Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

- .

: .

P3=

2.3

3=

2.4
7500

T=
z3

.
/.
.

z4

3
z1

1
z2

1. .
1.1
1= 0.98
-
2= 0.85
-
3= 0.95
4= 0.99

=12343= 0.98*0.85*0.95*0.9703=0.768

-
[ 2, .5 ]
1.2
P=P3/= 2.3 / 0.768 = 2.995 .
1.3
P= 3 .
[ 4, . 19.27 ]
P,
, ,

1
3
2
3
3
3
4
3
1.4 3
1.5

750
700
1000
955
1500
1435
3000
2840
n3=303/= 30*2,4 / 3,14 =22.9 /
u=n/n3=n/ 22.9

1.6 : u=u1u2,
u1= 10 35,5
u2= 3 7

[ 4, .7 ]


u1= 12.5
( 2185-66, [ 2, . 35 ] )
.


2
3
41.7
62.66

,u

1
30.57

,u2

2.45

3.34

5.01

9.92


3
,

,u1

12.5

12.5

12.5

12.5

4100S4 ,
u1= 12.5

n= 1435 /.
u2= 5.01

4
124.02

u= 62.63

[ 4, .7 ]

1.7 .
n1= 1435 /.
n2=n1/u1= 1435/12,5=115 /,
n3=n1/u= 1435/62,63=23 /.
1=n1/30= 3,14*1435/30=150.2 /,
3=n3/30= 3,14*23/30=2.4 /.

2=n2/30= 3,14*115/30=12 /,

P1=P14= 3*0,98*0,99=2.91 .
P3=P234= 2,45*0,95*0,99=2.3 .
T1=9550P1/n1= 9550*2,91/1435=19 *.
T3=9550P3/n3= 9550*2,3/23=955 *.
: 4100S4

, u
,

P2=P124= 2,91*0,85*0,99=2.45 .
T2=9550P2/n2= 9550*2,45/115=203 *.

P= 3 .


12.5
5.01
0.85
0.95

n= 1435 /.

2.3
2.4
23
955


, P,
, , /
, n, /
, , *

3
150.2
1435
20

2.91
150.2
1435
19

2.45
12
115
203

2. .
[ 1, c. 201 ] z1= 4
z2=z1u= 4*12,5=50
z2= 50
u=z2/z1= 50/4=12.5

vs=4,5*10-4n1

T2 = 3.8 /.
[ 1, c. 211 ]
[ 1, c. 210 ] : 94
40 , 54 HRC, .

[]=300-25vs= 300-25*3,8=205 .
[ 1, c. 211 ]
q / z2= 0.32
[ 1, c. 209 ]
q= 0,32*50=16.
q= 16
E=2E1E2/(E1+E2)=2,1*105*0,9*105/(2,1*105+0,9*105)=1,26*105 .
[ 1, c. 209 ]

aw=0,625(q/z2+1)

ET2/([H]2(q/z2)) =

=0,625(16/50+1)
126000*203*1000/(42025(16/50)) =102.2
aw= 100 .
Ra40:
m=2aw/(q+z2)= 2*100/(16+50)=3.03 .
m= 3 .
x=aw/m-0,5(q+z2)= 100/3-0,5*(16+50)=0.333 .

[ 1, 9.3 ]
[ 1, c. 201 ]

:
d1=qm= 16*3=48 .
d2=z2m= 50*3=150 .
.
tg=z1/q= 4/16=0.25
:
v1=1d1/2= 150,2*48*0,001/2=3.6 /.

14.0362

vs=v1/cos= 3,6/cos14,0362=3.71 /.

94 .

[]=300-25vs= 300-25*3,71=207 .
.
=( 0,03z22+z2+1 -0,17z2+2,9)/2,95= 1.91
[ 1, 9.17 ]
v2=2d2/2= 12*150*0,001/2=0.9 /.

Kv= 1.05
K= 1

[ 1, c. 210 ]

KH=KvK= 1,05*1=1.05
=0,8727,
=0,75.

