Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5


Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. In other words, matter is everything in the universe. A concept map of matter is shown in Figure 1.1.

Heterogeneous mixture: A system of two or more substances (elements or compounds) that have distinct chemical and physical properties. Examples include mixtures of salt and sand, oil and water, crackerjacks, and dirt. Homogeneous mixture (or solution): A system of two or more substances (elements or compounds) that are interspersed, such as the gases making up the air or salt dissolved in water. The individual substances have distinct chemical properties and can be separated by physical means. Element: A substance that contains one type of atom and cannot be broken down by simple means. Compound: A combination of two or more atoms of different elements in a precise proportion by mass. In a compound, the atoms are held together by attractive forces called chemical bonds and cannot be separated by physical means. Molecule: A combination of two or more atoms.Molecules cannot be separated by physical means. Atom: The basic unit of an element that retains all the element's chemical properties.An atom is composed of a nucleus (which contains one or more protons and neutrons) and one or more electrons in motion around it. Atoms are electrically neutral because they are made of an equal number of protons and electrons. Proton: A particle that has a mass of 1 atomic mass unit (amu; 1 amu = 1.66 * 1027 kg) and an effective positive charge of +1. Neutron: A particle that has a mass of 1 amu with no charge.

Electron: A particle that is of negligible mass (0.000549 amu) compared to the mass of the nucleus and that has an effective negative charge of 1. Matter can also be classified as one of four states: solid, liquid, gas, or plasma. To simplify, the discussion will be limited to solids, liquids, and gases (see Table 1.1). A solid is rigid and has a fixed volume.A liquid has a fixed volume but assumes the shape of its container. A gas has no definite shape or volume and can be compressed.

Properties of matter
Intensive - Properties that do not depend on the amount of the matter present. Color Odor Luster - How shiny a substance is. Malleability - The ability of a substance to be beaten into thin sheets. Ductility - The ability of a substance to be drawn into thin wires. Conductivity - The ability of a substance to allow the flow of energy or electricity.

Hardness - How easily a substance can be scratched. Melting/Freezing Point - The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure. Boiling Point - The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on the liquid (generally atmospheric pressure). Density - The mass of a substance divided by its volume

Extensive - Properties that do depend on the amount of matter present. Mass - A measurement of the amount of matter in a object (grams). Weight - A measurement of the gravitational force of attraction of the earth acting on an object. Volume - A measurement of the amount of space a substance occupies. Length

Chemical Properties Chemical properties of matter describes its "potential" to undergo some chemical change or reaction by virtue of its composition. What elements, electrons, and bonding are present to give the potential for chemical change. It is quite difficult to define a chemical property without using the word "change". Eventually you should be able to look at the formula of a compound and state some chemical property. At this time this is very difficult to do and you are not expected to be able to do it. Physical Properties Physical properties can be observed or measured without changing the composition of matter. Physical properties are used to observe and describe matter. Physical properties include: appearance, texture, color, odor, melting point, boiling point, density, solubility, polarity, and many others. The three states of matter are: solid, liquid, and gas. The melting point and boiling point are related to changes of the state of matter. All matter may exist in any of three physical states of matter.