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Motivation

INTRODUCTION
1.1

CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION

Every management tries to coordinate the various factors of production in such a way that their contribution is maximum in achieving organisational goals. The performance of non-human factors like machines, etc depends upon the level of technology and the competence of those who use them. To improve the overall performance of a business it thus becomes essential to increase the efficiency of the human resource available, arising the need for Motivation;wherein, the management arouses,directs,encourages,modifies and maintains the desired behaviour of its workforce towards their work and towards organisational committment. As Mr. Rick Pitino says "The only way to get people to like working hard is to motivate them.Today, people must understand why they're working hard. Every individual in an organization is motivated by something different." Employee motivation is thus considered as a major task for every manager, to motivate his/her subordinates and to create the will to work among them, by well analysing their needs and adopting various forms of motivational techniques that may help create an urge/force to work better. It should be remembered that a worker may be immensely capable of doing some work but nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work. The project report entitled A study on the MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES adopted by EMAMI LTD., Amingaon (Guwahati31) is mainly conducted to identify the factors which motivates and will further motivate the employees, and the organizations functional units in the most efficient and effective manner.

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1.2

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY :

The objectives are the guidelines on which the whole project is based. The following are few of the important objectives : To study the Motivational techniques adopted by EMAMI LTD., Amingaon (Guwahati) for its employees (lower level factory workers, office staff) .

To identify the efficiency and loopholes of the Motivational techniques.

To evaluate the role of Motivation in polishing the skills and performance of the employees. To evaluate whether Motivation helps to identify the hidden potential of employees that may prove beneficial to the organization in the long run. To evaluate and recommend on the present status of Motivational techniques adopted, in order to improve and maintain quality human resources.

1.3

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY :

The aforesaid objectives must be important and must help to evaluate the study. The importance of the objectives are:

This helps in finding out what kind of Motivational techniques are adopted in the company and how much effective they are. This helps in finding out how well the organization has communicated its goals/objectives set and also the efforts on the part of the employees to achieve them fruitfully. This helps in finding out the effectiveness of the motivational techniques adopted in the organization i.e. the success rate of
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the present Motivational techniques and suggesting remedies for loopholes.

This enables the researcher to analyse the involvement of the employees in the organization i.e. how much dedicated they are towards their work and what can enhance it further. This helps revealing the hidden potential, needs and wants of the employees which if nurtured properly can be beneficial both for the employees and organizations overall growth.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY :


The study is confined only to the EMAMI LTD.,Amingaon( Guwahati) which is located in the EPIP Complex, Amingaon in Guwahati. The area of study comprises of the lower level factory workers and the office staff. This was so, because these two are the best indicators of the study at the manufacturing level. The study has formed the base or foundation for other researchers to undertake research in similar areas.

The outcome of the study may provide useful suggestions in improving or modifying the present motivational techniques adopted in the Amingaon manufacturing unit of EMAMI group. And also will serve as a foundation, upon which further strategies can be planned.

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1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY :


A study cannot be free from hassles. There are always barriers that prevent the smooth flow of the study. There were some limitations which occurred while conducting the study. These are as follows :

The time period is one of the major drawbacks, i.e., the time period of the study was only 2 months which was very less in conducting a research report and hence, it was not possible to cover each and every sampling unit of the entire population (i.e. the entire workforce of the organization). The study is essentially carried out at micro-level and so it is tough to arrive at an extended, more generalized conclusion. There was communication gap between the researcher and the respondents due to their workload, because of which they were not able to give sufficient time for answering the required questions which was necessary in interpreting the results. Another major drawback was that, the survey was time consuming because the questions had to be translated and explained in details to the respondents (especially the lower level factory workers) as the language of the questionnaire (English) was not understandable by them. The working timings and duties of the factory workers get shifted and therefore they are not available when needed which caused a hindrance in the free flow of the survey. The information executed by the respondents, may or may not be true in some cases; they may not be serious or there are always the possibilities of biasness on the part of the respondents answering the questions.
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The sample representative.

size

may

not

be

very

accurate

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research is a procedure of local and systematic application of the fundamentals of science to general in, overall questions of a study and scientific technique, which provide precision tools, specific procedures and technical techniques rather than philosophical means for getting and ordering, the data prior to their logic and manipulation. Research designs form a plan, the structure and strategy of investigating process, which sets out to obtain answers to research questions.

2.1 SAMPLING UNIT/POPULATION:


The samplingunits/population comprises of the LOWER LEVEL WORKERS and OFFICE STAFFS, drawn randomly from all the existing employees of EMAMI LTD., Amingaon (Guwahati) , Manufacturing unit.

2.2 SAMPLE SIZE :


The SAMPLE SIZE is the total number of sampling units selected from the population. The sample size is 60 i.e. 60 respondents were intervied by the researcher.

2.3 SOURCES of DATA :


PRIMARY DATA : It is original data gathered specially for the project in hand. There are 3 widely used methods for gathering primary data. They are, 1. Survey method
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2. Observation method 3. Experimentation method In this project, Survey method is used. Survey method consists of gathering data by interviewing each sample units representing the population. It has the advantage of getting to the original source of information.

SECONDARY DATA : It is any data originally generated for some purpose, other than the present research objectives. It includes the findings based research done by outside organization as well as data generated in house for earlier studies, or even information collected by firm sales or credit department. Secondary data used for this project has been taken from COMPANY WEBSITE, MAGAZINES, RECORDS, PREVIOUSLY WRITTEN RESEARCH PAPERS.

