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_H. PRODUCT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN MACHINING Several important aspects of product design have already been considered in our discus- sion of shape, tolerance, and surface fnish (Section 25.6). In this section, we present some Deep holes that must be bored should be avoided. Deep hole boring requires a long boring bar. Boring bars must be stiff, and this often requires use of high-modulus materials such as cemented carbide (Figure 25.7), which is expensive. > Machined parts should be designed so they can be produced from standard available stock. Choose exterior dimensions equal to or close to the standard stock size to minimize machining, for example, rotational parts with outside diameters equal to standard bar stock diameter. > Parts should be designed to be rigid enough to withstand forces of cutting and work- holder clamping. Machining of long, narrow parts; large, flat parts; parts with thin walls; and similar shapes should be avoided if possible. > Undercuts as in Figure 25.48 should be avoided since they often require additional setups and operations and/or special tooling; they can also lead to stress concentra- tions in service. > Materials with good machinability should be selected by the designer (Section 25.7) As a rough guide, the machinability rating of a material correlates with the allow- able cutting speed and production rate that can be used. Thus parts made of materi- als with low machinability cost more to produce. Parts that are hardened by heat treatment must usually be finish ground or machined with higher-cost tools after hardening to achieve final size and tolerance. > Machined parts should be designed with features that can be produced in a minimum number of setups—one setup if possible. This usually means geometric features that can be accessed from one side of the part (see Figure 25.49). > Machined parts should be designed with features that can be achieved with standard cutting tools. This means avoiding unusual hole sizes, threads, and features with unusual shapes requiring special form tools. In addition, itis helpful to design pans such that the number of individual cutting tools needed in machining is minimized: this often allows the part to be completed in one setup on a machine such as a machining center with limited tool storage capacity. N FIGURE 25.48 Two ‘machined parts with undercuts: cross sections of | — Undercut (a) bracket and (b) rota tional part. Also shown is hhow the part design might Poor Improved bbe improved. ) Undercut Poor Improved ) ! SINES NUS NIAAA NINN ©) FIGURE 25.49 Two parts with similar hole features: (a) holes that must be machined from two sides, requiring two setups, and (b) holes that can all be machined from one side. &