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INSTITUT PERGURUAN KUALA

TERENGGANU

(THEORY OF LEARNING)
GROUP MEMBER:
 MOHD SAIFUL ANUAR BIN YUSOFF
UMMEE FATIHAH BT AZIH
 NASYRATUL FATHIAH BT MOHD FARID
BEHAVIOURISM (DEFINITION)

BEHAVIOURIST THEORY

JOHN B. WATSON IVAN PAVLOV

EDWARD L. THORNDIKE
Born, January 9, 1878
Died, 1958
American Physiologist

Watson was inspired


by the work of Ivan Pavlov
Chronological of John B. Watson’s Experiment
Watson do research and experiment on child’s emotion

A small child named “Albert’ was showed a white rat and


Albert want to touch it.

When Albert want to touch the rat again, then Watson made
A loud sound behind Albert’s head by striking
a hammer on a steel bar

Albert feel shocked and started to cry

After this situation was repeated to Albert, then he became


fear on the rat, even just the appearance of the white

Albert fear then extended to all objects in white colour


The examples of this theory on learning
environment:
Teachers’ who is bad tempered give negative
effects on student’s emotion.
During the first day in school (scared emotion)
Born, September 14, 1849
Died, February 27, 1936
Russian Physiologist

Pioneer of the theory of


“CLASSICAL CONDITIONING”
Pavlov “classical conditioning” experiment
Chronological of ‘Classical Conditioning’ experiment

The dog is given a food (unconditioned stimulus),


then the dog elicits a salivation (unconditioned response)

Pavlov ringing the bell (conditioned stimulus),


no response by the dog

Pavlov ringing the bell (conditioned stimulus)


before he give the dog the food, unconditioned stimulus),
then the dog elicits a salivation (unconditioned response)

Pavlov ringing the bell (conditioned stimulus),


Then the dog elicits a salivation (conditioned response)
Examples of this theory on learning environment:
Teacher use a whistle to get student attention
during P & P
A bell ringing as a sign of recess time / end of
school hour
Born 31 August 1874, died 1905 - Formalized the Law of
1949 Effect.

1898 - Awarded his doctorate for his thesis, “ Animal


Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associate
Processes I Animals”, concluded an experimental approach
is the only way to understand learning
Theory

 Work on the effect of rewards on


behaviour.
 Developed Associationism – an
explanation of learning as the formation
of connections between stimuli and
responses.
 Three primary laws:
 Law of Effect
 Law of Readiness
 Law of Exercise
Cats and the Puzzle Box

 To open the door, the cat had to perform an action.


 The door opened, the cat rewarded the food.
 The cat was put into the box again, and perform correct action.
 Trial and error learning – an explanation or
learning that states when an individual is placed in
problem-solving situation, the correct response will
be learned through being reinforced.
 Law of Effect – responses that have a satisfying
outcome, are likely to strengthen and be repeated.
 All learning involves the formation of connections,
and connections were strengthened according to
the law of effect. Intelligence is the ability to form
connections.
 The connections between actions and new
outcomes are strengthened the more often they
are repeated. (Law of Exercise)
Classroom Links
Teachers need to be aware of:
 The effects of behaviour on learning, and the idea of
learning as the establishment of connections between
stimuli and responses
 The relationship between individuals’ behaviour in
problem situations and subsequent learning,
represented in the law of effect and law of exercise.
A teacher give question on problem-solving and
ask the students to solve it. Once it done, the
teacher should praise the student.
 Child, Dennis. (1986). Psychology and the
teacher. (4th ed.). London : Cassell Educational
Ltd.
 P. Driscol, Marcy. (1993). Psychology of learning
for instuction. London : Allyn Bacon.
 Ormord, Jeanne Ellis. (2006). Educational
psychology: Developing learners. (5th ed.). Ohio :
Pearson Merill Prentice Hall
 Krause, Kerri-lee & Bochner, Sandra. (2003).
Educational Psychology for teaching and learning.
Australia : Thomson
http://medialab.umr.edu/rhall/educational_psychol
ogy/2001/vl1b/behavior_new.html
http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/ImplementALi
teracyProgram/BehavioristTheoriesOfLearning.ht
m
http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Tho
rndike.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Thorndike
http://tip.psychology.org/thorn.html
http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/histor
y/thorndike.htm
http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/ethorndike.shtml