2.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE :


Sampling plan is a systematic planning for drawing sample from the universe or population. A sample as a part of the universe/population represents the whole universe/population. The survey includes respondents of all kinds of age groups, males and females, old and new employees.RANDOM SAMPLING technique is adopted in the study.

2.5 TOOLS of DATA INTERPRETATION :


The tool used is PERCENTAGE METHOD shown diagrammatically in PIE CHARTS and COLUMN DIAGRAMS and DOUGHNUT.

2.6 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT:

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PERSONAL INTERVIEW is the method used in the survey. When the interviewing method is used, the researcher mostly prepares the standard forms to record the interview. To assist in the survey, a QUESTIONNAIRE is devised keeping in mind the objectives of the study.

ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE
3.1 HISTORY OF THE EMAMI GROUP:
The inception of Emami Group took place way back in mid when two childhood friends, Mr. R.S. Agarwal and Goenka left their high profile jobs with the Birla Group Kemco Chemicals, an Ayurvedic medicine and manufacturing unit in Kolkata in seventies Mr. R.S. to set up cosmetic 1974.

It was an extremely bold step in the early seventies when the Indian FMCG market was still dominated by multinationals. Several such companies headquartered in Kolkata were considering shifting out of West Bengal due to labor unrest and political problems. But against all odds with a vision of combining the age old wisdom of Ayurveda with modern manufacturing techniques for creating winning brands, the company was started with a meager amount of Rs. 20,000. A dream of reaching out to the Indian middle class; a target audience whom they thought will have increasing potential for consumption, the company started manufacturing cosmetic
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products as well as Ayurvedic medicines under the brand name of Emami from a small factory in Kolkata. The first-rate quality of the products soon created a consumer pull and gradually some people were hired to work for them. A chain of distributors was established and the sale of Emami products spread from West Bengal to rest of Eastern India and gradually to other states. Emami Talcum, Emami Vanishing Cream and Emami Cold Cream were great favorite brands with the quality conscious consumers in the mid-seventies. The company soon became adept in selling beautiful dreams to Indian women interested in finding their own identity. The signature tune of Emami played over radio and TV became a household favourite.

3.2 MILESTONES OF EMAMI LTD. :

In 1978, Himani Ltd. Acquired:

Himani Ltd (incorporated as a Private Limited Company in 1949) had become sick unit and was up for sale. Himani, almost a 100 year old company with good brand equity in Eastern India and a well laid out factory in Kolkata, was producing a number of cosmetics. Mr. Agarwal realized the opportunity and acquired Himani, though for their young organization it was a tough task to mobilize resources for buying a sick unit and even tougher to turn it around to a profitable venture. The degree of financial risk involved was enormous considering the small capital base of the company in those days. However Mr. Agarwal, supported by Mr. Goenka decided to go ahead with the deal which later on proved to be the turning point for the organization. Mr. Agarwal decided to produce in the Himani factory different types of health care items and toiletries based on Ayurvedic preparation. In 1983, Company into Paper manufacturing :
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Emamis strong believe in successful eventual ventures led it into paper industry by establishing a paper mill of utmost sophistication at Balas ore for manufacturing quality writing and printing papers. Recently the group has taken over a terminated paper millGulmohar paper mill.

In 1984, BOROPLUS- A huge success :

Ten years after commencement of the company, it launched its first flagship brand Boroplus Antiseptic Cream under the Himani umbrella in. Many additional brands followed Boroplus including Boroplus Prickly Heat Powder which came as a brand extension of the mother brand. Emami brands started selling in all states of North, East and West India. Today Boroplus is not only the largest selling Antiseptic Cream in India but also in Russia, Ukraine, and Nepal.

Nineties, was very eventful for Emami. The next flagship brand of the company Navratna Cool Oil came in the nineties under the Himani Umbrella and the second factory was opened at Pondicherry to expand production. Navratna over the years has become a market leader in the cool oil category. The introduction of new brands continued and the distribution network of the company was extended to South India with Navratna spear heading the process.
In 1984, Awareness of Social responsibility :

The Emami group realizing its social responsibility commenced its two trusts-Bansilal Janki Devi Agarwal Trust and KesarDev Ratni Devi Goenka Trust to generate funds for social and medical needs. As a part of company's Corporate Social Responsibility, Emami has devised various Self Employment schemes like Emami Mobile Traders and Small Village Shops schemes.

In 1993, Health Care Program :


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The Emami group has taken a giant step into a field not ventured by them so far, that is, the field of medicine. The former frank rose limited is now a member of emami group, and manufactures ethical life saving drugs.

In 1995, becomes Public Ltd. Company :

The partnership firm, Kemco Chemicals, was converted into a Public Limited Company under the name and style of Emami Ltd.

In 1997, formation of Hospitals :

AMRI hospital and SHREE VISHUDHANAND Hospital and Research Institute in Kolkata, in joint section with the government of West Bengal, provides quality health care at affordable cost. . Donations are made in the form of free supplies of medicines, assistance for surgeries and hospital charges for the poor through trust. Emami established the 'Emami National Institute for Bone Marrow Transplantation' in the Narayana Hrudayalaya Institute, Bangalore, under the supervision of Dr Devi Shetty, the well-known cardiac surgeon. This institute provides treatment for bone marrow transplantation at free or affordable costs to the needy.

