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STRUCTURAL STEELWORK Analysis and Design SS. RAY BE (Cal), CEng, FICE, MBGS 1998 by Blackwell Science Ld Editorial Ofices: Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 VEL 25 John Street, London WCIN 2BL 23 Ainslie Place, Edinburgh EH3 6AJ 350 Main Strect, Malden ‘MA 02148 SOI8, USA S4 University Street, Carlton Viewrit 3053, 6, rue Casimir Delivigne 78006 Pacis. France Austealsa Other Editoriat Offices Blackwell Wissenschafis- Ver Kurftirstendamm $7 10707 Berlin, Germany GmbH Blackwell Science KK MG Kodenmacho Building 3-10 Kedeamachs Nilkombashi Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104. Japan The right of the Author to be identified as the Author of this Work has been asserted in accordanee with the Copyeight, Designs and Patents Act 1988, All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or Irunsmitted. 1m any form or by any means, ele ironic, mechanical photocopying, recording oF otherwise except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act T9S8 without the prior permission Hf the publisie fesese putbisshed 1998 Set in 10012 px Times by Auronispe Lanuted, Bristo! Printed ang hound in Great Britain py MPG Hooks {1c Bodmin, Corns Fhe Hiach wel Serene jogo sa Mf Wigckwell Sci steees at te Chnted Kingdon ie Maths Keys cade math yee Late TRIRUTORS: Marston Book Services Ltd PO Box 269 Abingdon Oxon OXi4 4YN (Orders: Tel: 01235 465500 Fax; 01235 465555) USA Blackwell Science, Ine Commerce Place 350 Main Street Malden, MA 02148 S018 (Orders: Vet: 800 759 6102 781 388 8250 Fax: 781 388 8255) Canada Login Brothers Book Company 324 Saulteaux Crescent Winnipeg, Manitoba R3J 312 (Orders: “Tel: 204 837-2987 Fax: 204 837-3116) Australia Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 54 University Street Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Orders: Tet: 03 9347 0300 Fax; 03 9347 5001) A catalogne record for this title is available from the British Library ISBN 0-632-03857-8 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ray, SS ‘Structural steelwork: analysis and desig SS. Ray Includes bibliographical references and index, ISBN 0-632-03857-8 [. Building, Iron and Steel, 2. Steel, Structural 1. Title TA684.R37_1998 624,1'821-de2t 97-34497 cre For further information on Blackwell Science, visit our website www. blackwell-science com Contents Preface Notation Chapter 1 Strength of Materials Bending stress in beams 1.1.1 Assumptions 2 Position of neutral axis -3 Bending stress in asymmetrical sections 4 Product inertia of a rectangle about orthogonal axes Shear stress in beams 1.2.1 Shear centre for thin-walled asymmetrical section Torsional shear stress 1.3.1 Torsion of thin rectangular members -3.2 Torsion of thin open sections Strain energy in axial load, bending, torsion and shear Chapter 2. Theory of Structures 21 2.2 one 24 25 Polygon of forces Equations of equilibrium Internal forces 2.3.1 Compound trusses: the method of section 2.3.2. Maxwell diagram for simple trusses 2.3.3. The method of section by Maxwell diagram 2.3.4 Deflection of pin-jointed structures Bending moment and shear force 2.4.1 Simply supported beams 2.4.2 Slope-deflection equations 2.4.3. Area moment theorems 2.4.4 Generalised slope-defiection equations 2.4.5. Fixed-end beams 2.4.6 Theorem of three moments Method of moment distribution Arches 4.9 Symmetrical two-hinged arches 2.4.10 Hingeless symmetrical arches Influence lines 2.5.1 Influence lines of cantilever beams 2.5.2 Influence lines of a simply supported beam 2.5.3 Influence lines of three-hinged arches 2.5.4 Influence lines of simple trusses xi xiii Shoe vi Contents 2.6 Matrix method of structural analysis 2.6.1 Truss analysis by the displacement method 2.6.2 Continuous beam analysis by the displacement method 2.6.3 Continuous frame analysis by the displacement method 2.7. Structural dynamics 2.7.1 Single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems 2.7.2 Effect of viscous damping on free vibration 2.7.3. Forced vibration of undamped SDOF systems due to harmonic excitation 2.7.4 Forced vibration of undamped SDOF system by triangular impulse 2.7.5 Free vibration of a simply supported beam with distributed mass 2.7.6 Response of an SDOF system to a very short impulse 2.7.7 Response of an SDOF system to any arbitrary time-dependent loading 2.18 Seismic response of a damped SDOF system 2.7.9 Response spectra 2.8 Analysis of plates 2.8.1. Elastic analysis of plates 2.8.2 Yield-line analysis of plates 2.9 Methods of plastic analysis 2.9.1 Definition of plastic behaviour 2.9.2 Plastic behaviour of