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Franz Josef Spital, Australia


1. ? .....................................................................

2. , ..

3. ...................................................................................................
3.1 ...................................................
3.2 ............................................................................

9
9
10-14

4. .............................................

15

5. ...................
5.1 ............
5.2 ..........
5.3 .......................................................................
5.4 .........................................................................
5.5 ............................................................
5.6 ...................................................................
5.7 ...........................................
5.8 ,
..................................................................

17
17
17-19
19
20
20-21
22-23
23-24
24-25

6. TA ................................................................................................
6.1 ...............................................................................
6.2 ..................................................................................................
6.3 .....................................................
6.4 .................................................................

26
27
27
28
29-30

7. .............................................................................
7.1 ..................
7.2 BPV ..........
7.3 STAP ................
7.4 STAP ..................
7.5 STAP
..........................................................................................
7.6 ........
7.7 ..
7.8 ................
7.9 TA-Therm................................

31
31
32-33
34-35
35-37
37-38
38-39
39
40-43
44

. ................................................................

45

. , ..................... 46
. ...................... 47

D. .......................................................... 50
. ................................... 51
F. , ?.....................
F1.
...................................................................................................................
F2. ...............
F3. .........................................

53
53-57

G. ......................................................
G1. ..............................................................................................
G2. ........................................................................
G3. ....................................................................................

68
68
69
69

57-65
65-67

1. ?
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SD

STAD
15-50

SF

SF
20-300

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15-50


5%, 3%.
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: 10 - 60 20 - 80 .
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CBI" Hydronics
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, STAD, STAF,
STAP/STAM Hydronics.

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- 1,000 24,000
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BPV
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BPV 10-60 . 15 32 (1/2" - 1 1/4")

3.
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No. 1
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3.2


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3.1 .

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10

3.2 . STAD , .
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4 5 .
3 AB KL.
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3.3 .

11

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12

3.5 .
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25%.

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40%.
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x%.
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, 0.5C , x,
,

x=

100(t sc t ic )

(t sc t rc )(t ic t ec aic )

tsc - , tic - , trc -


, tec - , aic -
.

- tsc = 80C; trc = 60C; tic = 20C; tec = -10C; aic = 2C; x = 10%.
- tsc = 6C; trc = 12C; tic = 22C; tec = 35C; aic = 5C; x = 15%.

14

4.

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.
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6.
Total Hydronic Balancing,
, 1997, 5.4.
.
1. ,
(STAD-1.2.0).

4.1 .
2. ,
/ . min.
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3.
(STAD.1.2.5 4.1).
4. STAD-1.2.5 5=min.
STAD-1.2.5 ( ). CBI
.
15

5. STAD-1.2.4, 4 = 5.
5. STAD-1.2.4 5%, STAD1.2.4 , 4
5. STAD-1.2.4.
6. . ,
5. STAD-1.2.2 , 5 ,
3 4 5. 3, 4 5
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, - STAD-1.2.0
, 5 = 1. 4, 3, 2 1 1.
, , ,
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7. .

: (

5), . ,
2,
3, 4 5 ,
3, ( 5).
, CBI (CBIa
CBIb).

3 , CBIa . 2
CBIb. 3,
CBIa. 2,
CBIb , 1 CBIa ...
, ,
1 ( 3.2),
.

16

5.
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17

5.2 -
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pR ( 5.1), .
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pEH 4.
4 , pR ,
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4.
18

pR . ,
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pDI 3 . ,
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pEH 4
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5.3
pR , ,
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3
CBI 0.5 . ,

, pR > 3 .
kv 3 , :

kv = 5.8 x q [3/] kv = 21 x q [/]


, CBI .

3 ,
, 3 .
pR: ,
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, pR , pR
. CBI
. .
pR, , . ,
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, 5.8.
19

5.4
CBI
.

5.5
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1. , pR
( 3 ) . CBI
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2. (
).
3. CBI .
4. (1) - pR
. pR (1)
(3), , .
5. pR ,
, .
, pR.