In 1999, Landmark Emami shoppers city:

Landmark is the buyers delight, kolkatas pride. It has a comprehensive bookshop. Apart, there is a music section, stationery items section including gift items, greeting cards, magazines, music, cd-roms sections and a coffee shop all under one roof.

In 2003, a new factory unit was set up at Amingaon, Guwahati. In 2005, marketing history:

Emami created a marketing history in India by launching Fair and Handsome, the first fairness cream for men.

In 2006, introduced Health Care Division :


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The company decided to introduce a Health Care Division and a number of new brands of Ayurvedic OTC medicines. The company has taken up the challenge of growing this new division with a dedicated and enthusiastic team working on this project. Among the brands created by the company, today Navratna brand is Rs.300 crore followed by Boroplus brand standing at Rs.250 crore and Fairness family standing at Rs.100 crore. Sona Chandi Chyawanprash, Menthoplus, and Fast Relief are also among the top brands in their respective categories. Emami Limited with an investment of Rs 700 crore has acquired major stake in Zandu Pharmaceuticals Works Ltd on the basis of huge business synergy between Zandu and Emami. Post the acquisition of Zandu Pharmaceuticals a century old household name in India, some of its prominent brands like Zandu Balm, Zandu Chyawanprash, Zandu Kesri Jeevan, Zandu Pancharishta, Sudarshan and Nityam Churna are also under Emamis basketofbrands.

Today, Emami Limited is led by Mr. R S Agarwal and Mr. R S Goenka with the help of the second generation Promoter Directors from the two families. Qualified and dedicated set of professionals run the day to day operations of the company. Recently a new corporate office Emami Tower has been added to the history of the company which houses Emami Limited as well as all the other Group companies in Kolkata.

*Mr. R S Agarwal and Mr. R S Goenka* (Founders of EMAMI)


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3.3 BRANDS under EMAMI :


BABY MASSAGE OIL BOROPLUS ANTISEPTIC CREAM BOROPLUS PRICKLY HEAT POWDER FAIR AND HANDSOME HAIRLIFE HIMANI FAST RELIEF MALAI KESAR COLD CREAM MENTHO PLUS NAVARATNA COOL TALC NAVARATNA EXTRA THANDA
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NAVARATNA LITE NAVARTANA OIL SONA CHANDI AMRITPRASH SONA CHANDI CHYWANPRASH EMAMI 5 IN 1 SHAMPOO FAIR AND TEEN FAIR AND AGELESS BOROPLUS SUMMER AND WINTER LOTION

The EMAMI brand is endorsed by a number of famous celebrities both from the film and sports industry such as SHAHRUKH KHAN, AMITABH BACCHAN,

KAREENA KAPOOR, MADHURI DIXIT, SAURAV GANGULY etc.

3.4 EMAMI LTD., AMINGAON (GUWAHATI) :


The Emami unit in Amingaon was set up in the year 2003. It is the first unit in Assam and in 2009 the second unit came up in Abhoypur. The unit is located at EPIP Complex at Amingaon near the bank of River Brahmaputra. It has turned out to be a boon for the local folks as it provides ample job opportunities. It has a built area of 14580 sq. mt. in a land area of 10580 sq. mt. The unit is ISO 9001:2000 and GMP certified. Emamis existing plant at Amingaon in Assam produces:
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100crore sachets of Navaratna Oil 25crore Boroplus Antiseptic Cream, Fair and Handsome tubes 19crore Boroplus Antiseptic Cream, and Fair and Handsome sachets 1.8crore bottles of Menthoplus Balm 3.5 crore bottles of Navaratna oil and 2.5crore bottles of Boroplus lotion per annum. Emami Ltd.,Amingaon (Guwahati)
NAME

LOCATION

Emami Ltd. EPIP Complex, Amingaon, Guwahati781031, Assam

REGISTRATION

1st August 2003

REGISTERED OFFICE

Emami Tower 687, Anandapur, EM bypass, Kolkata- 700107, West Bengal

SIZE

Emami Ltd. Amingaon is a medium scale unit. Production is on large scale, 2/3 of the total volume is produced here.

BANKERS

SBI, ICICI

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DATE OF INCEPTION

27th September2003

MGT.OF AMINGAO N UNIT

General manager-P.N Balakrishnan Factory head- Elanthiraiyan Deputy General Manager-Jaswant Sethia

TOTAL NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

Company enrolled- 200 Contractual- 400 (number varies)

CATEGORIES OF EMPLOYEES

Executive- 13 Staff- 37 Non-staff- 40 Workers- 84

3.5 VISION and MISSION OF EMAMI LTD.

VISION: VISION:
A company, with the help of nature, caters to the consumers needs and their inner cravings for dreams of
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better life in the fields of personal health care, both in India and through out the world.

MISSION :

To sharpen consumers insight to understand and meet their needs with value added differentiated products that are safe, effective and fast.

To integrate dealers, distributors, retailers and suppliers into the Emami family, thereby strengthening their ties with the company.

To recruit, develop and motivate the best talents in the country and provide them with an environment that is demanding and challenging. To strengthen and foster in the employees, emotive feelings of owners with the company. strong

To uphold the principles of corporate governance and move towards decentralization to generate long term maximum returns for all stake owners. To contribute whole-heartedly towards the environment and society and to emerge as a model corporate citizen.

To bring down the political boundaries, bridge the seas and emerge as a significant player in the markets world wide to globalize in terms.

