% NiSb
, InSb NiSb
50 d<1 [160]. NiSb . , - 70500 ,
I, W X, ,
[160-163].
, n=11016 -3 120 =6. (0,01 .% )
,
1,5 .
, NiSb. ,
, . , Bi-Ag, Ni-Sb InSb
, .. .

[164],
,
, . I||X ( ), .. ||x=InSb(1x)+ NiSBx, . ,
I||x , .

,
. ,
- ( J, H, X).
+/0 IXH ( =6 +/0 5 ).
0 20 InSb,

, ,

271

NiSb,
.

W||XH. ,
, .
, , ,
. WX||H InSb ,
WXH , R, .
/0
() , - . ,
:
y (k/e)2
ZT.M. =
K
ZT.M. 300 (=6000 ) W||XH
0,510-3 -1, ZT.M. InSb ()
10 .
Cd3As2-NiAs. Bi-Ag InSb-NiSb Cd3As2-NiAs. Cd3As2
.
n=21018-3 . ,
, , ]202]. , . , ,
NiAs
.
, ,
-

272

, [202].
CdxHg1-xTe. , Hg Cd
.
. -.
, 0,150,25.
- =2,7
=0,022 -1-1
F =1. InSbNiSb 3 F 4 . , - 300
[255, 256].
5 41017 -2 71017 -2
61017 -2 [257, 258].
. Ag2Te
( 4,2
g0.02), 400. g .
Ag2Te

-.
Ag2Te , .
Bi-Sb,
H=1 =80300 ~210-3610-5 -1. 200300, Z
(210-4610-5 -1),
, , Ag2Te 150200 Z=0,810-3 -1 ,
. Ag2Te
.

-, -.

273

Ag2Te [45-47] ,
.
1.
-


, .
, -, -. (5.5) , . , -, ,
. - .
, .

-. [259-261].
(. 5.1) : 1 ,
2 , 3 , 4 5 .
(Ns) . (7) , (6), (8).
-
[259].
(. 5.2).

274

-.
, - .

, .
0, =0 ,
, . 0
.

. 5.1. -
-

,
. ,
- UH/c=11,5 .
, . - .

275

CdHg1-Te (=0,10-0,12) [270-276].


3-4 ,
, , ,
,
[257, 262].

. 5.2. - -

- . - -, n
Bi2Te3, InSb-NiSb.

276


(. 5.3): (1)
, .
(2) Y
.
,
- [254].
:
V2
Q H 1 l d
=
,
(5.6)
V1 1 + Z ( 1 + K1 K 2 )
1 , 1 , Z
, l
, d .

. 5.3.
-. 1
Bi2Te3; 2 CdHgTe; 3 ;
4 ; 5 ; 6 .

, , Z (
=1) ,
Q. , -

277

(Q) , V2 .
2.



. Bi-Sb, =10
80300 2,10-36,10-5 -1.
Ag2Te , 150-300 ZTM=0,810-3 K-1 Bi-Sb.
=1/2ZT2, =2-, 2
. [268] Ag2Te.
.

.
,
. ,
, , ..
, .
( ), - .
.
.
Ag2Te
, .

278

3.

,

.
, ,
.
,

. ,
(). , ,
Ag2Te, [260].
(. 5.4) (1) 555 3,
(2), , .
,
.
. .
, ( ~1
).
U. , , , ,
. U, Q=W, =T/T, f(r) - ,
f(r)- , T ,
.
, -Bi-Te-Se, ,
105 0,80,81,5 3, Ag2Te,
~400 38.

279

. 5.4.

[262] ,
(.
5.5). n- (1) p- (2), n-, p-, (3), (6), (7), (8), (9),
(10), (9). .
, ,
,
( 0,80,81 3),
(n- Bi2Te2,7Se0,3 p- Bi0,5Te2,7Se0,3),

.
.
, , .
- (.. ++; --) , , . -

280

, - .
, ,
. , , 0 ( ),
.

. 5.5. -.

, ,
, 1-2 . , , 7 , 10 .
-

281

. ,
, ,
, ( ) .
[262] , .
[263]
-
,
,
.
, ,
(. 5.6).
(1) 16
n-Bi2Te2,7Se0,3, 0,80,81,0 3,
36 2 0,5 (2). , r=0,4, F=3 . .
. , (4),
(1). , . -
- .
, .
.
, .

282

. 5.6. -.

-

-, .
, [260],
, . ,
,
.
,
, .

283

,
.
, Ag2S Ag2Te
( 425). Ag2S [p264-267] , , Ag2Te
. , Ag2S
. , ( 0,04 0,25 .% Ag) ,
, .. .
(. 5.7)
Ag2S+0,040,25.%Ag (2)
630,25 3 425, , (1) [261].

