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SPECIFICATIONS AND BOQs

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Compiled by
Centre of Distance Education
CODE
.. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CONSTRUCTION
MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
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CONTENTS,
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
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CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4
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CHAPTER 5
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CHAPTER 6
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PROCEDURE OF ESTIMATING
METHODS OF BUILDING ESTIMATES
SPECIFICATIONS
RULES AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENT OF WORKS
AND TAKING OUT QUANTITIES,
ANALYSIS OF RATE
ESTIMATING OF QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS
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CHAPTER 1
PROCEDURE OF ESTIMATING
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INTRODUCTION
For all engineering works it is required to know beforehand the probable cost of construction
known as the estimated cost. If the estimated cost is greater than the mopey available, then attempts
are made to reduce the cost by reducing the work or by changing the specifications. From this the
importance of estimate for engineers may be understood. II?- preparing an estimate, the quantities of
different items of work are calculated by simple mensuration method and fr,om these quantities the
cost i ~ calculated. The subject of estimating IS simple, nothing much to understand.ibut knowledge- "
of drawing is essential. One who understands and can read drawing may find out the dimensions
lengths, breadths, heights, etc. from the drawing without difficulty and may calculate the
quantities. The calaculations mainly consist of, length x breadth" x height or length x breadth or
length x height. Student who is weak in drawing, if gives attention to estimating and prepares a few
estimates from the drawings, will gain in power of understanding of drawing and his knowledge of
drawing will be much improved. In preparing an estimate one has to go into details of each item, big
or small, nothing can be left or missed. Estimating makes one thorough, superficial work does not
do, one has to'go deep into details. The subject of estimating cannot be prepared just before the
examination, but preparation of a few estimates is essential. "" , "
There is no hard and fast rule for finding out the dimensions from the drawing (plans,
elevations, sections, etc.) but for quick work certain principles, as explained in this book, may be
followed, Beginners find it difficult to take out dimensions (length, breadth and height) from the
plan, elevation and section, but they can easily find out the dimensions by measurements from the
existing building. Foundation is more difficult for thebeginners as it is not exposed and not visible__
An estimator should picture the object (building, structure, etc.) in his mind from the study of
drawing" and specifications, Beginners, generally, find building easier "to estimate than bridges,
culverts, irrigation work, etc., '!S they are mor.e familiar with different parts of building than those
of other works. In fact the estimating of works other than building is simpler, v ""
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. Accuracy in estimate. is very important, if estimate is exceeded it becomes a very difficult
problem for engineers to explain, to account for and arrange for the-additional money. Inaccuracy
in preparing estimate, omission 'of items, changes.in designs, improper rates, etc. are the reasons for
exceedingthe estimate, though increase- in the rates is one of the main reason. In framing a correct
estimate, care should be taken to find outthe dimensions 01 "al"1 theuemscorrecuy, andto' avoid
omissions of any kind of work or 'part thereof. The rate of each item should also be reasonable and
workable. The rates in the estimate provide for the complete work, which consist of the cost of
materials, cost of transport, cost of labour, cost of scaffolding. cost. of tools and plants, cost of
water.ltaxes, establishment and supervision cost, reasonable profit of contractor, etc, "
B ~ t h standard brick 20 em x 10 em x 10 cm (nominalsize) and traditional bricks 9" x4" )(3" or
22.9 ern x "11.4cm x 7.6 ern (nominal size) have been used in this book, The conventions and units
of different items of works vary to some extent from state to state. though the units of the most of
the items are same. An uniformity in units forall items of work should be maintained throughout
the country based on the Indian Standard Institution. In preparing estimate the principle to be
followed is to make each item or dimension clear and intelligible so that they can be understood,
checked or verified by anybody, A remark column may be introduced and notes may he given
where necessary"
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ESTIMATING AND COSTING
METRIC SYSTEM AND UNITS
Metric system is very simple as the units are multiples of ten of the other.. The
most important advantage of the metric system is the of "__
---T-he adoption ofrhemetric systehi.-nas-muClnimpliIieatne of. addition,
substraction, multiplication and division, and also has.saved much useful time being quicker, The
foot pound system of calculations by fraction in almost all topics which is complicated, has been
done away.
For Civil Engineering Works the units which are commonly used are-(i) Metre for
(ii) Square metre for area. (iii) Cubic metre for volume, (iv) Kilogram for mass. and (v) litre for
"capacity.
_ The sub-units are named by adding the prefixes as milli (one thousandth), centi
(one-hundredth) and deci (one-tenth). The multiple units are named by adding the prefixes as deca
(ten times), hecto (hundred times) and kilo (thousand times).
The prefixes for formation of multiples and sub-multiples of units are as given below-
Prefix Multiplying factor Prefix Multiplying factor
-tera I'f) JOOOOOOOOOOOO deci(d) 0.1 ::;10-
1
giga rG) 1000000000 = ccnti(c) 0.01 =10-
2
mega I M) 1000000 milli(m) 0.001-
kilo (k) 1000 ::; 10
3
-micro (J.L) 0.000 001 ::; lJr6
hecto (h) 100 ::; lO
e
nano (n) 0.000 000 00I _ ::; Ip-9
deca (da) 10 -c 10
1
pice (p) 0.000 000 000 001 = 10-
12
femto (f) 0.000 000 000 000 OOi =10-
1
.5
atto (a) 0:000000000000001 =
Illustrations
1 kilometre';::: 1 km 1 x 10
3
m :::: 1000 metre 1 milimetre :::: 1 mm :::; 1 x 10-
3
m ;::: .001 m
I kilograrrr > 1 kg :::; I X 10
3
g :::; 1000 gram 1 miligram =1 mg =1 x 10-
3
g :::: .()()1 gram
1 kilo litre :::: lkl :::; 1 x 10
3
I :::; 1000 litre 1 mili litre == 1 ml == 1 x 10-
3
I :::: .()()1 litre
Unitof mass and capacity -In metric system there i's simple relationship among these units
length, .capacity and weight. The capacity of a cube whose side measures as one decirnetre
(one-tenth of.a metre) is designed ciS'litre'the stand ard'uni\ of capacity: For practica.l pu rposes the
weight 'Of pure water contained in the same cube (cubic decirnetre) is known as kilogram, the urtit of
mass. The weight of I .cubic centimetre of pure water is one gram, 1000 gram is equal tolone
kilogram. litre is the volume occupied by one kilogram of pure water at the temperature of its
maximum density (4c) and under normal pressure. The prototype of 'kilogram' is a platinum
cylinder whose diametre and height are the same. viz. 39 mm. .
Square measure and cubic measure - In engineering works square arid cubic measures are
very often required. Square metre and cubic metre are the standard unit for area and volume
respectively. Square metre is the area eq uivalent to t hat of square of sides each equal to one metre.
Cubic metre is the volume equivalent to that of a cube of sides each equal to one metre.
For conversion (rom FPS system to ,\fKS system Indian Stendsrd Institute has adopted - I yard =0.9144 metre. or
I metre = f.{)936 I yerd > .1.28084 {I_
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PROCEDURE OF ESTIMATING
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INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNIT-SIt/NIT
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.:- ..2;he system - Metre,
does not ofThermodY!11r mtensity. The
International adopted the International system of Units
Unit) which includes six basic units covering all the units. The six basic units with their
symbolsare - Metre (rn) for length; Kilogram (kg) for mass, Second (s) for time, Ampere (A)for
electric current, Degree Kelvin(K) for thermodynamic temperature and Candela (Cd) for luminous
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intensity, The S I unit covers the co-he rent units of tile system (the basic un its, supplementary units
and the co-herent derived units and decimal multiples and sub-multiples of the units formed by the
uses of the prefixes (See page. 2). Tile co-herent units only are designated SI units.
A system of unit is co-herem if the product or' quotients of any two units quantities in the
, I system is the unit of the resultant quantity - for example, in any co-herent system, unit of area
. results when the unit length is multiplied by unit length: unit velocity when the unit length is divided
by unit time; and unit force when the unit mass is multiplied by unit acceleration, etc, Whatever be
the system of units and whether it be co-herent or non-co-herent, the magnitudes of some physical
quantities must be arbitrarily selected and declared to have unit value. These magnitudes form a set
of standard and are called 'basic unit." All other units are derived units related to the basic units by
definition,
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Most of the advanced countries have adopted SI unit. Adoption of Sl unit has little effect on
the M KSA system as the four units of Metre, Kilogram, Second and Ampere, remain the same and
only two more independent basic units have been added.
BASIC SI UNITS
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1. Units of Length - Metre(m). The metre is the length equal to 1650673.73wavelengths
in vacuum of theradiation corresponding to the transition between the levels 2 p 10and 5 d soCthe
Krypton atom. .
2. Unit ofMass-Kilogram (kg).-- The kilogram is the unit of mass and is equal to the mass of
the internationalprototype of the Kilogram. ..
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3. Unit of Time - Second (s). _:... The second is the duration of 9192 63[ 770 periods of the
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radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels ofthe ground state of the
Ceaiurn 133atom. . .
. .. 4. Unit of Electric Current - Ampere (A). The ampere is that constant current which, if
maintained in two straight p'dfJllcl conductors ('f indefinite length, of negligible circular cross
section, and placed one metre apart in vacuum. would produce between these'conductc.s-aIzrcs
......
equal to 2 x 10-
7
newton per unit length. . .
J S. Unit Temperature - Kelvin (K). - The kelvin unit of thermodynamic
temperature of the triple point of water,' .
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. The kelvin mOlY HIm be used lor expressing H tempersturc.intcrvet. The-degree celsius (DC) is a unit of the
It1/crn!ai/lJIitl prile/icill Tcmpcrsturc S";I'" on which the thcrmodynumic temperature of'cia point is 273.16 K. The degree
CCI.,;u.,\ i., cquu! to kelvin (I oC: I K). Tl,... dcgrc ... clslu muy slso he used for expressing a temperature intcrvul.
6. Unit of Luminous Intensity - Candela (cd).. - The candela is the luminous intensity, in the
perpendicular dirccton, of a surface of I '000.000 square metre of a black body at the temperature
of freezing platinum, under a pressure of 101.325 newtons per. square metre,
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AND COSTING
Supplementary Units. - in the International System of units, the quantities, plane and
solid angle, are treated as independent quantities with SI units radian (rad.) and steredisn (sr)
.. _ __.. _
One radian is the angle between two radii of a circle whlch
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cut s ofCon tne Cifcu ul feten ce-an - ---- -
equal in length to the radius.
One steradian is the solid angle which having its vertex in the centre of a sphere, cuts of an area
of the surface of the sphere equal to that of square with sides of length equal to the radius of the
sphere.
Derived Units - The expressions for the derived S\ units are stated in terms. of the basic units,
as the SI units for velocity is metre per second (ml s). For some of the derived units, special name
have been adopted together with special letters symbols, as the SI unit for force is newton (N), for
energy is (Jj.Tor power is watt (W), etc. Some derived SI units are also expressed in terms of th_e
units from which they are derived as the Sl unit for area is square metre (rn-) for volume is cubic
metre (m') for density is kilogram per CUbic metre (kgj m-), etc.
Refer lSI publication - 'Guide to the of International System (51) Units. S. P. : 5-1969.'
METHOD OF ESTIMATING
Estimate. - Before undertaking the construction of a project it is necessary to know its
probable cost which is worked out by estimating. An estimate is a computation or calculation of the
quantities required and expenditure likely to.be incurred in the construction of a work. The primary
object of the estimate is to enable one to know beforehand, thecost of the work (buildings,
structures, etc). The estimate is the probable cost of a work and is determined theoretically by
mathematical calculations based on the plans and drawing and current rates. Approximate
estimate may be prepared by various methods but accurate estimate is prepared by Detailed
Estimate Method. .
Actual Cost. - The actual cost.of awork is known at the completion ofthe work. Account of
all expenditure is maintained day-to-day during the execution of work in the account section and at
the end of the completion of the work when the account iscompleted, the actual cost is known. The
actual-cost should not differ much from the estimated cost worked out at the beginning,
Detailed Estimate..- Preparat.ion of detailed estimate consists of working out the quantities
of different items of work and then working out the cost i.e. the estimate is prepared in two
stazes-- .,'
(i) 'Details of and Calculation of Quantides - The whole wcrk is divided
into different items of work as earthwork, concrete, brickwork, etc. and the items are
classified and grouped under different sub-heads, and details of measurement of each
item of work are
prescribed form
Details of Measurement Form
hem No. Descrrption or
Particulars
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taken out and quantities under each item are computed in
Details of Measurement Form.
No.
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Length Breadth Height or
Depth
Content
Quanti
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PROCEDURE OF ESTIMATING
It is better to add one more column for total quantity or eontent,
(ii) Abstract of Estimated Cost. -The cost under item of work is calculated from the
. quantities already computed at workable rate, andthe total cost is worked out in a
,.. ,., .....- ptesc-rib-etl-fb"rm;;4-bstract-of-Estima.te-Eorm..Ap.ef_c.e,nl age.9f 31.0 5J?cr.cent isadded
for contingencies, to allow for petty contingent expenditures, unforeseen expendi.----- .
tures, changes in design, changes in rates, etc. which may occur during the execution
of the work. A percentage of I V2 to 2.per cent is also added to meet the expenditure of
work-charged establishment. The grand total thus obtained is the estimated cost of
the work.
Abstract of Estimate Form-e-
Amount Description or Rate Item No. Quantity Unit
Particulars
In the above forms the description ofeach item should be such as to express exactly what work,
material, proportions of mortar, etc. have been provided for. .
In preparing an estimate items are usually classified and grouped sub-head wise but for
beginners it is convenient to make up the items in the same order, as far as possible, as they would be
executed or constructed. If the principle of following the order of construction from foundation to
upward direction is followed there is little chance of omission of items.
Note-For different types of estimates, etc" Sec Chapter /0. 'Types lJf Estimate:
MAIN ITEMS OF WORK
1. Earthwork. - Earthwork in excavation and Earthwork in filling are usually taken out
separately under different items, and quantities are calculated in cu m. Foundation trenches are
usually dug to the exact width of foundation with vertical sides. Earthwork in excavationin
foundation is calculated by taking the dimensions of each trench length x breadth X depth. Fillingin
trenches after the construction offoundation masonry is ord inarily neglected. If the trenchfilling is
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accounted, this may be calculated by deducting the masonry from the excavation.
Earthwork in plinth filling is calculated by taking the internal dimensions in between plinth
wall (Length x Breadth) which are usually less than the internal dimensions of the room by two
off-sets of plinth wall i.e. lOcm (4W') and height is taken after deducting the thickness of concrete in
floor, usually 7.5 em (3"). Ifsand filling is done in plinth, this should be taken separately. The length
and breadth for each filling may be same as the internal dimensions of the room if there is no off-set
in plinth wall. . ' .
Excavated earth is used in trench filling and plinth filling and usually not paid for separately,
but may also be included under aseparate item-s- "Retarn/ill andram or backfill" and paid at a
lesser rate. Extra ea-rth if required for filling is brought from outside. Ifthere is surplus earth after
trench and plinth filling, this may be utilised in levelling and dressing of site or carted away and
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removed'<
2. Concrete in.foundation. - The concrete is taken out incu m bylength> breadthx thickness.
The length and breadth of foundation concrete are usually the same as for excavation, only the
depth or thickness differs. The thickness of concrete varies from 20 ern to 45 ern, usually 30 cm
(9" to t 8" , usually 12"), Foundation concrete consists of lime concrete or weak cement concrete.
The proportion of cement concrete in foundation may be t : 4: 8 or 1.: 5 : 10.
3l Soling.- When the soil is softor bad, one layer of dry 'brick or stone soling is below
the foundation concrete, The soling layer is computed in sq m (Length> Breadth) specifying the
thickness.
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ESTIMATING AND COSTING ,
4. Damp proof course. - D. P.c. usually or 2.5 cm (I") thick rich cement concrete I: I Y2 : 3 or
2 em. t hick rich cement mortar I : 2. mixed with standard waterproofing material. is provided
at the plinth level to full width of plinth wall, and the quantities are computed in __ __
Hrcu.-tiifif :C:ls--no\- providecratthesills- of doors and verandah openings. for which
deductions arc made. (One: kg of Cem-Scul or ltnpertno or otherstuadurd waterproofing
,;ciii1i )Ow lIJ per bag orcement is generally used).
5. Masonry. - Masonry is computed in cu m (Lengrhxbreadthxlteight). Foundation and
plinth masonry is taken- under one item, and masonry in superstructure is taken under a separate
item. In storeyed building the masonry in each storey as ground floor above plinth level, first floor,
etc. is computed separately. In taking out quantities the walls are measured as solid and then
deductions arc made for openings as doors, windows, etc. and such other portions as necessary.
Masonry of different types or classes. masonry with different mortar. etc. arc taken out under
.separatc items. Arch masonry work is taken out separately. Splayed or rounded sides of wall arc
considered as rectangular and extreme dimensions are taken to find out the quantities. Thin
partition wall is measured in sq m. Honeycomb brick wall is taken under a separate item in sq rn.no
deduction is made for holes. Stone mason ry is calculated iii the same manner as for brick masonry.
DEDUCTION FOR OPENING, BEARINGS ETC. IN MASONRY
No deduction is made for the following :
ii! Opening each up to 1000 sq ern or 0.1 sq m (I sq It),
(ii) Ends of beams, posts, rafters, purlins, etc. upto 500 sq em or 0.05 sq m (72 sq in) in
section.
(iii) Bed plate, wall plate. bearing of chajjas and the like upto 10 em (4") depth.
Bearings of floor and roof slabs are not deducted from wall masonry.
For other openings deductions are made in the following manner ;
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Rectangular Openings-Full deduction is made.
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Deduct-- - Ix n thickness of wall.
f.t- I ---t
Fig. 11
Doors and Windows-with Small Segmental Arches- .
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Deduction is made for rectangular portion only up to the springing line.
The segmental portion is considered as solid to allow for the extra expenses
m constructing the arch, and the filling up with thin wall.
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Deduction-Ix h thickness of wall.
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Fig. 1-2
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PROCEDURE OF ESTIMATING
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.... Segmental Arch Openings-
Deduction is made for the whole opening, the rectangular portion as
well as the segmental portion.
h .. . - . 2 - rr
I he urcn of scgmcntul portio = J Ir + IT
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11tH lor deduction. the area of the segmental portion is obtained
approximately hy taking 2/3 of span. x rise, (21.\ x I x r) and the quantity for
l--.l
deduction is 1 x I x r: thickness 01 wall. (r'12Ibeing small is neglected for
Fig. 1-3
simplicity.) 3 - 2 -
The total will be ". ;t ("3 x I x r)] x thickness olwall.
Semi-circular Arch Openings-
The area of semi-circular portion :.= Y2 tr r
1
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But for the deduction, the area ofthe semi-circular portion is' obtained
approximately by -Y4 of span x rise, (% x I Xr).
Thc total deduction will =L(lx h) + (% x [: r)] x thickness of wall.
El1iptical arches may be considered as semi-circular arches and may be
dealt in the same manner.
For Large Arches the actual area of opening should be calculated
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Fig. 1-4
correctly by mensuration formulae, and deduction should be made for
actual area.
6. Arch masonry work-s-Masonry work in arches is calculated in cu m
separately by multiplying the-mean length of the arch by the thickness of
arch and by the breadth of the wall.
Quantity of arch masonry> 1
m
X t x thickness of wall.
Deduction <t: x t Xthickriess of wall.
If-- S '---M
Fig. 1-5 Calculation of arch work heve been dealt in details in Chapter 2.
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:1- --;; --Lintels or of [,:B.,
quantities are calculated in cu m. Length of the lintel is equal to the clear
span plus two bearings. If dimension of bearing is not given the bearing may
be taken as same as the thickness of lintel with a Idnimum of 12 ern (4!h").
Thus the-length of the lintel, 1= s + 2t, i.e. clear span plus two bearings.
Quantity of lintel =I x t x thickness of wall.
Deduction = I x t x thickness of wall.
s --'II .
Fig. 1-6 _
8. R.e.e. and R:B. work.-R.C.C. and R.B. work may be in roof or floor slab, in beams,
lintels, columns, foundations, etc. and the quantities are calculated in cu m. Length, breadth and
thickness are found correctly from the plan, elevation, and section or from other detailed drawings.
arc added With the clear span to gel the dimensions. The quantities are calculated in m
exclusive of steel reinforcement and its bend ing but inclusive of centering and shuttering and fixing
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ESTIMATING AND COSTING
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and binding reinforcement in position. The including its bending is taken' up
separately under steel works in quintal.Forjhis purposeO.6%to 1%(usually 1%) of R.C.C. or R.B.
work by volume may be taken for steel, if other details';are not given. volume of steel not
deducted from.the R. C.C. or R.B.wolk ..... , -rr-r-r-:> .--- ------ --
R.C.C. and R.B. works mav also be estimated inclusive of steel and centering and shuttering
for the complete works, if specified. ': ' .
Centering and shuttering (form work) are usually included in the R.C.C. or R.-B. work, but
may also be taken separately in sq m of surface in contact with concrete.
In R.C.C. work plastering is not taken separately, but the exposed surface are finished with
thin rich cement sand mortar plastering to give smooth and even surface, which usually is not taken
into consideration. .
(For R.C.C. or R.B. work. See also Chapter 5).
9. Flooring and Roofing.
(i) Ground floor-The base lime concrete and floor finishing of c.c. or stone or marble
. or mosaic, etc. are usually taken as one job or one item (combined in one item), and
the quantity is calculated in sq m multiplying the length by the breadth. The length
and breadth are measured as inside. dimensions fromwall to wall of superstructure.
Both the works of base concrete arid floor finishing are paid under one item.
(ii) 1st floor, 2nd floor etc-Supporting structure is taken separately in cu mas R.C.C.,
R.B. etc. and the floor finishing is taken separately in sq m as 2.5 cm or 4 ern (I" or
I V2") C. C. or marble or mosaic, etc. 1f a cushioning layer of lime concrete is given in
between the slab and the floor, thecushioning concrete may be measured with the
floor under one item or taken separately.
(iii) Roof-Supporting structure is taken separately in cu m and the lime concrete
terracing is computed in sq m with thickness specified, under a separate item
including surface rendering smooth. The' 'compacted thickness of lime concrete
terracing. is 7.5 ern to 12 em (3" to .average, .L.C. terracing may also be
calculated in cu m with average thickness, (as in practice in U.P.).
The bearing of roof or floor slab is given same as the thickness of slab, usually 10ern to 15em
(4" to 6").
. In case of tiled, galvanised iron sheet, or asbestos cement sheet roofingthe roof coverings are
taken out in sq m and measured flat includingoverlaps with all fittings.and supporting trusses and
members are taken under separate item. .. .,' .". "_
Floor of doorsills and sills of opening; should also be taken into account. In the case of ground
floor sills should be taken separately, as there is no lime concrete in sills.
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10. Plastering and Polntlngo--Plastering usually 12 mrn is calculated in sq m. For
walls the measurements are taken for the whole face of the -wall for both sides as solid, and
deductions for openings are made in the following manner :----,
(i) No deduction is made for ends of beams, l/ostS, rafters, etc..
(ii) For small opening up to 0.5 sq m (5 sq ft) no deduction is made, and at the same time no
additions are made for jambs, soffits and of sills of these openings.
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.iii) For openings exceeding 0.5 sq m (5 sq ft) but not exceeding 3 sq m (30 sq 1) deduction is .
made for one face only, and the other face is allowed for jambs, soffits and sills which are
not taken into account separately.
(iv) For openings above 3 sq m (30 sq ft) deduction is made for both faces of the opening, and
the jambs, soffits and sills are taken into account and added.
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PROCEDURE OF ESTIMATING .
As the outer jambs, etc. are much smaller than the inner ones, the deduction is usually made
from the outer face.
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Inside ptastar = L X H
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Outside plaster ""L x H -rxh
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For deduction for arch opening the same principle as for masonry work (pages 6-7) is followed.
Plastering of ceiling usually of 12mm (Y2") thick is computed in sq m under a separate head as
this work is done with richer mortar. For R.C.C. work usually no plastering is allowed but for fair
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finish a thin plaster of rich cement mortar may be allowed which should not be taken in the
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measurement separately. Thin rich cement mortar plastering in R.G.C. work may also be taken
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under a separate item, specially in the ceilingiriside room. '. '.
. Pointing...... Pointing in walls is calculated in sq m for whole surface and deductions similar to
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plastering are made. . . .
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11. Cornice..... Ornamental or large Comiceis measured in running metre (running foot) for
the complete work which includes masonry, plastering, mouldings, etc. and paid for in r m (r ft).
. Similary, string course, drip course, cor-belling, coping, etc. are measured and paid for in'
)
running metre for the complete work. ,
12. Pillars."":,", Pillars are taken separately in cu m for their net volume and quantities are
L
calculated by correct geometrical measurements by simple mensuration method.
/ '\
L
r
.Quantity> Sec. area ?< ht.> cu m. J\'1( round is thedie.
. . .... . ,
::: a
2
x ht. cu m for square pillars, B is the side.
)"
"
Hexagonal, octagonal, etc. pillars are dealt similarly.' .'
Plastering in the pillars are calculated in sq m multiplying the. circumference of perimeter by
J. "
the height. .
r
13. Doors and Windows.
(i) Chowkhet or Frame-. - Door and window frames or chowkhats are computed
in cu rn, Length is obtained by adding the length of all the members of-the
chowkhat, top and two verticals if there is no sill member";' and adding botton
also if there is sill, and this length is multiplied' by the two dimensions of the
cross-section of the member. If there is horn projection these projections also
should be added to t he length. If there is no sill member, vertical members
be inserted into the floor by about 2.5 ern to d cm (I" to lY2").
r
.:..,....
<
ESTIMATING ANDCOSTINGl
(ii) Door or Window Leaves or Shutters. - They are computed in sq m by
multiplying the breadth by the height of the shutters. the rebates in the ch':lwkhat ;
_, __ ,.,sho.uLd be taken into consideration in finding the breadth and the height. A';.
allowed at the bottom oTaooTiTlfierels no sill----------1 f
me.nber. For estimating the clearance may not be taken into consideration. this
may be neglected. But for measurement for payment the clearance should be -,
taken into account. The rebates in the chowkhats may be taken as 12 mm to '
20 mm (\12" to W'). The central overlap is not taken into account.
The name of the timber used. the thickness of shutters. type of shutters and the nature of t .
fittings (iron. brass. etc.) should be noted in the item. Shutters of different types as panelled. glazed; .
partly panelled and partly glazed. venetian. etc. should be computed separately as the rates differ. t:
- Fittings are computed by number i.e. enumerated. Fittings may also be included in the sq m '
rate of shutters. For estimate. the fitting may be taken under a separate item in sq m basis -of } .
shutters. or a lump sum provision may be made. Hold fasts are taken separately under a separate ,
item by weight or by number.