3.6 View of Factory floor EMAMI LTD., Amingaon


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Motivation
4 .1 WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
Motivation, in simple terms, may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. The word Motivation is derived from the word Motive. Motive may be defined as an inner state of our mind that activates and directs our behavior. Thus, Motivation is ones willingness to exert efforts towards the accomplishment of his/her goal. According to Fred Luthans, Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker. One reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing. Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. Their values, beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are different. Not many organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about the ways of motivating such diverse workforce. Now days employees have been hired, trained and remunerated, Hence, they need to be motivated for better performance. People are motivated towards rewards, something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Times have changed, people wants more. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their jobs. Issuance of well conceived instructions and orders does not mean that they will be followed. Managers have to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them.Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do. Creation of a will to work is motivation in simple, but true sense of term. Managers who are successful in motivating employees are often providing an environment in which appropriate goals are available for needs satisfaction.
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Retaining and motivating workers requires special attention and the responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of HR as well as managers and supervisors at all levels.They have to create a work environment where people enjoy what they do, feel like they have a purpose and have pride in the mission of the organization. It requires more time, more skill, and managers who care about people, thus it takes true leadership. By giving employees special tasks, you make them feel more important. When your employees feel like they are being trusted with added responsibilities, they are motivated to work even harder so they wont let the company down. Motivation is essential for any company because employees are the Assets of a company. Motivation is important for the growth of employees as well as growth of the organization.

4 .2 IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation involves getting the members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization. The following portrays the importance of motivation :

The workforce will be better satisfied if the management provides them with opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs. The workers will cooperate voluntarily with the management and will contribute their maximum for optimum performance in their work. Workers constantly get scopes for improvment (both skills and knowledge) and hence are able to contribute to the progress of the organization. This will also result in increased productivity. The rate of labour turnover and workers will be minimal and even indifferent attitudes of employees to justified recognition and reward for
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absenteeism among the help change negative or positive attitudes through work done, which further
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helps retain talented workforce and reduce the cost of new recruitment and training.

There will be good human relations in the organization as friction among the workers themselves and between the workers and the management will decrease helping easy and smooth introduction of changes without much resistance from the workforce. The number of complaints and grievances will come down. Accident rates will lower down making work, a source of pleasure. There will be increase in the quantity and quality of products. Wastage and scrap will be less. Better quality of products will also improve the public image of the brand. Thus it is often seen that:

Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. Motivated employees are more quality oriented Motivated workers are more productive.

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4 .3 TYPES OF MOTIVATION
When a manger wants to get more efficient working of his/her subordinates then he will have to motivate them for improving their performance.They will either be offered incentive for some work such as rewards, recognition, etc or he may instill fear in them or use force for getting desired work done. The following are the types of motivation: Positive Motivation : It is based on rewards. The workers are offered incentives for achieving the desired goals which may be in shape of more pay, promotion, recognition of work, etc. ACCordint to Peter Drucker, the real and positive motivators are responsible for placement, high standard of performance, information adequate for self-control and the participation of the worker as a responsible citizen in the plant community. it is achieved by the co-operation of employees and they have a feeling of hapiness.

Negative Motivation: Negative or fear motivation is based on force or fear. Fear causes employees to act in a certain way. In case, they donot act accordingly then they may be punished with demotions or lay-offs. The fear acts as a push mechanism. The employees donot wllingly co-operate, rather they want to avoid the punishment. Though employees work upto a level where punishment is avoided but this type of motivation causes anger and frustration. This type of motivation generally become a cause of industrial unrest.

Inspite of the drawbacks of negative motivation, this method is commonly used by almost all mangament heads to achieve desired results.

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4 .4 MOTIVATION THEORIES
The following are the most historic well- known theories of motivation:-

MOTIVATION

MASLOWS NEED HIERARCHY THEORY

HERZBERGS MOTIVATION HYGIENE THEORY

PARTICIPATION THEORY

McGREGORS

VROOMS EXPECTANCY THEORY

4 .4 .a MASLOWS NEED HIERARCHY THEORY


The intellectual basis for most of motivation thinking has been provided by behavioral scientist, A.H Maslow is based on the human needs, whose published works are the Bible of Motivation. Although Maslow himself did not apply his theory to industrial situation, it has wide impact for beyond academic circles. The crux of Maslows theory is that human needs are arranged in hierarchy composed of five categories. The lowest needs are physiological and the highest are the self-actualization needs. Maslow starts with
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the formation that man is a wanting animal with a hierarchy of needs of which some are lower in scale and some are in a higher scale or system of values. As the lower needs are readily satisfied, higher needs emerge.

A satisfied need is not a motivator. Hierarchy of needs, the main needs are five (5). They are as under :-

SelfActualizat ion Needs

Self-esteem needs

Social needs

Safety needs

Physiological needs

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS: These needs are basic to human life and hence, include food, clothing, shelter, air, water and necessities of life. They relate to the survival and maintenance of human life. These needs are to be met first at least partly before higher level needs emerge. Once they are satisfied, they no longer motivate the man.
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SAFETY NEEDS : The next need felt in the hierarchical order is safety needs, the need to be free from danger, either from other people or from environment. The individual want to be assured, once his bodily needs are satisfied, that they are secure and will continue to be satisfied for foreseeable feature. These needs may take the form of job security, security against disease, misfortune, old age etc as also against industrial

injury. Such needs are generally met by safety laws, measure of social security, protective labor laws and collective agreements. SOCIAL NEEDS: Man is a social being. He is, therefore, interested in social interactions, companionship, belongingness, etc. he feels the need to love and to be loved. In a large organization it is not easy to build social relations. However, close relationship can be built up with at least some fellow workers so that he feels wanted or accepted and that he is not an alien facing a hostile group.

