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CHAPTER 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Define "psychology a.

Scientific study of mental processes and behavior What is the most common specialty area in psychology? a. Clinical psychology study and treatment of mental, emotional disorders What was the general prehistoric view about the cause of mental disorders? a. Possessed by demons What were asylums? a. Facilities for treating the mentally ill in Europe during middle ages to 19th century Describe "moral treatment". a. 19th century approach to treating the mentally ill with dignity in a caring environment What is the underlying premise of psychoanalysis, and who is most associated with that field? a. Sigmund Freud assumes that the unconscious mind is the most powerful force behind thought and behavior When did the science of psychology begin? What country, and who is considered the "father" of psychology? a. The mid 1800s, Germany, Wilhelm Wundt 1879 Describe structuralism. a. Breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behavior, detailed analysis of experience as it happened What is introspection? a. Method for structuralism, involves looking into ones own mind for information about the nature of conscious experience Describe functionalism. a. Influenced by Charles Darwins theory of natural selection, thought it was better to look at why the mind worked the way it did, rather than to describe its parts. Describe behavioral psychology, and who is considered the father of that perspective? a. Which asserts that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives. An extreme form of environmentalism, all behavior comes from experience. John Watson Describe humanistic psychology. Who pioneered this field? a. A theory of psychology that promoted personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching ones highest potential. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers in the 40s/50s What is the most notable difference between humanistic psychology and positive psychology? a. Positive psychology studies from a more scientific method Explain cognitivism. a. A new word for thought and mental process appeared, the scientific study of thought, used the computer to simulate brains. What is the basic premise of Gestalt psychology? a. Maintains that we perceive things as wholes rather than as a compilations of parts. Explain the nature-nurture debate. a. Nature side view is that who we are comes from inborn tendencies and genetically based traits. The nurture side believes we are who we are as the product of our experiences. Explain evolution. a. Evolution is the change over time in the frequency with which specific genes occur within a breeding species What is natural selection? a. A feedback process by which nature favors one design over another because it has an impact on reproduction. Mutations, the strongest and the most suitable in that environment live. Describe evolutionary psychology. a. Tries understanding what adaptive problems the human mind may have solved in the distant past and the effect of evolution on behavior today. Describe social psychology. a. How real or imagined presence of others influence thought, feeling, and behavior





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CHAPTER 2 1. Describe the steps in the scientific method. a. Observe, predict, test, interpret, communicate. Observe a behavior, predict the outcome (cause and effect), testing by collecting data, interpret by analyzing data, communicate conclusions Define "theory". a. Defined set of related assumptions from which testable predictions can be made Define "hypothesis". a. Specific, informed, and testable prediction of what kind of outcome should occur under a particular condition Why is the term replication important in science? a. Because you need to be able to repeat an experiment to confirm the results, to be reliable What determines a pseudo-science and give an example? a. Refers to practices that appear to be and claim to be science, but do not use the scientific method to come to their conclusions. astrology What is the definition of the term "variable"? a. Anything that changes or varies within or between subjects Describe the difference between a sample and a population. a. A sample is a selection of the population, a part of the whole, while the population is the ENTIRE group. What is the "social desirability bias"? a. The tendency toward favorable self-presentation that could leave to inaccurate self-reports Describe descriptive studies. a. Study designs in which the researcher defines a problem and variable of interest bust makes no prediction and does not control or manipulate anythings. What is a case study? a. A study design in which a psychologist often a therapist observes one person over a long period of time Describe naturalistic observation. a. Study in which the researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world What is a representative sample? a. A research sample that accurately reflects the population of people one is studying What are correlational designs? a. Studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another, not designed to show causation Give examples of high and low correlational coefficients. a. +.57 students who did well on midterm gernerally did well on final, Define the term "experiment" as it relates to psychology. a. A research design that includes independent and dependednt variables and random assignments of participation What is the independent variable and give an example in an experiment. a. Controllable variable, sugar What is the dependent variable and give an example in an experiment. a. Effected by the change of independent What is random assignment? a. Randomly assigning participation so they each have an equal chance of being chosen Explain the term experimental group. a. Participants receiving treatment Explain the term control group. a. Not receiving treatment What is the function of a placebo? a. See if whats being tested works, usally sugar pill Make up an experiment with a confounding variable. a. Describe single- and double-blind studies. a. Single blind is not knowing the experiment condition assigned b. Double blind researches or particiipants dont know

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24. How does experimenter expectancy effect relate to double-blind studies? a. If the experimenter expects something the findings will be biased 25. What is the meaning of the term "self-fulfilling prophecy"? a. Statement changing events to cause a belief or prediction to come true 26. Define meta-analysis. a. Research technique that combines all research results on one question and draws a conclusion 27. Define descriptive statistics. a. Used to summarize data 28. Define mean, mode and median. Give examples. a. Mean- average of numbers b. Median- middle number c. Mode- most repeated 29. Explain the term standard deviation. a. How much scores vary around the mean 30. What are the ethical guidelines that all psychological and medical researchers must now adhere to? a. Informed consent, respect, beneficience, privacy, confiedentiality, justice