20

5.2
5. (2) 4
CBI. ,
. (1)
- pR .
6. (2) ,
1, 5, .
, ,
.

: , (1 2) CBI (CBIa
CBIb). 3, CBIa, (2)
4 (CBIb),
( 5). (1)
4, CBIb
3. CBIa 3 CBIb 2,
3.
.

21

5.6

5.5
1. STAD-1.9.0,
pR, 3 . CBI
.
2. (
).
3. CBI .
4. (1) - pR
. .
pR , ,
.
, pR.

22

5. (2) 1.2.0
CBI. ,
. (1)
- pR .
6. (2) ,
1.1.0, 5, .
, ,
.
5.7

5.4

23

, .
, STAD-7.0 STAD-0 -.
7.0, 6.0, 5.0 ,
STAD-0
. ,
.
, STAD-0.
, .
.
5.8 ,

, pR 3

.

. pR
(
). pR.
, 5.6,
.

5.6 3 ,
, 2,

24

pR, 5.3, 3 .
pRo. .
, ,
, 29 , 40
. :
1. (V2)
-.
V2. po.
2. V2 , 3
.
3. - .
4. . =
/ .
5. pR :
pR = pRo + po x (2 - 1)
6.
, .
5.6 , 5.7.

5.7
.

25

6. TA
TA CBI

CBI:
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6.1

26

6.1
H, , .
H , ,
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50% ( STAD 2 )
. -
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1. - 1,
( 6.1).
- .
6.2
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CBI .
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1. , , (: 1, STAD, DN 20, 2
).
2. .
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5. .
6. .
7. , , CBI
p - .
CBI
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CBI ( )
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H, .
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27

6.3
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6.2 1, 2 3, .
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28

6.4
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6.3
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CBI
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29

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CBI .
3. , ,
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30

7.
7.1

7.1
.
STAD-1.1 - .
STAD-1 - STAD-0 -.
,
10 .
.
( 5)
( 6). STAD-0
.
, STAD-0:
.

31

7.2 BPV

7.2 BPV
AB
.

BPV.
,
. ,
. BPV
STAD
.
BPV, ,
. BPV
, .
10 .
, 7.1,
BPV. BPV
10 5 ,
15 . BPV,
.

32

:
40 .
27 600
/ . 40 27 = 13 .
10 ,
, 10
, 10 (13 ).
, ,
qs.
.
qs
600
576
562
400
100
0



0
1
14
162
430
525

pAB

qp

13.0
15.0
15.1
16.5
18.9
20.6

600
577
576
562
530
525

7.1 , BPV

600 / 525 /,
40 .
BPV , pAB 15 .
pAB 20.6 ,
40 BPV.
STAD-0
. ,
STAD-0:
.

33

7.3 STAP

7.3 STAP


.
STAP.
,
.
STAP ,
.
, STAM STAD
( CBI STAP).
,
10 .
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, STAP
, , STAM (STAD),
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34

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2. , T
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3. , STAP
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BPV :
STAP ,
.
STAM (STAD) 3
25% .
BPV 25%
, STAM (STAD).
STAM (STAD) ,
.
7.4 STAP

7.4 STAP

35

,
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10 .
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, STAP
, , STAM (STAD),
.
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, BPV .
,
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STAP
, 7.4b.

7.4b
STAM
, 7.4b,
Ho STAP
V. Ho
. : V ,
STAP H
. ,
. V STAP
. V ,
- V.
, STAP.
36

7.4c.

7.4 STAM
7.4c, ,
Ho STAP .

, , 7.4b.
, Ho .
,
.
7.5 STAP

7.5 STAP
.
STAP.
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STAP
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37

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STAP, ?
, 7.1
.
STAP.
STAD STAM.
. ,
STAP :
STAD STAP 3
.
STAP ,
, ;
STAD.
7.6

7.6

,
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.