SELF-ESTEEM NEEDS: These needs are reflected in our desire for status, and recognition, respect and prestige in the work group or society such as is conferred by the recognition of ones merit by promotion, by participation in management and by fulfillment of workers urge for self expression. Some of the needs relate to ones esteem.

SELF- ACTUALIZATION: This is the upper most level of needs. It is the culmination of all the lower, intermediate and higher needs of human. This refers to fulfillment. Selfactualization is the persons motivation to transform perception of self into reality.

4 .4 .b HERZBERGS MOTIVATION HYGIENE THEORY

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The psychologist Frederick Herzberg extended the work of Maslow and proposed a new motivation theory popularly known as Herzbergs Motivation Hygiene (Two-factor) Theory. Herzberg labeled the job satisfiers motivators, and he called job dissatisfiers hygiene or maintenance factors. Taken together, the motivators and hygiene factors have become known as Herzbergs two-factor theory of motivation. According to Herzberg, the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. The underlying reason, he says, is that removal of dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. The opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction and the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, todays motivators are tomorrows hygiene because the latter stop influencing the behavior of persons when they get them and even ones hygiene may be the motivator of another. Motivators : Job Satisfaction Achievement Recognition Responsibility Advancement Growth Work itself

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Hygiene: Job Dissatisfaction Company policy & administration Supervision Interpersonal Relations Working Conditions Salary* Status Security

4 .4 .c Mc GREGORS PARTICIPATION THEORY


Douglas McGregor formulated two distinct views of human being based on participation of workers. The first basically negative, labeled THEORY X, and the other basically positive, labeled THEORY Y. The assumptions are as under :-

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Through this theory X and Y, he tried to outline the extremes to draw the fencing within which the organizational man is usually seen to behave. The fact remains that no organizational man would actually belong either to theory X or theory Y. In reality, he/she shares the traits of both. A man swings from one set or properties to the other with changes in his mood and motives in changing environment.

4 .4 .d VROOMS EXPECTANCY THEORY


One of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation is offered by Victor Vroom in his Expectancy Theory. It is cognitive in nature. The theory is founded on the basic notions that people will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe there
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are relationships between the effort they put forth, the performance they achieve, and the outcomes/rewards they receive. The relationships between notions of effort, performance, and rewards are depicted in figure below:

Thus, the key constructs in the expectancy theory of motivation are :


1. Valence : Valence, according to Vroom, means the value or

strength one places on a particular outcome or reward. 2. Expectancy : It relates efforts to performance. 3. Instrumentality: By instrumentality, Vroom means, the belief that performance is related to rewards. Thus, Vrooms motivation can also be expressed in the form of an equation as follows: Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality Being the model multiplicative in nature, all three variables must have high positive values to imply motivated performance choice. If any one of the variables approaches to zero level, the possibility of the so motivated performance also touches zero level.

MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES ADOPTED BY EMAMI LTD., Amingaon (Guwahati)


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In Emami Ltd., Amingaon (Guwahati) both financial and non financial motivational techniques are used. Financial motivators such as regular wage distribution,extraremunerationa nd pay increment, yearly bonus, advances, medical aid money, gratuity,retirement benefits and Non-Financial motivators such as group recognition, workers participaion in decision making process, delegation of responsibility and authority, promotions, team competitions, trainings,challenging target competitions, and providing with scopes for betterment are some of the most effective motivational tools adopted by the EMAMI Amingaon unit, that has proved incredibly efficient enough in motivating the employees and creating a positive correlation between organisations development with that of employees job satisfaction,employees committment and employes trust boosting the zeal to work harder for the achievement of the organizational goals. Emami Ltd., Amingaon strictly follows the SMART GOALS technique in setting, motivating and realising the organisational goals effectively, wherein SMART stands for Specific Measurable Attainable Results oriented Time bound. The organisation adheres to the follwing ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE which inculcates a feeling of belongingness and loyalty towards the organisation. They are: Distributive Justice: The perceived features of how resources and rewards are distributed. Interactive Justice: The extent to which people feel fairly treated when procedures are treated. Procedural Justice: The perceived fairness of the process and procedure used to make allocation decision.

The organisation also takes strict and justified actions such as punishments in the forms of dismisal, retenchment, etc for all, to create a fear of being thrown out if involved in unfair activities and to create a feeling among the workers that all the employees
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irrespective of their job post, caste, creed, religion are same in the eyes of the management. This is a form of Negative Motivation to get workers in the right track and restricting them from deviating from the organisational set goal(s) realisation path. The unit also celebrates Vishwakarma puja every year as a major fest day in the company through which workers and their family members get a chance to portray their talents in various forms such as dancing, singing, painting, drama acts etc. The employees performing to the best of their ability, are appreciated with rewards and recognition on this day, which motivates other employees to give their best in their work. Emami also celebrates World Environment Day in order to grow the feeling of responsiveness and love towards mother Earth by planting tress by each and every worker which even teaches them the reasons of, why we should protect planet Earth.

Analysis and interpretation


Emami Ltd., Amingaon College 29 Gauhati Commerce

Motivation

1.

An attempt to know the job satisfaction of the employees.