[ 1, c. 208 ]

ET2KHcos2/(d22d1sin(2)) =

H=1,18

=1,18 126000*203*1000*1.05*0.9412/(22500*48*0,8728*1.91*0,75*sin40 =201.4 ,



(207-201.4)/207= 3%
- . [ 4, c. 28]
, :
,
Ft2=Fa1=2T2/d2= 2*203*1000/150=2707 H;
,
Ft1=Fa2=2T1/d1= 2*19*1000/48=792 H;

Fr=Ft2tg= 2707*tg20=985 H.
[ 1, c. 205 ]
.

94
[ F ] = 0,25T+0,08B=0,25*200+0,08*400=82 .
[ 1, c. 211 ]
b2=aaw= 0,315*100=31.5 ,
a= 0.315

[ 4, c. 27 ]

b2= 32 .

zv=z2/cos3= 55
YF= 1.425

[ 4, c. 29 ]


F=0,7YFKHFt2/(mb2)= 0,7*1,425*1,05*2707/(3*32)=29.5
29.5
<
82 - .
=tg/tg(+)= tg14,0362/tg(14,0362+1,76685)=0.88

= 1.76685 0
:
d1=qm= 16*3=48 .

[ 4, c. 28 ]

da1=d1+2m= 48+2*3=54 ,
df1=d1-2,4m= 48-2,4*3=40.8 ,
b1=(10+5,5[x]+z1)m-(70+60x)m/z2= (10+5,5[0,333]+4)*3-(70+60*(0,333))*3/50=42.1 .
b1= 45 .
:
d2=z2m= 50*3=150 .
da2=d2+2(1+x)m= 150+2*(1+(0,333))*3=158 ,
daM2=da2+6m/(z1+2)= 158+6*3/(4+2)=161 ,
daM2= 160 .
df2=d2 -2m(1,2-x)= 150-2*3*(1,2-(0,333))=144.8 ,
b2= 32 .
.
t=(1-)P1/(KA)+200C=
=(1-0,88)*2,91*1000/(15*0,39)+20=80
K =
=

15
0.39

2 0

./( * )
2

<

[ t ]=950 - .

- ;
- .

3. .
: 45, , 208;
: 45, , 186.
N=60n3T= 60*23*7500=10350000 > 4000000

[ 5, . 129 ]
kFL= 1

:
: [F3] = 1,8HB3kFL/sF=1,8*208*1/2 =

187.2

: [F4] = 1,8HB4kFL/sF=1,8*186*1/2 =

167.4

( sF=2 -
z3= 20
z4= 100

[ 5, . 129 ] )
z4=u2z3= 5,01*20=100.2

u2=z4/z3= 100/20=5
. 42 [ 1 ] :
:
[F3]/YF3=
45.8

<
bd= 0.4
:

YF3= 4.09
[F4]/YF4=

46.5
KF= 1.35

m=1,4 3 YFTKF/(bdz2[F])= 0.0047



:
d3=mz3= 5*20=100 ;
- :
d4=mz4= 5*100=500 ;

YF4= 3.6

m= 5 .

aw=(d3+d4)/2= (100+500)/2=300 ;

- :
- :

da3=d3+2m= 100+2*5=110 ;

- :

da4=d4+2m= 500+2*5=510 ;
df3=d3-2,4m= 100-2,4*5=88 ;
df4=d4-2,4m= 500-2,4*5=488 ;

b4=bdd3= 0,4*100=40 ;
b3=b4+4= 40+4=44 ;

- :

v=2d3/2= 12*100*0,001/2=0.6 /.
9- .
:
- Ft=2T2/d3= 2*203*1000/100=4060 H;
- Fr=Fttg= 4060*tg20=1478 H.

4. .
.
[]= 25 ,
1:
d1= 3 T1/(0,2[]) = 3 19*1000/(0,2*25) =15.6
d1= 28
:
- ;
d1= 35
- .
2:
d2=

T2/(0,2[]) =

[]= 20 ,

203*1000/(0,2*20) =37
d2= 40
- ;
d2= 45
- ;
d2= 50
- .