It is better to purchase the fittings by the department to the choice and requirement. and to get .
them fitted by the contractor whose rate for shutters shall include the labour for fixing the fittings. t
In such case the rate of shutters will exclude the cost of fittings but will include the cost of fixing
them. In estimating the cost of fittings will be provided under a separate item 'fittings of doors arid
windows' on area basis or on lump sum basis for the purchase of fitting.
14. Wood Work. - Wooden beams. burgahs, posts. wooden roof trusses. chowkhats, etc. ;t
come under this item, and the quantities are computed in cu m. The dimensions of finished work ::.,\
shall be taken. .
15. Iron Work. - T'his is. 'computed -in weight in kg or quintal and the quantities are
II
calculated correctly by multiplying the weights per' running metre by the length. The weight per r m -:1*'

can be obtained from the steel section book (steel tables are given at theend of the book). For steel
," :fi
x.
joint the length is equal to the clear span plus two bearings. the bearing may be takenz; thickness of
wall or 20 ern to 30 em (H" to 12")..
., .
Density 'of mild steel is equal to 7850. kg{cu m or 78.5 q{cu m or 0.785 gramr cu ern
(490 lbs{cu ro,

',"i Weight of iron hold fasts may be taken as III: kg. (2 Ibs to lbs) each. For doors 6 hold fasts
,-,
!
,
_(three on each side). for windows 4hold fasts be provided if not specified.
l
The weight of bolts 'and nuts and rivets with heads can be calculated by counting their nu mbers
and sizes and consulting steel table. Sometimes certain percentage of the whole steel work is
provided for rivets and bolts and nuts. For steel roof truss 5 per cent of the steel work is usually
provided for rivets and bolts and nuts;
16. White-washing or Colour-washing or Distempering. - The quantities are computed in
sq m and are usually same as for plastering. The inside is usually white washed or distempered and
this item will be same as for inside plaster. The outside is colour-washed and the quantities of
colour-washing will be same as for outside plaster. These items need not be calculated separately.
but simply written as same as for inside plaster or outside plaster. Number of coats of white
washing or colour-washing are taken as one job or work and the rates cover for the number of coats
which should not be a multiplying factor. The number of coats should be mentioned in the item.
Ded uctions are dealt in the same manner as for plastering. Other type of surface finishing may also
be done and may be taken accordingly.
, ,
PROCEDURE OF ESTIMATiNG
17. Painting. - Painting or Varnishing of doors and windows are computed in sq m, the
dimensions should be taken for outer dimensions of the chowkhat i.e. outer dimensions of doors
-andwindows.Thc__ Oat (not girthed). No separate measurement is taken for the
chowk hat, the area is same as the waH --
opening inside tl:: cl.owkhar is t-aken. For both faces of doors and windows, the simple area as
measured above is multiplied by appropriate numbers as below -
(I) Panelled, framed and braced
[edged and battened or ledged
battened and braced ... 2'!.l times one surface area, for both sides.
(i/) Fully glazed or gauged I time one surface area, for both sides.
(iii) Partly panelled and partly glazed
or gauged . 2 times one surface area, for both sides.
(iv) Flush door 2 times one surface area, for both sides.
(v) Venetian 3 times one surface area, for both sides.
(\II) Iron bars, grills in windows' I time the area of clear opening in between
chowkhat for over all.
This covers also for chowkhats on three faces. Painting is done in two or three coats. usually
over a coat of priming. The rate covers for the number ofcoats under one item. The number of coats
, "
should be mentioned in the description of item.
(The multiplying factors differ slightly from State to State. IS 1200 should be followed).
For UiP. consult UiP... P. WD.. S.l.
The concealed surface of the chowkhat which is in contact with the jamb of the wall is usually
-,
painted with two coats of coaltar or solignurn, and this item is computed separately.
.:
For beams, rafters, purlins, posts, etc., of timber or iron.jhe area of actual exposed surfaceis
taken for painting. . .
Corrugatedsurface is taken as nat and a .percentage increase is allowed. (See Chapter la-on
Methods of Measurement). . ,
, .
, .1
Lump-sum Item. - Sometimes a lump-sum rate is provided for certain small items for which
detailed quantities cannot be taken out easily orit takes sufficient time to find the detail. as front
architectural or decoration work of a building, fire-place. -sitecleaning and dressing, etc..
' . ..J
/ ' Other Items. - For other ite"ms the units of different works given in pages 14to 23 may be
cousultvd. The units being known. it will not be difficu!; to estimate the". quantities of different items
or . ., 0 0 .., - o'
Electrlfication and Sanitary and Watersupply Works. - For Sanitary and Water supply
Works 8% and for Electrification of the estimated cost of the building works are usually
provided in estimate. 0 0
Nomenclature of Items. - The nomenclature of items are fully described so that each item is
!
clear and there is no ambiguity. Type arid quality of materials, proportion of mortar, method of
construction. etc. are included in the description of the items. Nomenclatures of item in the solved
exam pies in this book are given in brief. for detailed nomenclatures. P. W. D. Schedule of rates may
be consulted. 0
Rates. - Rates of different items in the estimate are the current rates for the completion of the
items of work which include supplyof materials, transport, labour scaffolding, overheads,
contractor's profit. taxes etc, TilL' rates arc usually taken from the "P.W.D. Schedule of Rates."
.... ,-
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
..
Reducing Calculation. - There are certain items where calculation can be reduced, and time
and labour saved, by adopting the following methods . .
..."i.
Depth of excavation . .
For example, if the depth of excavation is 90 ern and the thickness of concrete is 30 em, then
concrete = 1/
3
XQuantity of earthwork. . .. Ili\
This is ture only when the depth of excavation and the thickness. of concrete are same for all
walls if not same take byparts whose depths are same. '
2. Sand Filling in Plinth =Quantity of earth filling in plinth x of sand filling..
Height of earth filling
. For example, ifheight oJ earth filling in plinth is 60 em and the height of sand filling is 30 em,
then the quantity ofsand filling = Y2 x Quantity of earth filling.
. Instead of sand filling, cinder is also used in filling the upper part of theplinth, which may be.
dealt in the same manner as that of sand filling. .
3. Inside White-washing. - Quantity is same as for inside plastering, Simply write 'the same
area as for inside plastering'. . . ..
" 4. Outside Colour-wsshing. - Quantity is same as for outside plastering. Simply write 'the
same area as for outside plastenng'. . .
5. Masonry Work in Footings. - When there are number ot
footings, the average breadth may be taken and the quantity may be
calculated by multiplying by the length and height.
Average breadth = b
l
+b
2
2
Quantity of masonry to the footing =Lx bl -+- b
2
X h.
2
Quantity thus obtained is only' approximate but may be
.....: .:. : "-; - II
..:. .' ..
sufficient for practicalpurposes.
' .<10,
; J. : :.,......a.,:_.:
Length L should be mean length or centre line length.
6. To save multiplication against every line' combine those whose breadth and height are
common, add the length of all and multiply by the common breadth and height. By adopting this
method many multiplications can be avoided. '
,.,.
For example
1
Item
No.
Description of Item No.
Brick masonry in super-structure 2
3
2
1
1..
7.65 m
3.50m
3.80 m
4.20 m
B.
.30m
..30 m
.30m
.30 m
Quantity Ht.
3.60.m
3.60m
3.60m
3.60 m
Total ... 37.60 m x .30 m x 3.60 m = 40.608 = 40.6] cu m
PROCEDURE OF ESTIMATING'
Degree of Accuracy in Estimating. -:- The accuracy, to be observed in preparing an estimate
depends on the rate of the item andtheunit of payment. The higherthe rates the greater should be
rates are high and'paid_p-eJ:JmiJ,
dimensions should be absolutely correct, though taking dimensions to the nearest I ernto.5 em (W'
to 14") may be allowed for practical purposes. The quantities in such cases should be worked out to
at least two places of decimal. But where rates are low and paid for %to o/oo'unitsuch extreme
accuracy 1S not required. .
In the case of wall where masonry is paid per cu m a few ern added to or substracted from the
length or height would but little affect the total content. But the width or thickness of the wall,
where every half em or quarter em affects the result considerably should be taken out withgreat
accuracy. The quantities may be computed to the nearest two places of decimal.
In general, dimensions should be measured to the nearest I em (.0I m), areas should be worked
out to the nearest 0.0 I sq m and cubic contents should be worked out to the nearest to 0.0 I cu IIi.
Thickness of slabs, partitions, etc. and sectional dimensions of columns, pillars, beams, etc. should
be takeh to the nearest half centimetre (.005 m). .
I
also Chapter 4 -Rules and Methods of Measurements and Taking out Quantities);
UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS IN METRIC SYSTEM
The principle for dimensions and measurements is to use milimetre (mm) for minute
dimensions, centimetre (ern) for'small dimensions and metre (m) for .bigdimensions. Distances are'
measured in kilo metre (km). !
The dimensional units for main item of materials and worksfor general construction works as
used in metric system areas follows :-. .
Unitsof Dimensions for Materials and Works -.
Psrticulsts of Materials and Works DimensionsMetric System
1::-: Bricks, stone blocks, etc, All.dimensions pm. ,
2. Files, slates, wall board, glass panes, A.C. sheets, Lengthand breadth in cmorm.
sheets, etc: .
Thickness' in mm,'
.. 3. Door, windows, etc. Height and breadth in ern or m.
4. Parts of doors and windows as pannels, .
... ' . ern or rnrn.
shutters
5. Timber Length in .m.and cross-sectional
dimensions in em, or mrn, .
6. Masonry (brickwork, stone masonry, etc.) .Length. and height in rn.
.Thickness or breadth in ern.
7. Cement concrete, Lime concrete, R.C.C. . Length and breadth in m.
Flooring, etc. . Thickness in cm.
8. White washing, Colour washing, Distempering, Length 'and breadth.or height
Painting, etc, . .
in.rn.
9.
Aggregates, ballast, grit, sand, etc.
Size in rnm.
10. Rolled steel sections as I-beam, channel, angle,
., .
etc.... Length in m, section in rnIlJ.,.
II. Mild steel bars Length in. m, Dia. in rnrn.
... .. .,
--
1
'.j
j
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Principle of Unlts for Various Items of Works-:- ..... .
The units of different works depend on their nature, Size and shape. In general. the uruts of
different items of work are based on the following principle:- .
. .. :..-. "{l)'" Masse-voluminous -and",thick"works-'shall' .
measurements of length, breadth and height or depth shall be taken to compute the
volume Or cubic contents.
(it) Shallow, thin and surface works shall be taken' in square unit or in area. The
measurement of length and breadth or height shall be taken to compute the area.
. I
(iiI) Long and thin work shall be taken in linear or running unit. and linear measurement
!
shall be taken.
(ill) Piece work. job work, etc., shall be taken in number. .
The units of payments and measurements .of various items of workin metric system
same exceptTor earthwork. Earthwork is measured in cu m but payment is made per 100 cu I1l
(per % cu m). .
THE UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS AND PAYMENTS FOR' VARIOUS
ITEMS OF WORKS AND MATERIALS
S1.
No.
I.
2.
3.
:4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
II.
12.
Particulars of Items
Earthwork
Earthwork in excavation in ordinary soil, earth
work in mixed soil with kankar, bajri, etc.
earthwork in hard soil ...
Rockexcava tion
Earthfilling in excavation in foundation ...
Earthfilling in foundation trenches ...
(Usually not and riot peid seperstelyv
I
r '
Earthfilling in plinth
.' ..
. . ...
Earthwork in banking, cutting, 111 road a.id
irrigation channel
'"
Surface dressing and levelling. cleaning. etc. ...
Cutti-ng of trees (Girth specified) -..
Puddling, Puddle clay core
...
Sand filling
...
Quarrying of stone or boulder ...
Blasting of rock (Blasted stone stacked and
then measured)
...
Note.-(For earthwork. normal lead is 30 m
end normal lift is 1.5 m.
Units of
measurement
in'MKS
cu m
) .
..:' .. cu'm.-_
,
cu m
cu m
cu m
ell m
sq m
no.
I
cu m
cu m
cu m
cu m
Units of
payment
in MKS
per % cu m
per % cu m
per % cu m

per%cu m
- ..
I
per % eu m
perslfm
per no.
I
I
per C::C eu m
per eu m
per cu m
per eu rn
Units 0 f
payment
in FPS
% cu ft
%cu ft
. % cu f t
% cu f
% cu f
%cu f t
%sq f
i
per no
I
c( cu f
I
I
c::e eu r
rc eu r
r-
c
cu f
I
. ..
UNITS
SI. Units of Units of
Particulars of Items
No. measurement payment
in MKS in MKS
--+-------------------c------+---...:.---+-------+
--- --- - - _-_._ .. '--"'-"
---- - -. ------
--- --.- ----
Concrete --
-
l. Lime concrete (L.e.) in foundation Cll m per cu m
2. Lime concrete (LiC") in 'roof terracing, thick
ness specified ... sq m persq m
(May also be in volume basis as practice in
u.e.;
3. Cement concrete rc.c.: cu m per cu m
4. Reinforcedcement concrete (R.C.C.) cu m per cu m
!.III
5. C.c. or R.C.C. Chujja, sun shade cu m per cu m
'I
6. Precast c.c. or R.C.C.
cu m percum
7.
Jali work or jaffri work or c.c. tracery panels
(Thickness specified) ...
persq m sq m
8. Cement concrete bed
cu m per cu m
D.P.C.
9.
Damp proof course - Cement concrete, Rich
cement rnort.ar , Asphalt, etc. (Thickness
specified) ...
sqm persq m
Brickwork - :
1. Brickwork in foundation and plinth, in-super
structure, in arches, etc., in 'cement, lime or.
j mud mortar. . ..
cu m percu m
2. Sun dried brickwork
cu rri percu m
3.
Honey-comb brickwork, thickness specified ... sq. m persq m
(May also be in volume basis as practice in
_ u.P.)
4. Brickwork Hi jack. arcnes.: if measured sepa
rately ... cu m percu m
5. Jack arch roofing including top finishing sq m persq m
6. Brickwork in wellsteining
cu m percu m
7. Half-brickwork with or without reinforcement sq rn pcrsq m
(May also be in cu m as practice In UP.)
8. Thin partition wall sq m persq m
9. Reinforced brickwork (R.B. work) cu m per cu m
10. String course, drip course, weather course,
coping etc. (Projection specified) ... per m metre
Units of
payment
in FPS
~
..-_.. _., - ... -_. __._----
% cu ft
%sq ft
per cu ft
per cu ft
per cu ft
per cu ft
per sq ft
per cu ft
%sq f1
%cu ft
%cu ft
% sq ft
e:t cu ft
';(. sq ft
%cu ft
" . ~
% sq ft
%sq ft
% cu ft
pCI' I' ft
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
j
.Units of Units of
Sl.
Particulars of Items
payment measurement
in MKS'
No.
in MKS
1i.T Cornice ------- per'm--'
metre
12. Brickwork in Fire place, Chulla, Chimney... cu m per cu m
per m
13. Pargetting Chimney, fire place flue
metre
per m
14. Brick edging (by road side) metre
Stone work
1. Stone masonry, Random Rubble masonry,
Coursed Rubble masonry, Ashlar masonry in
walls, in arches, etc. .., cu m percum
percu .m 2. Cut stone work in lintel, beam, etc. cu m
3. Stone slab in' roof, shelve, etc., stone chujjas,
stone sun shed, etc. (Thickness specified) ... -sq m persq m
4. Stone work in wall facing or lining (Thickness
specified) .
sq ill persq m
Wood work
1. Wood work, door and window frame or chow
.- .khat, r-afters beams, roof trusses, etc, ... cum percum
2. Door and window shutters or leaves, panelled,
battenedvglazed, part panelled and part glazed,
wire gauged, etc. (Thickness specified) ...
sq.m per sq m
3. 'Door and window fittings as hinges tower bolt-s:
sliding bolts, handles, etc. . .. no. per no.
(May also be on the basis ofarea ofshutters as .
practice' in U.P.)
4. Timbering, boarding (Thickness specified) ... sqm persqm
,
5.) Timbering of trenches (Area of face sup
ported) _ ... sq m persqIl}.
6. Sawing of timber sqm persq m
persqm 7. Woodwork partition. Ply wood, etc. sq rn,
per m 8. Rallies (Diameter specified) metre
Steel work
1. Rolled Steel joists, Channels, Angles, T-irons,
.Flats, Squares, Rounds, etc. ... quintal per q
2. Steel reinforcement bars, etc., in R.C.C., R. B.'
.
per q quintal
perq 3. Bending, binding of steel reinforcement quintal
Units of
payment
in FPS
------perrti-----------------
% cu ft
per. r ft
per r ft
% cu ft
percuft
%sq ft
per sq. ft
per cu ft
per sq ft
--\
,:;
per no.
per sq ft
per. sq ft
per sq ft
per sq ft
per r ft
per cwt
per cwt
per cwt
UNITS
Sl.'
No.
......
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14,_
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
-20,.
21.
22.
1.
2.
3.
Particulars of Items
. ... "_... - . . __.
.... - . -- _.- -, . ..
Fabrication and hoisting of steel work ...
Expended Metal (X. P.M.), size specified ...
Fabric reinforcement, wire netting .. ,
Iron work in struss ...
Gusset plate (Minimum rectangular size from
which cut)
Cutting of Iron Joists, channels ...
Cutting, Angles, Tees, Plate ..,
THreading in iron
'"
Welding, solder of sheets, plates
,'( Welding of rails: steel, trusses, r o d s ~
per no.)
Boring holes in iron
......
' Cast Iron (C.l.) pipe, Dia. specified ..,
Rivets, Bolts and' nuts, Anchor bolts, Lewis
bolts, Holding down bolts, etc.
...
Barbed 'wire fencing
...
Iron gate
...
(May also be by weight, quintal)
Iron hold fast
...
(May also be by no.)
Iron railing (Height and types specified)
'"
Iron grill, collapsible gate
, , ...
(May also be by 'weight, ,quintal)
Rolling shutter ...
Steel doors and windows (type and fixing
specified)
...
Roofing-
Tiled roof ~ Allahabad tile, Faizabad tile,
Mangalore tile, etc. including battens ...
Country tile roof including bamboo jaffri
'"
Corrugatediron (G.c.l.) roof, Asbestos cement
(A.C.) sheet roof ...
Units of
measurement
in MKS
quintal
sq m
sq m
quintal
quintal
cm
sq ern
cm
cm
no
"metre
quintal
metre
sq m
quintal
metre
sq,m'
r
sq m
sq m
sq m
,sq m
sq m
Units of
payment
~ n MKS
per q
per sq m
persq m
per q
per q
percm
per sq cm
per em
percm
per no,
perm
per q
per m
per sqm
perq
perm
per sq ,!TI .
.. '
persq m
persq m
persqm
persqm
per sqm
Units of
payment
in FPS
per cwt
per sq ft
per sq ft
per cwt
per cwt
per inch
per sq inch
per inch
per inch
p-er no.
per ft
per cwt
% r ft
per sq ft
per cwt
per r ft
, ,p
er s9Jt
per sq ft
per sq ft
% sq ft
% sq ft
'% sq ft
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
S1.
No.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Units of Units of Units of
measurement payment payment
in MKS in MKS in FPS
Particulars of Items
Slate roofing, timber roofing
Thatch. roofing including bamboojaffri (Thick
ness specified) ...
Eave board (Thickness specified) .,.
R.C.C., R. B. slab roof (excluding steel) ...
Lime concrete roof over and inclusive of tiles or
b r i c k , or stone slab, etc. (Thickness
specified) ...
Mud roof over and inclusive of tiles, or bricks,
or stone slab, etc. (Thickness and type speci
fied) ....
Ridges, valleys, gutters, (Girth specified) .. ,
Tar felting, Bituminous painting
Insulating layer in roof of sand and clay,
. asphalt, etc.
Expansion, contraction orconstructionjoint ....
Ceiling - Timber, A.C. Sheet plain, Cloth,
Cement plaster on XPM, Paste board, etc... ,
Centering and shuttering, Form work - Sur
face area of R.C.C. or R.B. work supported
(May also beper cu In (cu fly ofR. C.C. or R. B.
,
Plastering, Pointing and Finishing
Plastering - Cement mortar, Lime mortar,
i..ud, etc, (Tirickuess, IJl Jporllvl1 .specified):
Pointing - Struck, Flush, Weather, etc.
Dad 0 (Thickness and type specified)
I
Skirting (Thickness type and height specified)
Cement mortar or lime mortar rubbing
White washing, Colour washing, Cement wash
ing (No. of coat specified) ...
Distempering (No, of coat specified) .. ,
Snow cement ..washing or finishing (No. of coat
spcci fied) ...
% sq ft
t.
% sq ft
per sq ft
per cu It
% sq ft
%sq ft
per r ft
% sq fI
.j
% sq ft
.,
per r
.,
.;
j
j
per it .
i
1
,
_% sq ft
I
!
1%sq ft
I % sq ft
I % sq ft
. per r ft
% sq ft
%sq ft .
% sq ft
sq m
sq m
cu m
sq m
sq m
metre
sq m
sq m
metre
sq m
sq ,m .'.
S'i m
sq m
sq m
metre
sq rn
sq m
. sq m
sq III
persq m
persq m
per sq m
per cu III
persq m
per sq m
per m
persq m
per sq m
perm
per sq m
persq m
persq ;:1
per sq in
per S({. m
per m
persq m
persq m
persq m
pcrsq m
.-,
UNITS
Sl.
Particulars of Items
No.
_.. ....".,- .. --
.. ' .. - ._--- -- ....._.- ,
9. _
Painting, Varnishing (No. of coat specified) ...
Polishing of wood work (No. of coat specified)
10.
Painting letters and figures (Height specified)
II.
Oiling and clearing of doors and windows
12.
Coal tarring (No. of coat specified) 13.
Removing of paint or varnish, 14.
Gobri Leppir.g dung wash) 15.
flooring
2.5 cm (t") C.c. over 7.5 cm (3") i.c. Floor
(including L.c.)
I.
,

Conglomerate floor, artificial patent stone floor 2.
Ilil
2.5 ern (I") C.C. over7.5 ern (3") L.C. (including
i.c
4 cm (l W') thick stone floor flag stone floor
over 7.5 cm (3") i,c. (including L.C)
3.
>
2.5 em (I") marble flooring over 7.5 ern (3") 4.
L.C (including LC.)
Mosaic or terrazo or granolithic floor over 7.5
em (3") i.c. (including L.C)
5.
Brick flat floor over 7.5 em (3") L.C. (including 6.
,
L.C)
r:
7. Brick on edge floor over 7.5 ern
(including L.c.) ,r......
........
:: ...
8. 2.5 em (I ") or 4 cm (I W') ec., floor
Mud flooring finished gobri lepping 9.
, '
Apron or Plinth protection (May be of C.C,
L.C, brick, etc.r
10.
'- ;.
Door and window sill {CC. or cement mortar'
plastered)
II.
Miscellaneous Items
\. Ornamental cornice (Projection, type speci
fied)
Moulding String course, Drip course, Bead-
I
ing, .Throating, etc.
2.
" '
.
Units of Units of Units of
measurement payment payment
in MKS in MKS
___ J!l_EeS
- ... - - .._, '-"--'-'--
_.
sqm per sq m - % sq ft
sq m per sq m % sq ft
- no. per no. per no.
'"
sq m persq m % sq ft
... sq m per sq m %sq ft
... , sq m per sq m %sq ft
... sq m persq m %sq ft
... sq m per sq m %sq ft
... sq m persq m %sq ft
... sq m per sq m %sq ft
... sq m persq m per sq ft
... sq m persq m per sq ft
sq m persq m %sq ft ..,
(3") L.c.
... sq m persq m %sq ft
% sq ft_ ...
s9 m
persqm
, -
... sq rn per sq m % sq ft
.., sqrn persq m % sq ft
... sq m persq m %sq ft
'"
metre per m
per r ft
... metre per m
per r ft
;... '
.. __............ (_ .......I0..-...... - '-rA"- *' I,"
.
'
<
s
. ~
. ~
;
. ~
ESTIMATING ANI) COSTINq
, \
i
"
',I
SI. Units of ''''Units of Units of
Particulars of Items
"
No. measurement payment payment
_ - _.- .. - , ,.__.- ..
"",' '" -'--... .in,MKS iii MKS in FPS
." - ._.... - - -', _.._ ~ . ~ - _ . _ .._..._- ._.- - -
3. Ornamental Pillar caps, Pillar base. Flowers,
Brackets, etc. . ..
no. per no. per no.
4., Railing (Height and type specified) ...
metre per m per r ft
5.. Surface drain small (size, material, etc. speci
fied) ...
metre per m per r ft
6. Surface drain large (item wise) -,
(1) Masonry
cu m per cu m
%cu ft}
(iI) Plastering
sq m persq m % sq ft
7. Pipe - rainwater, sanitary. water pipe. etc.
(Dia, specified) ...
metre
per m per r ft
8. Laying pipe line - sanitary. water pipe. etc.
(Dia, depth, bedding etc. specified) ."
metre per m per r ft
9.
Jungle clearance ...
sq m or persq m or
% sq ft
(Maya1so be per km for roed and irrigation
hectare per hectare or per acre
channel)
10;
Silt clearance in irrigation channels (Similar to
earthwork) , ...
cu m
per %cu m %cu ft
(For thin Jayerupto5 em may be on area basis)
II.
Trestle. Crate (size, type, etc. specified) .
no. per no. per no. '
12.
Cleaning flues .
no. per no. per no.
13.
Cotton cords in sky light '"
no. per no. per no.
(May aJ50 be by weight in kg)
14.
Easing doors and windows
no. per no. per no.
15.
Fixing doors and windows
no.
per no. per no.
16.
Supply and fixing of Hinges; Tower bolts,
Hasp and staples, Handles, Hardwares, etc....
no.
per no. per no.
17. Glazing
sq m
persq m per sq ft.
I
18. Glass panes (supply)
sq m
persq m per sq ft.
I I
19.
Fixing of glass. panes or cleaning
no. per no. per no.
20.
Renewing of glass panes
no. per no. per no.
I
21.
Well sinking (Masonary or tube well)
metre per m per r ft.
I
22.
Pile driving or sinking
'metre per m
per r ft
I
.23.
Furnitures - Chairs, tables, etc. (size shape
I
specified) ...
no. per no.
per no.
UNITS
Sl.
No.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
" .:
35.
36.
37.
I.
2.
3.
4.
/. 5.
Units of
Particulars of Items
measurement
in MKS
!
Painting furnitures
Caning chairs
Pitching of brick, stone, kankar, etc. '"
(Brick pitching may also be on area basis in
sq m)
Lining of Irrigation Channel, Tunnel, etc.
Materials, thickness specified ...
(Thick lining may be in volume basis in cu m)
Kankar quarrying, kankar supply ...
Kankar coi.sol.dation, road metal consolida
tion ...
bag-belling
I (May also be per km)
Bituminous road surfacing
Dismantling
Dismantling of brick masonry ...
Grouting (Bituminous grouting of road metal,
cement grouting of concrete) ...
.Grouting of cracks, joints, etc. . ..
Electric Wiring or Electrification Light, Fan,
Plug points '.. ..,
I ".
Watercloset (W.C), wasil hand basin, Man-'
hole, etc. specified) " . . . ....
Materials
I.
I
Supply of bncks
I' . . .
Supply of Sand, Surkhi, Cinder, etc.
Supply of cement
Supply of Iirnc unslaked
Supply of lime slaked
(May also be in volume bssis in cu m)
no.
no.
cu m
sq m
cu m
cu m
metre
sq m
Same as for
different
items
cu m
sq m
metre
point
no
nos.
cu rn
bag of
50 kg
quintal
quintal
Units of
payment,
in MKS
per no.
per no.
per cu m '
per sq rn
per cu m
per cu m
per m
persqm
Same as for,
different
items
per cu m
persq m
per m
per point
per no
per % nos.
per cu m
per bag or
per quintal
or per tonne
per quintal
per quintal
Units Of
payment
in FPS
perno.
per no.
%cu ft
%sq ft
% cu ft
%cu ft
%r ft
%sq' ft
Same as'for
different
items
%cu ft
%sq ft
per r ft
per point
per no
% nos.
% cuIt
per cwt
or per ton
per maund
per maund
'--'
'.z=-' ....... '"-_'-
I
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
III'
:1
Units of
measurement
in MKS ...... -
... '"--_.-.-.._---
.. --...- --... -_.,---_._-., .. -
Particulars. of Items
S1.
No.
Units of
payment
in MKs
Units of
payment
in FPS
cu m
6. .Supply of Brick ballast, Stone ballast, Aggre
gate, etc. ...
per cu m % cu ft
7. Broken bricks, Kankar, etc.
cu m percu m % eu n
.8. Supply of Timber
cu m per cu m 0/-, cu ft
9. Supply of Steel
quintal per q or
per tonne
per ewt
10.. Supply of Bitumen, Tar
tonne pertonne
per t o ~
11. Supply ofCoal
tonne per tonne
,
per ton
12.. Supply of A.C. sheets (Measured flat)
sqm sq m sq ft
13. Supply of G.I. sheet
quintal . per qunital per cwt
no.
Supply of switches, plugs; ceiling roses, bulbs,
brackets, etc. ...
14.
per no. per no.
quintal
Supply of insulated electric wire (size
specified) ...
15.
per quintal per cwt.
quintal
Supply of bare electric wire (size specified) ...
16.
per quintal per cwt.
no.
Tents, sholdaries (size specified)
17.
per no. per no.
no.
18.
Supply of Water closet, W.C. (site
specified) .
per no. per no.
no.
19.
Supply of Wash hand basin (size specified) .
per no. per no.
no.
20.
Supply of Cowl, Mica valve, Intercepting trap,
etc. (size specified) . . ..
per no. per no.
21. .Supply of Bib cock, Stop cock, Ballcock, etc
(size specified) ....
22. Supply of Ferrule, C.l. Tank, Water meter. etc.
(size specified) ...
23. Supply of pipe, C.l. pipe, S. W. pipe. Hume
pipe, A.C. pipe, G.t. pipe, etc. (Di a.
specified) ...
24. Supply of lead, lead wool
is. Spun yarn
26. Supply of varnish, oil, etc.
no.
no.
metre
kg or
quintal
kg
litre
per no.
I
per no.
!
per m
per kg or
per quintal
per kg
. per litre ,'.
per no.
per no.
per r ft
,
per cwt
per lh
per g!
. ,.; , . ' ~
S1.
No.
-_.._- .....
27.
28.
29.
UNITS
. .
Particulars of Items
-
.. _- .... _-. --. . .. _0 _______ ... __ _..__ ._
.._..- ..... -_.-. .,_...
Supply of paint ready mix
Supply of stiff paint
Explosive for blasting
. ..-
"--
...
...
'"
Units of
measurement
., _lILM.KS._.__
litre
kg
kg
Units of
payment
.

pc. litre
per kg
per kg
Units of
payment
..
per gl
pertb
perlb
Note:' (1)Petticulsts of items should be fully described.
(iI) For further items of work P. WD. Schedule ofRates may be consulted. (See Chapter
20). .
(iiI) For Rules and Methods of Measurement. (See Chapter 14).
SIZES AND DIMENSIONS OF VARIOUS WORKS IN MKS AND THE
CORRESPONDING FPS 'UNITS, APPROXIMATE
1. Sizes of Doors ..:-. 5. Thickness of Doors and Windows, Shut
120 em x 210 em} 4' 0" 6" 6\1" ter or Leaves .
(1.20 m x 2.10 m) -
1,10 em x 200em } 3' 6"
'I
(,1.10 m x 2.00 m) -
rpo em x 190 em} . 3' 3"
rll'
(1.00 m x 1.90 m) -
. 90 em x 180 em} 3' 0"
(0.90 m x 1.80 m) - _.
75 em x 180'em l 2' 6"
(0.75 m x 1.80 m)'
.
2. Size of Windows :....
100 em x 150 em} 3' 3"
(1.00 mx 1.50 m) -
90 em. x 120 em . }_3' x 4'
(0.90m x 1.20 m) . .
3. Size of C.S: Windows, Vcntfut.tors
I . .
rzo em x 60 em} 4' x 2'
q.20 m x 0.60 m) .
roo em x60 em '} _ 3' __ 3" X 2'
q.OO m x 0.60 m) .
.'
9p em x 50 em } 3' 0" l' 6"
(0.90 m x 0.50 m) - - x._
4. Size of Chowkhat sections for Doors and
Windows
12 em x 7.5 em - S" x 3"
Ip em x 10 em - 4" x 4" ...
10 em x 7.5 em -'-- 4" x 3"
is em x 7.5 em - 3" x 3"
'I
x. - 7"4 2.5 em - I" 3 em - fW'
.6' 6"
x
6' 3"
x
6' 0"
x
6' 0"
x
5' 0".
x
4 em -'1W' 4.5 em ..--
6.
20 em -8"
. 30 em - 12"
45 em - 18"
Thickness of Lime Concrete in Founda
tion
15 em - 6"
25 em 10'"
. 40 em -16"
. ,
;
7. Thickness of Lime
Terracing "
7.S em '3"
10 em":"':' 4"