38

,
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, 7.1,
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7.7

7.7

7.1.

STAD-1 . STAD-2
, .
, .
, 25%
, STAD-2.

39

7.8
,
. ,
, .
, 55
(, ).
. ,
q1
( 7.8a).

7.8a

40

,
ts, q1 :

q1 =
,

0.86 Pm
T

Pm: []
L + d = [ SA + AC + AE ] + [d b + d c + d d + d e ]
: (5)
q1: [/]

40
10 /, . ( =
0.036) 0.7 ( ).
, ,
. :

P=

5d e
T
(3 +
)
0.036 I
40
3.5 +

, P /, de ( ) I , /
.
= 40 = 0.036 ()

P = (3 +

5de
) de < 100 .
3.5 + I

,
. 50%, 60,
51, 55.
, .
, , : ts = 60, tr = 55 P =
10 /. ,

q1 =

0.86 10
( L + d ) = 1.72( L + d )
(60 55)

.
S ( 7.8a), ,
:

t A = tS
PSA SA.

0.86 PSA
q1 ,

41

ZAC = PAZ + Pdb + Pdc. ,



.

0.86 Z AC
t A 55

tB = t A

0.86 PAB
q AB

q BC = q AB qb

tC = t B

0.86 PBC
qBC

q AB =

0.86 Pdb
t B 55
0.86 Pdc
qc =
t C 55

qb =

qAD = q1 qAB, , tD , .

.
,
.
,
. , H [] = 10 +
0.15 (LSE + de) + 3 (3
). LSE , , ,
. , LSE + de = 100, H = 10 + 15 + 9 = 34 .
, , ,
10 , 0.15 /.
, 7.8a,
, .
.
.

7.8b

42

, :
L1
40
da
10

L2
25
db
9

L3
20
dc
11

L4
35
dd
12

tA, tr.
, tA = 59 ( S 1) tr =
55. = tA - tr = 4 10 /
q1 :

q1 = 0.86 x10

(L + d )
i

t A tr

q1 = 2.15 (40 + 25 + 20 + 35 + 10 + 9 + 11 + 12) = 348 / t1 = (tA 8.6


L1/q1).
,
:
t1 = 8.6 ((tA-tr)/8.6 L1/q1) + tr. (tA-tr)/8.6 = D1 = L1/q1. t1 =
8.6 D1 + tr. = 0.465.
D1 = L1/q1
D2 = D1 L2/q2
D3 = D2 L3/q3
D4 = D3 L4/q4

qA = da/D1
qb = db/D2
qc = dc/D3
qd = dd/D4

q2 = q1 - qa
q3 = q2 - qb
q4 = q3 qc

t1 = 8.6 * D1 + tr
t2 = 8.6 * D2 + tr
t3 = 8.6 * D3 + tr
t4 = 8.6 * D4 + tr

.
. ,
.
D1 = 0.465 40/348 = 0.351

qA = 10/0.351 = 29

q2 = 348 29 = 319

t1 = 8.6 * 0.351 + 55 = 58.0

D2 = 0.351 25/319 = 0.272

qb = 9/0.272 = 33

q3 = 319 33 = 286

t2 = 8.6 * 0.272 + 55 = 57.3

D3 = 0.272 20/286 = 0.202

qc = 11/0.202 = 54

q4 = 286 54 = 232

t3 = 8.6 * 0.202 + 55 = 56.7

D4 = 0.202 35/232 = 0.051

qd = 12/0.051 = 232

t4 = 8.6 * 0.051 + 55 = 55.4


, 67% ,
8%. ,
.
:
H = 10 + 0.15 * (40 + 25 + 20 + 35 + 12) + 3 * 3 = 39
43

7.9 TA-Therm

7.9
TA-Therm,
. TA-Therm
.
(
7.8b).
( TA-Therm - kv=0.3)
qe : H = 10 + 0.15 (SE+de) + (0.01 qe /0.3)2 + 3
qc : H = 10 + 0.15 (SC+dc) + (0.01 qc /0.3)2 + 3
H.
kv, 0.3, TA-Therm
2C.