5. .
R1y= 157.6 H
n1

R2y= 827.4 H

y
z

R2x= 396 H
R1x= 396 H

l3= 24
Fr= 985
Fa= 2707
l=l1+ l2=

Ft= 792
l= 108

97+97=194

L =l1+ l2+l = 97+97+108=302


l2= 97

l1= 97

x
My, *

38.4
396*97*0.001=38.4 *

z
y
z
15.3

Mx, *

157.6*97*0,001=15.3 *
80.3

827.4*97*0,001=80.3 *

19

T, *

F= 1058.4 H

R1= 1647.6 H

R2= 589.2 H

114.3

1058.4*108*0,001=114.3 *

M, *

57.2

589.2*97*0,001=57.2 *

yz:
M 1 =
-R 2y l
+ F r l1
+F al3
R 2y =

+ F r l1

=0
)/ l=

+F al3
+(
= +(+985*97+2707*24)/194 = 827.4 H
M 2 =
+R 1y l
- F r l2
+ F al3 = 0
R 1y =
+ F al3 ) / l =
- ( - F r l2
= -(-985*97+2707*24)/194 = 157.6 H
-R 1y
+ Fr
- R 2y
:
Y=
-157.6+985-827.4 = 0
xz:
M 1 =
-R 2x l
+ F t l1 = 0
R 2x =
+( + F t l1 ) / l =

=0

= +(+792*97)/194 = 396 H
M 2 =
+R 1x l
- F t l2
=0
)/ l=
R 1x =
- F t l2
-(
= -(-792*97)/194 = 396 H
+R 1x
-F t
:
X=
+396-792+396 = 0
F:

+R 2x

=0

F =C r r = 3528*0.3=1058.4 H
C r = 3528 /
- ( 3, . 10.27 );
r = 0.3
-
( 3, . 21 ).
M 1 = + R 2 l
- F l = 0
R 2 =
- F l ) / l =
-(
= -(-1058.4*108)/194 = 589.2 H

M 2 =

+ R 1 l

- FL

R 1 =

=0
)/ l=

- FL
-(
= -(-1058.4*302)/194 = 1647.6 H
- R 1
+R 2
+ F
:
F=
=0
-1647.6+589.2+1058.4 = 0
:
R 1 = R 1x 2 +R 1y 2 +R 1 = 156816+24838 +1647.6=2074 H
R 2 = R 2x 2 +R 2y 2 +R 2 = 156816+684591 +589.2=1506 H
y

6. .
Ft= 2707

Fa= 792

R1y= 1730 H

R2y= 6775 H
l3= 75

Fr= 985

Fx= 1478
n2
Fy= 4060

R1x= 309.3 H

R2x= 3875.7 H
l=l1+ l2=

46+46=92

L =l1+ l2+l = 46+46+65=157


l1= 46

l2= 46

l= 65

309.3*46*0.001=14.2 *
14.2

1478*65*0,001=96.1 *

My, *

96.1

z
Mx, *

79.6

1730*46*0,001=79.6 *
4060*65*0,001=263.9 *
139

4060*(65+46)*0,001-6775*46*0,001=139 *

263.9
203

T, *
z
yz:
M 1 =
+R 2y l
- F r l1
+ F al3

- FyL

R 2y =

=0
)/ l=

R 1y =

=0
)/ l=

- F r l1
- FyL
+ F al3
-(
= -(-985*46+792*75-4060*157)/92 = 6775 H
M 2 =
+R 1y l
+ F r l2
- F y l
+ F al3
- F y l
+ F al3
- ( + F r l2
= -(+985*46+792*75-4060*65)/92 = 1730 H
-R 1y
- Fr
+R 2y
:
Y=

-F y

=0

- Fx

=0

-1730-985+6775-4060 = 0
xz:
M 1 =
-R 2x l
+ F t l1
+ FxL = 0
R 2x =
+
F
l
+ FxL ) / l =
+(
t 1
= +(+2707*46+1478*157)/92 = 3875.7 H
M 2 =
+R 1x l
- F t l2
+ F x l = 0
R 1x =
- F t l2
+ F x l ) / l =
-(
= -(-2707*46+1478*65)/92 = 309.3 H
+R 1x
- Ft
+ R 2x
:
X=

+309.3-2707+3875.7-1478 = 0
:
R 1 = R 1x 2 +R 1y 2 = 95666.49+2992900 =1757 H
R 2 = R 2x 2 +R 2y 2 = 15021050.49+45900625 =7805 H
7.