Coneretem Roof
8. Thickness of R.C.C. Slab -.,
7.5 em- 3" 10 em
12.5 em 5" '15 em
4",
6"
"9. Thickness of Plastering
10 mm --..;.. fa" 12 mm W'
15 mms- *" 20 mm
10. Thickness of D.P.C. -'- .
2em
2.5 em I"
4 em - lY2"
I . ......,,: ,,__,_._ ..=a... ...........;:r;:aMIM'.""" . ,.,.. :...c
.........
ESTIMATING A.ND COSTING
". .
II. Thickness of c.c. Floor
2 em -
I"
4cm - IW"
2.5 em c.e. flOOr}- I" c.c, floor
over 7.5 em i,c. over }" i.c.
12. Insulation layer in Roof
2.5 em - I" . \
4 em - I Y2"
13. Steps, Rise and T.read
15em x 30 ern - 6" x 1"2'"
15em x 28 em - 6"'x II"
18 em x 28 ern - 7" x II"
14. Height of Plinth
30 em - l' - 0" 45 ern - l' - 6"
- '.'- --- .... _.
IS. Height of Building
2.80 m - 9' - }" 3.00 rn - 10' - 0"
3.30 m II' - 0" 3.60 m - 12' - 0"
3.90 rn - 13' - 0" 4.20 rn - 14' - 0"
16. Size of Rooms
3 m x 3 m - 10' x 10'
3.00 m x 3.60 m - 10' x 12'
3.60 m x 3.60 rn - 12' x 12'
3.60 m x 4.20 m - 12' x 14'
3.60m x 4.80 m - 12' x 16'
Mild steels bars, metric dimensions and weights -
Dia. of bars fps.
units currently used 1" 11.4" I Yi" %" X" !I.l" Y2" '.x"
*"
Dia. and weight in
metric unit to be
used Dia.
... 25 mm 32 mm 40 mm 6 mm. rOmm 16mm 20 mm 22 mm 12 mm
Wt, per metre .., 9.86 kg.j 0.22 kg. 0.62 kg. 2.47 kg. 2.98 kg. 6.31 kg. 0.89 kg. 1.58 kg. 3.85 kg.
STANDARD MODULAR'BRICKS
Size of standard modular bricks
Sizes of standard modular bricks as fixed by Indian Standard Institution are as given below
(Fig. 1-9). These standard bricks will now be manufactured and used andoldtraditional bricks
shall be given up. .: :.
. ..
(Standard Modular Bricks with Frogs. all Dimensions 'in Ccntimares thig. 1-9)
4
19---.
OR'
\.-19
Fig. 1- 9
UNITS
Actual size Nominal size
Standard modular brick
19cm
x9cm xgem
20em x 10em
x
10cm
.c-'Standard-mudular'bri-ck-tile . ..J2.cm. .. ern x 10 ern x 5 em
.._._---_._---_.. _._-....._----_... _-_.
Thickness of wall with standard brick -
Wall
Thickne,ss of Wall
...
...
lh brick
10 ern
I brick
20 ern
I V2 brick
30 em
2 brick,
40cm
2Y2 brick
50 ern
3 brick
60 ern
Actual thickness of wall with 1ern mortar joint are 9 em for Y2 brick, 19ern for lbrick, 29cm
for IV2 brick, 39 ern for 2 brick, 49 ern for 2\12 brick, 59 ern for 3 brick. But the thickness of wall is
taken as multiple of 10 as given in the above table irrespective of the actual thickness for estimating
and for payment. Above 3 brick wall the thickness of wall is actually measured after construction
for payment but for estimating the thickness may be taken as multiple of 10.
Thickness of R.B. lintel and slab with standard brick
Layer I flat brick 2 flat brick 3 flat brick 4 flat brick
Thickness 10 em 20 ern 30 cm 40cm
)
Using brick-tile in combination with brick the thickness of R.,B. lintel and slab may also be
made as 15 ern, 25 ern, 35 ern, etc.
: ','
TRADITIONAL BRICKS
II I
I ,
I
Metric dimensions of present traditional (9" x x 3") bricks and width of walls :-:
,
"
1
As the standard modular bricks are not being manufactured, the metric dimensions of present
/.
bricks of9" x 4Y2" x 3" (nominal size) have been fixed to the nearest one place ofdecimal.Until the
" . .'
1
metric standard bricks are available, the present traditional bricks are to be used and the thickness
of walls shall be measured as multiple of half brick (] 1.4 em), The dimensions of traditional brick
/
and thickness of walls in metric unit are as given below :
I
'. ./
" ')
Dimensions of traditional brick in metric unit ....;.
': :."; .'
/
\ Metric Dimension
r:
'.
Actual . ::;:.9 c.i; X 112cm:
x
? 0. em
.' -,
Nominal 9" x 4Y2" x 3" 22.9 ern x llA cm x 7.6 em
r ..
"-

I
Width of walls present traditional bricks in metric unit
Walls .....-
'h brick I brick I Y2 brick 2 brick 2V2 b ick 3 brick 3!h brick 4 brick
..
3" .
(4!h") (9") ( 13
1
/2" ) ( 18") (22Vf') . (27") (311h") (36" )
Thickness of
"
walls - 7.6 crn 11.4 ern 22.9 em 34.3 ern 45.7 cm 57.1 em 68.6 ern 80.0 em 91.4 em
For 10" x 5" x )" size (nominal) brick, the metric dimension will be taken as 25.4 em x 12.7 em x
'}6 em (nominal) and the thickness of walls shall be measured as multiple ofhalf brick ( 12.7 em),
and shall be as 7.6 em, 12.7 em, 25.4 em, 37.1 em, 50.8 em, 63.5 em, 76.2 em, 88.9 em, 101.6 ern,
.' 14.3 em and so on. .
--- .. .. '-- -._._----_._._..... _ '
CHAPTER 2
__________ . lVlI;ItlQOJLQEJ3UlL,DlNG...ES,-1MAIES ._
Example 1. - Estimate the quantities of brickwork and plastering required in a wall 4 m long,
3 m high and 30 cm thick. Calculate also the cost if the rate of brickwork is Rs. 320.00 per cu m and
of plastering is Rs. 8.50 per sq m.
Quantity of brickwork> L ?< B x H = 4 m x 3 m x .30::: 3.6 cu m.
Quantity of plastering (two faces) = 2 x L x H = 2 x 4:m x 3 m = 24 sq m.
Cost of brickwork = 3.6 x 320.00-= Rs. 1152.00.
Cost of plastering = 24 x 8.50 = Rs. -204.00.
Total cost = 1152.00 + Rs. 204.00 = Rs. 1356.00.
Example 2. -Prepare a detailed estimate of part of a wall of a building from the given plan
and section and general specifications (Figs. 2-1 and 2-2).
, -
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS:
(I) Foundation ccr.crete shall be of lime concrete.
(2) Foundation and plinth shall be of 1st class brickwork in lime mortar.
(3) Damp Proof Course 2.5 mm c.c. I : 1Y2 : 3 with water proofing compound.
__ '__ (4) Superstructure - 1st class brickwork in lime mortar.
-(5) Wall finishing - Inside wall 12 mm Cement plastered I : 6 and white washed 3 coats.
Outside wall 12 mm cement plastered I : 6 including 1.0 em.below ground level and finished
with two coats of colour wash over one coat of white was-hing.
/: .
'<,
RATES: Assume local current rates.
c
Note: - Fig. 2-1 and Fig. 2-2 are plan and cross-section ofthe with stundurd modular
brick and wit h treditional brick respect ivcly. For simplicity only a port ion.oiu wull luis been taken
and there arc no footings at the ends. - - -
., .. ------------ _..
ESTIMATING OF
.
Plan and Section
"fig. 2-2
Fig. 2-1
WALL-WITH STANDARD MOOtitAR-13RICKS-;------ ----------WAI-WITHTRADITI0NAl:.-.BR1CKS;------
Super Structure Wall
- 4- Plinth
G.L.
2nd. Footing
1st. Footing
-Llrne Cone
Inside Outside E

M
6.00m
-40 em.
PLAN AT PLINTH.
30 em.
I I

34.3cm
6.00m.
PLAN AT PLINTH.
45.7 em
With Standard Bricks, Fig. 2-1 -
80 em
CROSS SECTION
DETAILS OF MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF QUANTITIES lEx. 2)
,
-

--
ltcn
.11 Description
of items of work
:'>in

!
,--
I -Di.nc.uions Qcantiti

Total or
!.1 o.
; quantities
Depth
Contents Breadth Ht. or Length
I
I
-f-.----
I Earthwork in excavation in foun- i
4.32 ell m 4.32 90 m 6.00 m .80 m I !dation
.,.
1.44 cu m 1.44 .30 m .80 m 6.00 m I Lime concrete in foundation ... I
list class brickwork in lime mortar
in foundation and plinth -
Ist footing ...
[ .72
2nd footing ...
.20 m 6.00 m .60 m
.60
Plinth wall up to G. L. ...
.20 m .50 m 1 6.00 m
.48 .20 m .40 m 6.00 m I
1.44 [ -.60 m "AOm 6.00 m Plinth wall above G.L. ...
I.
.,
3.
-1
E
g Inside
M
Outside
Super Structure
Wall
2nd Footing
1st. Footing
UrneCooe
I-- 80 em.
CROSS SECTION
(COIllJ, J
--- -----
Item
No.
4.
5.
6. '
7.
8.
:)
.
/ '-
)
II, 1.1 '.
-/
r- -.
, ,
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
.Description__Q(jJemS .QLwQrk __
2.S em Damp proof eourse(D.P.C.)
c.c.I 11Iz:3 ...
First class Brickwork In lime
mortar for superstructure ...
12 mm plaster of Cement sand
1:6 .:
Inside
including 10 em below
G.L. ...
White washing 3 coats (inside) ...
Colour washing 2 coats over one
coat of white washing (outside
above G.L.)
'"
ABSTRACT OF ESTIMATED COST (Ex. 2)
No.
Dimensions
. .
l,e-ngihF t ll tTt.or-
, Depth
-
Quantities
or
Icontents----:
2.4
6.3
21.0
}
25.2
21.0
24.6
Total
-qii"anfiricS-
._--_....
2.4 sq.rn
6_3cu m
46.2 sq m
21.0 sq m
24.6 sq m
I
I
l
I
I
I
'
6.00 m .40 m
6.00 m .30 m
6.00 m -
6.00 m -
6.00 m -
6.00 m I -
-
3.50m
3.50 m
4.20 m
3.50 m
4.10 m
Total
Add for Contingencies 3%
Add for Workcharged Establishment 2% .
Grand Total
.
"
-.
--_.
. I
. I 3796.54
\113.90
t 75.93

--
Rate Amount
Item Description of Items of Work Quantity Unit Per
f----
No. Rs. Rs.
I. Earthwork in excavation in Foundation 4.32 cum 350.00 % cu. m 15..12
2. Lime concrete in foundation with-white
- .
.. '
lime, surkhi and brick ballast, 1.44 ,.cu m 220.00 per cum 316.80
3. lst class' brickwork with white lime and
- - , . -." .. ..
surkhi mortar 1 : 2 in foundation and
plinth 3.24 cum 300.00 per cu m 972.00
4. 2.5 ern thick c.c. I : I liz : 3 Damp proof
course with water proofing compound 2.4 sq m .20.00 - per sq'm 48.00
5. 1st class Brickwork with white lime and - '
surkhi I:) mortar in super-structure 6.3 cu rn 320.00 per eu m 2016.00
6. 12 mm cement and local sand plaster
I
I: 6 46.2 sq m 8.50 . per sq m \ 392.70
7. White washing 3 coats 21.0 sq m 0,.75 persq m 15.75
8. Colour washing 2 coats over one coat of
'"
. per sq m \
white washing 24.6 sq m 0.82 20.17
I . .
Note: - For the items ofplastering and white washing or colo ur washing the end faces of the
wall have not been taken into consideration: and the outer plinth offset of5 cm has been neglected.
METHOD OF ESTIMATE
;
. (
"
j
Trench Filling. - Earthwork in trench piling is usually not taken into account. If required
this can be calculated as follows ;- . i . :
.., trench .
Quantity of brickwork upto G.L.:==4.32 - (1.44 + 1.80) = 1.08 cu m. . :
. , I
For simplicity the earthwork in trench filling may be taken as 1/5 of earthwork in excavation.
Example 2 - With Traditional Bricks, Fig. 2.2
With traditional bricks, the items of foundation concrete, Plastering; White washing and
Colour washing are same as for above. The earthwork, Brickwork in foundation and plinth,
Brickwork in superstructure,and D.P.C. differ and are as calculated below
Item L - Earthwork in excavation in founda
tion 1 x 6.00 rn x .80 m x :75 m =3.60 cu m
Item 3. - 1st class brickwork in lime mortar
in foundation arid plinth -
1Sf footing .
2nd footing
Plinth wall above footing
1 x 6.00 m x .686 m x .15 m =0.62 cu m
l' x 6.0001 x .571 m x.15 m = 0.52
I x 6.00 m x A?7 m x .75 m =2.06
Total = 3.20 cu m
Item 4. - 2:5 ern thick D.P.C. 1 :'1 Y2 : 3
Item 5. - First class brickwork in lime mortar'
1 x 6.00 m x .457 m . =2.74 sq m
in superstructure
Abstract of cost may be prepared accordingly.
I x 6.00 m x .343 m x 3.5 m > 7.20 cu m
METHODS OF BUILDING ESTIMATE
The dimensions, length, breadth and height or depth are to be taken out from the drawing'
plan, elevation and section. From the study of the drawings, the building is to be imagined and
pictured in the mind and the dimensions are to be taken out correctly. There is no hard and fast rule
for finding out dimensions from the drawing but the dimensions are to be t.ken out accurately.
Junctions of wall atthe corners and at the meeting points of walls require 'special attention."
Fur symmetrical foundation which is the usual case, earthwork in excavation
roundation concrete, brickwork in foundation and plinth, and brickwork in superstructure may be
estimated by either of the following two methods.
METHOD I
Separate or individual wall method. -_. In this method, measure or find out the external length
of walls running in the longitudinal directicn generally the long walls out-to-out, and the internal
lengths of walls running in the transverse direction in-to-in i.e. of cross or short walls in-to-in, and
calculate quantities multiplying the length by the breadth and the height of wall. The same rule
applies to the excavation in foundation. to concrete in foundation and to masonry. Care should be
taken to note the difference in dimensions at different height due to offset, or footings. It is
convenient to imagine plans at different level of heights as foundation trench plan, foundation
concrete plans of each footing, etc. and dealing each plan or part separately.
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
The simple method is to take the long walls and short or cross walls separately and to find out
the centre to centre lengths of long walls and short walls from the plan. For symmetrical footing on
eithersides;-the- centreli ne-remains-same--for-superstrueture-and.for.foundation.and.plinrh.-- - - _ . _ - - ~
For long walls add to the centre length one breadth of wall, which gives the length of the wall
out-to-out, multiply this length by the breadth and the height and get the quantities. Thus for
finding the quantities of earthwork in excavation, for length of the trench out-to-out add to the
centre length one breadth of foundation. Adopt the same process for foundation concrete, and for
each footing. It should be noted that each footing is to be taken separately and the breadth of the
particular footing is to be added to the centre length. .
(Long wall length out-to-out = centre to centre length + halfbreadth on one side + halfbreadth
on the other side = centre to centre length + one breadth);
I .
For short or cross walls subtract (instead of adding) from the centre length one breadth of wall,
which gives the length in-to-in, and repeat the same process as for the long walls, subtracting one
breadth instead of adding.
(Short wall length in-to-in = centre to centre length - one breadth).
That is, in case of long wall add one breadth and in case of short wall subtract one breadth from
. the centre length to get the corresponding lengths.
In foundation the offset of concrete on either side may be 10 cm to 20 cm depending on the
thickness ofconcrete (usually less than the thickness ofconcrete). The offset on eitherside ofbrick
wall of standard brick: is 5 em, and of traditional bricks is 5.7 cm.
This method can alsobe worked out in a quicker way. For long walls find the length of the
foundation trench of the long wall out-to-out in the same. manner asexplained above, the length of
the foundation concrete is the same, for the length of the first footing or first step of brick wall
subtract two offsets in foundation concrete from the length of the trench or concrete, for the second
. footing subtract from the length of l st footing two offsets infooting i.e. 2 x5 =10em(2 x 5.7= llA
em for traditional bricks), for the third footing subtract from the length of the 2nd footing two
offsets i.e. 10 em (11.4 cm for traditional bricks) in this way deal the long walls up to the
superstructure. [ F ( ~ r 25A'cm x 12./cm x f:6 cm(Hf'xj';x 3W'j bricks, one offset in footing =6.35
em and two offsets = 12.7 cm].
.. .
. .
For snort wall follow the sarne rnct hod but instead of subtracting, add two offsets to get the
corresponding length in-to-in.
It will be noticed that by taking dimensions in this way, the long walls are gradually decreasing
in length from foundation to superstructure, while the short walls are increasing in length.
lrrnayalso be noted that thewall which is taken first is to be treated as long wall though its
length may be lesser, and the 01her wall be treated as short wall.
This method is simple and accurateand thereis no chance of anymist akc. This method may be
named as Long wull nnd short wall method. or gcncrsl method.
METHOD OF BUILDING ESTIMATE
The following examples (Exs, 3a, 4a, and Sa) illustrate this method :
uu_u Example of a single room
building of 5 m x 4 m, and Sections represent the cross-sections of the walls with fQundation,-
Estimate the quantities of
(1) Earthwork in excavation in foundation, (2) Concrete in foundation, (3) Brickwork in
foundation and plinth and (4) Brickwork in superstructure..
. ..'
The length of long wall centre to centre =5.00 +Y2 x .30+ Y2 x .30 =5.30 m. The length of short
wall centre to centre = 4.00 + Y2 x .30 + Y2 x .30 = 4.30 m.
G.L.
.' '.' '0 ""0 0,
30 em.
3Dem.
3Dcm.
o
It)
M
"

.1
-:
I
I
I _I
-.
I 0
I
'0 ..
I
J .:
'#
I E
I
0 z. A
.. 1. .0
j::.
!.
I
-
C!
I
I
E
0
I
5.00m ---i
0
(') .
!
SECTION ON AS
1f-90 cm.-tl

o
I .
I
;
30 em, I
.,
rr---------- 11
:;-r
o
w
(/)
I
I
I.
I
I
1
I
I
E
o
I
i
M
s
-.:i -8
I
I
E

0
(')
--------- ... -t
3Ocm/t
I( clco.3D m
I
o
PLAN OF SUPERSTRUCTURE WALL.
Fig: 2-3
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
To estimate the quanti
ties, the plan of foundation
trencb and foundation con
crete, the plan ofeach footings
or steps of wall may be
imagined as given in Fig. 2-4.
Then the long wall in-to-in
and the short wall In-to-in of
each part may be dealt one by
one.
Fig.2-4
:;
". j
"" I
(
'<,
'-.
/ .
PLANS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS.
Long Wall Out to Out :::"1
! :--- 5.30 m clc
Plan of Found"
Trench and'
Found" Cone.
-1
or' -90em.- -' --01: .
1-- --1
. ...

Plan of 1stFooting
Plan of 2nd Footing
Plan of i-'\inth Wall
Plan ot Super
Structure Wall
T
1
s
E
g
J
_._.
T
30cm
I
I

55
;1
I ! i
'-- _. tiOQm-' - -: ..L.
-i"
--r
"
1
E
,u
-o
. 10
I
_
1. 0=
g

I g,g.!::
, ";00
I
-*
'v
METHOD OF BUILDING ESTIMATE
(
f
. ..
DETAILS OF AND OF QU+NTITIES (Ex. 3a)
'.' ' .' .: I,. ' ..
Particulars of
,-N,o.-- -Items. ,. , .. ,.- . -_ ...
-Item
Earthwork in
excavation in
foundation
Long walls ...
Short walls ...
l.
Concrete in
foundation
Long walls ...
Short walls ...
2.
3. Brickwork in
foundation and
plinth
Long walls . ,
1st footing ...
2nd footing ...
Plinth walls
...
Short walls -',
lst footing , ...
2nd footing ...
Plinth walls ...
4. Brickwork in
superstructure
Long walls ...
,"
Short walls' ...

,
f
Note: The door openings. window opctungs, lintels, etc. shall have to be deducted from
i
j
superstructure as ususl.
See C-ll.J.{,'
I
It may be noted .that in the ease of long wall. the lengths of the 2nd footing, 3rd footing ete.
differ by 10em and eaeh is shorter than the previous one by 10 ern.Similarly for short wall the length
is longer than the previous footing by 10 em. Thus the lengths can be obtained by subtracting or
adding 10em as the ease may be. Fortraditional bricks (22.9 em x 11.2 em x 7.6 em) the length ean
be obtained by subtracting or adding 11.2 em. (For 25.4 em x 12.7 em x 7.6 em bricks add or
subtract 12.7 em).
,
fIeight
, or . Breadth Explanatory note
-_..-.---.-. ____0 ____________ __ _._._. ___ __
,
-Deptli
10.04 . 2 6.20.!U .90 m .90 m Length > 5.30 + .90 ::: 6.20 m
2 3.40 i:n .90 m .90 m 5.51 Breadth> 4.30 - .90 ::: 3.40 m
Total 15.55
cum
2 6.20 m .90 m .30 m 3.35 Length same as for excavatio
n'
2 3.40 m .90 m .30m 1.83 Quantity> 1/
3
of excavation
Totiil 5.18
cum
2 5.90 m .60m .30m 2.13 Length = 5.30 + ;60 =5.90_m
2 5.80 m .50 m. .30m 1.74 Length> 5.30 + .50 ::: 5.80 m
2 5.70 m .40 m .60 m 2.74 Length> 5.30 + .40 ::: 5.70 m
..
"
2 -:60 m '.30 m: 3.70 m 1.33 Length> 4.30 .: .60 ,,; 3.7Q m
2 3.80m .50 m .30 .m 1.14 jLength > 4.30 - .50'::: 3.80 m
2 3.90 m .40 m
..
.60m 1.87 , Length> 4.30 ,- .40 ::: 3.90 m
"
Total 10.95
.
cum
!
..
,
I i
",

3.50 m 2 I 5.60 m I .30 m 11.76 Length > 5.30 + .30 ::: 5.60, m
2 - 8.40 '
Length> 4.30 - .:00= 4.00 m 4.00 m i .30 m '3.5001
l
Total 20.16
cu m.'
I
t-;; -,; -
I Ir.:
I
-,
,- ,
.
I
:
I
::
EEEEE
-
00000
I

I
Pf-JPPI-J - - - - -

I
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
As study of the plans and elevations (Fig. 2-5) 'will make it clear. The plan (1) shows the
foundation footings. The long walls and short walls may be imagined to be constructed separately,
first the long walls and then the short walls. From the elevation (iiI) and (v) it will be clear that the
'" ----length,of each-successive footing-of.long-walls-iS-r-educed-inJength--and.thaLof-the-shor:t-walls-each,---
successive footing is increased in length.' "
The corresponding breadth and height can be obtained from the cross-section of wall.
PLAN AND ELEVATION OF WALLS (EARtH REMOVED) .
-

.
-
.'
III'
I
.
T:'30,... 16
'em -+I '
90cm
...".:.:". ,.. :: ..
. '
'. .

5.30mcic
40 em
-r-'
30 em
_x--
,
5.90m 30 em
(ii) PLAN OF LONG WALL (DETACHED)
,I
.
: ..

- -
.
I
30cm l;1...
40cm
1-0
so em
h
60cm
1::1..- :
90cm
-.
E
0
I
30 em
....
<'l
.
..
I I
I
. . .. ..
'"
.,
'.

I
re ----I
5.60m.
5.70m
----411
5.80 m

.
. . . . .
.
ne.-
. .. .. .
6.20m
-..
. -
.
...
6'
w
J:

Q.
, '--l
--l

t
'cr
'0
:c
,oj)
u,
.0
5
-Il.
1 1_
.
E
o
O'l
(')
E
o
o
-.i
2-5 PLAN OF FOUNDATION & FOOTING
In the Example J(a) with traditional bricks, the breadth ofwall in first tooting, second Iootuig,
plinth wall and superstructure wall will be 68.6 em, 57.1 em, 45.7 cm andJ4.3 cm respectively. The
students may solve this problem having walls with traditional bricks.
METHOD OF BUILDING ESTIMATE
i
. i
Example 4(a). - Estimate the quantities of the following items of a two roomed building
from the given plan and section (Fig. 2-6) :
... concrete in foundation, (3) 1st class
brick work in cement mortar I : 6 in foundation and plinth, (4) 2.5 em proofCourse, ana--
(5) 1st class brickwork in lime mortar in superstruc-ure,
TWO ROOMED BUILDING
3U
""
em
...
w
en
w


;:

Room4m x 6m
Room6m x 6m
eO
..
en
E
l.
.. .
--l
0
4.00m
6.00m !f-
C')
0
0
0
L
J
C')
3C em. &. .J
-.
PLAN
r
7.5 em L.C. Terrace Over 13 em R.C.C. -.

E
o
"!
"'"
I
2em D.P.G.
em c.c, Over 7.5 em L.C.
...:, : :":
All Walls are of same section -.
Untels over Doors. WindOWSarK!
Shelves are15 em thick R:B.:' _..
..; ....
Doors 0-1.20 m x 2.10 m
Windows W-1.00 x 1.50 m
Shelves S-1.00 m x 1.50 m
Ii--l.10 m--toj Lime cone.
CROSS SECTION OF WALL ON AA.
Fig. 2-6
Note: ... No beumhes been shown in the plan as the object ofthis example is to explain the
method ot' cstitnuting the walls only.
.."l

- -,
Note: - Length of subsequent footings of long' walls after 1st footing may be obtained
simply by deducting 10 em from first footing.
--

.
..
,;.
':1
.

I

,
,
',oJ
I
METHOD OF,BUILDINQ ESTIMATE
f .f
(Ex4a Contd.]
,'.
,
Height:
Item
Particulars of
Explanatory note or 'Quantity

Breadth No.
Items No.
;
Depth
.,
,-, .. _..
..
m '.
l.O3
T=- O:-JO' - .60- -5:70: m
.60;m m
3rd footing -: ..
--
3
L == 6.30 - .50 ':: 5.80 m 0.87
.sOm 5.80 m '3 .10 rn
Plinth wall
4th footing ...
L ;;; 6.30 - .40 == 5.90 m .40,m .80 m 5.66
Total
5.90 m 3 above footing
26.10
cu m
Damp proof
course
4.
2.5 ern thick
C.c.
Long walls ...
Lengths same as for plinth 8.80 1\;00 m - .40 m 2
wall in item 3.. 7.08 - 5.90 m .40 m 3 Short walls '0'
Total 15.88
Deduct door
...
- .2 0.96
Net
1.20 m .40 m sills
. 14.92
sq m
Total
_.
Ist class brick
work in lime
mortar in
superstructure
Long walls ... 2
5.
L:: 10.60 + .30 == 10.90 m 30m 4.20 rn 27.47 10.90 m
L == 6.30 ...:'.30 '" 6:00 m 22.68 4.20m 6.00 m .30 m Short walts ... 3
50.t5
cu m
Total
..
Deduct -:
Door openings 1.51 .30 m 2.IOm 1.20 m 2
"
Window.
...
1.80 1.50 m 4 openings
I.oom i m .
. r.>: .
Backorshelves iOcru thick .
V.W Shelves
..
... 2 1.00 m I .20 rn i 1.50 ill
wall.
Lintels over
doors
...
Bearing [5 em 0.14 .15 m 2 1.50 m I .30 m
Lintels over
windows ... 4
Bearing 15 ern 0.23 .30 rn .15 m 1.30 m
Lintels over
shelves
'"
Bearing 15 em 0./2 .15 m .30 m 1.30 m 2
eu m 4.40 tion of deduc
.
45.75 i cu m Net Total
-- -'----_... --"- .
Note: ... Length ofsubsequent tooting ufshort wallsafter 1st footing may be obtainedsimply
by adding 10 em from first footing.
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
RESIDENTIAL BUILDING
-it 1.20 m\t



.20cm
" ./

-_ :.-.-.-.-: ::-.I::J::-.:::.--'-:.-::.-.dJ
Steps
,--,---==:......,.+
Bed
4m x 4.5m
4.oom
Bed
s rn x 4.5m
-- 5.00m ---41
o

'. Jew IW/ew . D/cw
a: 2.00 m ver, I:>
W,/CW
sed
5m x 4m
1f---S.OOm
Drawing
5mx6m
5.00 m
W.jcw
30 em x 15em

PLAN

G
50cm
60 em
30 em
_ 10 em L C. Over 12 em R.C.C.
-J\
7.5 em. L.C. Over 10 em'R.C.C,
.65m
30em y
t
2.5 em Over
..L.C.
60em _30em
10 em c.n
20 em .....,.......- ,
20 - ""'.
, -GOem.
Doors:
D,-120 em x 210 em (1.20 m x 2.10 m)
D 200 em (1.00 m x 2.00 rn)
2-100cmx
D - 75 em x 160 em (.75 m x 1.80 m).
3
Windows:,
W,-100cm x 150em (1.00 m x 1.50m)
W - 200 em x 1S0 em (2.00 m x 1.50 rn)
2
W -75 em x 120 cm.<.75 m x , 20m)
3
C:,VV. - 7Sem' jo; 60 ern (.1!:..rnx .60m).
sneives
S-1ooem x 150 em (1.00m x 1.50m)
Lint.el Over Doors. Windows Etc.
15 em RB.
C80SS SECTION AB OF VER,WALl
,,' .
. of ,Drawing Rooms and Bath Rocn wa!ls have similar
Bed Rooms have same section ' section.
Fig. 2-7
Note-No beam has been shown in the plan.
\ ......
METOD OF BUILDING ESTIMATE
Example 5(a). - Estimate the quantitiesof the following items oa residential building from
the given drawings (Fig. 2-7) ;.- . . .... '. ..... '
. ... ..... u{l)uEarthworkin..excavation'in.Io.. foundation. (3) First class
brickwork in I : 6 cement sand mortar in foundaiion andplinth, (4) 2.5 cm Damp
and (5) First class brickwork in liine mortar in su.perstructure. .
. l :.
,
Centre to centre lengths of wall -
For estimating it is convenient to find the centre to centre lengths ofdifferent walls first. The
centre to centre lengths of different walls have been worked {Jut below :
Drawing and left hand side bed room combined
c. to c. long walts =6.00 +4.00 + .30 + 2 x .15 = JO.60m.
c. to c. short walls = 5.00 + 2 .x .15 =5.30 m.
'Bed rooms right side (both combined) .
c. to c. long walls =5.00 + 4.00 +.. 30 + 2 x .15 79.60 m.
c. to c. short walls =4.50 + 2 x .15 ;;:;; 4.80 m. '.
'". ';:'::/ .
Front verandah -," ..
Front wall c. to c. length > 5.00 + 4.00 + 2 x .30 + - =9.65 m.
Side wall c. to c. length =2.00 + + =2.25 m.
Back verandah including bath room-'.
-..... '; ' ....
c. to c. long wall (rear wall including bath room) m same as front ver. Wall.
c. to c. length of side wall ofbath room =2.50 + + =2.75 m.
_- -'-- __. . .-...,._ ..-.-- J
ESTlMATING AND COSTlNG '.
DETAILS OF MEASUREMENT AND CALCULAnON OF QUANTITIES (Ex. Sa) .
)
'j
)
.. )
, "I
No.
I.
2.
Item of-
....
Items
Earthwork in exca
vation in
foundation
Drawing room and.
left bed room
Long walls ...
Short walls ...
Bed rooms right .
side (both) -
Long walls
'"
Short walls ...
Front verandah
Front long wall ...
Side short wall ...
Back verandah
including bath
room
-Long wall (rear
wall including
bath)
...
Short walls
(remaining walls of
bath) .,.
Lime concrete in
foundation -Draw
ing and left bed
room
Long walls ...
Short walls ...
Bed, room right side

'Long walls ...
Short walls ...
Front verandah
Front Long wall ...
Side short wall ...