44

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45

B
,

,
, T . :

q=

0.86 P
0.86 P
(/) q =
(/)
4186Tc
Tc

, .
,
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.
(
n). ,
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.
, .
.
:

t r = ti +
,

(t sn t in )(t rn tin )
(t s t i )( Pn / Ps ) 2 / n

tr = (trn )
ts = (tsn )
ti = (tin )
Pc =
Pn = , , .

(2/n) , n = 1.3.

Pc = 1,000
ti = 22C. ts = 75C. Pn = 1500 ,
tsn = 80C, trn = 60C
tin = 20C.
?
, tr =
46C. T = 75 46 = 29K, q = 0.86 x 1,000/29 = 30
/.

46

, , .
,
.
50% 100%
. , ,
.
3 - , ,
.
p, ,
:

0.01 q
p , q (/), p ()
36 q
kv =
p , q (/), p ()
kv =

15 2,000 /.
kv = 5.16. kvs
( ) 5.16 STAD20.
,
.

kvs

STAD
100
430
350
750
650
1600
1300
2400
2000
3800
2800
5700
4500 11000
STA-DR
200
450
200
600
600
1200
STAF
10
25
18
38
33
60
55
95
90
150
150
270
270
420
400
650

,
/
+ 1

.
.
.
.

,
/
+ 1

.
.
.
.

,
/

,
/

0.028
0.097
0.181
0.361
0.556
0.778
1.25

0.119
0.208
0.444
0.667
1.056
1.583
3.056

0.5
1.9
1.3
2.2
2
2.1
1.9

8.6
8.9
7.9
7.6
7.2
8.8
11.1

17
62
61
55
57
33
19

390
244
312
167
183
119
77

76
268
184
213
119
104
100

1332
1085
990
664
391
390
408

0.14
0.27
0.31
0.36
0.41
0.35
0.23

0.59
0.57
0.77
0.66
0.77
0.72
0.57

0.23
0.48
0.49
0.62
0.55
0.57
0.57

0.97
1.04
1.21
1.15
1.04
1.15
1.39

0.056
0.056
0.167
3/
2.78
5
9.17
15.28
25
41.67
75
111.11

0.125
0.167
0.333
3/
6.94
10.56
16.67
26.39
41.67
75
116.67
180.56

1
1
2.2

5.1
9
9

21
7
13

97
53
48

96
21
53

438
167
193

0.15
0.1
0.16

0.34
0.29
0.33

0.28
0.15
0.29

0.62
0.46
0.57

1.1
2.3
3
3.4
4.6
3.8
5.2
7.6

6.9
10
10
10
12.8
12.5
12.6
20.1

38
31
34
35
24
20
25
29

208
125
105
97
63
60
58
71

84
113
96
89
90
63
60
53

467
463
297
251
235
189
138
131

0.52
0.56
0.67
0.77
0.74
0.78
1
1.16

1.3
1.17
1.22
1.33
1.24
1.41
1.55
1.88

0.72
0.94
1.02
1.12
1.26
1.24
1.41
1.48

1.79
1.98
1.85
1.94
2.09
2.22
2.19
2.4

47

:
2,000 /.
. STAD25 1,300 2400
/.
2,000 / 25 530 / (
C1). 32.
STAD32, , .
3 STAD32 2,000 /,
3.45 (86% 80% ).

48

C1 20C (
0.05 mm).

. , ,
.

80 20 3/: = 1 / p = 135 /.
STAF65, STAF80 .
49


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20% 20C 80C. ,
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CBI,
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51


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4. 3,

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52

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54

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60

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64

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65

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66

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68

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69