. 5.7. .

284

: (5) , (, Ag2Te ) (2).


(1) I, 1,
.
.
.
U
W=IU, Q=W,
=/f(z) , f(z)
, , .
=1
, . 1 I=4 . - , .
(7)
.

,
.
4. Ag2S AgFeS2

,
Ag2S AgFeS2
.
( ) ,
-, , ,
, , . .

285

.
,
. .
- . , ,
,
. , , ,
.
, ,
. , , -, ( ), .
Ag2S AgFeS2 ()
10 [264-267]. , 10 =10-12,
.
, Ag2S AgFeS2 .
421 3.
. , . ,
.
VR. ,
- . ,

0,30,5.

286

-,
.

-.
V V. V
V .
, V
Q.
, , 1, V V 100%,
0,2 V 40%. 1 W= 5 , 0,2
0,4 .
. V(Q)
() .
, . , , .

287

60- .
(). ,
, .

.
.
, n-InSb, , () . . m*(n). , .
,
- -
, .

m*(H) (SnS, HgSe, HgTe,
PbTe, PbSe, PbS, , Ag2Te, Ag2Se,
Bi2Te3, Bi1-xSbx, Cd3As2 .) .

,

288

,
.
. ,
, . .

, . .
, HgSe ~30-40%
, ,
, .. -- (UH/c>>1). HgSe n=3,71017
61018 -3 30-300
(=0-()). , , -
(=L0T). K e ( T ,N ) . , L(T) 30-250 2

2 K
L0 =
. 3 e

,
. : HgTe, PbTe,
PbSe, PbS , Ag2Te, Ag2Se, Bi2Te3, Bi1xSbx, Cd3As2 .
, 30-250 - - ()
. ,

289

, , .. .
(HgSe, Ag2Te, PbTe, Pb1-xSnxTe .)
, , , - , , ( 60-150)
5%.
, 60 30-20
250 300 .
( ),
.
, n(810)1018
c-3 ,
.
() - S(H) ,
() S(H) 20-150 UH/c=1,
, , UH/c>1.

, L0/L, , - -
2

UH L0


= 1 , .. c L

. ,
L0/L (
), L . ,
, ,
, , ( ) .

290

, ,
, ,
, ,
, , , .
: , .
,
. HgTe, HgSe, Ag2Te, Ag2Se
. .
, InSb 1,8 .% NiSb
, InSb NiSb ~50 <1 . NiSb .
NiSb, ( ) . J, . ,
-
, n-InSb,
,
.

- . ,
, . . Cd0,2Hg0,8Te
100-2
. (,),

291

.
, , (,), ,
. ,
,
,
()~T-K, .
(16), (,)
2,6, =24 1,5. , =UH/c>>1 . , /g , .. : 30, 24 16
1,6 14,2 .
() (),
(=-()-).
, , () , ,
.. () , . CdxHg1-xTe n
n(T) , , , n~TK
, >3/2. , , n(T).
,
n(T)
n~T~2,8. n(T)
(n~T3/2) 6 , ( Pb1-xSnxTe) n~T3.
.
, CdxHg1-xTe , 15-50 =0,10 =1,7; 0,12
2, 0,14 3; 0,15 2,5, =0,10 0,12 -

292

, =0,14 0,15 , .
, , ,
.. ... , , . (
) .
, Na
Nd , , . , ,
, .. , () ,
n(T). ,
,
(), R(T) ().
n(T) .

, Na0. (
10-15) Na
(F<0), .
,
. n
, n(T) .

26,
,
, , -

293

,
. n(T) . ,
, n(T) , ,
. ,
=0,10; 0,12; 0,14; 0,15. 2-10-15,
, n(T), . , Cd0,15Hg0,85Te , n=3,71013 -3 =1,71017 -3 (Na/Nd=4,61013),
n~TK 30-100 =2,9,
200-300 =3,1. n
n=51013 -3, 30-100 =2,5, 200-300 =2,5. , , , n
(K(n,T)).
n(T) , , (- Na)
, , . ,
-
n(T) . , , , .
R(T)
(-) (+), (+) (-). ,
( , ) .
,
.
-

294

. , , . Ag2Te, , .
, ,
, .
, n/p .
Ag2Te, , n=61014 -3 =51016 -3 (n/p=0,012).
, 4,2 R() , R . 77 R() (-) (+), .
R(T)
R
. 1-3 : 60 80.
5 R(T) (-) (+),
~60-70 (+) (-). , ,
(-) (+) , (+)
(-) , ..
.
.
n(T), p(T), Un(T) Up(T). n(T), 63, ,
n~T3,5.
, Ag2Te ,
Nd<N0, Na0 (Na>Nd), .
n(T) (T) (
), R(T) . ,
Ag2Te g , , 50 -

295

. , n(T),
. n(T)
R(T) n(T).
: , RH, R RH = H0 R(T)
1

1 n 2
) ( H 0 =
Up p
. , R(T) (-) (+)
=15 : n=1,61014 -3,
Un=11000 3-1-1 p=51016 -3, Up=600 3-1-1 38.
R c (+) (-) 68 : n=21014 -3, Un=10600 3-1-1 =5,81016 -3, U=610 31 -1
.
.