7607
( 333-79, 2, . .7 )
d = 35 ,
D= 80 ,
C= 76000 ,
e= 0.3 ,
Y= 2.03 .
. R1 = 2074 ,
.R2 = 1506 .
Fa = 2707 ,

.
S 1 = 0,83*e*R 1 = 0,83*0,3*2074=516 ,
S 2 = 0,83*e*R 2 = 0,83*0,3*1506=375 .
:

P a 1 =S 2 +F a = 375 + 2707 =
3082
,
P a 2 = S 2 = 375
.
( 2, . 9.21 ).

1.
P a 1 / R 1 = 3082 / 2074 = 1.486 > e - :
X =0.4 , Y =2.03.

P 1 =(XVR 1 + YP a1 )K K = (0,4*1*2074 + 2,03*3082)*1,3*1=9212 ,
V = 1 - ; K = 1 - ( 2, . 9.20 );
- ( 2, . 9.19 ).
.K = 1.3
2.
P a 2 / R 2 = 375 / 1506 = 0.249 < e - :
X =1 , Y =0.

P 2 =(XVR 2 + YP a2 )K K = (1*1*1506 + 0*375)*1,3*1 =1958 .
( Pmax = 9212 .)
1
L h = a23 (C/P max ) 3,33 *10 6 /(60*n)=
=0,65*(76000 / 9212)^3,33 * (10^6 / (60 * 1435)) =8506 > T=7500
- .
23=0,65 -
( 1, . 333 ).
8.
2
.
7109
( 333-79, 2, . .7 )
d = 45 ,
D= 75 ,
C= 44000 ,
e= 0.3 ,
Y= 1.99 .
. R1 = 1757 ,
.R2 = 7805 .
Fa = 792 ,

.
S 1 = 0,83*e*R 1 = 0,83*0,3*1757=437 ,
S 2 = 0,83*e*R 2 = 0,83*0,3*7805=1943 .
:

P a 1 =S 2 +F a = 1943 + 792 =
2735
,
P a 2 = S 2 = 1943
.
( 2, . 9.21 ).

1.
P a 1 / R 1 = 2735 / 1757 = 1.557 > e - :
X =0.4 , Y =1.99.

P 1 =(XVR 1 + YP a1 )K K = (0,4*1*1757 + 1,99*2735)*1,3*1=7989 ,
V = 1 - ; K = 1 - ( 2, . 9.20 );
- ( 2, . 9.19 ).
.K = 1.3
2.
P a 2 / R 2 = 1943 / 7805 = 0.249 < e - :
X =1 , Y =0.

P 2 =(XVR 2 + YP a2 )K K = (1*1*7805 + 0*1943)*1,3*1 =10147 .



L h = a23 (C/P max ) 3,33 *10 6 /(60*n)=

( Pmax = 10147 .)

=0,65*(44000 / 10147)^3,33 * (10^6 / (60 * 115)) =12464 > T=7500


- .
9. .

- 45: 240HBmin , =800 , =550 .
: -1=350 , -1=210

( 4, .12.7 ).

:
: MX =139 *,
MY= 14.2 *.
M= M X 2 +M Y 2 = 139.7 *.

= 203 *.
d= 50 ,
b x h= 14 x 9.
:
- w=d 3 /32-bh(2d-h) 2 /(16d)=
10968 3 ;
3
2
23239 3 .
. - w =d /16-bh(2d-h) /(16d)=
:
a =M/w= 139.7*1000/10968=12.7 ;
a =T/(2w )= 203*1000/(2*23239)=4.4 .