Particulars Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied % of respondents 42% 32% 23% 3% -

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that 42% of the respondents are highly satisfied with their respective job assigned, 32% of them are satisfied, whereas 23% and 3% of them are neutral and dissatisfied respectively.

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Gauhati Commerce

Motivation

2.

An attempt to know the factors motivating the employees most.

Particulars Financial incentives Non-financial incentives

% of respondents 38% 62%

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that 38% of the respondents are motivated by the financial incentives and 62% of them are motivated by the non-financial incentives.

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Motivation 2.1

Factors in non-financial incentives that motivates the employees most.


Factors Competition Group recognition Status Job enrichment Promotion and growth Workers participation Appreciation of work % of respondents 22% 17% 7% 10% 28% 8% 8%

Interpretation: The above table and dig. Shows that amongst the non-financial incentives, promotion and growth motivates the employees the highest(28%) followed by competitions(22%), group recognition(17%), job enrichment(10%), workers participation and appreciation of work(both 8%) and the least by status(7%).

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Motivation

3.

An attempt to know if the employees feel motivated in the organization.


Particulars Highly Partially Neutral Demotivated motivated motivated 54% 33% 13% Highly demotivated -

% of respondents

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that 54% of the respondents are highly motivated, 33% are partially motivated and 13% have neutral reaction. It is indeed a good sign to see that non of the employees are de-motivated.

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Motivation

4.

An attempt to know the comfortability of the employees under the following heads:
Particulars Wages Work environment 93.33% 7% Job security 87% 13.33% Trainings and Communication with the trainer 90% 10%

Yes (%) No (%)

60% 40%

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that the employees are uncomfortable mainly with the wages/salary provided, as its response in favour of NOfor this factor is highest by 40% compared to the work environment(7%),job security(13.33%), trainings and communication with their trainers(10%), factors taken. Whereas the employees are highly comfortable with the work environment factor as the response towars YES for this factor is highest by 93.33%, followed by trainings and communication with trainers(90%), job security(87%) and wages (60%).

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Motivation

5.

An attempt to know the obstacles that stop the employees from performing to the best effect.
Obstacles health problems personal problems boredom work load co-worker conflicts insufficient knowledge work environment problem % Of Respondents 33% 31% 12% 10% 5% 2% 7%

7% 5% 10% 2% 33%

health problems personal problems boredom work load

12%

co-worker conflicts insufficient knowledge work environment problem

31%

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that health problems(33%) is the major reson that often stop the employees from performing to the best effect, followed by personal problems(31%),boredom(12%),workload(10%), work environment problem(7%) and co-worker conflict(5%), insufficient knowledge about work assigned(2%).
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Motivation

6. An attempt to know whether the employess feel empowered or not.


Yes (%) No (%) 90% 10%

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that 90% of the sample size feels empowered while working in the organisation whereas only 10% donot feel empowered, which shows that work and decision making process is decentralised and every efficient worker is given the right to express his/her views.

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Motivation

7. An attempt to know the tools adopted for motivating employees in the organization.
Tools Training Justified performance appraisal competitions Decentralization of responsibility and authority Regular wage payment and increment Superior assistance and strict supervision Disciplined and systematic work structure % of respondents 21% 8% 20% 6% 17% 20% 8%

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Motivation

Interpretation: The table and fig.in the previous page shows that Trainings(of various kinds) is the most effective and regular tool adopted for motivating the employees reported by 21% of the sample size respondents followed by competitions(of various kinds) and superior constant assistance and strict supervision (20%), regular wage payment and increment(17%), justified performance appraisal,disciplined and systematic work structure (both 8%) and decentralisation of responsibilty and authority(6%).

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Gauhati Commerce

Motivation

8. An attempt to know the relationship of the employees


with their immediate supervisor/boss. Particulars very good Good Neutral Bad Very bad % of respondents 17% 46% 32% 5% -

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that the superiorsubordinate relationship is quite good with 46%, 32% neutral, 17% very good and only 5% bad which although less, but needs careful attention 2 rectify.

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Gauhati Commerce

Motivation

9. An attempt to know what employees like the best and


the least about their respective job. BEST about their job : Particulars Freedom to work Systematic working Time bound Team spirit Scope for learning different things % of respondents 17% 15% 15% 25% 28%

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that 28% of the respondents say that the Scope for learining diffrent things is the BEST thing about their job followed by team spirit(25%), freedom to work (17%), and systematic workings and time bound work sysytem(both 15%).

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Motivation

LEAST about their job: Particulars Excessive work load Monotonous work Lacks specialisation of work % of respondents 36% 41% 23%

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that monotonous work (41%) is not liked by majority about the respondents, followed by excessive work load(36%) and lack of specialisation of work (23%).

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Motivation

10. An attempt to know whether the employees enjoy their


work or is it under compulsion or some external pressure. Particulars Enjoys Family pressure Oranisational pressure 80% 15% 5% % of respondents

Interpretation: The above table and dig. Shows that majority of the rspondents enjoy their work witnessed by 80% responses, whereas 15% work under family pressure and 5% organisational pressure

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Gauhati Commerce

Motivation

11.

An attempt to know if the the statutory benefits provided to the employees are satisfactory. Yes(%) No(%) 100% -

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that the entire sample size respondents are satisfied with the statutory benefits provided to them witnessed by a 100% YES.

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Motivation

12.