..... ..... -_. ----_._._-_. __.,
Length
--- _. .. _-.... _
Breadth
- .Height.
or
Depth
1------1---... _-_. __... -.....:.._ ..
Quantity Explanatory note
20.70 L = 10.60+ .90 = 11.50 m
11.88 L = 5.30 - .90 = 4.40 m
2
3
11.50 m
4.40 m
.90 m
.90m
1.00 m
1.00 m
2
2
I
I
9.60m
3.90 m
9,50 m
1.50 m
.90m
.90 m
.60 m
.60 m
1.00m
1.00 m
.50 m
.50 m
17.28 L=9.60 _ =9.60m
7.02 L = 4.80 - .90 = 3.90 m
2.85 L=9.65 - =9.50m
0.45 L=2.25 _ _ =1.50m
I
2
2
3
2
2
I.
I
9.50 m
2.00 m
.,
11.50 m
4.40 m
9.60 m
3.90m
'9.70 m
1.10 m
:6Orn
. .
,
.60 m
.90m
.90m
.90 m
.90m
.60 m
.60 m
.50 m
.. ..
.,
.50 m
Total
.30 m
.30 m
.30 m
.30 m
..20 m.
.20 m
. '. .. . .
"
2.85 L=9.65- '+ =9,50m
'1.20 - .,
.
64.23
.. . .... .. .. .. :: ... , .
cu m
I
6.21 L same as for earthwork in
excavation
3.56
5.18 L same as for earthwork in
excavation.
.. ..
. 1.16
L=9.65 _ =9.70m
0.20 L=2.25 _ _ = I.70m
."
-
-- -- __
------ -------
OF BJ.1ILDING
._-_.
Item Particulars of
_ ..
Back verandah,
including bath
room
long wall including
bath
Short wall
(remaining walls of
bath)
3. 1st class brickwork
in foundation and
plinth in I : 6
cement mortar
Drawing and left
bed room long
walls
l st footing
2nd footing
Plinth wall above
footing
Short walls
1st footing
2nd footing
, :;all.abJ\e
Ifooting
IBed rooms right
I side (both)
I .
I Long walls
lIst footing
2nd footing
Plinth wall
above footing ...
. . \ . ':
. .
.(Ex. 5(1 COII(d.)
-.---.,-----"T--.."..--------,+-------..,;._. . _-,-

--- ._-_._

9.70 m .60 m
2 2.20 m .60m
2 1.20 m .60 m
2 1'.10 m .50 m
2 1.00 m .40 m
3 4.70 m .60m
3 4.80 m .50 m
3 4.90 m .40 m
I
.2 9.60 m .60 m
2 9.60 m .50 m
2 9.60 m 040 m
Height \
__ . _
Depth
--_.- .._-- ...........'-"_._-.
;
.20 rn 1.16 l=9.65 _ + =9.70m
.20 m 0.53 l=2.75 - _ =2.20.m
-.
,
Total ,20.11 ,
cum
.20 m 2.69
l = 10.60 + .60 I 1.20 m
.20m 2.22 L = 11.'20 - 2x.05 = 11.10m
.90 m 7.92 L = ILl 0 - .10 = [1.00 m
.20m 1.69 l = 5.30 - .60 = 4.70 m
.20m 1.44 l := 4.70 + 2 x .05 == 4.80 m
'. . .
..
.90 m 5.29 L = 4.80 + .10 = 4.90 m
I
".
L=9;60 _ + =9.60m .20m 2.31
.20m 1.92
L=9.60 - +
.90 m 6.91 L=9.60 _ + =9.60m
. _.1. .._.....__ ._.. .__ ____!....._'_____!_ __..!..... __...!.______!. _
. ,.' _0'''./ .. t":'r'wsrrt
--
"'\
,
..
'
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Particulars of
-Nl):-- Items: ---------
Item
Short walls _.
1st footing ...
Znd footing
."
Plinth wall above
footing ...
Front verandah
Front wall
Footing ...
Plinth wall above
footing ...
Side short wall-
Footing ...
Plinth wall above
footing . ...
Back verandah
including bath
room
Long wall
Footing ...
:
...
..
.: .. :
Plinth wall
.,
:
above footing ...
".;,
Short walls
(remaining walls of
bath)
.footing ...
Plinth wall
..
..
above footing ...
I
......... _.
-N{)o-
Length- Breadth
2 4.20 m .60 m
2 4.30 m .50 m
2 4040 m 040 m
I 9.65 m Ap
I 9.60 m .30 m
I 1.85 m 040 m
I 1.90 m .30 m
.' .
"1 :.
9.65'm '040 m
- -. . .
I 9.60 m .30 m
- .
. .
- .
, .
..
2 2.35 m 040 m
...
2 2AOm .30 m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Height
__0%___
QllJlntity_ ________
Depth
.20 m 1.01 L = 4.80 - .60 = 4't m
.20m 0.86 L = 4.20 + 2 x .05 4.30 m
I
.90 m 3.17 L = 4.30 + 10=4Apm
:
.20m 0.77 L=9.65 _ + Ag=9.65
.70 m 2.02 J-,=9.65 - + =9.60'
r
.20 m 0.15 t=2.25 _ 1.85
,
...
.70 m 0040 = 1.90
., .
.,
:20:m ,-0.77
as for front
verandah long wall
:: "/". ' .'
:'-... .;.... ': .
.70m 2,02
... ..
,
- ,
..20_m 0.38 L=2.75.- - =2.35
,
.70m 1.01 L=2.75 _ _ =2040
Total 44.95 cu m
- -
Note- It may be noted that for length oflong walls ottight side bed rooms..hall"breadth on
the left side has been deducted. and half breadth on tberigh! side has been added.
For long walls of front and back verandah.half breadth ofmain walls on the left hand side at
the ssme{evel, has been deducted. and halfbreadthotthc verendub wall on the right handside has
III
been added to get lengths. . ..
For cross walls ofthe rooms and side,wall ot'Irontverendsh, halfbreadth ofmain walls lit the
same level has been deducted for inner side. and half bresdth at"verendeh wsl! has been deducted
for the outer side to get lengths. . .
I
..
.. -"--"

--
METHOD OF
I
,
" ; j -,
(Ex. 5a Contd.)
Height Particulars of
No.
Item
Breadth or . Quantity Explanatory note
Depth
No. Length
items
..... .....
""--" .. ......... _-
-. .- .. . - - .
2.5 ern Damp proof
course
4.
Drawing and left
bed rooms
2 11.00 m .40m Long walls .... 8.80 L same as plinth wall. -
Short walls 3 4.90 m .40 m - 5.88 L same as plinth wall.
Bed rooms inner
side
Long walls ... 2 9.60 m .40 m 7.68 L same as plinth wall.
Short walls ... 4.40 m .40 m 2 L same as plinth wall.
Verandah Pillars
...
- 3.52
4 0.50 m .30m 0.60 5 em extra on all sides. -
Bath room-
Rear wall ... 1 2.50 m .30m - 0.75 L ;: 2.20 + 2 x ;15 =2.50 m
Side and inter
walls
'"
2 2.40m .30m 1.#
Total 28.67
sqm
Deduct
_.
Door sills D
1
'"
6 1.20 m .40 m
Door sills D2
.....
2 1.00 m - .40 m 0.80
Door sills D)
... I 0.75 m .30 m - 0.23
!rotal of
deduction 3.91
..
. ... . .
..
sqm
Net Total 24.76
sq m
5. Ist class brick-work
in superstructure in
lime mortar-Draw
ing and left bed
room
Long walls ... 2 10.90 m .30 m 4.00m 26.16 L = 10.60 + .30 = 10.90 m
,'.
Short walls ... 3 5.00 m L =5.30"': .30:: 5,00 m .30 rri 4.00m 18.00
. - .. ..
.
.,
. ~
r,,
,ESTIMATING AND COSTING
-.. ' .. ,
- . 1 .
'4
"
, '
.30m
.30 m
.20 III
"
.30 m
.30 m
Item Particulars.of.. - ______
... : .
""-- ..._-- ----,-
No.' .Iterns
No. Length
Bed room right
side -
Long walls
...
2 9.60 m
Short walls
... 2 4.50 rru
Front verandah
Front wah as
solid
. ...
I 9.60 m
. Side wall as
solid
- ~ -
2.00m ... I
Back verandah
including bath
room -
Back 10 ng wall
as solid
... I 9.60 m
Side and inter walls
of bath
4
2.50 m ...
Deduct -
Door openings
rl .
6
;. operungs D,
... 1.20 III
O. openings D
2
D. openings 03
'"
'"
2 1.00 III
' I
0.75 m
Window openings
W. openings WI
'" 11 1.00 III
W. openings W2 ...
I : ,
2.00 III
IW' opening's 'ih' ,. ~ . 2,'
0.75 rn
Clerestory window
(c. W.) opening
...
18 0.75 m
Shelves opening
'"
5 1.00 m 1.20 m
Front verandah
opening in between
pillars
... I 8.40 m
Front verandah
opening side
... I 2.00m
Back verandah
opening
'"
I 6.80 m
I
------l
---'
Breadth
.30m
.30
.20 m
.20 m
.20 m
.20 m
_H.eight
or Quantity
Depth
4.00'm 23.04
4.00m
10.80
3.05 m 5.86
1.22 ' 3.05 m
5.86 ' 3.05 III
3.05 m 3.05
Total 93.99
cu m
2.10 m 4.54
. ~ ..oq'!ll;
1.20
1.80' m ' 0.27
:.;':". ..; ~ . : . ~ .., .
,
1.50III 4.95
iSOm 0.90
.20m; ,.L:lthril' "'036'
.30 m ,O.60m 2.43
1.50 ~ 1.50
.20 m 2.40m 4.03
.20 m 2.40 m 0.96
.20 m 2.40 m 3.26
'-,----
Explanatory note
"
L==9.6p _ . 3 ~ + .3g ==9.60m
L == 4.80 - .30 == 4.50 m
L=9.65 _ . 3 ~ + . 2 ~ ==9.60m
IL same as front verandah.
I
, ' ..
Back of shelves 10 ern thic k
wall.
L == 9.60 - 3 x Ao == 8.40 m
,
L=9.60 - 2.40 - .40 == 6.80 m
METHOD OF BUILDING ESTIMATE
,I
(Ex. Sa Coatd.)
Details of
ltems-
........ .. -.... _- ... --
Item
-No;
Lintels-
Over doors
D. doors DI ...
D. doors D2
D. doors DJ
.
Over windows
W. windows WI ...
W.windows W2 ...
O. windows W3 ...
Over C.W.
...
Over shelves ...
Verandah lintels
Front ...
Side
'"
Back ...
rn
Height
__OL.... __

Explanato'!y note
Depth
-No.-- -Length-Breadth
Bearing 15 ern 0.405 .15 m .30 m 1.50 m 6
Bearing 15 cm
1
0.117 .15 m .30 m 1.30 m 2
Bearing 10 em 0.029 .15 ill .20 m .95 m
Bearing 15 em
1
0.644 .15 m 11 1.30 m .30 m
.15 rn 0.103 Bearing 15 ern
2
2.30 m .30 m
Bearing 10 ern
18
.15 rn 0.057. .95 m .20 m
Bearing 10 em
5
.15 rn 0.770 .95 rn .30 m
0.293 .30 m .15 m Bearing 15 1.30 111
1 L=9.60 + .15 = 9.75 m
1
.20 m 0.293 9.75 rn .15 m
2.15 m .20 m .15 m 0.065 L = 2.00 + .15 = 2.15 rn
1 7;50 rn .20 rn 0.225 L = 9.60 - 2.40 + 2 x .15
=7:50
.15 rn
Irotalof deduction 27.401 cu rn
,
-
Net
..
Total 66.59 cu m
'.
Note : - Verandah walls above lintel, verendeh pillars, and bath rootuwslls may' be taken
scperstely end-no deduction for verandah openings need be. tuede. '" z ..
ABSTRACT OF QUANTITIES (Ex. Sa)
1. Earthwork in excavation in foundation 64.23 cu m.
2. Lime concrete in foundation 20.22 cu rn.
3. lst class brickwork in foundation and plinth in 1:6 cement.mortar 44.95 cu rn.
4. 2.5 ern damp proof course .-;. 24.76 sq rn.
5. lst class brickwork in superstructure in lime mortar 66.59 cu m.
Note: -- Steps have not been taken into consideration es the object of this example is to
illustrate (he method of estimating of walls only.
;e'.s.C"" Firt" .. mn __ _....
i
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
. METHOD II . . .
',.
Centre Line Method. - In this method known as centre line method .. _ '. ..
tlnesaf walls-,Tting and short, has to-be found out. Find the total length of centre lines' of walls, of "
same type, long and short having same type of foundations and footings and then find the
quantities by multiplying the total centre length by the respective breadth and the height. In this
method, the length will remain same for excavation in foundation, for concrete in foundation, fort.
all footings and for superstructure (with slight difference when there are cross walls or number of
junctions). This method is quick but requires special attention and consideration at the junctions, &
. meeting points of partition or cross walls, etc.
. For rectangular, circular polygonal (hexagonal, octagonal, etc.) buildings having no inter or
cross walls, this method is quite simple. For buildings having cross or partition walls, for every t
junction of partition or cross walls with main walls, special consideration shall have to be made to i
find the correct quantity. For each junction half breadth of the respective item or footing is to be
ded ucted from the total centre length. Thus in the case of a building with one partition wall or cross !
wall having two junctions, for-earthwork in foundation trench and foundation concrete deduct one w
breadth of trench or concrete from the total centre length (half breadth for one junction and one i"
breadth (2 x Y2 = one for two junctions). F0!" footings, similary deduct one breadth of footing for
'.
t
I-
two junctions from the total centre length, and so on. If two walls come from opposite directions ''4
and meet a wall at the same point,. then there will be two junctions.
For building having different types of walls, each set of walls shall have to be dealt separately.
<,
Find the total centre length of all walls ofone type and proceed in the same manner as described
above. Similarly find the total centre length of walls of second type and deal this separately, and so
on.
In the case of a building having different type of walls, suppose the, outer (main) walls are of A
type and inter cross walls are ofB type, then all Atype walls shall be takenjointly first, and then all
Btype wall's shall be taken together separately. In such cases no ded uction of any kind need be made
for A type walls, but when B type walls are takenrf6I- eachjunction deductionof haif breadth of A
'type wall (main wall) shall have to be made from the total' centre length of walls.
It rn,aybe noted that at corners ofthe building where two walls are meeting no substraction or
addition is required. .
When there are number of footings, the length of the first footing is to be determined by
r,;:;ducting half breadth of fouting' per] .In.;i.:vli rrom l.ilt:lotai centre linelengthandthen the length
of the subsequent footing can be obtained simply by adding one offset of footing i.e. 5 ern for every
junction to the length of the previous footing, .
The examples 3(a). 4(a) and 5(a) which have been solved by method I in the previous pages, I
have been solved again under examples 3(b). 4(b) and 5(b) in the following pages, by method II to
illustrate this method. These illustrations will make this method quite clear.
Note.-Student should practice method I first and when they have become sufficiently.
acquainted with method I, then only they should take up the method fl.
Example 3(b). - Estimate by centre line method the quantities of the following items of a
........
single room building Fig, 2-3 of example 3a (page 31)-( I)Earthwork in excavation in foundation,
I
i
(2) Concrete in foundation, (3) Brickwork in foundation and. plinth, (4) Brickwork in
superstructure. . .
Ii
- -
METHQt> OF BUUiOlNG Tli

Total centre length of walls = + BC +CQ' +PA .;; +4.30 +5;30 + 4.30 F/19.20 m
Fig. 2-8 represents the foundation trench plan. ' !
._-_,_, ......... ; r-_.... .....,...."...L......
the breadth and the depth we get the quantity J<-;;; - - - -- - - -"""...
of earthwork in excavation. -t\y doing so we A
take certain portion twice and leave an equal
portion but this does not affect the quantity.
The quantity of excavation = AB x 90 ern
x 90 ern + BC x 90 cm x 90 em + CD x 90 ern x
90 cm + DA x 90 cm x 90 ern. It may be
noticed that the portions P,Q,R and S
marked with double hatch. lines come twice
while the portions K,L,M,N left blank do not
come at all, but these portions being equal in
magnitude, we get the correct quantity.
The same principle applies to foundation con
crete, footings, plinth wall and superstructue wall.
DETAILS OF MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF QUANTITIES (Ex. 3b)
Fig. 2-8
Item Description of
No.
I.
2.
3.
Items
Earthwork in
excavation in foun
dation ...
Concrete in founda
tion
'"
Brickwork in
foundation and
plinth
Ist footing
2nd footing
Plinth wall
...
...
...
Door and window open
cu m
structure ... 3.50 m 20.16 19.20 m .30 m 1
ings, lintels, etc. tobe
deducted.
\otc:. - The above may be compared with the solution by method I givenf"a'l( s,,;.,.
I
4.jBriCkWO'k in super-
No. Length Breadth
Height
or
Depth
Quantity
..
1
.1
19.20 m
-.
19.20m
.90 m
.90m
.90m
.30m
15.55
cu m
5.18
cu m .
- . . . ..
.60'm .30 m 3.46 I I 19.20 m
.30 m 2.88 19.20 m .50 m I
I
4.61 I .60 m 19.20 III .40 m
Total 10.95
cu m
Explanatory notes
Total centre length of all
walls =19.20 m
. ,
.' .

ill
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Example 4(b). - Estimate by centre line method the quantities of the following items of a two
roomed building Fig. 2-6 Example 4a (page 35)
,
brickwork in cement mortar I: 6 in foundation ami plinth, (4) 2.5 ern c,c. damp proof course, and
(5) lst class brickwork in lime mortar in superstructure.
In this problem there are two junctions of the inter wall with the main wall.
Total centre length of wall =2 x c. to. c. of long wall + 3 x c. to c. of short wall.
, ='2xIO.60+3x6.30=40.lOm'
Fig. 2-9 represents the foundation trench plan. '
.t-. ---- --
I
lA,
L
E
o
....
-t-. ---;'-' --,
', .. '
i!
,;a:
I
I
r
t

I

I
E t
.... ri,
E
g
l'!
0
ui
....

":"
,I
s'
\


f
E
o
If the total centre length is multiplied by the breadth and depth, at the junction the portions A
-: -. and B shown by hatch lines in Fig. 2-9 come twice .. and weget the quantity in excess by these
portions, and these excesses shall have to be deducted. Thededuction mas be effected reducing the
centre length byhalf breadth for each junction.
Thus the quantity of earthwork in excavation
:= [To,,',ill centre length-(2 x Y2 breadthj] x breadh x depth. , "
r >,
'- .. "
= (40.10 - 2 x VI x 1.10) x 1.l0 x 1.00:=39.00 x' l.lO x LOO:;= 42..90 cu m.
The same principle applies to foundation concrete, to footings, plinth wall and superstructure
wall. At every stage deduction of half breadth of the main wall at that particular level shall have to
be made per junction (i.e. one breadth for two junctions) from the total centre length, and this net
centre length after ded uction shall be multiplied by the respective breadth and the height or depth to
get quantities. " , '
" '
The estimate of the quantities of this Example 4(b) is as follows:
""' ..,
OF BUI{.-DING ESTIMATE :''1
. 1
DETAILS OF MEASUREMENt AND CALCULATION OF QUANTITIES (Ex. 4b)
, ..
, .,
,. .,.'
', .\;.: ,;.'"
Item Particulars of
.. ,
Items No. 'or No. Explanatory notes

. ; ,
--., ___ ' __"_"H____ ----- . ,
'---",--- , ..
"
..
Total centre length ="40.10
,
;
..
Earthwork in m
excavation in foun
dation
1.10
I 1:00 m 42.90 L == 40.10 - 2 x 39.90 m 1.I0m
'"
cum
2
= 39.00 m
Lime concrete in
foundation
'"
I 39.00 m 1.l0m .30m 12.87 L same as above.
cum
I st class brick-work
in 1:6 cement
mortar in
foundation and
plinth-
I st footing ... I
I 39.30 m .80m .20m L=40.l0 ,-2 x == 39.30
. ,
6.29
2nd footing ...
1 39040 m .70 m .10 m L=40.1O - 2 x 39.40
m
3rd footing ...
2.76
I 39.50 m .60 in .10 m 2.37 L==4Q.1O - 2 x == 39.50
m
4th footing . ..
39.60 m .50 m .J. .10 m 1.98 L==40.1O - 2x.. .== 39.60m
Plinth wall above
footing
39.70 m 040 m .80 m 1 12.70 L==40.1O 2 == 39.70m. '"
..
..
Total 26:10
cu m
Damp proof course
2.5 ern c.c,
1 39.70 m 040 m - ... 15.88 L==40.1O - 2 x == 39.70m
Deduct door sill
:
2 1.20 m .40 m - 0.96
I
.'
; ..
..
-.
- -.; '.'
Net 14.92
.....
..
.. CI,J m
..
..
I'
.'
I I stc1ass brick-work I
i in lime mortar in
j
I
I
! superstructure
...
i
I
I 39.80 ml .30 rn 4.20 m L==40.10 ., 2 x = 39.80 m 50.15
I Deduct door.
I I
I I I
window, shelve
I
openings and
!
i
lintels I detail in Same I as per
. I 1
I
page 37
1
4.40 Deduction to be made as
!
usual.
Net 45.75
cu m
I
\.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Note.--:- The length of2nd footingean be obtained simply byadding 10em (i.e. 2 x 5 em) to the
length ofthe l st footing, the length ofJrd footing byJ:dding /1) em to the length ofth'e2ndrooting
and so on. . .
This may be compared with the solution by method I worked out in pages 36-37.
....
ESTIMATING AND COSTING:I
:l

Example S(b).-Estimate by centre line method the quantities of the following items of aj
. \ residential building,.Fig. 2-7 of Example 5a (page.38).
. -_ _ _ .. - ,,- -----------,-.-.----..-- -_ __ ---__ .'
.. (1) Earthwork in excavation in-foundation, (2fLlme concrete-lnfounClarion,
brickwork in 1: 6 cement sand mortar in foundation and plinth, (4) Damp proof course and (5) First'
class brickwork in lime mortar in superstructure.
Total centre length of all 30 em walls (sametype) of main rooms
= l'otal centre length of walls ofdrawing and left side bed room+Total centre length of walls of
bed rooms right side
. = (2 x c. to c. length of long wall + 3 x c. to c. length of short wall)
+ (2 x c. to c. length of long wail + 2 x-c. to c. "length of short wall)
;:: (2 x 10.60 + 3 x 5.30) + (2 x 9.60 + '2 x .
= 37.10 + 28.80;:: 65.90 m. .
'. Number of junctions for these walls is 6 marked 'x' in the plan Fig. 2-7, page' 38 and all these
junctions are with main walls of 30 em.
Total centre length of all 20 em walls (same type) offront verandah, back verandah and bath
room
" "
= (c. toc. length of front wall + to c. length of side wall) '+- (c. to c. length of back verandah
long 'wall including bath + 2x C. of cross walls of bath room)
;:: (9.65 + 2.25) + (9.65 +2 x. 2.75) =11.90 + 15.15 =27.05 m. .
: r
Number of junctions of these wall is Sis mm-ked'+' andone is.marked '-' in the plan Fig. 2-7,
page 38.. . .'
I '. . :".,' .' ", ', ' . . ..
Fiye junetionsare with main walls of 30 em and one junction with similar wall of 20 ern,
, .
See page 39 for centre length ofdifferent walls.
The estimate of the different items by centre line method is as follows -."
\ 1\ '
. .
i
METHOD

pi- aUILiJ1NG ESTIMt\l'E
... r \(
"I i'. >
Height :"
lte.n Particulars of
No. Length Breadth .. or Quantity Explanatory notes.
No. Items
.' Depth'
I. Earthwork in exca
vation in
foundation
Wall of main room
'(six junctions) \ ...
L=65.90 - 63.20m .90 m 1.00 m .. 56.88
Walls of verandahs
including bath (five
and onejunctions) ...
L = 27.05' - Sx .?O _ 1 x .60
24.50 m .60 rn .50 m 7.35'
= 24.50 ni' 2 2
Total 64.23
ou m
Lime concrete in
foundation
Walls of main
rooms ...
2.
L same as above.
Walls of verandah
and bath
17,.06 .30m 63.29 m .90 m
'L = 27.05 - 5 x _ I x
= 25.50 m
(Minus half breadth per
Total
3.06 .20 m 25.50 m m
20.12
junction at the same level)
cu m
Ist class brick-work
in foundation and
-plinth in I : 6
cement mortar
Walls of main
rooms
1st footing
...
3.
. I
L==65.90 - 6 x = 64. 10m 7.69 64.10 m ',,60 m .20m
2nd footing
L= 65.90 6 x 6.44 .20m 64.40 m .50 m
Plinth wall above
footing
L=65.90 - 6 x 64.7Om
, .
23.29 .90 m 64.70m AOm
(Length ofsubsequent
footing after first can be
obtained by adding 6 x 5 =
Walls of verandah
30 em to the prfvious
footing). 4Q..
and bath
Footing
L = 27.05 - 5 x AO - 1 x '..,
== 25.85 m 2
Plinth wall above
footing'
2.07 .2001 25.85 m .40 m
L=27.05 - 1 5 x 'i
O

= 25.90 m
Total
5.44 .70 m 25.90 rm .30 m
44.93 I
cu m J_. _
-- __------l._I-L.
"",.n,.n-n"'" ox. ..... crt'
- -
.ill\
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
.'
,;'
Item Particulars of
Height
.... 1'l.9! ..
items
No. Length Breadth or Quantity Explanatory notes
- -.--- -- -
-- - ----
0 _____ -
--------- - - - - - - ~ . _ -
l)epln
--.-._-----,-
--_..._-------._-_.-
4.
2.5 ern Damp proof
course
Walls of main
rooms
... I 64.70 m . .40 m - 25.88 L same as for plinth wall.
Verandah pillars
... 4 0.50 m .30 m - 0.60
Bath room (total of
3 walls)
... I .7.30 m .30 m - 2.J9 L ::: (2.20 + 2 x .15) + 2 x
Total 28.67
( 2.75 - 'iO -. ~ O ) =7.30 m
Deduct door
sills
.... Same as per /detail in
page
43 3.91
Details of deduction as us
Net Total 24.76
sq m
5. 1st class brick-work
in superstructure in
I
lime mortar-
Walls of main
rooms
I 65.OQ m .30m 4.oom 78.00
L=65.90 - 6 x 'i
O
= 65.00m
...
Walls of verandah
L=27.05 - 5 x .30 _ I x .20
and bath (as solid) I 26.20 m .20m 3.05 m 15.98
=26.20 m 2 2
..
..
..
Total' . 93.98
.
. .Deduct openings
. .
and lintels
..
Same idetail in'
...
Details of deduction as.' ."
as per
pages 44-45 27.40 usual.
I Net Total 66.58 .
:
cum ,
Note. - This solution may be compared with that of by method I worked out in pages 40-45.
Method I, 'Long wall and Short well" method as explained in pages 29 to 45 is generally
Followed in the Engineering Department. The measurement otthe work done. is taken separately
for each waJ! for preparing bill for payment and the qusntityIor each wall asper measurement may
. be compared with the estimated quantity.
II'!
II
v
ARCH MASONRY CALCULAT!ON
ARCH MASONRY CALCULATION
. . . . . .. .
The quantities of masonry work in arch iscalculated by multiplyingthe mean length of arch by
- of arch. In the case of culvert the quantity of arch masonry
work is equal to the length ofarch-TacetoTactfKmean-length-of-arch-x-t-hiekness-of-arch.----- _
Case I. Segmental Arch with span and angle given. - Arch of span Ssubtending an angle 9 at
the centre.
s = span, 0 = angle at the centre, r = radius,
r
m
= mean radius, - __
1m =mean length of arch, t =thickness of arch,
b = breadth of wall,
. 0 5/
2.
S I
SID_ = __ ," r = _. X ---ri
-,
.' Ii
2 r 2
Sm_
2
2
0
, r. 1 = 27i- r X __0_,
---= m m
2 71"r
m 360 360
1m can be found.
Quantity of arch masonry work Q= mean length of
arch x breadth of wall x, thickness of arch =1
m
X b X t,
,

