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.., .., ..

. .


--

2012

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539.21.6(075.8)
30.12173
203
69

:
. (.), , .. ;
(.), , .. ;
. -
(), , , ..

..
69 : : .
/ .., .., ..
; . ... / : ,
2012. 283.: . ( ).
ISBN 978-5-222-19971-8

: ; , , , , ,
;
, ; ;
;
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; , ; ; ; , ;
.
().

.
,
,
.

539.21.6(075.8)
30.12173
 .., ..,
.., 2012
: , 2012

ISBN 978-5-222-19971-8

www.phoenixbooks.ru

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8.
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9.
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10.
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2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

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, .

, , .
[12, 13, 15, 16].
,
, [1, 2, 5, 8, 22,23] [3, 9, 10, 24]. [4, 6, 7,
11, 1721, 25],
.
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.. .
: ,

,
,
.

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1.

1.1. , .1.1,
b=12, h = 20, d=5, .

0x 0y (.1.1), .
,
:

Ix = IxI IxII =

bh3 bd3 12 203 12 53

= 7 875 4 ;
12 12
12
12

b3h b3d 123 20 123 5

= 2 160 4 .
12 12
12
12
1.2. Ix (.1.2),
, .. AI=AII= AIII = A.

:
d2
AI = 2a2 , AII = b2 , AIII =
.
4
Ix ,
:
3
2
bh3 a (2a) 1
1
IxI =
=
= 2a2 = A 2 = 0,1667 A 2 ;
12
12
6
6
Iy = IyI IyII =

( )

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bh3 b4
1 2 2 1 2
=
=
b
=
A = 0,0833 A 2 ;
12 12 12
12
2
d 4
1 d2
1
A 2 = 0,0796 A 2 .
=
=
=

64 4 3,14 4
12,56

( )

IxII =
IxIII

II

III
d

2a

I
h
d

II

b
b

. 1.1

. 1.2

, IxI > IxII > IxIII.


Ix .
1.3.

(.1.3). .

a, h = a2 a2 / 4 = a 3 / 2 .
,
:
3
bh3 a a 3
a4 3
=
=
= 0,018a4 .
Ix =
36
36 8
96

Cy dA -

( )

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1. 7

, Cy
x x + dx. dA = h(x)dx. 1.3 h a
2x

x = h 1 .
h (x ) =

a/2 2
a
y

x
dA

h(x)

dx

. 1.3

a/2

Iy = x2dA = 2
A

x3 2x4
= 2h

4a
3

a/2
0

a/2

x2 h (x ) dx = 2

2x

hx2 1 dx =

a3
a4
a3 a4 3
= 2h

=
a
3
=
0,018a4 .
96
96
24 32a

a4 3
0,018a4.
96
Cy , Cx Cy .

, Ix = Iy =

ix = iy =

Ix
a4 3
a
=
=
0,204a.
A
96 a 3 / 2 a / 2
24

. .

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1.4.
12512510 (.1.4).

Ix0 = Imax = 5714, Iy0= Imin=


=1494. Iy = 5714, Iv = 1494.
(.1.4), :

Dxy = (Iu Iv ) sin2 / 2 ;

Dxy =

{(571 149) sin 2 (45 )}/ 2 =

= (571 149) (1) / 2 = 211 4 .


y

= 45

x
u

. 1.4
.1.4 1.4. ,
( .1.4) , x y . , .1.5,

Dxy = (Iu Iv ) sin2 / 2 = (571 149) sin90 / 2 = 211 4.

(
.1.5) , x y .
1.5.
1006310 (.1.5).

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1. 9

[15] Ix = 1544, Iy = 47,14,


Imin = Iv = 28,34, tg = 0,387.
, tg = 2110'. .1.5 1,4,
= = 2110'. Ix + Iy = Iu + Iv Iu=
=Ix+ Iy Iv = 154 + 47,1 28,3 = 172,84.

Dxy =
=

1
(172,8 28,3) sin 2(2110) =
2

1
(172,8 28,3) (0,674) = 48,7 4 .
2

,

(.1.5):

tg2 0 =

2Dxy
Iy Ix

, Dxy = Iy Ix tg2 0 / 2;

Dxy = (47,1 154) tg(2 2110) / 2 = 48,7 4 .

v
C

)
y

v
C

u
x

x
= 45

u
0

. 1.5
,
Iy Ix = 0, tg20 .

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10

.1.5,

Iu = Ix cos2 0 + Iy sin2 0 Dxy sin2 0 ,


Iv = Ix sin2 0 + Iy cos2 0 + Dxy sin2 0

Dxy = Ix cos2 0 + Iy sin2 0 Iu / sin2 0 ,

Dxy = Ix sin2 0 + Iy cos2 0 Iv / ( sin2 0 ).