An attempt to know in what educational or training programs, are the employees interested in learning, in order to motivate themselves for their overall development. Particulars Training in material management course Spoken english classes Coaching for personality development SAP training Computer basics and fundamentals training MBA Higher secondary and under graduate education Not interested at all % of respondents 2% 27% 19% 8% 15% 6% 13% 10%

Interpretation: The above table and fig. Shows that learning of Spoken English is wanted by the highest number of respondents with 27%, followed by personality development coaching (19%), computer training(basic and fundamental), higher secondary and
Emami Ltd., Amingaon College 29 Gauhati Commerce

Motivation

UG education, SAP training, material mgt. Course training with 15%, 13%, 8%, 2% respectively. Whereas 10% of them are not interested at all for anything.

7. 1

FINDINGS :
Majority of the employees employed in the organization both factory workers and office staff are highly satisfied with their respective job. Its the non- financial factors which motivates the employees moe then financial factors. The percentage of preference for non-financial rewards being 62% and 38% in case of financial rewards. Among non-financial factors, promotion and growth, competition, group recognition, job enrichment are the top most factors that motivates the employees the most. The employees are highly motivated(54%) and partially motivated(33%) by the management which shows a harmonious relationship in the organization between employees and management. The survey reveals that increase in the wages/salaries will also help motivating the employees further. The work environment is found comfortable enough for the employees. 87% of the employees have a sense of job security. 90% of the employees are comfortable and satisfied with the training sessions held in the organization and is comfortable with the trainers communication. But since training is an important factor of a manufacturing unit, the rest 10% should also be taken care of properly. The obstacles that usually stop the employees from performing to their best effect are health problems,
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Motivation

personal problems, boredom, work load, work environment problem, co-worker conflicts and insufficient knowledge about their task.

80% of the employees enjoy the work they are doing whereas 15% do it under family pressure and 5% under organizational pressure. In the organization majority of the employees feel empowered which is a good sign of delegation of authority and responsibility. It shows employees are allowed to take part in decision-making, in matters related to their respective work culture. The tools adopted for motivating the employees are found highly effective. Training (21%) , competitions(20%) , superior assistance and strict supervision (20%) , regular wage payment and increment (17%) and justified performance appraisal and disciplined and systematic work structure (8%) are the most commonly used and accepted tools both by management and employees. The study reveals that a good relationship exists between the employees and their immediate supervisor/boss. The percentage being 46% good relationship, 32% being neutral, 17% being very good and only 5% being bad. The employees appreciate the scope for learning different things, team spirit, freedom to work, time bound and systematic working as the best elements about their respective job. Monotonous work(41%) , excessive work load(36%) and lack of specialization of work (23%) are the only elements least liked by the employees about their job.

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Motivation

100% yes from the respondents prove that they are readily satisfied with the statutory benefits provided to them by the organization.

From the survey analysis it has been found that 27% of the employees are interested in learning Spoken English, 19% interested in taking coaching for personality development, 15% in computer basics and fundamentals training, 13% in higher secondary and under graduate education, 8% in SAP training, 6% in pursuing MBA, 2% interested in taking training in material management course and 10% are not interested in anything.

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Motivation

7.2

SUGGESTIONS :
Emami ltd., Amingaon, proved up to have relatively sound motivation within the organisation but still suggestions to a few loopholes may help better management.

At the outset it is understood that employees basic needs are fulfilled with their wage/salary. In this connection if the company increases the wage/ salary structure for its each employee, it gives a direct boost to its workers to work at their level best, further reducing turnover and absenteeism because it is evident acccording to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, that a worker's motivation is solely determined by pay, and therefore management need not consider psychological or social aspects of work. In essence, scientific management bases human motivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards. Though 90% of the employees are comfortable and satisfied with the training sessions held and their communication with their trainers, but since training is an important factor of every organization, the rest 10% should also be taken care of properly, else it increases the training cost and makes work more hazardous prone in case of those related to machine handling and maintenance, and tasks become time consuming for untrained workers. Although, as suggested above that increment in wage/salary structure would boost up employees dedicated participation but through my survey, it has also been found that non-financial
Emami Ltd., Amingaon College 29 Gauhati Commerce

Motivation

incentives are more preferred by the workers because a large section of the total workforce appreciates psychological, social and emotional satisfaction much above economical and money driven satisaction. Therefore, a balance of both should be maintained.

Elton Mayo found that the social contacts a worker has at the workplace are very important and that boredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation. Similarly, the study reveals that health problems, personal problems, boredom, work load, work environment problem, co-worker conflicts and insufficient knowledge about work are some of the obstacles that the employees usually face. Hence, concern should be shown to rectify the problems by providing close moral support to boost up workers enthusiasm to work, maintain proper ventillated,accident free,hygienic and healthy work environment to combat health and work environment problems and enforce job enrichment and job rotation to reduce boredom and co-worker conflicts, so hat labor turnover can be reduced to the minimum. Adequate knowledge about what does the workset comprise of? who is to do it? What skills are required? How it is to be done? Are some of the questions, the answers to which needs to be clearly stated before placing an employee to his/her work field so that a worker has the minimum level of knowledge about his/her work structure. The findings show that even if the superior-subordinate relationship in the organization is quite motivating but still there exists 5% uncomfortability in the relationship which requires improvement.. Hence, in order to increase cohesiveness between the superior and the subordinates, they must be made realize the equal value and worth of both, in the progress of the organization. Employees
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Emami Ltd., Amingaon College

Motivation

must be given freedom to make decisions on the job and greater attention paid to informal work groups placing undue reliance on social contacts at work situations for motivating employees. Training (21%),Competitions(20%),Superior Assistance and Strict Supervision (20%),Regular Wage Payment and Increment (17%) and Justified Performance Appraisal and Disciplined and Systematic Work Structure (8%) are the most commonly used and accepted tools both by management and employees. Hence, these factors should be laid much more emphasis to lure, pull and retain new and existing potential workers.