,
,/
/
- '.
\
- /
, , 8"!"4/ r
,, ,"
'I'
,,'
/
8
Fig.2-10
Illustration I. An arch of2.50 m span subtends an angle of 80 at the centre. The thickness
of arch is 30 ern and the breadth of wall is 40 em. Calculate the quantity of arch masonry work.
Radius r = ..:... X = 2.50 x =1.945 m
2 Sin 40 2 .6428
Mean radius r- = r + 1= 1.945 + 2.095 m
. 0 22 80 - '
Mean length of arch 1
m
= 271" r
m
X = 2 X_X 2.095 X __ = 2.93 m
360 7 360
Quantity or arch masonry =1
m
X breadth of wall X thickness of arch =2.93 x .40 X .30
= .352 cu m.
Case II. doors and windows are usually segmental
subtending an angle 'of 60 at the centre. 60
0
arch forms an equilateral triangieou tilesi)afl with
radii
1m = mean length of arch.ir., =:: mean radius,
s = span, -r =radius,
1m I
r = s, and rm = r +
-, -'----- =
=
2 211' rm 6
. I I
1m =
X 211' rm:=;- 11' 1Jn. Irr.can be found.
6 3
Quantity Q =1
m
X breadth of wall X thickness of arch
=1
m
X b X t
s

\
\
\
Fig. 2-11
- ------ - ---------- --- ----- - --- --
---------------- -- -------
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Illustration II. -- Calculate the quantity of brickwork in a 60 'arch over a door of 1.20 m
width. The arch is 20 em thick and the thickness of the wall is 30 cm.
r =1.20 m,
rm=r+ .,', =(1.20+ .20 ) = 1.30 m
2 2
I . 1
. 22
1
m
= _IT r
m
=_ x _x 1.30 = 1.36 m
3 3 7
Breadth of wall b = .30 m, Thickness of arch t =.20 m
':. Q = L, X b X t = 1.36 X .30 X .20 =' .082 cu m
Case III. Segmental Arch with span and rise given
r =:: radius of arch i.e. of lntrados, rm=:: radius of mean arc.
1:= length of arch of intrados, 1m= length of mean arc.
From similar figures
= , or 1 =:: I X
m
I r r
To find radius r
a
2
== h (d - h), where d := dia. of intrados.
a = semi chord = Y2 span =
. . 2
- S
, J
h = rise of 'arch (given)
Fig. 2-12
Hence d can be found, and r = d/2
" h . 2
From the above it can also be proved that: r =_ +
.' .. -. '2 8h
/ .
Radius r can be found by first principle or directly by the formula.
t : ". .. .....x 'i;;;; .. -.
Mean radius r
m
=r + __,where t := thickness of arch.
. 2
.... -' T'; :i..-.d arc of;ir..tr:l1os I : .. '
8b - 2a
Mensuration formula, I = _
r: "
3
b =J a
2
+h
2
a and h being known, b can be determined, and hence I can be found.
r, rm and I being calculated, 1
m
can be found 1m = I X s
r
-c..
Quantity Q := 1
m
X b X t. Fig. 2-13
Note. - After finding radius r, thc tutgle dsubtended at the centre may also be determined as
in Case I above in Pagc'53 and then 1
m
may be found. '.' .
'f.
. i
.,
'Z .
... '{
. '
....,...
ARCH MASONRY CALCULATION
lIIustrationUI ..:.- Calculatethe quantity of brickwork in a segmental arch of2.20 mspan, SO
em rise and 30 em thick. The breadth of the wall is 30 em.
.. .,---.
r
. s 2.20
a
2
=h (d - h), a > _ =__=1.10, h::: .50
2 2
:. (1.\)2::: .5 (d - .5)
. solving d = 2.92 m
. r = 2.92 = 1.46 m
2 2
---.--.--.-----.. --- -- -------- ------ -- -..-.----
r can also be founddlrectly from the formula
.
. h 52
r=_+_
2 &h
2
= + 2.2 ::: 1.46 m
2 8 x .5
.. t .30
.. r
m
::: r+_::: 1.46 +_= 1.61 m
2 2
8b- 2a -
\ ::: b = .J a
2
+ h
2
::: .J 1.12 + .5
2
::: 1.21 m
:. 1= (8 x 1.21) - (2 x 1.10)::: 2.49 m
3
Mean length i, = 1x 2.49 X 2.75 m
r 1.46
Quantity of arch work Q = 1
m
X b X t "" 2.75 X .30 X .30 = .247 cu m.
Case IV. Semi-circular Arches
s. = span, r = radius of arch,
rm ::: mean radius, h =rise,
I,"
= mean lengthof arch
iUS r; -'_,
,2
2
Ra
di - s
Riseh=
,t __ s t
Mean Radius f
m
= r + _ _ +
222
I
, ",. 22 s t
Mea length-of arch l'i1 =rr rm = _X (_+ _)
f
7 2 2
Fig. 2-14
Quantity of arch masonry ,;: 1m X b X t.
Illustration IV. - Calculate the quanrityof brickwork in a semi-circular arch of 2.00 m span, I
thickness of the arch is 30 em and the breadth of the wall is 40 cm. I
I
' .. f 2.00 . I
I
RadlUS 0 arch r = _= 1.00 m
i
2
R
di t '1 .30
Mean a IUS r
m
= r + _=.00 +_= 1.15 m
"2 2
22 . .
Mean length 1
m
::: 1T X f
m
= _X 1..15 = 3.61 m
7
Quantity of arch work Q = ImX b X t =3.61 X .40 X .30 = .433cu m,
1
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Flat Arches. - May be used over doorsand windows for small spans, but a small
camber should be given.
I .
Flat.archus ually .subtends.an. ._ ..
Inclined thickness of arch at the springing point tl = _t_ = _t_= 1.15 t
} .
sin 60 .866
tJ .
Mean length of arch 1
m
=.s + .
2
Fig. 2-15
Quantity of arch masonry work Q =1m X b X t
For practical purposes tl may be considered as equal to t and
. t
mean length of arch may be taken as, 1m =s +
. .. 2
I
I
,
'. 60. s'
.... ..,
,
.."
I
\
v
-, S
Illustration V. - Calculate the quantity of arch workin a Hat arch over a door of 1.20 m
width. The thickness of arch is 30 ern and the breadth of wall is 30 em.
s =1.20 m, tl =
t
= 1.15 t = 1.15 X .30 = .345 m
.,
sin 60
. tl .345
Mean length 1
m
= s + _._= 1.20 +__= 1.3.72 m
2 2
Quantity of arch work Q =Jill X bx t = 1.372 x .-30 x .30 = 1.23 1Jl..
SEMI-ELLIPTICAL ARCHES may be considered as segmental arches; and' the same
method m,ay be adopted to calculate the quantities which is sufficient for practical purposes.
. . . :':. -. .'. r . "
Illustration VI. :.;... The arch of a culvert, subtend an angle of 120. at the centre. The span of .
the arch is 5.00 m and the thickness ofthe arch is 50 em. The length of the archis 8.00 m fromface
to face. Calculate the quantities of arch masonry work, and cement plastering in the soffit of arch.
R d' s 1
a IUS, r = _ x _._
2 .Sin 8
2
where s = span =5.00 rn, 8 = angle subtended at the centre =120
. 500" . 'I . 1'" .. .,.,.
= _._ x = 2.5 x_ = 2.886 m
2 sin 60 .866
Me/an radius, rm = r + where t = thickness of arch = 50 em =.50m
2 ..
= 2.886 + ..50 = 3.136 m
2
Mean
I
length of arc, 1m - . . ..'.
1 () () . 22 120. .
_'_m_ =_ 1
m
=2rr r
m
x __= 2 x_x 3.136 x__ = 6.57 m
2rr rm 360 360 7 360
Length of arch from face to face, L = 8.00 m (given).

- -
----
ESTIMATING OF STEPS'
Quantity of arch masonry = Length of arch x 1
m
X t = 8.00 X 6.57 X .50 =26.28 cum
Arclength of intrados, I
'.. ----- =,-\==-\"..; 'x '.' .t_ =
1
m
rm rm 3.136
Area of soffit plastering =Arc length of intrados x length of arch = 6.05 x 8.00 :::: 48.40 sq m.
Note. ---'- For building work the mean length of the arch may be found from the drawing by
measuring with divider or thread, and then the quantltycalculated; But for big arches, as culverts,
the correct mean length should be found by theoretical calculations. The estimate of a building
having vsrioustypes of arches has been given in Chapter 4.
ESTIMATiNG OF STEPS
Problem - Estimating the quantities of Earthwork, Concrete, Brickwork and Finishing
work of different types of steps from given drawings.
Steps are usually constructed when the construction ofthe buildinghas progressedsufficiently
and the earth work in foundation for step needs excavation afresh. The earthwork in excavation for
step is usually neglected.
1. Estimate of simple step given in Fig. 2-16.
c Plinth Level

15cm
ELEVATION
A
..
;,.
Verandah
..
3
1
2
90cm
qcJ_Cm-- -
1
L
1 m ----,.-04 .
m . Treads-30 em
Risers - 15 em
DETAILED VIEW
PlAN
Fig. 2-16
Surface in steps 20 mm plastered with I : 3 cement sand mortar finished neat cement
rendering.
Items No.. L B. Ht. or D. Qty.
m m m
I. Earthwork in excavation
1 1.90 .95 .15 '.27 cu m
2. Concrete in foundation
I 1.90 .95 .10 .18 cu m
3. Brickwork - l st step'
I 1.80 .90 .20
.324}
2nd step I 1.80 .60 .15 .162
3rd step I 1.80 .30 .15 .081
Total ... 0.567 cum
'I
" "
111
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
4. Finishing 20 rnm cement plastered
3 1.80 .30 1.62
Treads
.... 4 1.80 .15 1.08
Risers
2 .90 .IS .27
Ends
. ii .. _..._L8_ ._
2 .30 - .15 .09
Total... 3.24 sq m
In the above estimate of step
The quantities of brickwork may also be calculated in short as
.... .90 + .30 .
Average sectiona] area x Iength > ( x .4S) x 1.80 :::; .486}
2
Total... .567 cu m
Below-ground level = 1.80 x .90 x .05 .' . == .081
The quantities of plastering may be calculated in short as
. Risers and treads> Length x total of risers and treads
=1.80
X
(4
x.15+3 x.30)
"==2.70}
. Ends > 2 x Average breadth x height> 2 X( .90 + .30) X.45::': .54 Total ... 3.24 sq m
. .... . 2
Note. - If there are steps' (even number Of steps) the quantities may be calculated in
details step by step. By short method the quantities may be calculated as follows
Quantities of brickwork above G. L. = ( 1.20 + .90 + .60 + .30 x .60) x 1.80 = .81 cu m
4
Quantity of plastering
Risers and treads > 1.80 (5 x .15 + 4 x .30) = 3.51 }
Ends > 2 x ( 1.20 + .90 + .60 + .30<.60 = .90 .
Total 4.41 sq m
4 - . '.
_
..
.
II. Estimate of three sides step given in Fig. 2:-17.
r' -.
....-..
'. . . Plinth Level
. I
3.00m
ELEVATION
-:......----"-\,o----------,
5 rrvn Dia Bar
...., 27.5 cm
1
.
!
, 18 cm
2.5cm
1B'cm
1
I
..... '" _. __2... ; I 25 em '2.5 em
i
-- __ ..... _. _.... _... em . Deta;;;;Nosing HoSIng. J
I
.......
Of 3.00m
I Treads - 27.5 em including 2.5 em Nosing
\iiI Risers 18 em .
PLAN Fig. 2-17
Surface of steps is provided with 2.5 em c.c, I : II./.. : 3 finished with. neat cement.
...-
Items
1. Earthwork in excavation
. Concrete"iil' 'fbu-iid'atrcm-'
3. Brickwork -Ist step
2nd step
3rd step
4th step
ESTIMATINGpF STEPS:
. No. . L. B. Ht... or D. Qntty,
m m::. m ","
... .1 1.10 ..20.71 cu m
'---.- ..-'.- ;;; ----l---3;-20-1..10---.1-S-----.-5,l-cu-rn--- --_..----
1 3.00 . 1.00 .23 .690}
1 2.50 .75 .18 .338
I 2.00 .50 .18 .180
1 1.50 .25 .18 ,068
Total... 1.276 eu m
.
4. 2.5 em c.c. 1 : 1Y2 : 3 in surface finishing
1st step - Tread, front and sides
Risers, front and sides'
2nd step - Tread, front and sides'
Risers, front and sides
3rd step - Tread, front and sides'
Risers, front and sides
4th step - Tread, front and sides .
Risers, front and sides
Plinth - Riser
-
....
1
1.
I
1
1
1
I
1
4.50
5.00
3.50
4.00
2.50
3.00
1.50
2.00
1.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.18
.18
.18
.18
.18
Total ...
1.125
.900
.875
.720
.625
.540
.375
.360
.270
5.790 sq m
I: II
5. 2.5 cm Nosing -
1st step front and sides.
2nd step front and sides .
3rd step front and-sides
4th step front and sides
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
Total ...
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
14.00 r rn
. ABSTRACT OF QUANTITIES
I. Earthwork in excavation
2. Concrete in foundation
3. Brickwork
4. 2.5 cmc.c. I : 112 : 3 in surface finishing
5. 2.5 ern nosing
0.71 cum
0.53 cu m
1.276 cu m
5.79 sq m
14.00 running metre.
.. .. ..... ... _ ....
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Ill. Estimate of corner step given in Fig. 2-18.
ELEVATION
2.50 m
I
1
Verandah
A
A
I
3
2
90 em
,J.
" ' 30 em 1 \. "
I' 1+---- 2.50 m ~
Treads - 30em
PLAN Risers - 15 em Fig. 2-18
.Surface of stepswith 20 mm cement plastered 1 : 3 with neat cement rendering.
c.
"
Items No. L. B.' Ht. or'D.Qty. Explanatory note
m m ill
I. Earthwork in excavations
Front 2.70 1.00 .20 .54 L = 2.50 + .10 + .10
= 2.70 m ~
,.
! -,
Side I' 1.70 1.00 .20 .34 L = 2.50 - .90 + .10
= 1.70 m
I -,
,Total... , .88 cu m
-:.....
2. Conerete'lilloundatiOn'-'"
'---' Front 2.70 1.00 .15
.405 '
Length same as
Side 1.70 1.00 .15 .255 above
1
Total ... '.66 ell m
!
1
'-.-'
3. Brickwork
1st step - Front 1 2.50 .90 .20 .450
Side 1 ,1.60 .90 .15 .216 L =2.50 - .90 = 1.60 m
2nd step - Front I 2.20 .60 .15 .198 L =2.50 - .30 =2.20 m
Side' 1 1.60 .60 .15 .144 L =2,20 - .60 = 1.60 m
3rd step - Front. 1 1.90 .30 .15 .086 L =2.50 - .60 = 1.90 m
, 'Side
I 1.60 .30 .15 .072 L =1.90 - .30 = 1.60 m
Total. .. 1.166 cum
' ~
....
. .
ESTfMATING QF STEPS
4. 2P mm cement plastering .
1st step - Tread, front and side I 4.70 .3p 1.41 L = + 2.20
Riser, front and side I 5.00 .15 .75 == 4.70 m
. ftoilCand-stde::; -t -..4;tO.....
Riser, front and side... I 4.40' .15.66 k 4.10 m
3rd step - Tread, front and side ... I 3.50 .30 1.05 L = t.90 + 1.60
. Riser, front and side . I 3.80 .15:57 3.50 m
Plinth- Riser, front and side 1 3.20 - .15
_ .....
.
---- ..
Total... 6.15 sq m
ABSTRACT OF QUANTITIES
1. Earthwork in excavation.
2. Concrete in foundation
3. Brickwork
4. 20 mm cement plastering ......
0.88 cu m
0.66 cu m
1.166 cu m
6.15 sq m
. . .
IV. Estimate of circular step as given in Fig. 2-19.
JV
<" Plinth Level
r:. 50 emTread .
. -+I. r.- 30 em Tread
11 15cm Rise
75cm
.-,_',LI--------1---..,
__.t.
GL
,.
..
ELEVATION
SECTION ON AS
Verandah;'
K--1.50 m----tl
Treads -
PLA.N
3h em
Risers 15 em.
Fig. 2-19
Surface of step cement plastered I : J with neat cement finish.
I
j
. I
-,
)
,
II i
, .'
" . ./
-...../
-, .:
" ."
./' .
/"' ...
.............. ,"
/: -.

.1' ".
............

"
. .(
<,
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Quantity of Earthwork, Concrete and Brickwork may be calculated by finding the area of the
respective segment and multiplying the area by the height or depth. .
---For siirfacearea.thearea offreaa--may-6e caICUHlleabyfinOing-:-rne mean lengtnofeacnlfeaa--"
(mean arc length) 'and multiplying by the breadth. The area of riser may be calculated by finding the
"
.
outer length of each step (outer arc length) and multiplying by the height. 'J
,
Figure 2-20 represents inverted position of 4th and 3rd step showing notations for easy

understanding.
Radius of steps-R
h 52
Radius of segment is given by R =- + - where s = span or chord length, and
2 8h
h = rise or perpendicular length at centre.
..
. .5 1.5 2
Radius of 4th step -- R
4
= - + -- =.81 m
.;
2. 8 x .5
",
.j
-- Radius of 3rd step -- R = + .3 = .81 + .3 = 1.11 m - --1
, J
-- Radius of 2nd step -- R
z
=. R
3
+ .3 = 1.11 + .3 = 1.41 m
-- Radius of 1st step -- R
I
= R
z
+ .3 = 1.41 + .3 + 1.71 m
!:
Straight length (span) of steps, S - .
Straight length of4th step = 1.50 m (given)
'i


---- i
Straight length of 3-rd step = 2 .JR3
2
- (R
3
- .8)2 =2 Vl.112 :... (I. I I - .8)2 =2.13 m
'.1

I
Straight length of 2nd step = 2 v'R2
2
- (R2 - 1.1)2 = 2 v' 1.4 J2 -' (1.41 - 1.1)2 = 2.75 m
j
'1
. : '. .. . .
Straight length of lststep ={JR
t2
- (Ri - 1.4)2 (1.71 - 1.4)2 = 3.36 m
Straight length Of foundation concrete = 3.36 + .20 =3.56 m.
Note. - Forpractical purpose the straight lengths may be.Iound byadding two treads i.e. 60
em, thus the approximate straight length may be taken as.:.
3rd seep - 1.5 + = 2. 10 m, 2nd step - 2/ + .6=2. 70m, lst step - 2.7 + .6= 3.30 m..
Perpendicular length at centre, (height) h - :
,
. 4th = .50 m, 3rd step--h= .5 + :3 ::= :80 iii, .
2nd. step-h= .8+.3=1.10 m, lst step"':""h = 1.1 + .3 =lAO m,
. f S . 2 sh + h 2 .
Area 0 egment =:'"1 2s where s = straight length (span)
h = perpendicular length (rise).
Volume = Area of segment x height.
Curved length of step (arc length)
. . . . ..... "--
Curved length = " where a = half straight length, b =Ja
2
+ h
2
(See Fig. 2-20)
3
4th step - a= = .75, h = .5. b =J .752+ .52 = .9 .
ESTIMATING; OF STEPS;
, d I hi 8 x .9 - 2 x .75 .., 90
Curve engt 4 = .; =. .m . ."
3 . . . ,
------:Wa-Slel'-=a .=2. 3.=4;06--5; -h.=: :::8,.b L.3.1.m. _.' __. u __
Curved length b = 8 x 1.33 -- 2 )f. 1.065 = 2.84 m
2.75 3
2nd step - a = 2= 1.375, h = 1.10, b . =J1.375
2
+ 1.12 =1.76 IT!
Curved length b = 8 x 1.76 - 2 x 1.375 '= 3.78 m
3
l st step -, a = = 1.68, h = 1.40, b =JL68
2
+ 1.4
2
:::: 2.186 m
Curved length II :::: 8 x 2.186 - 2 x 1.68 :::: 4.71 m
3 '
Surface area of riser > Curved 'length x height of riser.
Surface area of tread > Mean curved length x breadth of tread.
Items
I. Earthwork in excavation
No. L.
I {e! 3 x 3.56 x 1.5)+
.
B.
1.5
3
} ' .
2 x 3.56
Ht. or 0:
x .15
. Area x depth > (1 sh x depth
3 2s .
2. Concrete in foundation I {e!3 x 3.56 x.1.5) + 1.5
3
2 x 3.56
} ,x .10
3. Bricks in step
Ist step
-
I x 3.36 x 1.4) +
14
3
}
i x 3.36
x .20
2nd step I { r--.l
x
2.75 x,l.I) +
1.13
2 x 2.75 }
x .15
3rd step ,I {-(1
j
:
1
x 2.13 x .8)
+
8
3
2 x 2.13
}
x .15
4th step l{r,J
x
I. 5x.5)
+
,,5J
2 x 1.5
}
x .15
4. 20 mm cement plaster I : .3 -
Total
hi step 'Tread I
4.7'. + 78
-
x '.30
2
Riser 4.71
.15
2nd Tread
3.78 ... 2.R4
x .30
....
-
Riser 3.78
.15
3rd step- Tread
1.90
--
'" .30
.15
2
Riser 1.90
.15
4th step- Tread Fi 3 x 1.5 x ,5 +
.5.
1
)
2 x I.5
Riser 1.5
.15
Total
.__...__ ._. __ __ .
Qty.
.605 cu m
.403 cu m
.708
l
.338
.188
.081
J
1.315 cu m
1.27
.71
.99
.57
.71
.29
.54
.23
--_.
5.31 sq III
-
CHAPTER 3
SPECIFICATIONS
!
.
or describes the nature and the class of the work, materials to beused in
the work, workmanship, etc., and is very important for the execution of the work. The cost of a
work depends much on the specifications. Specifications should be clear, and there should not be
any ambiguity anywhere. From the study of the specifications one can easily understand the nature
of the work and what the work shall be. The drawings of a building or structure show the
arrangement of the rooins and various parts, and the dimensions-length, breadth and height, with
very btief descriptions of different parts. Drawings do not furnish the details of different items of
work, the quantity of materials, proportion of mortar and workmanship which ar
y
described in
specifications. Thus the combinations of drawings and specifications defiriecoinpletely the
structure. Drawings and specifications form important parts of contract document.
D,uring writing specification attempts should be made to express all the requirements of the
work Clearly and in a concise form avoiding repetition. As far as possible, the clauses of the
specification should be arranged in the same order in wh1ch the work will be carried out. The
specifications are written in a language so that they indicate what the work should be, and words
"shall be" Or "should be" are used. .
Specifications depend onthe nature of the work, the purpose for Which the work is required,
strength of the materials, availability of materials, quality of materials, etc. .
Specifications are of two types :
(I) General specification or Brief specification, and (2) Detailed specification.
. .'," . :.: .',
\ .." General or brief specification-General specification.gives the nature and class of the work
and' materials in general terms, to be used in the various parts of the work, from.the foundation to
the superstructure. It is a short description of different parts of the work specifyingmaterials,
... ".
proportions, qualities, etc. General specifications give general idea-of the whole work or structure
and are useful for prep-aring the estimate; , ' .' ..' ,"" ,", , '
For general idea, ,the general specifications of different classof buildings aregiven below.
\ ....
These' will of course vary according to the necessity and type of-works. ,,' '. .., -- ,"
1. I. General Specifications of a First Class Building'
Foundationand pllnth- Foundation'arid plinth st'ia.-l1 be brickwork in lime mortar or
I : 6 cement mortar over lime concrete or I : 4 : 8 cement concrete.
Damp proof course- 0, P.c. shall be 2.5 ern (1") thick cement concrete I: IIh:3, mixed with
one kg of Impermo per bag of cement or other standard water proofing, materials as specified and
painted with two coats of bitumen. '.
r :
Superstructure-Superstructure shall be of l-class brickwork with lime mortar or I : 6 cement
mortar. Lintels over doors and windows shall be of R.C.C. .
Roofing-Roof shall be of R.C.C. slab with an insulationlayer and lime concrete terracing
above, supported over R.S. Joists or R.C.C. beams as required. Height of rooms shall not be less
than 3.7 m (12 feet). . .
. . .
Flcoring-c-Drawing roomand dining room floors shall be of mosaic (terrazo). Bathroom and
W.e. floors and dado shall be of mosaic (terrazo). Floors of bedrooms shall be coloured and
polished of 2. 5 ern (I ") cement concrete over 7.5 ern (3") lime concrete. Floors of others shall be of
i
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
'.
" :
'
"
2.5 em (l") cement concrete over 7.5 cm' (3") lime concrete polished.
Finishing-Inside and outside walls shall be 12 mm (Yl',)'cement I :1 : 6.
w __,__
coats. Outside shall be coloured snowcem washed two coats over one coat of white wash..
Doors and shall be seasoned teakwood'. Shutters s?a:ll be 4.3
om (lW') thick panelled glazed or partly panelled and partly glazed as required',with
wire gauge shutters. All fittings shall be of brass. Doors shall be varnished o.r pamt.ed
two coats with high class enamel paint over one coat of pnrmng, Windows shall be provided with
ill
iron gratings or grills.
".;" ,
. Miscellaneous-Rain water pipes of cast iron or of. asbestos cement shall be provided and
. finished painted. Building shall be provided with lst class Sanitary and Water fittings and Electrical
'.
installations'. 1metre wide 7.5 cm thick C.C, I : 3 : 6 apron shall be provided all round building.
II. General Specifications of a.Second Class'Building
and plinth-Foundation and plinth' shall be of lst class brickwork with lime
mortar over lime concrete,
Dampproofcourse-D.P.C. shall be df2cm(Y4") thick cement concrete l : 2 mixed with I kg
of Impermo per bag ofcement or other standard water proofing materials.
Superstructure-s-Superstructure shall be of 2nd class brickwork in lime mortar. Lintels over
doors and windows shall be of R.,B. '
Roofing-Roof shall be R.B. slab with..7.5 ern lime concrete terracing above (or flat terraced
roof supported over wooden battens and-beams, or Jack arch roof). Verandah roof may be of A. C.
sheet or Allahabad tiles. . /. .'
shall be ts ern (I") cement concrete em (3") L.C. Verandah floor
shall be of brick tile or flag stone over lime concrete, finished cement painted,
Ftnlshlng-e-Inside and outside walls shall be of 12 mm cement mortar plastered 1: 6. Ceiling
shall be cement plastered 1 : 3. Inside shall be white washed 3 coats. colour washed two coats over
one coat of white wash. . .
Doors and windows-Chaukhat shall be of RC.C. or well seasoned sal wood. shutters of
_shisham wood . or deodar wood 4 ern (1W') thick, panelled. glazed or partly panelled and partly
glazed as required, fitted with iron fittings: bepaintedtv..o coats over .
coat of priming.
Miscellaneous-Rain water pipes shall be of cast iron finished painted. Electrification. and
sanitary and water fittings may be provided if required.
III. General Specifications of a Third Class Building
Foundation and plinth-Foundation and plinth shall be of 2nd class brickwork in lime mortar
lime concrete. Damp proof course shall be 2ern thick cement mortar I: 2 mixed with stand ard
water proofing compound.
Superstructure-Superstructure shall be of second class brickwork in mud mortar. Door and
window opening shall be provided with arches of 2nd class brickwork in.lime mortar or with
wooden planks. '
.: ...
SPECIFICATIONS
'Roofing- Roof shall be of mud over tiles or bricks or planks over wooden beams or of tile or
G.!. sheet or A.C. sheet sloping roof.
___ ____ ____ earth.
,- ..."
Finishing-Inside and outside walls shall be plastered with lime ....iortar and white washed
three coats.
Doors and windows-Chaukhat shall be of salwood, and shutters of chir mango or other
country wood. Doors and windows shall be paintedt wo coats with ordinarypaint over one coat of
priming.
IV. GENERAL SPECIFlCATIONS OF A FOURTH CLASS BUILDINCj
Foundation and superstructure-Foundation and superstructure shall be of sun-dried or
kutcha bricks in mud mortar. Door and window openings shall be provided with arches of 2nd class
brickwork in lime mortar or with wooden planks. Inside and outside shall be water proof mud
plastered.
v, /
Roofing- Roof shall be of tile roof over bamboo and wooden supports.'
" ../
Flooring-Floor shall be kutcha or earthen floor finished with "gobri" washing (cowdung
r" :.
lepping). .
v. ,/
. .
Doors and windows-Doors and windows shall be of chir or mango wood, or country wood.
" .;
(See also Specifications' of Village House, Chapter 19).:'
" .."
DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS
v v
The detailed specification is a detailed description and expresses.therequirements in detail.
The detailedspecification of an item of work specifies .. materials,
,,-' \
the proportion of mortar, workmanship, the method of" preparationand-execution and the

methods of measurement. .The detailed specifications of different-items: 6fwork' are prepared
separately, and describe what the works should be and how they shallbe executed and constructed,
Detailed specifications are written to express the requirementsclearly.iri
1iiconCiseform
'avoiding
repetition and ambiguity. The detailed specifications are arranged aSJar:.aS,possible in the same
sequence of order as the work is carried out. The detailed specificatioD.s'WpreparedjJroperly are
very helpful for the execution of work. The detailed an important part of
contract document. . "
. " _.. . . _' _". i: '
Every engineering department prepares the detailed speciilcetions of the various items of
worl:s, and get them printed in book form under the name 'DetsiledSpeciticetions; When the
work. or a structure or project is taken up, instead of writing detailed specification every-time, the
primed Detailed Specifications are referred. . ..
The detailed'speclflcations of various items of works are as.follows :
1. Earthwork in excavation in foundation-
E.xcavation-Foundation trenches be dug out to the exact width offoundation concrete
and the sides shall be vertical. If the soil is not good and does not permit vertical sides, the sides
should be sloped back or protected with timber shoring. Excavatedearth shall not be placed within
\
l m (3') of the edge of the trench.
;,1'" .
Finish of trench-The' bo'ttom of foundation trenches shall be perfectly levelled both
longitudinally and t,'ansversely and the sides of the trench shall bedressed prefectly vertical from
, ..-" "

I
i./ .