CHAPTER 3 1. 2. 3. 4. What is a chromosome and how many are found in most human cells? a. Cellular structure holding genetic info, 46 or 23 pairs What is an allele? a. Different forms of genes What are dominant genes and conversely what are recessive genes? a. Dominant genes are dominant over recessive ones capital case vs lowecase Contrast monogenic and polygenic transmission of traits. a. Monogenic the passing of traits by one gene b. Polygenic many genes forming 1 characteristic Define heritability. a. The extent where characteristics are influenced by genetics How have twin studies and adoption studies greatly contributed to psychological science? a. Information about genetics how environment influences Describe the major components of the nervous system. What are the components of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system and the autonomic nervous system? a. Nervous system has the central (brain and spinal) and peripheral has the somatic(voluntary) and autonomic(involuntary) (sympathetic(arousing) and parasympathetic(calming)) What are the physical signs of sympathetic nervous system function as opposed to parasympathetic nervous system function? a. Arouses compared to calming What is a neuron? a. Cells that process and transmit info Describe the functioning of the three primary components of a neuron? a. Axon- transmits impulses b. Dendrites- receive messages c. Soma- contains nucleus How is information transmitted within a neuron? a. Through neurotransmitters What are neurotransmitters? Name three neurotransmitters and describe their function. a. Chemicals transmitting info between neurons, dopamine(arousal/mood) serotinon (eating sleeping) glutamate(memory and learning) What are terminal buttons? a. Sacs containing neurotransmitters Describe what a synapse is and the importance of its function.

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a. Junction between axon and neuron, connector 15. Describe the roles of sensory neurons and motor neurons. a. Sensory info on eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose b. Motor muscles body 16. Describe the action potential and the resting potential. a. Action- the impulse of positive charge that runs down an axon b. Resting- difference in electrical charge between inside and outside when at rest 17. What is the purpose of neurotransmitter reuptake? a. 18. Name three common neurotransmitters and describe their roles. a. 19. There are four lobes in each hemisphere. Name the lobes and their most notable functions. a. Frontal(attention) occipital(eyes) temporal(ears) parietal(sensation and perception) 20. What are significant functions of the amygdala? a. Determines emotional significance (fear) 21. Explain contralaterality. a. Stimulate right brain left side moves 22. What is the role of the corpus callosum? a. Connects both sides of the brain for communication 23. What did we learn from Phineas Gage's accident? a. 24. Where is Broca's area located, and what is its important function? a. Left frontal love ability to produce speech 25. Where is Wernike's area located, and what is its important function? a. Left temporal love comprehension of speech 26. Explain neuroplasticity. a. The brains ability to adopt new functions, recognize itself, or make neural connections 27. Describe and compare EEG, PET, MRI and fMRI . a. EEG- electroencephalograph records electrical activity in brain b. PET positron emission tomography- measures blood flow in brain c. MRI- magnetic resonance image, use magnetic fields to produce images d. fMRI- function magnetic resonance image, activity in the brain 28. What is the function of the endocrine system? a. System of glands that secrete and regulate hormones 29. Which gland is called the master gland? Why? a. The pituitary gland secretes hormones that release more hormones 30. Explain the role of the adrenal gland. a. Release hormones when stressed or emotional

CHAPTER 4 1. Define sensation. a. Stimulation of our sense organs by the outer world 2. What is the absolute threshold? What are the thresholds noted for each of the five senses? a. Absolute threshold, lowest intensity level we can detect half the time,perfume, candle far away, watch tick 3. What is the difference threshold? a. Smallest amount of change between 2 stimuli

4. Describe sensory adaptation. a. Adapting to whats around you 5. What is perceptual set? a. The effect of frame of mind on perception 6. List the primary structures that light passes through in the eye from front to back. a. Cornea, pupil, lens, retina 7. What are the roles of rods and cones in the retina? a. Rods are for night vision, cones are for color vision 8. What is dark adaptation and how long does it often take? a. Adapting to the dark so you can see, up to 30 minutes 9. Define perception. a. The ability to see things in 3 dimenstions 10. How do binocular and monocular cues relate to depth perception? Describe. a. Binocular and monocular cues are using one or 2 eyes to perceive depth 11. Describe figure-ground effect as related to Gestalt psychology. a. A figure standing infront of a somewhat unformed background 12. Describe and compare the trichromatic and opponent-process theories of color vision. a. Trichromatic theory all colors are from a mix of initial 3 colors, green blue red. b. Opponent process theory cones are linked together in 3 pairs, blue/yellow, red/green, and black/white 13. Name and describe the specific structures of the ear that sound passes through in order starting at the outer ear. a. Sound wave>auditory canal>tympanic membrane>hammer>anuil>stirrup>oval window>cuchiea>auditory nervve 14. What is the role of hair cells in hearing? a. Sensory receptors for sound 15. Where are the semi-circular canals, and what are their role? a. By the cuchiea, and maintain a sense of balance 16. What are mechanoreceptors and what sense are they related to? a. 17. What is the gate control theory of pain? a. The spinal cord regulates the experience of pain by closing opening neural channels 18. What is the role of endorphins? a. The bodys natural pain killers 19. What structures are involved in the sensation of olfaction? a. Taste buds 20. What are the five basic tastes?

a. Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, savory