, , . 0= +45
Dxy = Ix Iu, Dxy = Ix + Iv, 0= 45 Dxy =
=Ix Iu, Dxy = Ix Iv.
Dxy .1.6.
)
y

)
y

Dxy < 0
x

Dxy > 0
x

y
x
Dxy > 0

Dxy < 0

. 1.6
1.6. ,
.1.7. .

:
.
. ,
, .
: C1((4/6)b, h/3); C2(0, h/2); C3((4/6)b, h/3). :

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1. 11
3

xc = 0; yc =

yc, i Ai
i =1

Ai

i =1

h 1 b
h
h 1 b
h + bh + h
3
2
2
2
3
2 2 = 4 h.
=
b + 2b
9
h
2
y
y1

yC
II

I
yC

C1

y2

y3
ixC

C2
x1

III

x2

C3

x3

C
iy C

xC

2b

. 1.7

:

Ixc = 2IxI c + IxIIc = 2 IxI 1 + a12 AI

) + (Ix

II
2

+ a22 AII =

b h3 4

h 1 b bh3 h 4
= 2
+ h h +
+ h bh =
3 2 2 12 2 9
2 36 9

13
bh3 = 0,12037bh3 ;
108

Iyc = 2IyI c + IyIIc = 2 IyI 1 + b12 AI + IyII2 =


b h 4 1 b b3 h 5 3
= 2
+ b h +
=
b h = 0,3125b3h.

2
36
6
2
2
12
16

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12

Cyc ,
.
:

iu = ixc =

iv = iyc =

13
bh3
13
108
=
=
h 0,283h;
3
A
9 2
bh
2

Ixc

5 3
bh
5
16
=
=
b 0,456b.
3
A
2
6
bh
2

Iyc


, , ,
, (.1.7).
1.7.
(.1.8) .

: 20
2 (I) 20 (II). : IxII= 20304;
IyII= 1554; AII = 28,92.
,
.
: xc1 = 20/2 + 11/2 = 4,5, yc1 = 20/2+ 2/2=
=11, AI= 20.2= 402. :
2

xc,i Ai

xc = i =1 2

Ai

4,5 40
180
=
= 2,61 ;
40 + 28,9 68,9

i =1

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1. 13
2

yc,i Ai

yc = i =1 2

Ai

11 40
440
=
= 6,39 .
40 + 28,9 68,9

i =1

yC y1

y2

20
C1

iu

x1

C
6,39

xC

iv

20

C2
0

x2

0,52
0,86

2,61

11

. 1.8

.1.8 Cxc Cyc.
:

) (

Ixc = IxI c + IxIIc = IxI 1 + a12 AI + IxII2 + a22 AII

)=

20 23

2
=
+ 4,612 40 + 2 030 + (6,39) 28,9 = 4 073,46 4 ;
12

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14

(
) + (I + b A ) =
20 2

=
+ 1,89 40 + (155 + (2,61) 28,9) = 1 828,09 ;
12

Iyc = IyIc + IyIIc = IyI + b12 AI

II
y2

2
2

II

Dxc yc = DxI c yc + DxIIc yc = DxI 1y1 + a1b1 AI

) + (Dx y
II

2 2

+ a2b2 AII

)=

= (0 + 4,61 1,89 40)+ (0 + (6,39)(2,61) 28,9) = 830,51 4.

tg2 0 =

2Dxc yc

Iyc Ixc

2 830,51
= 0,739753;
1828,09 4 073,46

2 0 = 3630 , 0,1 = 1815, 0,2 = +7145 .


.1.8
.
:

Iu = Ixc cos2 0 + Iyc sin2 0 Dxc yc sin2 0 =


= 4 073,46 0,949702 + 1828,09 (0,31316)
2

830,51 (0,5947146) = 4 347,16 4 ;


Iv = Ixc sin2 0 + Iyc cos2 0 + Dxcyc sin2 0 =
= 4 073,46 (0,31316) + 1828,09 0,949702 +
2

+830,51 (0,5947146) = 1554,37 4 .

Ixc + Iyc = Iu + Iv ,
4 073,46 + 1 828,09 = 4 347,16 + 1 554,37;
5 901,55 5 901,53.

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1. 15

iu = Iu / A = 4 347,16 / 68,9 = 7,94 ;


iv = Iv / A = 1554,37 / 68,9 = 4,75 .

, , , , (.1.8).

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,
,



. .
. .

04.07.2012. 11.07.2012.
841081/32. .
Scool Book.
2 500.


344082, . --, . , 80

E-mail: raznomazov_vm@mail.ru
. 8 (863) 261-89-78

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