'""-----
EStl MATING.AND COS1!:ING
566
I, .
bottom up tothe least thickness concrete that may be lai9 a
6s
per
design. The bed of the trench shall betightly watered and well rammed. Excess Ifdone thr] ugh
mistake shall be filled with concrete at the expense bfthe contractor. Soft or defective spots shall dug --
........ -'oiit alia
excavation, these should be removed and the bed of the trenches shall be levelled and made hard by
consolidating the earth. Foundation Goncreteshall pot be laid beforethe inspection and approval of the
trench by the engineer-in-charge. , '
"::.;.
Finds-Any treasure and valuables or materials found during the excavation, shall be property of
the Government.
Water in foundation-Water, if any accumulates in the trench, should be bailed or pumped out
without any extra payment and necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent surface water to enter
into the trench. .
Trench filling-After the concrete has been laid masonry has been constructed the remaining
portion of the trenches shall be filled up with earth in layers of 15 ern(6") and watered and well rammed.
The earth filling shall be free from rubbish and refuse matters and all clods shall be broken before filling.
Surplus earth not required, shall be removed and disposed, and site shall be levelled and dressed.
Measurement--The measurement ofthe excavation shall be taken in cu m(cu ft) as for rectangular
trench bottom width of concrete multiplied by the vertical depth of foundation from ground level and
multiplied. by the length oftrenches even though the contractor might have excavated with sloping side
for his convenience. Rate shall be for complete work for 30 m (l00 ft) lead and 1.50m (5') lift, including
all tools and plants required for the completion of the works. For every extra lead of 30 m and every
extra lift of 1.5 m separate extra rate is provided.
Excavation in saturated sell-s-Excavation in saturated soil or below sub-soil water level shall be
taken under a separate item and shall be carried out in the same manner as.above. Pumping or bailing
out of water and removal of slush shall be included in the item. Timbering of the sides of trenches if
required shall be taken under a separate item and paid separately.... .
" ,,-., ..
. Note"",:", Excavation in different kinds ofsoil mixed with mooramor kamkaror shingle, soft rock or' .:
decomposedrock or shale hardrock, etc; shall be taken underseparate items. The excavation shall be .
dOD,! on the same principle as above item 1. . .
2. Llmeeonerete in foundation-s- .' .
MateriiI1s...;.....All materials shali be as per standard specifications. Coarse aggregate shall be of hard,
well-burnt or overbumt brick ballast of40 mm gauge. It shall oe deep cherry red or copper colour, and i.,
shall be clean, free from dust, dirt, and other foreign matters. Itshall be homogeneous in texture and
roughly cubical in shape: Ballast which appears porous or shows signs of saltpetre shall not be used.'
Brick ballast shall pass through square mesh of 52.5 mm and not more than.20 per cent shail pass
through a mesh of 25 mm. Any rejected material shall be removed from site of work within 24 hours.
Fine aggregate shall be ofsurkhi or sand orcinder as specified, and clean and free from dust. dirt.
and foreign matters. Surkhi shall be made of well burnt bricks or brick bats (not overburnt) and shall
pass through a sieve of 2.5 meshes per sq cm. (144 meshes per sq in). Surkhi is preferable for better
concrete.
Lime shall be white fat lime (unless otherwise specified) and shall be freshly burnt and free from
ashes and other foreign matters. Lime shall be slacked at site ofwork and screened through a sieve or 3
meshes to a cm (8 meshes to an inch).
. Proportion-s-The concrete shall consist of I cu m of brick ballast, 0.32 cu In of surk hi (sand or
Cinder) and 0.16 cu m of white lime ii, .ue proportion of 100 : 32 : .16 by volume.
.:'

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-567 SPECIFICATIONS
Mixing-Mixing shall be done on a clean watertight, masonry platform of sufficient size. Brick
ballast shall be stacked in a rectangular layer of uniformthickness usually30em(l2") mgh and weD
soaked with clean water for a period of at least three hours.
. . ... .... . orsino or Cifider)snalf5e measuredWith-wooden-box-in-the-propornen-l+2-and-..,
mixedthoroughly dry to haveuniformcolour. Thedry mixof limeand surkhi (or sand or cinder)shall
be spread over the stacked ballast to the required thickness to give the specified proportion. The
materials shall then be mixed dry turning at least three times. Clean water shall then beaddedslowly
and gradually by water-canto the required quantity while mixingand the materials mixedthoroughly
byturning at least three timesso that wholesurfaceofeach ballastgetscoated withmortar and the mix:
becomesplastic of uniformcolour of workableconsistency and should besuch that the ballast do not
separate from the mortar. Concreteshall bemixedonlyfor day's work, old andstaleconcreteshall not
be used. For bigwork the mixingshall bedone bymachine. Inthiscaseaggregate and wet mortar shall
be poured in the drum, whileit is revolving. The water shall beadded slowly to the requiredquantity
and the mixing shall becontinued for at least one minute, till a mix of uniformcolour and workable
consistency is obtained and should be such that the ballast do not.separate from the mortar.
I Laying and compacting-Bed' of foundation trench shall be lightlysprinkledwith water before
concreteis laid. Concreteshall be laid slowly and gently(not thrown) in layers of not morethan 20em
(8") and thoroughly consolidatedto 15em(6/1) with6 kg(12 lbs) iron ranuners. During consolidation
should be kept freefromearth, dirt, leaves and other foreignmatters. The consolidationshall
checked by water test, by digginga hole of about 7.5emdia. and 7.5emdeep in the concrete and
filling water. The water level should not sink. more.than 1.25 em in 15minutes if concrete has been
well-eonsolidated.
fointand consecutive Jayers-Whenjoint in a layer of concreteare unavoidable, the end shall be
sloped at an angle. of :JOe-and junctions of different layersshall breakjoint. In laying upper layer of
concrete, the lower.surfaceshall be made rough and and watered beforeupper layeris laid. ,..
Ciiring-Concrete after completionshallbe kept wetfor a period of at least7'daYs and no masonry
shall be constructed upon it during this period. The curing shall bedone byspreading gunny bags or
sand or keepingthem wet by water-canat regular interval. '." ..,. .
shall be takenin eu m(cuft) forthe firikhc<l concrete, The length
. and breadth shall be measuredcorrect to 1emand depth correct to'O.5 cm?The"rateshall be" for the
complete work includingthe cost-ofform work if required, and" aU tools.and plants.
, . Note-s- Ifkenksr lime is used n.35 cu m ofkankar lime shall be used with 1cu m ballast (35'cu m
ksnksr lime with "100 cu m ba1Iast)l;U1d no surthi or sandorcintki- Sb81J bi84ded. '. "
When brick ballast is net evsllsblc, in hill sress, stone, Nll.. 4Qmm(1 gauge. sandend white
lime may be used in the same proportion as above. .' .' .. - .... '.' ...'" ...... ; ....
568
I
ESTiMATING AND COSTING
Lime shall be white fat lime and. shall be freshly burnt and free from ashes and other foreign
matters. Lime shall be slaked at site ofwork and screened through a sieve of 3 meshes to a ern (8 meshes
to an inch).
m"o{surkhi and O:rS cu m whIte
lime (proportion 1.00 : 36 : 18 by volume).
Mixing-Mixing shall be similar to lime concrete in foundation (item 2).
",: :.
Laying und consolidation-Surface shall be lightly sprinkled with water and then concrete shall be
laid slowly and gently (not thrown) in layers'so as to have the required slope and specified thickness a.t:
ter
compaction. The concrete shall then be lightly rammed with 6 kg (12 lbs) rammers and during
preliminary ramming the surface shall then be perfectly levelled by means of trowel, straight edge and
spirit level. The concrete shall then be kept further consolidated by two rows of labourers sitting close
and beating the concrete with wooden 'thapis' and moving forward and backward covering the
surface. The beating shall continue for at least seven days until the concrete is thoroughly compacted
and until the 'thapis' rebound from the surface when struck on the concrete. Special care shall be taken
to consolidate the concrete properly at the junction with the parapet wall and the junctions shall be
rounded. .
When beating is in progress, the surface of the concrete shall be frequently sprinkled with a mixture
of lime molasses and boiled solution of 'bael' fruit for water proofing. Bael fruit solution shall be
by boiling 2 kg of fruit in IO?to of and to this solution after cooling 3'1 kg
of molasses (gur) and the requiredquantity of lime shall be mixed. .' !
Finishing-As soon as beating has been completed the mortar that has come to top shall be
softened by the addition of lime, 'molasses' and 'bael fruit' solution and smoothened by rubbing and
pressing with atrowel or float to a fine polish. Noplaster shall be usedon any account for finishing the
surface. The finished surface shall have a minimum slope of I in 50 and maximum slope of I in 36
towards the rainwater outlet. For every 40 sq m of roof area, 100 Ill;IIldiameter rainwater pipe-shall be
provided.. . . ......>, .. , .. .' , .' . .
.Cuting-The concrete shall be-kept wet for a fortnight. The wetting should be done by covering
with straw or sand arid watering frequently by water-can or dividing into squares by mud kiaries which
shall be kept flooded with water.
,
Measurement-The measurement shall be taken for the finished work of superficial area in sq m
(sq ft) stating the average thickness. The average thickness shall be measured correct to 6 mm and length
and breadth shall be measured correct to 1em, No deduction in measurement shall be made for opening
up to 0.4 sq m and extra payment shall not be made for extra material or labour involved in forming
openiag, Fcropenlngcxccediag ill deductions will-he made in the measurement but extra
payment shall not be made for material and labour involved in forming such opening. Rate shall be for
Ie
the finished work including au tools and plant. f '
\..
Instead ofBsel fruit the solution of Terminalia Cbebuls (ksduksi) may be used, as used in South
",
India. Drynuts ofkadukaishall be broken to smallpieces, andallowed to soakin water. The solution be
prepared to have aproportion of600g ofkeduksi, 200g ofmolasses and40litres ofwater for 100sq m
areaofroofconcrete. Thesolution is brewed for 12to 24hours, and the resultingliquoris decanted and
used for the work.
Note-(i) U kankar lime is used, 0.45 cu m ofkankar lime shaJ/ be mixed with 1 cu m brick
ballast (proportion 45 :' 1(0).
(ii) Ifstone ballast is used theproportion shaJ/ be 1cu m ofstone ballast of25 mm gauge,
0.5 Ci.J m ofsand and 0.25 cu m of white lime (proportion 1 : 2 : 4).
. ,.... \ ..

569

,
\ ...
,-'
r'
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........ ",
, ,
.....
',-,'
SPECIFICATIONS'
(iii) The finished thicknessoflime concretein roofterracingmay be 7.5 czn to /2 cm
(3" to 4M'').
. Jiyl may be taken insq m under il separate item..
. . ----- -----------. -- ------------------
4. Cement concrete 1: 1 ': 4- --- --
Materials-Aggregate shall be of invert materials and should be clean, dense, hard, sound,
durable, non-absorbent and capable of developing good bond with mortar.
Coarse aggregate shall be of hard broken stone of granite or similar stone, free from dust, dirt
and other foreign matters. The stone ballast shall be of20 mm (%") size and down and all should be
retained in a 5 mm square mesh square) and well graded such that the voids do not exceed 4:'.
per cent. (The gauge of the stone ballast shall be as specified depending on the thickness of concrete i
and nature of work. For building work 20 mm gauge and for road work and mass work 40.1060 mm
gauge may be used, . .
Fine aggregate shall be of coarse sand consisting of hard, sharp and angular grains and shall
pass through screen of 5 mm (3/16") square mesh. Sand shallbe of standard specifications clean
and free from dust, dirt, and organic matters. Sea sand shall not be used. (Fine aggregate may also
be of crushed stone if specified). . .
Cement shall be fresh portland cement of standard I.S.1. specifications, and shall have the
required tensile and compressive stresses and fineness.
Water shall be clean and free from alkaline and acid matters and suitable for drinking
. .' . . ......
purposes.
Proportion--Tee pr.oportion of concrete shall be 1 : 2 : 4 as cement: : stone: ballast by
volume unless otherwise specified. Minimum compressive strength; 'ofconcrete 'of ,I : 2 : 4
proportion shall be 140 kgper cm (2000 lbsj sq in) on 7 days.": .::". .
Stone aggregate and sand' shall be measured by volume with- boxes.-Cement need not be .
measured by box, one 'bag of cement (50'kg) should be considered as 1J30 cum (1 cu ft). Size of - ....
measuredbox may be 30 emx 30em x 38 cm or 35cm x 35em x 28 cmequivalent.toconrent of one
bag of cement. All materials shall be dry. If damp sand is used compensation shall be made by
adding additional sand to the extent required for the bulking of damp'sarid, shall be of
machine mixing. For small work hand mixing by' batches may be' allowed.' :',' :-,
. Hand shall be done in masonry platform 'Or For concrete of
1 : 2 : 4 proportion, first two boxes of sand and one bag of cement sn3Il be'mixed dry thorougaly
and then this dry mix of cement and sand-shall be placed over a stack of4 boxes of stone aggregate
and the whole mixed dry turning atlcasr three times ts m,i?c:'Water shall then be
added slowly and gradually with a water-can while being mixed to the required quantity 25to 30
litres (S to 6 gallons) per bag of cement. to give a plastic mix.of the required workabilityand water
cement ratio. The whole shall be mixed thoroughly turning atleast three times to give a uniform
concrete.:
'. Machine mixing-Stone ballast sand and cement shall be put into the cement concrete mixer
to have the required proportion. For concrete of I : 2: 4 proportionfirst four ofstone
. then two boxes of sand and then one bag of cement shall be put into the C.C. t.he
shall then be revolved to mix materials dry and then water shall be added g.radually to the
2S to 30 litres (5 to 6 gallons) per bag of cement to have.the reqUired.water ratio:
The mixing should be thorough to have a plastic mix of uniform colour. It requires 1 to 2 mmutes
rotation for. thorough mixing. Mixed concrete shall be unloaded .on a masonry platform or on a
sheet iron.OutpcJt ofconcrete mixer is 15to 20 mix per hour. . v
ESTIMATING' AND COSTING ... L

Slump-':"Regular slump test should be carried out to control the addition of water and to
maintain the required consistency. A slump of 7.5 ern to 10 em (3" to 4") may be allowed for
building work, and 4 cm to 3 em (l W' to 2") may be allowed for road work, _
............ _._. -- _- "-_.--" .._-' _.. ----_._.. _ " , _.-----.:..-:---_._ _.__ .._-_.._-------------- __ -----
Formwork-Formwork centering and shuttering shall be provided as required, as per
standard specifications before laying concrete to confine to support or to the in
position. The inner surface of shuttering shaH be oiled to prevent concrete sticking to It. The
and forrnwork over which concrete to be laid shallbe watered by sprinkling water before concrete IS
laid. Forms should not be removed before 14days in general, side forms may however be removed
after 3 days of concreting. Forrnworks shall be removed slowly and carefully without dlsturbing
and damaging concrete.
. Laying-Concrete shall be laid gently (not thrown) in layers not exceeding 15 ern (6") and
compacted by pinning with rods and tamping with wooden tampers or with mechanical vibrating
machine until a dense concrete is obtained. (For important work mechanical vibrating should be
used, for thick or mass concrete immersion type vibrators and for thin concrete surface vibrators
should beused for compacting concrete). Over-vibration which will separate coarse aggregate from
concrete should be avoided. After removal of the form-work in due time the concrete surface shall
be free from honey combing, air holes or any other defect.
Concrete shall be laid continuously, iflay.ing is suspended for rest odor the following day fhe
end shall be sloped at an angle of 30 and made rough for further jointing. When the work is
resumed, the previous sloped portion shall be roughened, cleaned and watered and a grout of -neat
cement shall be applied and the fresh concrete shall be laid. For successive layer the"upper layer
shall be laid before the lower has set.
Curing-After about two hours' laying when concrete has begun to harden, it shall be kept
damp by covering with wet gunny bags or wet sand for 24 hours, and then cured by flooding with
water making mud walls 7.5 em (3") high or by covering with wet sand or earth and kept damp
continuously for 15 days. If specified, curing may be done by covering concrete with special type of
waterproof paper as to prevent water escaping or evaporating.
Note-(i) For weak concrete 1: 3: 6, I : 4: 8, I : 5: lO,etc., stack measurement and hand
mixing in a pucce platform may be sllowed as in lime concrete (item 2). For
foundation concrete or weak concrete brick ballast or cheap type stone bsllest of
40 mm (1M'') sJzemaybe used. . .
(ii) Approximate quentity ot wster required for cement may be taken 30%by weight
of ceinent plus 5% by weight of total aggregate. For concrete' compec.cd lJ) ...
mechanical vibrators the quantity of water shalJ be reduced by 20%.
5. Reinforced cement concrete
Steel-Steel reinforcing 'oars shall be of mild steel or deformed steel of stand ard specifications
and shall be free from corrosion, loose rust scales, oil, grease, paint, etc. The steel bar shall be round
and capable of being bent (doubled over) without fracture. Bars shall be hooked and bent
accurately and placed in position as per design and drawing and bound tight with 20
S. W.G. annealed steel wire at their point ofintersection. Bars shall be bent cold by applying gradual
and even motion, bars of 40 rom (1W') diameter and abovemay be bent by heating to dull red and
allowed to cool slowly without immersing in water or quenching. Joints in the bar should be
avoided as far as possible, when joints have to be made an overlap of 40 times diameter of the bar
shall be given with proper hooks at ends and joints should be staggered. Biggerdiameter bars :
should-be joined by weld ing and tested before placing in position. While concreting steel bars shall
571
SPECIFICATIONS
be given side and bottom covers of concrete by placing precast cover blocks underneath of 1 : 2
cement mortar 2.5 ern x 2.5 em (I" x l ") in section and thickness of specified cover, 4 ern to 5 ern
I
(I 2") to __ compacting.of__ .
-"1
concrete the reinforcing bars should not move from their positions and bars of the laid portions
should not be disturbed.
-I
J
Centering and shuttering-Centering and shuttering shall be made with timber or steel plate
I
close and tight to prevent leakage or mortar, with necessary props, bracingsand wedges, suffi
ciently strong and stable and should not yield on laying concrete and made in such a way that they
can be slackened and removed gradually without disturbing the concrete. No plastering should be'
made on the concrete surface. A coat of oil washing should be applied over the shuttering or paper
should be spread to have a smooth and finished surface and to prevent adherence of concrete. For
slab and beam small camber should be given in centering, 1 ern per 2.5 m (Y2" per 10 ft) with a
maximum of 4 ern (l W'). Centering and shuttering should not be removed before 14 days in general
(4 days for R.C.C. columns, 10 days for roof slab, and 14days for beams). The centering and
shuttering shall be removed slowly and carefully so that no pari is disturbed or damaged. (For
I
details of centering and shuttering see item 29). .
I
Proportion ofcement concrete shall be of I : 2; 4 proportion by volume for
I: slabs, beams and lintels, and 1 : 1Y2 : 3 porportion for columns unless otherwise specified.
I
,
1
1,11
(
Materials for sand and coarse aggregate shall be same as for cement
1
,
concrete in item 4. the stone aggregate shall-usually be 20 mm to 6 mm (W' to W') gauge unless
otherwise specified. For heavily reinforced concrete members as in the case of ribs of main beams
. the maximum size of aggregate shouldusually be restricted to 5 mm less than the minimum clear
f
distance between the. main bars or 5' mm less than the minimum cover to the reinforcement
,- "
I
which-ever is .smaller.: Where the reinforcement is widely spaced, limitations of the size of the
':--{ aggregate may "not be,so important.
:>.'.
Mixing-Same as for cement concrete in item 4,
::J

._ Laying-Before laying the concrete, the shutteringshall be clean, free from dust, dirt and other
,.
I
foreign .matters. The concrete shall be deposited (not dropped) in its final position. In case of ..'.
columns and walls it is desirable to place concrete in full height if practical so as to avoid'
Ll
) construction joints but the progress of concreting in the vertical direction shall be restricted to one
1
, .., metre per hour. Care should be taken that the time between mixing and placingof concrete shall not
exceed 20 minutes so that the initial setting process.is not interfered with. During winters concreting
"f

shall not be done if the temperature falls below 4C. Concrete shall-be protected by frost and
,.--_! concrete affected by frost shall be removed and work redone.' ' "
I
,.
)
shall be compacted by mechanical vibrating machine' until a'dense 'concrete is
/
, /
obtained. The virbation shall continue duringthe entire period of placing concrete. Compaction
I
shall be completed before the initial setting starts, i.e., within 30 minutes of addition of water t? the
I
dry mixture. Over-vibration.which will separate coarse aggregate from concrete shall he
After removal of the form work in due time the concrete surface shall befree from honey comb 109,
I '
)
air holes or any other defect.
'I
,
Concrete shall be laid continuously, if laying is suspended for rest or the following day, the end
shall be sloped at an angle of 30 and made rough for future jointing. When the work IS resumed,
the 'previous sloped position shall be roughened, cleaned and watered and a,coat of neat
-i
be applied and the fresh concrete shall. be laid. For successive layer the upper layer shall be laid
before the lower layer has set.
1
I' , "
. Structures exceeding 45 metres in 'length shall be divided one more J01l11S.
'. Structures in which plan dimension changes abruptly shall be provided With expansron jomts at the
- ./
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I
-.;"
572
A:I
.
section where such changes occur. not across expansion joint at the
break between the sections shall be complete. i : . ! ,
. ' I
as--Cor cement cpiicrelein .. -... --------------------.-,-.------.. ----.--
Finishing-If specified the expcised shall be plastered with I : 3 cement sand mortar not
exceeding 6 mm (\4.") thickness and the plastering shall be applied immediately after removal of the
:;
centering while the concrete isgreen: Immediately before applying the plaster the SUrface of concrete
shall be wetted and neat cement wash shall be given.
Mea,surement-Measurement shall be taken in cu m (cu ft) for the finished work and no
deduction shall be made for the volume of steel. Steel reinforcement shall be measured under a
separate itemin' quintal (cwt). Plastering, if any, shall not be included in the measurement The rate
for R.C.C. work shall be for the complete work excluding steel but including centering and
shuttering and all tools and plants.
N:
!
r.
Note-Student should repeat the specifications of materials, mixing, laying and curing in >."
short as described under cement concrete in item 4.
6; Damp proof course 2.5 cm (I") c.c, 1 : llf2 : 3
Materials-Damp proof course shall consist of cement, coarse sand and stone aggregate of 1.:
1 : 3 proportion with 2% of impermo or cern-seal, or Acco proof by weight of cement or other
standard water proofing compound (l kg per bag of cement). .The damp proof course shall be
applied at the plinth level in a horizontal layer of 2.5 em thickness. The cement shall be fresh
portland cement of standard specifications. The sand shall be clean, coarse of mm size and down,
and the stone aggregate shall be hard and tough of 20 mm size well graded and free from dust. and
dirt. (Composeal, pudlo, cico and other standard water proofing compound may be used, and the
quantity shall be used as per instruction of the manufacturers.)
'Mixing-Mixing shall be done in a masonry platform or in a sheet iron tray in the proportion
of 1 : 1 : 3 by measuring with measuring boxes. The cement is first mixed thoroughly with the
water proofing compound to the required quantity, and then mixed dry with the sand in the
porportion of 1 : mix: of cement and sand shall then be mixed dry with stone aggregate to
have the proportion 1 : 1 : 3. Clean water shall then be added slowly and graduallywhile being
mixed, to the required quantity to give a plastic mix of the required workable consistejcy. The
mixing shall be done by turning at least three times to give a uniform and homogeneous concrete.
Laying-fhe'level of the surface of cheplinth shall be checked longitudinally and transversely..
The top of walls at damp proof course should belaid with frogs of the brick downward. Side forms
or shuttering of strong wooden batten of2.5 ern thickness shall be fixed properly and firmly on both
sides to confine the concrete so that the shuttering does not.get disturbed during compaction and
mortar does not leak through. The inner edges of the shuttering shall be oiled to prevent concrete
adhering to it. The surface of the wall shall be cleaned and the masonry shall be wetted by watering
before concrete is laid. The concrete shall be laid within half an hour of mixing and compacted
thoroughly by tamping to make dense concrete and levelled.both longitudinally and transversely.
After two hours of laying the surface of concrete shall be made rough and chequeredso as to form a
key with the wall above. The damp proof course shall be laid in continuation in one day without any
joints. Joints or breaks ifunavoidable shall be given at the sills of doors or openings. Ifjoints cannot
be avoided the joint shall be sloped and the sloped surface shall be applied with neat cement wash
-- just before starting concreting on the following day. Shuttering may be removed after three days.
.On removal of the shuttering the edges should become srnootn without any honey combing.
-r