- CdxHg1-xTe Pb1-xSnxTe. ,
R . - , . , Pb1-xSnxTe -. , - , nUn<pUp
-, nUn>pUp . ,
-
4,240 (nUn=const).
, ,
, ,
, , n(T).
, CdxHg1-xTe ( 0,150,25), 10 400,
3,5 61013 -2-1

296

- 4
.
, -
(dn/d=1 -1), (dn/d1 1
). , pn
-.
, =0,2
. , ,
Cd, ,
Hg Te, In, 41014 -3 1015 /2.
- 50
60 61042105 .
- , - (, n) .
: I n- n=2,21014 -3 Un=6,7104 c21-1,
II =61017 -3 U=110
c21-1. ,
, 7
. 105 .
. , VHg II , . , -
- ,

.
, (0,20,24) 4
/2 ,
,

297

.
,
Pb1-xSnxTe, , Mn In, 2-
<E,
. PbTe:In
- Uc=-0,017
, G=2. PbTe:Mn -
Pb1-xSnxTe.
pPb1-xSnxTe (=0,2), 6
(<8,31017 -2) 18 , -- , PbSnTe, . ,
.

n-Pb1-xSnxTe (0x0,25)
(=300, =48 , 4,11017 -2) -, .

, , .
R
Ag2e Ag2Se ,

.
(
, -

298

). , . ,

.
,
-,
, , ,
- , Ag2S Ag2FeS2.

- . n-
-, n-, -,
, , , , .
.
, , ,
( 0,80,81
3), ,
.
, , .
, .. (++; -) , , . , , - .
, ,
. , , 0 ( ),
.
, -
,
,
.

299

, , .
. , , . ,
. , - , .
, .

, , , 2-40 40-10 . ,
,
L>L0, L , . ,
H > H c2 , ,
.

, >20-30.
T< 20 .
, InSb-NiSb, ,
( , HgSe, HgTe),

300

, -.

- . , ().
-.
.
n-InSb, nInAs, CdxHg1-xTe.
, - () (). , . () .
, .
,
. R(T),
R(T) ,
, n~TK.
Pb1-xSnxTe
.
Bi Bi1-xSbx. Ag2Te,
R(T,) (), n(T),
, Nd<N0,
Na0, , Nd/N00,8
N/N0=1. , , Ag2Te
Nd/N0>0 N/N0>0,

Ag2Te,
, -

301

.


,
, -. Ag2Te , Ag2Se
Ag2S , .

.
10
, .
, , .
, .

- .
- 1000 , .. ( ~10) .

,
III (In, Ge).

.
, In+ In . In+,
In U. <<U (~450K)
exp(-U/KT), =0exp(T0/T), 0=5106 ., 0=200-250.

302

4 , .. In ,
. , In, , .. .
In > In
. ,
.
U In+,
In .
, 2, > 2 , 25 <0,1 .
CdxHg1-xTe -, .. , ,
Cd.
,
. , ( )
.
,
.

PbSnTe ,
4.4 , . , , , . ,
, . .
, ().
.

303


.
() ,
. , g.

.
. ,

.
()
() .
,
, .
. , .

, -
(=3-20 ). , (3,5-4 , 4,505 , 8-14 , 16-23
), , - .
Ag2Te Ag2Se
. . Ag2Te

304

(g0,03 2), , (~390-400). , .


.
-.

V . , , , Ag2Te n1018 c-3.
, 0,1-0,2 .%
-. 23000 2-1-1 ( 77). g0,032
, . , , 400-410 , -
- .
Ag2Te
. ,
,
-
.
. , 10
.

HgSe HgTe. , , HgSe
,
.

- . , , , -

305

. ,
, , , , .
,
, . (), , -,
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, Ag2S AgFeS2 .
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. () , .
V V. -
. , 0,30,5.
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.

-.
V V. V V
. , V

306

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324

liyev Sabir Aalar olu


Fizika-riyaziyyat elmlri doktoru, professor
Zlfqarov Eldar slam olu
Fizika-riyaziyyat elmlri doktoru

Termomaqnit v termoelektrik hadislri elm v texnikada


(rus dilind)

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