a section of a beam in pure bending 2.9.3. Plastic behaviour of a section of a beam with bending and axial load 2.9.4 Plastic behaviour of a section of a beam with bending and shear 2.9.5 Load combinations in plastic analysis 2.9.6 Plastic analysis of structures Chapter 3. Analysis of Structures: Worked Examples 3.1 Example 3.1: Roof truss 3.1.1 Type of truss 3.1.2. Loading on the truss 3.1.3. Analysis by method of section 3.1.4 Method of section using Maxwell diagram 3.2. Example 3.2: Continuous beam 3.2.1 Analysis of continuous beam by the three moment theorem 3.2.2. Analysis of continuous beam by the method of moment distribution 3.2.3 Analysis of continuous beam by the matrix method 52 52 55 s7 61 62 65 65 67 68 7 vat 2 73 74 14 76 19 79 79 80 81 82 85 85 85 86 90 1 95 98 101 103 Contents vii 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Example 3.3: Frame structure 3.3.1 Analysis of a rigid frame by the method of moment distribution 3.3.2 Analysis of a rigid frame by the matrix method Example 3.4: Analysis of a hingeless arch Example 3.5: Yield-line analysis of a rectangular plate Example 3.6: Seismic analysis of a tall cantilever structure Example 3.7: Plastic analysis of a pitched portal frame 3.7.1 Haunched pitched portal frame Chapter 4 Design of Structures 4.1 42 4.3 44 45 4.6 Principal issues Material grade selection and section type selection Manufacturing process Connection design 4.4.1 Simple connections 4.4.2. Moment connections 4.4.3. Trusses and open-web girders Check list of actions and design considerations Ultimate limit state design 4.6.1 Step-by-step method of semi-rigid design 4.6.2. Load combinations at the ultimate limit state as per BS 5950: Part 1 4.6.3. Patterned loading 4.6.4 Structural stability against lateral loads 4.6.5. Stability of multistorey rigid frames Chapter 5 Design of Struts 5.1 5.2 oe 5.4 5.5 Axial capacity of a column or a strut Types of failure of a column or strut Design basis of columns and struts 5.3.1 Compressive strength (p.) 5.3.2. Boundary conditions 5.3.3. Combined axial compression and bending moment Step-by-step design procedure of columns/struts Worked examples 5.5.1 Example 5.la: Design the internal compression member of a roof truss 5.5.2. Example 5.1b: Same member as in Example 5.1a but use circular hollow section Grade 50 5.5.3 Example 5.2a: Design the rafter of a roof truss 5.5.4 Example 5.2b: Design the same rafter as in Example 5.2a using a rectangular hollow section 5.5.5 Example 5.3: Design the vertical leg of a portal frame 5.5.6 Example 5.4: Design the corner column of a multistorey building 5.5.7 Example 5.5: Design the compound column of an industrial building with a heavy-duty crane 105 105 110 114 118 120 127 133 137 137 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 144 145 146 147 148 148 155 155 155 156 156 156 157 159 183 183 185 185 189 190 195 200 viii Contents Chapter 6 Design of Ties 6.1 Principal issues 6.2 Design basis 6.3 Combined axial tension and bending moment 6.3.1 Principal issues 6.3.2 Design basis 6.4 Step-by-step design of members in tension 6.5 Worked examples 6.5.1 Example 6.1: Design the main tie of the roof truss in Example 3.1 6.5.2 Example 6.2: Design the tie of a 75m span latticed girder for the roof of an aircraft hangar Chapter 7 Design of Beams 7.1 Principal issues 7.2 Design basis 7.2.1 Local capacity 7.2.2 Lateral torsional buckling 7.2.3. Buckling of web 7.2.4 Tension-field action in thin webs 7.3 Step-by-step design of beams 7.4 Worked examples 7.4.1 Example 7.1: Beam supporting the floor of a workshop 7.4.2. Example 7.2: Main beam in a multistorey building using simple construction 7.4.3 Example 7.3: Main beam with full end fixity to concrete wall 7.4.4 Example 7.4: Design of a stiffened plate girder 7.4.5 Example 7.5: Design of a gantry girder for an electric overhead travelling crane 7.5. Beams subject to torsion 7.5.1. Torsional resistance 7.5.2. Stresses in closed sections 7.5.3 Stresses in open sections 7.5.4 Checks for capacity 7.6 Example 7.6: Design of a beam with concentrated applied torque at the centre of span Chapter 8 Design of Composite Beams and Columns 8.1 Composite beams 8.1.1 Principal issues Design basis Effective breadth Modular ratio Transformed section: elastic section properties Second moment of area for elastic analysis Plastic section properties Redistribution of support moments Shear connection 92 90 90 90 G0 99 90 G0 1 1 1 1 L 1 L 1 Sean 2u1 21 21 2iL 211 212 213 220 220 222 227 227 227 227 229 230 231 232 269 269 273 278 284 300 317 317 318 318 320 322 329 329 329 330 330 331 331 333 335 340 341