573
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..... ;
i
-t
SPEC! FICATIONS
Curing-The 'damp proof course shall be cured by watering and kept wet for 7 days, and the
construction of wall above may be started. The surface shall be cleaned and wetted before masonry
is started. . . .
I Painting with Two of asphalt painting may applied on the upper surface of
" proof course, ifspecified. The first coat of hot asphalt at 1.5 kg persq m (15%kg %sq ft) shall
be applied uniformly on the surface when the concrete is dry and the painted surface is blinded
immediately with coarse sand and the surface is tamped lightly. The second coat of hot asphalt at I
kg per sq m ( 10kg %sq It) should then be applied uniformly and the surface is immediately blinded
with coarse sand and tamped lightly.
2 em Damp proof course.-The damp proof course may be of 2 em (:X''') thick layer of I : 2
cement and coarse sand mortar with standard water proofing compound at the rate of I kg per bag
of cement. The mixing, laying, curing, etc., shall be done in the same manner as above. The form or
shuttering shall be 2 em thick.
7. Brickwork I class
Bricks-All bricks shall be of first class of standard specifications made of good brick earth
thoroughly burnt, and shall be of deep cherry red or cO,pper colour. Bricks shall be regular in shape
and their edges should be sharp and shall emit clear ringing sound on being struck and s hall be free
from cracks, chips, flaws and lumps of any kind. Bricks shall not absorb water more than one-sixth
of 'their weight after one hour of soaking by immersing in water. Bricks shall have a minimum
crushing strength of 105 kg per sq em (1500 lbs per sq in). .
Mortar-Mortar shall be specified and materials of mortar shall be of standard specifications.
For cement mortar cement shall be fresh portland cement of standard.specifications. Sand
shall be sharp, clean and free from organic and foreign matters. For rich mortar coarse or medium
sand should be used and fOT weak mortar local fine sand may be used. Proportion of cement sand
mortar may be of (I : 3 to I : 6,as specified). Materials of mortar shallbe measured to have the
required proportion with measuring box and first mixed dry to have' a uniform colour in a clean
masonry platform and then mixed by adding clean water slowly and gradually tohave workable
consistency and mixed thoroughly by turning at least three times. Fresh mixed mortar shall be
used, old and stale mortar shall not be used and mortar'for one hour's work only shall be mixed
with water so thatthe mortar may be used beforesetting starts.
Lime surkhi (or sand or cinder) mortar specified shall be mixed in the specified proportion
by grinding in mortar mill for at least three hours on the same day of use. Lime shall be fresh and
. slaked.and screenedat sise ofwork..-Freshroixed mortar within 24 hours shall be used, old and stale
mortar should not be used. For small work hand mixing may be allowed in the same manner as for
.cement mortar described above. (Proportion of lime surkhi (or sand or cinder) mortar may be I: 2
to I : 3 as specified.] .
. ,.....
Soaking of brick-Bricks shall be fully soaked in-clean wate.r by a for a
period of 12 hours immediately before use. Soaking shall be continued till air bubbhng IS ceased.
Laying-Bricks shall be well bonded and laid in English bond ?t?erwise
Every course shall be truly horizontal and wall shall be truly in plumb. Vertical joints of consecutive
course shall not come directly over one ariother, vertical joints in alternate course shall come
directly over one another. No damaged o"r broken bricks shall be used, Closers shall be of clean cut
bricks and shall be placed ncar the ends of walls but not at the other best
bricks shall be used for face work. Mortar joints shall not exceed 6 mm ) in and joints
shall be fully filled with mortar. Bricks shall belaid with frogsupwardexcept 'In the top course
574
. . ,
ES1l'IMATING I\NO COSlllNG
, " t.
where frogs shall be placed downward. Brickworkshall be carried out.not more than I m (j ft)
height at a time. When one part of the wall has to be delayed, 'stepping shall ::::: lzft at an angle of
..__ __.c_o.. where made should not be more than Y4 brick projections in one
course. All joints should-be rakedand-facesof\fan-"cleanea
Curing-The brickwork shall be kept wet for a period of at least 10days after laying. At the
end of day's workthe tops of walls shallbe flooded with water by making small weak mortar edging
to contain at least 2.5 ern (1") deep water.
Protection-The brickwork shall be protected from the effect of sun, rain, frost, etc., during
the constructions and uptil such time iris green and likely to be damaged.
Scaffolding-Necessary and suitable scaffolding shall be provided to facilitate the
construction of brick wall. Scaffolding shall be sound and strong and supports and members
sufficiently strong so as to withstand all loads likely to corne upon them.
Measurement-Brickwork shall be measured in cu m (cu ft). Different kinds of brickwork
with different mortar shall be taken under separate items. The thickness of wall shall be taken as
multiple of half brick as half brick 1O.cm, 1brick 20em, I brick 30 cm and so on. The rate shall be
for the complete work including scaffolding and all tools and plants.
Brickworkin arch-In addition-to the above type of arch-rough arch or axed or gauged arch
as the case may be, and the centering of the arch should be specified.
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8: Brickwork II class and III class-
For II-class brickwork bricks shall be of second class and mortar shall be as specified, may be
kankar lime or white lime and surkhi (or sand or cinder) of 1: 2 to 1: 3 proportion. Mortar joints
shall not exceed 10 mm (% It) in thickness. Bricks shall be soaked in water for at least three hours
immediately before use. Other detailsare same as for item 7 above..
For III-class brickwork bricks shall be III class if otherwise not specified. Mortar shall be as
specified and mortar joints shall not exceed 12min (%") in thickness. Bricks shall be dipped into a
tub of water before lise. . .
9. Brickwork in mud mortar-'
Bricks shall be specified, may be of II class or III class. The mud should be made of selected
earth of tenacious nature so that .it sticks binds bricks. The earth should be soaked in water at
least one day before and then worked up with waterby labourer treading it, until it is perfectlytree .
from lumps and forms a thick plastic mix. Joints should notexceed 12 mm thickness. Soaking'
of bricks is not required. The bond of brickwork shall be of English bond. Not more than60 ern (2')
height of brickwork shall be carried out at a time, and the walls must be truly in plumb and every
course shall be truly horizontal. Other details of laying, protection, scaffolding and measurement
will be similar to item 7 above. ." .
10. Reinforced brickwork (R.B. work)
Material-Bricks shall be strictly of first class quality and selected first class bricks shall be
- used. Mortar shall consist of cement and coarse sand of l : 3 proportion. Cement shall be fresh
portland cement. Sand shall be coarse of 5 mrn (3/ 16") size and down and sharp, clean and free
from foreign matters. Steel reinforcement shall be of standard specification as described in item 5,
page 570. .'
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575 SPECIFICATIONS
..
Centering and shuttering.-:rhe centering and shuttering shall be made with planking or
r ,
sheeting of bamboos packed together at the required level supported on runners of beams and
, u, layer of about 2.5 em thick off with a light sprinkle ofsand. The
centering shall be simple in construction so that it could be easily removed without disturbing fhe--'
structure. The planking shall be kept clear of the bearirigs for stab ann will rest on crossbeams only.
Planks shall not be laid too close as to tender them liable to jam. Cross beams shall be carried on the
wklls supported at intervals by ballies or temporary dry brick pillars. The top surface of centering
sHall be given a camber of2 mm for every 30 ern of span up to amaximum of3 mm for slabs and 1.5
mm for every 30 ern of span to maximum of 4 ern for lintels. .
Mixing ofmortar-Mortar of cement and sand shall be mixed thoroughly in the proportion of
I : 3, first by mixing dry and then adding water slowly and gradually and mixing by turning at least
three times to get uniform plastic mix of workable consistency, so that the mortar may be packed
round the reinforcement. Quantity of water shall not exceed 25 litres (6.5 gls) per bag of cement.
Mortar shall be mixed just before it is actually required and shall be used within 30 minutes. Stale
mortar shall never be used.
Laying-All bricks shall be thoroughly soaked with water for not less than' six hours
immediately before use. Bricks shall be laid with frogs downward over the centering in straight line
parallel to the direction of the reinforcement bars leaving the required gap for mortar joint. No
, vertical joint should come along the inner edge of the wall. The gap for mortar joint in which
\
reinforcement has to be placed shall not be less than four times the diameter of bar.so as to provide
'.
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a cover of 12 mm (Y2") on all sides of the steel bars. Usually mortar joint shall be 32 mm to 40 mm
(1 Y4" .{;o 111"). Other joints where there will not be any bar, may be 6 mm to 10 mm (Y4" to 3/ 8")
thick. Reinforced brick slab shall have 'a bearing equal to their thickness with a minimum of 12 em.:
After the bricks have been laid and arranged over the whole area fresh mixed mortarshall be
placed into the gaps in between the bricks to a thickness of2.5 mm (1Ii). Reinforcing rods previously
cut to the correct length and bent and hooked as per design shall beplaced exactly at the centre of
the joint and pressed down into the mortar to leave 12 mm (Y2") clear mortar below the bar. The
joints shall then be filled in completely with fresh mortar. Newly laid portion shall not be disturbed
\ ...,...
I or walked over. Each slab shall be laid in one operation. Care shall be taken thatthe reinforcement
/' ..........
at all points is completely surrounded on all sides by mortar.
.......-.
i
Centering and shuttering shall be removed slowly and carefully 'without anyshock not earlier
r'
10 . After removal of the.centering if the work. is found defective and rods are exposed and
visible to sufficient extent the work shall be dismantled and reconstructed. In such a case no extra
payment shall be made for reconstruction. If rods are exposed at few places orily, they should be
covered with rich cement mortar of I : 2 proportion by pressing the mortarInto the gap
immediately after removal of the centering while the laid work is green, ',.
For double layers the upper layer shall be laidwith joints of 10 mm (3/8") thickness with I ; 3
cement and coarse sand mortar immediately after laying the bottom layer. If there are top bars
provided in the upper layer. the joints shall be thicker for bottom layer..
r
2.5 cm to 4 ern (J" to 1'12") thick cement concrete of I : 2 :'4 proportion may be provided over
the one layer of R.B, work if specified to have greater compressive strength.
......
. . Cuting- Same ':IS for item No, 4. page 57n.
McaslJrcmCf1{ -Sarnc as for item No.5. page 572.
',._
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
576
Finishing-Plastering of the underside and sides shall be done immediately of
the centering with fresh cement and coarse sand mortar of 1: 3 to a thickness
of 12 mm (Y2"). Before plastering the shall be soaked With. wate.r and Immediately before
"phIstering ts 'applied' the'surface'shallbe-glvena' washofneat-cementwlth-water. -
11. Plastering cement mortar or lime mortar-
Thejoints of the brickwork shall be raked out to a depth of 18 mm (W') and the surface of the
wall shall be washed and 'kept wet for two days before plastering.
The materials of mortar cement and sand or lime and surkhi or sand, or kankar lime, as
specified should be of standard specifications. The materials or mortar shall be first dry mixed, by
measuring with boxes to have the required proportion (as specified), and then water added slowly
and gradually and mixed thoroughly.
The thickness of plastering shall be as specified usually 12 mm (W') applied in two or three
coats. To ensure uniform thickness of plaster, patches of 15ern x 15cmIo") strips I rri (3') apart or
10 ern (4") wide plaster shall be applied first at about 2 m (6') apart to act as a guide. First mortar
shall be dashed and pressed over the surface and then brought to a true smooth and uniform su rface
by means of float and trowel. External plastering shall be started from top and worked down
towards floor. Internal plastering shall be started wherever the building frame is ready andcentering
of the roof slabs have been removed. Ceiling plastering shall be completed before starting of wall
plaster. All corners and edges shall be rounded. The plastered surface shall be kept wet for 10 days.
The surface should be protected from rain, sun, frost, etc.
_.."
For ideal work, the plastering should be applied in three coats-the rendering or first coat of
10 mm, the floating or second coat of 10 mm to 6 mm and finishing coat of 5 to 6 mm, having a total
minimum thickness of 20 mm (*"). The first coat shall be applied on the prepared raked cleaned
and wetted surface by dashing the mortar and floated roughly with wooden float. It shall be kept
damp for at least two days. When the first coat has sufficiently set, the surface shall be wetted and a
second coat of plaster shall be applied and brought to true even surface and then lightly roughened
with a wooden float to provide bond for the finished coat. The second coat shall be' kept damp for at
least two days and then allowed to dry. The. finishing coat shall then be applied on the wetted
surface of the second coat and finished smooth to true even surface by float and trowel.
The work shall be tested frequently with a straight edge and plumb bob. At the end of the day
the plaster shall be left cut clean to line. When the next day's plastering is started the edge of the old
work shall be scrapped, cleaned and wetted with cement slurry. At the end the day the plastering
shall be closed on the body of the wall and not nearer than 15 cm to any corner.
Curing shall be started as soon as the plaster has hardened sufficiently not to be damaged when
watered. Tl.e plaster shall be kept wet for at least 10 days. Any defective plaster shall be cut in
rectangular shape and replaced. '
If specified; the final surface shall be given special finishing textures, as Scaped textures,
-Canvas textures, Cork-float finish, Wavy combed finish, Concentric arc finish, etc.. with the
required tools by engaging an expert worker in the profession.
NC'te- Different proportions of mortar which may be used for plastering
Cement sand mortar-- I : 3, I : 4, 1 : 5, I : 6; Cement, lime, sand mortar-I: I : 6; C : L : S,_
Lime surk hi or sand mortnr-i--l : I, I : 2 : Kankar lime mortar- Kankar lime alone.

.
577
1
>,,1
, I
"..;0....-.
SPECIFICATIONS
For ceiling plastering 1 : 3 cement mortar with coarse sand is generally used.
Cement, lime sand mortar is slow setting and has better workability than cement sand mortar.
'For'W'eterProo] -.-_
Measuring-For measurement, See Chapter 14, Methods of Messurement,
12. Pointing (cement or lime mortar)
The joints of the brickwork shall be raked out to a depth ono mm and the surface of the
wall washed and cleaned and kept wet for two days before pointing.
The materials of mortar cement and' sand, or lime and surkhi or sand, or kankar lime as
specified, shall be of standard specifications. The materials ofmortar shall be first dry mixed by
measuring with boxes to have the required proportion as specified (l : 2 or 1 : 3 for cement sand
mortar, I : I for lime surkhi mortaror kankar lime mortar), and then mixed by adding water slowly
and gradually and thoroughly mixed.
Mortar shall then be applied in the joints slightly in excess and pressed by a proper tool of the
required shape. Extra mortar if any is removed and surface finished. Mortar shall not spread over
the face of bricks, and the edges of bricks shall be clearly defined to give a neat appearance. After
pointing the surface shall be kept wet for seven days. .
Flush pointing-The mortar shall be pressed into the raked, cleaned and wet joints and shall
be finished on flush and level with edges of brick to give a smooth appearance. The edges shall be
neatly trimmed with a trowel and straight edge..
Ruled pointing-The mortar shall be pressed into the raked, cleaned and wet joints and a
groove of shape and size of 5 to 6 rnrn deep shall be formed running a formingtool of steel along the
centre line of the joint. The vertical joints also shall be finished in a similar wayatright angles to the
horizontal lines. The finished work shall give a neat and clean appearancewith straight edges.
Weather or Truck pointing-The mortar shall be applied on and wet]oints
and horizontal joints shall be pressed and finished with a pointing tool so joint is sloping
from top to bottom. The vertical joint shall be finished as ruled pointing." .."":. . .
. ., . . I. .
.. . ... .
. Raised or Trucked pointing-The mortar shall be applied in raked; cleaned and wet joints in
excess to form raised bands. The mortar shall be pressed and run with proper tool to form bands of
6 mm (Y4") raised and 10 mm (3/8") width or as directed. .
Measurement-For measurement. Sec Chapter 14. Method;' of
13. Lime punning- . . .
White stone lime and shell lime shall be slaked at site of work and mixed in the proportion of 3
of stone lime and one of shell lime and then thoroughly mixed with sufficient quantity of water in a
drum. The mixture shall then be screened through a COarse cloth into another container and
allowed to settle down for 7 days after which the. clear water shall be decanted and the cream like
paste of lime shall be taken from top, leavi ng residue at bottom for application to wall The
surface shall be cleaned thoroughly and wetted and the prepared lime, paste of proper consistency
be applied uniformly to 3 mm (1/8") thickness by a wooden trowel. This shall be finished by
rubbing with a steel trowel to a hard smoot hand shining white surface. After finishing, the surface
shall be kept moist for seven days. Lime punning shall be applied on smooth plastered surface when
the plaster has hardened. ..
578
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
14.2.5 em (1") cement concrete noor
. The cement concrete shall be of proportion I : 2: 4 or I : 2Y2 : 3Y2 as specified. Cement shalt be
fresh portland cement of standard specifications. The coarse shall be hard and tough
(granire stone) of 20 mrn rW'-)gauge;-wellgraded. and.free.from..dust; dlrl.-e_tc..
coarse of 5 mm (3/ 16") maximum sizeand down, well graded, clean and free from dust, dirt and
organic matters.
The floor shall be levelled and divided into panels of size not exceeding I metre in its smaller
dimensions and 2 metres in large dimensions. Glass or aluminium strips 3 mm and depth
equal to the thickness of floor shall be fixed on the base with cement mortar. Required cambet of
slope shall be given in the floor for draining wash water. . I
Mixing of concrete shall be done either by hand mixing or by mechanical mixer. In case of
hand mixing first cement and sand mixed dry thoroughly and the dry mix of cement and sand
mixed with ballast dry till stone ballast are well coated with dry mix of cement and sand and then
mixed by adding water slowly and gradually to the required quantity and mixed thoroughly to have
uniform plastic mix. The quantityof water shall not exceed 30 lit res per bag of cement. Concrete for
one panel only shall be mixed in onelot. Alternate panels shall be laid on alternate days. The floor
shall be laid in two layers. The lower layer being 22 mm thick and upper layer 3 mm thick. The base
shall be made rough and cleaned and soaked with water thoroughly and then given a cement wash
Just before laying. Concrete shallbe placed gently and evenly and compacted by beating with
wooden 'thapies' and then the surfaceshall be tamped with wooden tampers. The surface shall then
be smoothened with wooden floats and any unevenness shall be removed by adding I : 2 cement
sand mortar. Finally the surface shall be finished with wooden or steel floats by -applying a thick
slurry of mortar. The whole operation of laying shall be completed within 30 minutes. After laying
the surface shall be left undisturbed for 2 hours and then covered with wet bags and after 24 hours
cured by flooding with water and kept flooded for at least 7 days. The surface of floor may be
polished if specified. It is important that same brand of cement is used for the whole floor of one
.<
room and the proportions are maintained strictly to have a uniform colour. Junctions offloor with
wall plaster, dado and skirting shall be rounded off neatly.
Coloured floor-For coloured finish the surface shall be finished with coloured cement or with
a mixture of ordinary portland cement and coloured pigment of the desired colour in .the
proportion of 3of cement and one of colour (or4 : I or 5: I). coloured floor the thickness of the
two layers shall be 19 mm and 6 mm. For polished floor the thickness of surface cement finishing
should be 2.5 mm to allow for grinding and polishing.
Base-In ground floor the c.c. floor is to be l1tid on a 7.5 ern (3") base of lime concrete or weak
cement concrete as per standard specifications. If the bases consist of cement concrete it shall be
allowed to set for. about 7 days. In case the base is of weak cement concrete the shall
commence within 48 hours of laying the base.
In first floor or upper floor if c.c. floor is to be laid on the surface of R.C.C. slab
shall be made rough with brushes while concrete is green. Before laying the c.c. floor the surface
shall be cleaned. \vetted and a neat cement \.... ash shall be applied to get a good bond. A base of lime
concrete may abo be pr ovidcd 0\ cr t he R. C.C. slab if specified. The base shall be provided with the
slope required for the flooring.
The thickness otc.c. floor Ior office building. school building, and in upper floor should be 4
em ").
Patent stone floor-This is cement concrete floor but furnace slag of 10 mm gauge is used
instead of stone grit. In other respects, same specifications as for cement concrete floor (above) may
be followed
579
SPECIFICATIONS
15. Mosaic or terrazo Ooor-
The mosaic floor consists of two layers, the bottom layer 2 em to 2.5 em (W' to 1") cement
concrete,l :2:4 (or 1: 2Y2 : 3Yi, as specified), and the upper layer 6" mm (Y4") thick consisting of a mix
of marble chips and cement in the-porportion-of 1:l-Y2;--oneparLoLcernentand-l-Yi-parts-ofmarble_
chips. The top layer is laid on the following day. It shall be laid more than the specified thickness in '
order to get the specified thickness after cutting and finishing. Cement shall be of standard
specifications. The sand shall be coarse, well graded, clean and free from dust and dirt. The stone
grit shall be hard and tough (granite stone) of 12mrn (W') gauge well graded, clean and free from
dust and dirt. The marble chips shall be of 3 mm (1/8") gauge having maximum size 3 rnrn (l/8")
and minimum size of 1.5 mm (1/ 16"). Large size of marble chips limited to 6 mm (Y4") may be used
ih floors of big rooms. ' " ) ,
I '
Cement concrete shall be prepared by mixing the ingredients dry by measuring with boxes to
have the required proportion. First cement and sand shall be mixed dry and this dry mix shall be
mixed with stone chips dry and then mixed by adding water slowly and gradually and mixed
thoroughly to have a uniform plastic mix. The base shall be made rough and watered and given a
cement wash, and then the concrete shall be laid in 2 em Hi") thick layer in panelsof 1m x 2 m
(3'x6') bounded by 3 mm thick glass of aluminium strips. After laying, the concrete shall be
-,
compacted by beating and tamping and levelled with woodenfloats.
The marble chips and cement shall be mixed by measuring with boxes to have the required
proportion first dry mixed, and then thoroughly mixed by adding water gradually to have a
uniform plastic mix. Within two hours of laying of the bottom layer of cement concrete, the upper
layer of marble chips and cement shall be laid, and the surface tamped lightly and finished perfectly
level with edge float and trowel. After about 2 hours of laying, the surface shall be covered
with wet bags and kept wet and left undisturbed for two days. The surface' shall, then be cut or
ground by rubbing with sand stone blocks and all the cement in the surface removed, A neat cement
wash shall then be given in the' surface and left undisturbed for six days and then the surface shall be
ground (or rubbed) with corborundum stones of different grades ,one and
s]uccessively with finer ones, and the rubbing continued until the entire surface shows a
granular appearance. The surface should be kept wet during all these days. Afterfinal rubbing the
surface shall be thoroughly cleaned by washing with soap water and then with,'dean water.
. . '. .... . . .. :
Finally when the surface is absolutely dry, oxalic acid powder' shall, be ,,,ell rubbed on the
s rrface with pieces of felt and a few drops water and this operation shall:be repeated until the
surface becomes perfectly smooth and glossy. The surface may also be 'rubbed 'with wax to give a
.glazing surface. Whitecrnent or coloured cement shall be used to havethe required colour if
specified. ' " , ,- '
(Proportion (If mosaic layer may be I: 2 or I : I Y2 or I : I cement, marble chips as specifie?
mosaic layer may- also be applied on .the following day instead of the same day of 11
I specified. In that case surface should be left rough and a neat cement wash, shall be applied Just
before mosaic layer is laid.) ,
For ground floor a base of LiC. or weak c.c. and for first and upper floor roughening and
cement washing shall be provided as described under item 14. '
The grinding and polishing may also be done by grinding three. operation'S, first
grinding with machine fitted with coarse grade stone, second grinding with medium grade stone,
and final grinding with fine grade stone.
.. _" ,, _.'--
580
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
i
}':
Mosaic or terrazo tile manutactured or terrat-o are used. For
d,tails page 507. The method of and polishingare as for l1J.0salc or terratO floor
above (Item 16). '. "
16;-Brick,;ort-;;edgeor--bnck-nooring' '(3"-)-lime-concrete- -- ----- -- ------.- .-- ---- ,',-" -_.. -- ,'.-
'.' The bricks shall be first class seleJted to have smooth face.good red colour and hardness. The
mortar shall be specified (1 : 6 cemeat sand mortar, or 1 : 21Jme surkhi mortar or .kankar lir;ne
nl,ortar). All bricks shall be soaked in water in a tank,' for at least' 12 hours use. Lime concre\te
of base shall be of the same specification as for item 2. The of base lime c.oncrete shall
cambered or sloped for draining wash water as per drawing or instructions. The bricks shall be laid
with mortar as specified with 'break joints at half the length of brick, with the required bond. The
surface should be checked frequently with spirit level and wooden straight edge to have a true
surface. No damaged or broken bricks shall be used anywhere except at the edges; where properly
straight cut bricks shall be used. Mortarjoints shall not exceed 12mm (12") and all joints should be '
full of mortar. The brick work should not be disturbed but shall be kept wet for at least 10days. The
surface should be finished with pointing with cement mortar as specified.
17. White washing- '
Fresh white lime slacked at site of work should be mixed with sufficient water to make a thin
cream. The approximate quantity of water required in making the cream is 5 litres of water to 1 kg
of lime. It shall then be screened through a coarse cloth and gum (glue) in me proportion of 100
grams of gum to 16litres (three chattacks of gum to 6 gallons) of wash shall be added. The surface
should be dry and thoroughly cleanedfromdust and dirt. The wash shall be applied with 'moonj'-pr
jute brush, vertically and horizontally alternately and the wash kept stirred in the container while
using-.Two or three ooats shallbe applied as specified and each coat shall be perfectly dry before the
succeeding coat is applied over it. After finishing the surface shall be of uniform colour. The white
wash should not splash on the floor and other surfaces. In old surface the surface should be cleaned
and repaired with cement mortar wherenecessary. and allowed to dry before white wash is applied.
For final coat blue pigment powder should be m.ixed to the required quantity with the lime water to
give a-bright' white surface.
18. Colour washing- .
Colour wash shall be prepared with fresh slaked white lime mixed with water to make thin
cream adding the coloured pigmentto the required quantity to give the required tint. Gum (glue) in
the proportion of 100 gmof gumto 16litres (three chattacks ofgum to six gallons) of wash shall be
added. The colour wash may be applied one or two coats as specified. The method of application
should be same as for white washing (item 17). For new work the priming coat shall be of white
wssh, '
19. Distempering-
The distemper shall be of best quality and the colour should be as specified. The distemper
should be mixed and prepared and water added, as laid down in the instructions of the
manufacturer. First a paste is made by adding little hot water to the distemper powder and stirred
thoroughly, and the paste is allowed to stand for afew minutes. The paste is then thinned with water
to have a thin cream to the consistency of oil paint and stirred thoroughly all the time while
applying. If the surface is rough, it should be smoothened with sand paper.
The surface must be perfectly dry before distempering is commenced. In new cement plaster
the surface shall be washed over with a solution of zinc sulphate, one kg zinc sulphate in 10 lit res of
water and then allowed to dry. In old surface, the surface shall be repaired with plaster
581 SPECIFICATIONS
of paris where required and then whole surface sand papered and washed and allowed to
dry. .'.
. --- - .The.numberof.coats shall-be two-0r.asspecified. -The-distemper-shallbe-kept-well-stif'fed-in
containers and shall be applied with broad brushes first horizontally and immediatley crossed
vertically. Brushing should not be continued too long to avoid brush marks. The second coat shall
be applied after the first coat is dried up. After each day's workthe brushes shall be washed and kept
dry. Distempering should be done during dry weather but not during too hot weather, nor wet
weather.
Oil distemper-Dil distemper is similar to ordinary dry distemper in powder form. In the oil
distemper compound (dry powder) oil is mixed by the manufacturer while manufacturing. For
application of oil distemper it is mixed with the required quantity of water and then applied on the
:..: ..
surface, The methods of preparation and application are similar as described above.
I .
20. Snowcem washing-
Genera1-----'Snowcem consists of a base of white cement mixed with finely powdered colouring
pigment to have the desired colour and with the addition of small quantities of other ingredients. It
..... :
gives a water proof surface. Snowcern is sold by the manufacturer in 50 kg drums, 25 kg drums and
5 kg tin of various colours. The snowcern of the desired colour may be chosen.
Mixing-Dnly fresh snowcern should be used. Hard or set snowcem should not be used. The
. -":..'
contents should be made loose by rolling and shaking the container before opening the container.
., ,1:"
c.:
.. ....'....
First a paste shall be prepared by mixing 2 parts of snowcem powder with one part of water by
volume and immediately this should be thinned by adding another one part of water to have a
uniform solution of consistency of paints.
.
.....,d#.
".
[Mix j litre (2pin ts) ofwater with 3 kg (71bs) ofsnowcem powder toget a paste, dilute this with
..,>;:
another I litre (2 pints) of water which will give approximately 3 littes (6 pints) ofsnowcem for
-c , :f
application.] . .
: -
Application-The surface should be cleaned to remove loose dust or dirt by use of a soft wire
brush. The surface shall then be wetted by sprinkling with water and water shall be allowed to run

..\(" off. The fresh mixed snowcem shall then be applied with broad. good quality brush. The first coat
. shall be well brushed into the surface to form a good bone, Snowcem should be used within an hour
, .>'

..
of mixing and should be kept stirred during application. At the end ofthe day each application of
snowcem the surface .should bewetted with fine water spray for cUring._
After a day or two a second coat of snowcem of similar preparation should be applied on the
wetted surface and the second coat should be applied carefully to give a uniform and good finished
appearance. 'r.
The approximate covering capacity of 50 kg of snowcem for two coats on plastered surfal:c--is
100 sq m ( 1000 sq ft).
Other cement washing compound as Supercem, Aquecem, Durocem, etc., may also be used
similar to Snowcem.
21. Decorative cement colour washing (similar to snowcern)- . .. .
For decorative as wellas water repellent washing on the external surface of buildings,
cement mixed with" colour (pigment) and other ingredients may be used. The quantities
. .
, ,
,+a. _
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
582
(proportion) of the different ingredients in percentage basis as well as per bag of cement are given
below):- .
Ingredients Per bsg of
....--- -- -..--.------.. ---bywetght--- --. -cement
(I) White cement . . . 75% 50 \ kg
(2) Slaked lime (clean, screened) t 0% 6.5 kg
(3) Powdered glue 10% 6.5 kg
(4) Alum 2% 1.3 kg
(5) Alumininum Stearate Y2% 0.33 kg
(6) Plaster of Paris 2\12% 1.63 kg
To get the desired colour and shade, powdered metallic colour should be mixed with white
cement to the extent of 5% to 10% of the white cement by weight (2.5 kg to 5 kg per bag of cement).
Mixing and lime should be dissolved in water and powdered g.lue
and powdered alum should be dissolved in hot water in separate containers or drums. The
should be thin and should be screened through a piece of cloth, and prepared and kept ready 10
advance of application.
At the of application White cement, Plaster of Paris, Aluminium stearate and colour
should be mixed intimately in the above mentioned proportions and the mixture added tq the
slaked lime solution and stirred continuously. The alum and glue solutions should then be added
and stirring continued. Fresh water should then be added to bring the solution to the consistency of
a cream similar to oil paint. The final mixed solution should consist of all the ingredients .in the
proportion mentioned above. The mixing should be by batches of about Y4 bag of cement at a time
with other ingredients in the same proportion. A uniform consistency should be maintained for all
batches of mix. Only as much quantity as can be used within half an hour should be prepared and
mixed at a time:
Application of wash-Before the wash is applied, the surface should be rubbed and cleaned of
all loose dust and dirt, and washed with water and wetted. The mixed cement wash should then be
applied evenly with broad distemper brushes. Second coat should be applied after 4 hours and
during this period the surface should be kept moist.
Curing-After application of the cement the surface should be kept moist for at least two days
by frequent light sprinkling ofwater. Surface should be protected fromhot sun and drying winds by
hanging hessian cloth on the scaffolding and periodically wetting it with water.
Coveringcepecity-i-Cnie bagof white cement (50 kg) mixed with other ingredients will cover
an area of 80 sq m to tOO sq m (800 sq ft to 1000 sq ft) for two coats over plastered surface.
One expert washer (white washer) and one boy coolie can wash 30 sq m to 40 sq m (300 sq ft to
400 sq ft) per day for first coat, and 40 sq m to 50 sq m (400 sq ft to 500 sq ft). per day for second coat.
22. Painting-
The brand of the paint shall specified and ready-made paint of the required colour should be
used. If thinning is required, pure turpentine may be added to the required extent. The surface shall
be made perfectly smooth by rubbing with sand paper of different grades, first with coarse one hnd
successively with fine sand papers. All holes and open joints should be filled with strong putty or
with a mixture of glue and plaster of paris and smoothened by rubbing with sand paper. l n steel

583
, b\
I
'.'
"", '; '
i
II
r ",
-.
SPECIFICATIONS
work. all rusts and scales shall be perfectly removed by scrapping and brushing.
, The nurn ber of coats shall be as specified in new work one priming coat and then two coats of
paints shall be applied. The paint shall be applied with brushes evenly and smoothly by crossing and
,. Iayingofirithe' diieciionofgl"ai'ns.ofWooa=-wof}(and-if<n''fusn
, shall be perfectly dry before the next is applied. Before the next coat is applied, the surface shall be
rubbed with No 0 sand paper, to give a smooth and glazed surface. Tile paint should be stirred in
the container immediately before use. Brushes should be cleaned and washed with turpentine at the
end of the day's work and kept dry.' ,
If stiff paint is used it should be first prepared by mixing with double boiled linseed oil and
turpentine to a thin cream. '
For measurement ofpainting on different works, Chapter 14 on Methods of Measurement
may be.referred.
If old paint is to be removed, it may be removed by washing with soda water or with caustic
soda or blowing with blow lamp and scrapping or by using any patent remover. After removing the
paint the surface should be dried and rubbed with sand paper and smoothened before paint is
, applied. In old painted surface if paint is not required to be removed but required repainting, the
surface should be washed with soap water and then paint shall be applied.
,In steel work exposed to weather, the painting should be done either with red oxide paint or
with aluminium paint.
23. Painting steel and iron wOrk- , ,
All rust scales, dirt, suppliers delivery marks, oil, grease, etc., shan be removed-by rubbing with
sand paper before painting. Special care shall be taken for cleaning of corners. All structural steel
work shall be painted with red lead before erection except the surfaces which wilI be in contact with
concrete. Where corrosive effect is likelhood from sea atmosphere, a coat .of raw linsed oil shall be
applied on the surface immediately after cleaning and before the Ist coat of redlead is applied. Two
to three coats of approved ready-manufactured paint or ready-mixed paint shall be applied at right
angles to e!>f'!:t other after erection of the structural member. Each coat shall be.allowed to dry up
perfectly before the succeeding coat is laid over it. Painting shall be carded out during the dry
weather. . , . '
24. Varnishing- "
Knots, holes, cracks, etc., shall be filled and covered with putty.made of-whiting and linseed
oil. The wood work shall be rubbed down with sand paper sufficiently smooth to remove any grain
marks and it shall be cleaned before-hand. Two coats of boiled linseed oil ortwo thin coat of glue as
specified shall be applied and eachsuch CC3t shall be allowed to dry up andrubbeddownsmooth
, with a fine sand paper. The varnish shall be applied with brushes using strong firm strokes, of
, brushes and spread evenly. The brushes shall be of good quality and perfectly cleaned. In no. case
sand paper shall be rubbed across the grain. which may cause the finest marks on .the
surface. Specified quality ofcopal varnish shallthen be laid on the prepared surface in thin
unless any other brand is specially mentioned. For new a.second coat shall be
after the first coat of varnish has thoroughly been dried up. Varnishing shall be done dunng dry
weather and should not be allowed to be undertaken in rainy days.
25. French spirit polishlng-s- '. . . . . . ..
Polish. -Pure shellac varying from pale orange to lemon yellow colour,. free fro,? dirt,
etc., shall be dissolved in methylated spirit at the rate of0.15 kg ofshellac to I litre of spint. SUitable
pigment shall be added to get the required shade. .
" ,
);1
':/IaL_
584
EST!MATINGAND COSTING
.
, '
fi