( 4, . 213 ):
( -1 ) D = -1 /(k /k d +k F -1)k V = 350/(2/0.81+1.12-1)*1=135.2 .
(

-1 ) D

-1 /(k /k d +k F -1)k V

= 210/(1.9/0.7+1.12-1)*1=74.1 .

k = 2
k= 1.9

kV = 1
kF= 1.12

- ( 4, . 12.14 );

kd= 0.81
kd= 0.7

- ( 4, . 12.12 );

( 4, . 12.6 );
- ( 4, . 12.13 );

- ( 4, . 12.12 ).
:
s =( -1 ) D / a= 135.2/12.7=10.65
s =( -1 ) D / a= 74.1/4.4=16.84

(

s= 2
):
s=s s / s 2 +s 2 = 9 > s - .

2
: MX =263.9 *,
MY= 96.1 *.
M= M X 2 +M Y 2 = 280.9 *.
= 203 *.
( d = 45 ):
3
. - w=d /32 =
3

8946 3 ;
3

17892 .
. - w =d /16 =
:
a =M/w= 280.9*1000/8946=31.4 ;
a =T/(2w )= 203*1000/(2*17892)=5.7 .

.
.

( 4, . 213 ):
( -1 ) D = -1 /(k /k d +k F -1)k V = 350/(3.8+1.12-1)*1=89.3 ,
(
,

-1 ) D

-1 /(k /k d +k F -1)k V

= 210/(2.69+1.12-1)*1=74.7 ,

k/kd= 3.8
k/kd= 2.69

- - ( 4, . 12.18 )
:
s =( -1 ) D / a= 89.3/31.4=2.84
s =( -1 ) D / a= 74.7/5.7=13.11

2
(
- s = 2
s=s s / s 2 +s 2 = 2.78 > s - .

10. .
( 6 , [ 4, . 179 ] )
=1,8 4 T2 = 1,8* 203 =6.8 ,

( 3, . 10.17 ) :

d1= 14 ,

d2= 12 ,
- d3= 10 ,

):

= 8 .

14.

12;

10.

11. .
:
= 19 H*.
k= 2
- - .

125-28-1.1 x 28-1.1 21424-75
[ T ] = 125 H*.
=kT= 2*19=38 H* < [ T ]
-
12. .
- 45, .
:
d= 28 ,
= 19 *,
b x h x l = 8 x 7 x 20.
:
[]= 70

:
=2T/(d(h-t 1 )( l-b))= 2*19*1000/(28*(7-4)*(20-8))=38 < 70
- .
( ):
d= 50 ,
= 203 *,
b x h x l = 14 x 9 x 36.
:
[]= 140

:
=2T/(d(h-t 1 )( l-b))= 2*203*1000/(50*(9-5.5)*(36-14))=105 < 140
- .
( ):
d= 40 ,
= 203 *,
b x h x l = 12 x 8 x 40.
:
[]= 140

:
=2T/(d(h-t 1 )( l-b))= 2*203*1000/(40*(8-5)*(40-12))=121 < 140
- .

13. .

.
3 1 .
V1 =
0.35
h =V 1 P/AB= 0.35*2.91/(1.1 * 1.8)=0.51 ,

A= 1.1 ,
B= 1.8
- ;
P= 2.91 - .
- - - 100 17479.4 - 87 ( 3, . 10.29 ).
-1 ( 1957-73 )
( 2, . 9.14 ).
14. .

- .

50

H7/r6

- .

45

L0/k6

,
.

0.025
0.05
0
0.034
0
0.018
-0.012
0.002

,
.

0.025

0.016

0.012

0.016

- .
-
.

0.03
0
0.03
0

75 H7/ l0
75 H7/d11

0
-0.013
-0.1
-0.29

0.03

0.013

0.03

0.19

,
.

,
.

max

min

max

min

- .

50

H7/r6

--

--

0.05

0.009

- .

45

L0/k6

--

--

0.03

0.002

75 H7/ l0

0.043

--

--

--

75 H7/d11

0.32

0.1

--

--

- .
-
.


, .
, .
0.05
0.034

- .

- .

50

45

H7/r6

0.025
0

0.018
0.002

L0/k6
-0.012
0.03
0

- .

75 H7/ l0
-0.013
0.03

-
.

75 H7/d11

15. C .
1 ..
, 2000.
2. .. .
, 1988.
3. ..
, 1991.
4. .. , ..
. ,

-0.1
-0.29

1990.