100% of the respondents are readily satisfied with the statutory benefits( like ESI, PF, GRATUITY,EARN LEAVE, ADVANCES) provided to the employees but still its worth suggesting a mandatory adoption of LIFE INSUARANCE scheme and CHILD EDUCATION plan for the benefit of not only the employees but also their children so as to raise thier feeling of belonginess towards the oganisation. Since, in todays world scenario the ability to read, write and speak correct english language and personality-grooming is very essential to face the changing challenging competitions of the competitive market. Hence, it will be highly beneficial if Spoken English and Personality Development classes are regularly conducted for all, to raise both organizational and individual productivity standards. Study reveals that monotonous work form, excessive work load and lack of specialisation of work are the only elements least liked by the employees about their job. Hence measures such as Job Rotation, Job Enrichment, Decentralisation and division of work can prove highly effective if implemented efficiently. Core Competency, i.e, assigning the right job to the right person is a must to realise highest return from every progressive and satisfied job holder.
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Motivation

7.3

CONCLUSION :
Motivation is a state of mind and incorporates mental and emotional involvement of persons in their working conditions. It creates oppurtunities for the contribution to the organisational goals and sharing responsibilities for them. The Amingaon unit strictly follows by the principle lines of Jim Stovall: You need to be aware of what others are doing, applaud their efforts, acknowledge their successes, and encourage them in their pursuits. When we all help one another, everybody wins. The scheme of motivation in Emami Ltd., Amingaon (Guwahati) has been quite motivating to its employees but still the organisation can concentrate on some specific areas such as conducting Spoken English and Personality Development classes must for all employees, perqusites allowance to the factory workers in uplifting their children through adoption of Child Education Plans, Issuing of Life Insurance schemes for all its employees, etc, in order to make the motivational programs more effective. Only if the

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Motivation

employees are motivated well- they work well and only if they work well- the organisation is benefitted to the maximum. Emami ltd., Amingaon more often regulates democratic management style where the employees (both lower level factory workers and staff) are allowed a bit of space and freedom so that it unlocks the creativity in the workers mind.The manager/immediate supervisor/head, tries to relate to their workforce and try to share ideas on how the work should be carried out and how it should be improved. If we compare management with driving, while the organisation is the vehicle, then motivation is the power or fuel that makes the vehicle moving.

8 .1
Sir/Madam,

QUESTIONNAIRE

Hereby, I would like to provide you a questionnaire, the information from which will be purely used for academic purpose. I promise not to divulge any information against the interest of your organization. I would be highly obliged to you if you could give your kind cooperation. Thanking you, Sneha Deb. Name of the respondent: .. Age: Experience: . (Please put a tick mark in the appropriate space/dash)
Emami Ltd., Amingaon College 29 Gauhati Commerce

Motivation

1.Are you satisfied with your job? Highly satisfied ____ Dissatisfied _____ Satisfied _____ Neutral _____

Highly dissatisfied _____

2. What factors motivates you the most? Financial Incentives _____ ______ incentives/recognition. Status.. Job enrichment.. Promotion and Growth. Workers participation. Appreciation for work Non- Financial Incentives Competition Group

3. Do you feel motivated in your organization? Highly motivated ____ Neutral______ _____ 4. Are you satisfied/comfortable with the ---

Partially motivated ______ Highly De-motivated

De-motivated ______

Wages given : Yes _______ No _______ Work environment : Yes ______ No _______

If no, what changes can be done according to you? __________________________________________________________________ __

Job security :

Yes _______

No ______

If no, what do you want the company to do?


Emami Ltd., Amingaon College 29 Gauhati Commerce

Motivation

Training sessions and communication with trainer : Yes _______ No_______

If no, what according to you can rectify the problems? 5. What obstacles stop you from performing to the best effect? Do the Human Resource Department give due care to eliminate your obstacles?

6. Do you feel empowered? Are you often consulted for grievance handling and decision making in matters connected to your work?

7. What are the tools adopted for motivating you in your organization currently and in past? Are you satisfied with it?

8. How is your relationship with your supervisor? What are the constraints (if any)?

9. What do you like best or least about your job? And why? 10. When you felt the greatest sense of achievement in EMAMI? And for what?

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Motivation

11. Do you enjoy your work or is it under compulsion or some external pressure? 12. Are you provided with statutory benefits (like ESI, PF, BONUS, GRATUITY, EARN LEAVE etc)? Are you satisfied with it? If not, what more do you think is required?

13. Are you interested for any educational or training programs apart from what is provided at the Amingaon unit in order to motivate you for your overall development?

THANK YOU

DATE:

8 .2

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS :
Gankar, S.V & Memoria, C.V

Human Resource Management Himalaya Publishing house 2008

Khanka S.S Human Resource Management S. Chand & Company Ltd. 2005
Emami Ltd., Amingaon College 29 Gauhati Commerce

Motivation

SEARCH ENGINES :

www.emamigroup.com www.scribd.com www.wikipidia.com

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