. Preparation ofsurface......:.The Qurfaceof the timbershall be cleaned and rubbed <Sown smoo.tp
, with sand paper. Knots if visible sh)lll be covered with a preparation of lead and glue'laid on while
hot. Holes and indentations on the.surface shall be filled with putty and smoothened, The surface
, ., .. shall-then-be given. a coat ofwood.filler.made. oy.mixing whiting.Ipowdered.chalkj.in methylated
spirit at the rate of 1.5 kg of whiting per litre: of spirit. T1}e surface shall then be rubbed! down
perfectly smooth with glass paper wiped clean. , ,
Application. -A pad of woollen cloth covered by a fine cloth shall.be used toapply the polish.
The pad shall be moistened with the polish and rubbed hard on the wood; in series of overlapping
circles applying the polish sparingly but uniformly over the entire surface to give a uniform surface
and.high gloss. Number of coat shall be as specified. The second coat shall be applied, after the first
is dried, in the same way as for the first coat.
26. Wood work (carpenter's wotk)- '.
All wood work of which the scantling exceeds 20 sq ern(3 sq in) section and which is not
specially moulded or carved' comes under carpenter's work. This include all timber, work in
chaukhats of doors and windows, in roof works as beams, struts, ties, rafters purlins in timber
bridge, etc.
Timber shall be as specified.rnay be teak, shisham, sal, deodar, etc. The timber shall be ofthe
best quality well seasoned and free from saps.knots, warps, crack and other defects. The scantling
shall be sawn in the direction of the grains. All wood work shall be planed and neatly and truly
finished to the exact dimensions. Alljoints shall be neat and strong, truly and accurately fitted, and
coated with white lead before being fitted together.
All portions of timber built into or in contact of masonry or concrete shall be given two coats
of solignum or tar or other approved preservations. Exposed surfaces of timber shall be painted
with two eoats of approved paint over a coat of priming. ,
All beams shall be bedded on plates with a minimum bearing of 25 em and 6 mm clear air'
.":.,\
",
spaces shall be left on each side. No wood work shall be fixed within 60 em of any fire place or flue. :.. ."
Measurement of wood work shall be taken in cu m (cu ft) for the finished work fixed in
position including sawing, planning, joining, nails,screws, etc. Painting of wood work shall be
,"
measured under separate item. '

<"E \ .
. ",.
27. Doors and windows
.::{ ....
r" Timber shall be of the kind as specified, may be teak,shisham, sal, deodar. etc. The timber
shall be of the best quality, well seasoned and free from sap, knots, warps, cracks, and other defects.
.;.
A11 wood- work .shall be nlaned. lind neatly and truly finished to the exact dimensions. All joints
shall be neat and strong, truly and accurately fitted, and glued before being fitted together. .
Chaukhats.:--The chaukhats shall be properly framed and joined by mortise and tenon joint
with hard wooden pins, and the joints shall be coated with white lead before being fitted together.
The chaukhats shall be of section as per drawing, may be 7.5x 10ern, !Ox10em, 8x 12ern or similar
section. For double leaves the chaukhats shall be ofSx12 cm section. Concealed faces of chaukhats
shall be painted with two coats of coaltar or solignum and the other faces shall be painted with a
prime coat before fixing in position. '
Shutters or leaves (Joinery).-The shutters may be panelled, glazed, part panelled and part
glazed battened, or venetian as specified. The thickness of shutters shall to 2") 3 em to Scm
as specified. The styles, rails and panels shall be planed and neatly and truly finished to the exact
dimensions. The styles and rails shall be framed properly and accurately with morties and tenon
585
... ,
!
!
i
I
SPECIFICATIONS
I

joint and fixed with wooden pins. Panels shall be of one piece without any joint and shall be fixed
with 12 mm (liz") insertions into the rails and styles and rails provided with mouldings as per design.
The thicknessof panels s hallbe-IZmm-to 25-mm ..
in width shall have double tenon. No tenon shall exceed one-fourth of thickness of the plank. For
glazed windows sash bars shall not be less than 40 mm x 40 mm and glasses shall be fixed with nails
and putty or with wooden beadings over felt as specified. All joints shall be glued before being
fitted. (For joints see pages 519-520).
Fittings.-All doors shall be provided with handles on both sides and all windows with
handles on the inner side. One of the doors of each room shall be provided with sliding bolts on the
outer side for locking. Necessary hinges, tower bolts, hook bolts, stops for keeping the leaves open,
and also wooden blocks to prevent leaves striking the jambs of wall, etc., shall be provided. The
fittings may be of iron, brass or oxidized as specified of approved quality. Screws shall be of
suitable length and correct diameter and shall be fixed with screw driver and not by hammering.
Painting.-The surface of shutters and chaukhats shall be painted with two coats of approved
paint over a coat of priming. Faces of chaukhat in contact with masonry shall be painted with two
coats of solignum or coaltar or other preservative before fixing. A prime coat of painting with
primer paint shall be applied on the remaining surface before fixing in position.
I
Measurement.-The rate shall be for the complete work including hanging and fixing in
, ',:
position. The chaukhat shall be measured in cu m (cu ft) under wood work for the finished work,
and the length of tenons, horns, etc., shall be added to right lengths. The measurement of shutters
shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) for the finished work in closed position overlaps of two shutters shall
.... : ; not be measured. The painting shall be measured separately under a separate item in sq m (sq ft) .
The cost of fittings may be excluded if specified, and the fittings supplied 'by the department or
\. _.
owner, but the fixing of the fittings and hanging in position shall be included 'in the rate. (For
measurement refer Chapter 14-Methods of Meesurement.)
28. Glazing-
Glass shall be of the best quality and free from bubbles, scratches and other imperfections. The
" '
;-' "", I
" . thickness ofglass be 3 mm or as specified. The glass panes shall in:15 nun rebate of the
-,
wooden frame leaving 1.5 mm clear gap allround for allowing for expansions. The rebate shall be
r ':. .
painted before glasses are fixed. Putty shall be of best quality made offinelypowdered whiting and
'. /, .
linseed oil, kneaded into a stiff paste. First a thin layer of putty (back putty) shall be applied on the
...
rebate. then glass shall be fixed in position by a few small nails and then putty (front putty) shall be
r: .
applied and pressed in position and finished off neatly and in such a manner that no putty projects
beyond Liie rebate, The putty shall then he painted with a coat ofpaint.
In case of large glass panes or plate glasses, these should be fixed in the rebate-by moulded
wooden fillets allround with brass or nickle screws, inserting a strip of felt or rubber in the rebate
under the glass to act as a cushion. ThL wooden fillets shall be finished with painting.
.,.. ..' i
,
,
29. Centering and shuttering
- I
I Shuttering shall be either of hard wooden planking 30 mm (lW') thick (or of steel plates
stiffened by angle iron). The shuttering shall be supported on battens, beams, props and wedges and
properly cross braced together so as to make the form work strong and stable.to
support the wet concrete work and should not yield on working and laying concrete. Beams ror
centering shall be carried and supported on the walls with double wedges underneath and
supported at intervals with props. .
',- ..
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
586
Props shall consist of ballies or brick pillars in mud mortar. Ballie on.d?uble
wedges placed over woodensole planks of 40 moo (I W') thickness so as to facilitate tlghtemnpand
easing of the centering and sh.uttering. In case of brick pillars the wooden sole plank shall be
... i.p. 0 f
the centering and shuttering. .
Theshuttering shall be kept clear of wall bearing and made to rest on cross-beams or battens.
The shuttering shall have smooth and even surface and its joints shall be closed tight and shall not
permit leakage of cement mortar, if required the joints shall be lined with craft paper or other
approved material. Inner face of shuttering shall be applied with a wash of moulded oil or raw
linseed oil or soap solution or other approved materials to prevent adherence of the concrete.
For slabs and beams small camber shall be given in the shuttering. Camber of I em per 2.50 m
or W' per 10 ft (1 in 1250) with a maximum 4 ern OW').
Centering and shuttering shall not be removed before 14 days in general (4 days for R.C.C.
columns, 10 days for roof slab and 14 days for beams).
Centering and shuttering shall be removed slowly and carefully without any shock or vibration
by slackening and removing the wedges gradually in such a manner that no part of the concrete is
disturbed or damaged. .
Centering' and shuttering shall be measured in sq 00, and the surface area in contact with
concrete shall be measured.
30. Ashlar masonry-
The stone shall be hard, tough, round and durable of approved quarry. Stones shall be chisel
dressed on all beds (all sides) to have perfectly square or rectangular faces so that they may be laid in
perfectly horizontal and vertical joints. Minimum height of stone shall be 20 ern (8") and breadth
not less than 1Y2 times height. Stone shall be laid alternate headers and stretchers with break joint
and proper bond shall be maintained not to have any vertical joint in two consecutive layers. Each'
course shall be truly horizontal and each stone shall be laid on its natural bed. The wall shall be truly
in plumb. Nojoint shall be thicker than 3.5 moo(1/8"). If pointing is not provided as separate item,
the joints shall be struck and finished at the time of laying. Not more than 60 ern (2') height of
masonry shall be constructed at a time.
Mortar shall be as specified.richfine mortar shall be used, may be of cement mortar I : 2 to 1: 4
or lime mortar I : 1to 1: 2, materials of mortar shall be of standard specifications. Mortar shall be
first dry mixed to have the required proportion and then mixed with water by adding water slowly
and gradually and mixed thoroughly to get a uniform mortar of workable consistency. Fresh mixed
mortar shall be used. . , .'
All stones shall be thoroughly wetted before use. At the end of day's, work the masonry shall be
flooded with 2.5 em (I") water at the upper surfaces. The masonry shall bekept moist for a period of
at leat 10 days aand shall be protected from sun. rain. frost and other weather effect.
Usually, exposed faces of stones and edges of face stones fine chisel dressed and inner surfaces
of stones are rough chiseled. In such case the inner joint may be 6 mm thick.
31. Coursed rubble stone masonry-
The stone shall be hard, sound and durable of approved quarry. Stones shall be hammer
dressed on bed and top and also on sides so that the stones will come to close proximity and each
stone can be laid in course. Stone with round surface shall not be used. Each shall consist of
."
.
(,
".
.------_.. _---------
587
I
t...
II'
SPECI FlCATIONS
stone not less than 10ern (6") thick. Stone should be laid with broader face downward and vertical
joints should be broken. All courses shall be truly horizontal and all joints shall be full of mortar.
Outer faces of stones shall be squared by hammer dressing to give a good appearance, and face!' of
wall shall be truly in plumb. The face joints shall be at right angle to the face for at least to a depth of
5 em (2"). Theface stones shall be intowall.to...
sufficient depth to bond well. Corner stones or quoins should be of good stone anti dressed to
correct angle and laid header and stretcher alternately...
Mortar shall be as specified, may be cement mortar I : 3 to I : 6 or lime mortar 1 : 2 to I : 3.
Materials of mortar shall be of standard specifications. Mortar shall be first dry mixed to have the
required proportion and then mixed with water by adding water slowly and gradually and mixed
thoroughly to get a uniform mortar of workable consistency. Fresh mixed mortar shall be used.
Joints shall not be thicker than 12mm (Y2"), face joints shall be thinner. Interstices, if any.rnay be
filled with pieces of spalls of stones embedded in mortar. Not more than 60 ern (2 feet) height of
masonry shall be' constructed at a time.
Through bond stones of one piece shall be provided one for every 0.5 sq m(5 sq ft) of face and
should extend to the full thickness of walls. For walls thicker than 75 em (2W) the bond.stones may
be of two pieces placed with side overlapping of at least 15 cm (6 inches). Breadth of bond stones
shall not be less than 1Y2 times the height. . .
All stones shall be thoroughly wetted before laying. At the end ofday's workthe masonry shall
fioodedwith 2.5 cm (1") water at the upper surface. The masonry shall be kept moist for a period
of at least 10 days and shall be protected from sun, rain, frost and other weather effect.
32. Random rubble stone masonry-s-
The stone shall be hard, sound and durable of approved quarry. Stone shall be hammer
dressed to secure close joint so that the stones when laidwill come into close proximity. Stones shall
be fairly equal in size and every stone shall be fitted to the adjacent stones. No stone shall be less
than 15 em (6") in size. Stone with round surface shall not be used.
Face stone shall be comparatively larger and uniform in size and colour to give a good
appearance and breadth of face stones shall be greater than the height. Face stone should tail into
wall to a sufficient depth to bond well. Stones shall be laid with broader face downward to give a
good bedding. Facejoints shall be broken and face of wall shall be truly in plumb. Corner stones of
quions should be a good stone and -iressed to correct angle and laid as headers and stretchers.
Mortar shall be as specified, may be of cement mortar I : 3 to I : 6 or lime mortar I : 2 to I : 3.
Materials or mortar shall be ()f standard <pecifications. Mortar shall be first dry mixed to have the
required proportion and then mixed with water by adding water slowly and gradually and mixed
thoroughly to get a uniform mortar of workable consistency. Fresh mixed mortar shall be used.
Joints shall not be: thicker than 2 cm (X"), face joints shall be thinner. Interstices, if any, I?ay be
filled with pieces or spalls of stones embedded in mortar. 'Sot more than 60 em (2') height of
masonry shall be constructed at a time.
. Through bond stones of one piece shall be provided one for every 0.5 sq m (5 sq ft) of face and
should extend to the full thickness of wall. For wall thicker than 75 cm (2V:z') bond stones may be of
two pieces placed side by overlapping at least 15ern (6"). Breadth of bond stones shall not be
less than I Y2 times the height. .
f
...
588
ESTIMATING AND COS1"ING
All stones shall be thoroughly wetted before laying. At the end of day's work the,masonry
be flooded with 2.5 ern (I") water at the upper surface. The masonry shall be kept moist for a period
.ofa; least 10 days and shall be protected from sun, rain; frost and other weather effect.
. -.. "- . - ",. . ' --.. . .. -. _ - .. _ - - .. ---, "'-""-'.' ". '-".' .
33. Mud phuska terracing with tile brick paving- . . . . .
Mlid phuska terracing will be suitable in hot dry regions where the rainfall does not exceed 130
ern per annum and extremely hot temperature occurs during summer. .
Mud mortar.-Mud mortar shall be prepared from good brick-earth free from grass, root,
gravel, kankar, etc. The earth shall be reduced to a fine powdered state and mixed with 'bhusa' at 8
kg per cu m of mortar (121bs per 4 cu ft) and then mixed with sufficient water in a pit. The mix shall
be worked up with spades (phawras) and feet daily forat least 4 days so as to get a homogeneous
mass.
. ,
Laying.-The mud mortar shall be laid on the terrace to the requisite thickness 7.5 cm to 10ern
(3" to 4") and a minimum slope of 1 in 48 towards the outlets, and rammed with wooden thapis
under optimum moisture condition. The surface shall be checked with straight edge and spirit level
and corrected where necessary, with the same mortar. The surface shall be allowed to dry somewhat
and if any cracks appear these shall be filled with liquid cowdung.
Mudgobri plaster.-The surface shall thenbe given a coat of 12 mni(Y2") plaster of mud gobri
mortar 3: 1 (3 mud: I cowdung). Cowdung free from grass, straw seeds and other impurities shall
be soaked in water and powdered earth shall be added in the ratio of 3 : 1, and mixed thoroughly
adding water to have homogeneous mix of the workable consistency, The mortar shall then be
applied to a uniform thickness of 12mm .(Y2")..
Pa.ving with the brick.--First class flat tiles 4 ern (l W') thick well burnt made of good
brick-earth shall be used. The tiles shall be laid dry oil the mud gobri plaster before it dries up
completely (not over cement or lime mortar) with open joints not more than 6 mm wide. Tiles
should be inserted into parapet walls by 4 ern (l W'). The open joints shall then be grouted with
cement mortar 1: 3 (1 cement, 3 local sand) care should be taken to see that no joint remains unfilled
or partially filled. The joints shall then be finished flush with the surface. The tile paving shall be
_ cured by covering with wet bags or wet sand (not by ponding) for at least seven days and during this
period the surface shall be protected from damage. .
Measurement.-The rate shall be for the complete work of mud layer of the stipulated
thickness, mud gobri plaster and the tile paving. The measurement shall be taken for the finished
ark over the tiled surface in sq m (sq ft). No deduction shall be made for opening or recesses up to
0.4 sq m (4 sq rn.
Mud terracing may be over R.C.C. slab, layers of tiles orone layer of brick or one layer
of stone slab or wooden planks supported on batten or beams of R.C.C. steel or timber.
One coat or two C<./Jts ofespbelt ma.ybe applied on the base slab or concrete before laying the
mud mortar jf specified.
34. Madras terrace roaf-
Madras terrace roof shall consist of a layer of a lime concrete over a layer of brick-on-edge laid
in lime mortar, supported over beams or battens. (See Fig. 4-4, page 187).
Terrace brickwork. -The terrace brick shall be of first class quality of 15x 1.)x2.5 ern in size
and shall be laid on-edge in diagonal rows with lime surkhi mortar of 1 : I Y2 proportion, closely
packed spanning over the beams. The brickwork shall he so laid as to have slight camber not
'--
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589
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SPECIFICAnONS
exceeding 5 cm in between thejoints, to enhance the self-supporting arch action. The spacing of the
beams or battens shall not be more than 45 cm. The brickwork shall then be cured by frequent
sprinkling.of water for a periodof .1 0 days,.. of
shall be laid.
Before brickwork is laid centering and shuttering shall be made strong and rigid enough to
support the roof during construction. .
Brick aggregate.-The brick aggregate shall be well burnt of first class quality and broken to
20 mm ") size and shall contain 5 tol'O per cent surkhi. The grading of brick aggregate shall be
as
100 per cent passing through IS-sieve of 20 mm and 5 to 100 per cent passing through
IS-sieve of 10 mm. .
Mixing and laying of Lime Concrete (Lime-Brick-Jelly Concrete). -Brick aggregate shall be
cleaned and placed ona water tight platform and spread to an even thickness and thoroughly
wetted for at least three hours. Fresh slaked white lime shall then be spread over the brick aggregate
stack to have the proportion of I : 2'12 (one of lime and 2'12 of aggregate) and mixed dry. The whole is
then mixed by adding water gradually by sprinkling to the required quantity, and mixed
thoroughly by turning at least three times, until a uniform mix is obtained and all pieces of
aggregatesare covered with and the aggregates do not separate from the mortar.
The brickwork shall then be lightly sprinkled with water just to moisten the surface and then
the mixed lime concrete shall be laid gently to a thickness of 10 cm. The roof shall be given a
minimum slope of I in 50.
After the lime concrete has been laid, it shall be consolidated initially with wooden rammers of
2 kg weight, and the consolidation shall further be done with hand beaters so that the concrete.
hardens and the surface becomes even during consolidation and beating solution of Bael fruit,
molasses and lime water or solution of Kadukai, molasses and lime water shall be sprinkled over the
surface for strengthening and water proofing. (For details see lime concrete terracing page 567).
The bearing shall be continued until the beater makes no impression on the concrete, and readily
rebounds from the surface when struck on it. After compaction the surface shall be wetted with
solution of Bael fruit or Kadukai, molasses or lime and smoothened with trowel to have a thin water
proof layer.
Curing.-The lime concrete shall be kept moist for a fortnight by covering with straw or sand
and sprinkling water frequently.' .
The ceiling be finished with 12 mrn ('12") plastering with 1 : 3 cement mortar or 1 : 2 lime
mortar. . . " . '". . . .... .'
Measurement. .,-The lime concrete terracing including brickwork shall' be measured of the
finished surface under one item in sq m (sq ft). The supporting beams or battens and ceiling
plastering shall be measured separately.
35. Asbestos cement corrugated shed roofing
Sheets.-The sheets shall be of the best quality of approved manufacturers as 'Everest',
'Bigsix', 'Crownit corrugated'. Ashoka corrugated' or similar, The sheets shall be free from cracks,
chipped edges or corners and other damages.
Puriins.-The sheets shall be laid on wooden or steel purlins as per drawing. The maximum
spacing of purlins shall bel.6 m (5' -3") in the case of7 mm (9/3,2") thick and 1.4 m (4' -6") in
the case of 6 mm (W') thick sheets. The upper surfaces of purlins shall be m one plan so that the
sheets shall rest on the purlins without forcing down.
590
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Laying.-The sheets shall be laid with smooth side upwards. a minimum of a
corrugated 4.5 ern (I *") and a minimum end lap of 15cm (6"). The Side laps shall be laid on the side
opposite the prevailing monsoon wind. The free overhang of the sheet shall not exceed 40 ern
. ..... _.. __..... __ ... __ ... _
Fixing. -The sheets shall be fixed to the purlins by means of 8 mm (3/ 16") diameter
galvanized J or L hook bolts and nuts providing a bitumen washer and a galvanized iron washer for
each bolt and nut before the nutis screwed down from above. Each nut shall be screwed lightly first
and when a number of sheets are laid the nuts shall be tightened.Theholes for hook bolt shall be
drilled not punched in the ridge of thecorrugations in their exact positions while the sheets are on
the roof. The diameter of the holes shall be 1.5 mm (1/16") more than the diameter of the fixing
bolt.' Roof ladders or planks shall always be used when laying and fixing the sheets, to avoid
damage to the sheets. During fixing if any sheet gets damaged this shall be rejected and replaced by
another good sheet. The finished surface shall be uniform and the lines of corrugations shall be
straight and parallel. .
Slope.-Roof slope shall not be flatter than 1 in 5. the normal slope shall be usually I in 2. In
case of roof slope flatter than I in 2VI, the end overlap shall be 25 ern (10") or more.
Ridges.-Ridges shall be of the type specified such as "Plain. wing adjustable", "Serrated
adjustable", "Close fitting adjustable", "Northlight adjustable". etc. Ridges shall be of the same
manufacturer as for the corrugated sheets, and shall be free from cracks and damages. The ridges
are usually in pairs having the required overlap. The ridges shall be fixed with the same galvanized
iron J or L bolts and nuts with bitumen washer and galvanized iron washer which fix the sheets with
purlins.
Hips if required shall be of 'Unserrated hips' of the same manufacturer.
Wind ties.-Wind ties shall be of40 mm x 6 mm(l VI"xy.j") and shall be fixed at the eave ends
of the sheets. The fixing shall be done with the same hook bolts which secure the sheets to the
purlins.
Measurement.- The measurements shall be taken of the laid finished flat surface in sq m
(sq ft) and not girthed. The laps at the ends and side shall not be measured. The ridges and hips shall
be measured in running metre (r ft) for the finished workalong the centre line of the ridge or hip.
Wind ties shall be measured under a separate item. The rate shall include all the materials and
labour, bolts and nuts washer, etc. The rate shall not include roof supporting members as purlins,
rafters, etc., which shall be measured separately.
36. Asbestos \?*,"If''1 t semi-corrugated or trafford sheet roofing-s-
The detailed specifications shall be similar to the above with the exceptions that the side.
overlap shall be one corrugation 9 cm.
37. Galvanized corrugated iron shed (G.c.r. sheet) roofing-'
The corrugeted iron shall be of the gauge as specified, 22 B. G. rnrn thick) or 24 B. G. (.64 rnrn
t hic k). The sheets shall be free from rust and the zinc covering at the time of fixing shall be in perfect
condition.
The sheet shall be laid on wooden or steel purlins with an end overlap 15ern (6") and side overlap
of two corrugations. Holes for nails, screws, rivets, etc., shall be punched on the ground (before
taking in roof) in the ridges with very sharp punches from below upward in such a manner that the
hole will come on the ridge of the sheets. The sheets shall be joined together with galvanized bolts
_._-.. --- -------
'-..
SPECI FICATIONS 591
and nuts and with bitumen washer and G.!. washer and fixed to the purlins with galvanized hook
bolts of J or L type of 8 mm (5/16") in diameter, with bitumen and limpet washers.
......... ' .. Ridges and hips shall be covered by special ridge or hip sections and shall be bolted orclipped
in the sheets, witli-ilO'cm'OTOTap-on cacns'ide-s<ranup-reventtherain-driving'under'iL-Windties ...
of nat iron bar 40 mm x 6 mm (1'12" J:< Y;") shall be fixed at the eave ends of the sheets and fixing shall
be done with the same J or L hook bolts and nuts which secure the sheets with purlins.
Roofs shall not be pitched at the flatter slope than I in 5, the normal pitch being 1in 2. For
flatter pitch than I in 2t;2 the end overlap should not be less than 23 ern (9").
I
The finished surface shall be uniform and the lines of corrugations shall be straight and
parallel.
Measurement shall be taken for the complete laid roof in sq m (sq ft) for the flat superficial
area, not girthed. Wind ties shall be measured under a separate item. Supporting purlins and
structures shall be taken under separate item.
38. Allahabad tile roof-
The tiles shall be of Allahabad pattern well burnt, dark red in colour and shall give a clear
ringing sound when struck. Wind ties shall be sound regular in shape and free from cracks, and shall
I.
not absorb water more than 1/ 6th of their weight. .
Timber for battens shall be of the type specified may be of sal, shisham, deodar, teak, etc., and
, \
shall be of best quality, well seasoned and free from saps, cracks, knots, flaws and other defects. The
I
battens shall be 30 mm x 45 mm (I t;2" x 34") in section and fixed over 30 cm (I ft)centre to centre
i
over common rafters with nails. The spacing of commor:. rafters shall not be more than 90 em (3 ft).
\'1
The eave batten shall be 45 mm x 60 mm in section. All battensshall be painted with two coats of
approved paint over a coat of priming.
~ - 1
Single tiling.-Single tiling shall consist of layer of flat tires laid closely on battens, and the
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adjacent edges of every two tiles shall be covered with semi-cylindrical tiles. All the lines of the tiles
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shall be straight in both directions and whole roof when laid must give a uniform appearance. The
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flat tiles must lap accurately at their ends one over the other. The moulded niche at the lower end of
I
each flat tile must fit completely into the head of the tile next below it and the bottom of the tiles at
the upper end must have a firm hold on the battens. Each semi-cylindrical tile must be exactly in its
.' .1
position on the flat tiles under it and also into the bed specially formed in the upper end of the next
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semi-cylind rical tile, to receive it. At the ridges and hips the tiles must abut closely. All ridges and hips
/
i xhall be covered by ridges or hip tiles laid in lime mortar. The tiles over walls shall be laid in lime
.,
ruorta. and ttc ends :;fthe semi-circular tiles ar.t he eaves shall be filledwith lime mortar for half
their length. The under side of the nat tiles shall be finished with white washing, .
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The roof slope should not be less than I in 3 nor more than I in 2. The roof when completed
shall be true to lines and slope, and shall be leakproof.
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; Measurement of the complete laid roof shall be taken flat in sq m (sq ft) including battens.
riqges and hips.
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Double tiling.-Double tiling shall consist of two layers. The bottom layer shall consist of a
layer of nat tiles laid on battens and the side joints of every two adjacent flat tiles shall be covered by
semi-hexagonal tiles. Over these semi-hexagonal tiles shall be laid an upper layer of flat tiles and the
adjacent .,dges of every two of these nat tiles being covered with a semi-cylindrical tile. The other
details arc similar to single tiling.
592
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ESTIMATING t}ND COSTING
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39. Mangalore tiled roof- , ': ':;" ,,';: ;'" ' ;: ' i.;l,
The tiles shall be of Mangalore.pattern double burnt; 'in colour and
shall give a clear ringing sound wherrstruck. The In Cl;nd free from,
'cracks and-s hall not absorb-water-more-than' !-/-6tli oqhelfwelgh Ridge
be of Mangalore pattern.
Timber battens shall be similar to Allahabad tile roof, as in item 38 above.
The tiles shall be laid in such away thatthey properly fit with each other in the grooves and rest
firmly on the battens. The edges of the adjoining tiles shall overlap giving water proofjoints. At the
ridges and hips the tiles should abut closely. The ridges and hips shall be covered by ridge hip tiles
laid in lime mortar. The tiles over the walls and the lowest eave tiles shall be laid in lime mortar. The
under side of the tiles shall be finished with white washing. '
Measurement of the complete laid roof shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) including battens, ridges
and hips.
Specification of Rsnigung tiled roof, Sielkot tiled roof and Ouilon tiled roof are similar to
Mangalore tiled roof.
40. Earthwork in irrigation channels and road-
Centre line of channel or road or bank and its edges (toes) shall be marked correctly and neatly
by daghbelling, Outlines of borrowpits shall also be marked on the ground. Formation pillars of
masonry shall be constructed at suitable points as directed by the Engineer-in-charge to serve as
bench marks. '
, The whole area under cutting or filling shall be cleaned of al! jungles, vegetations, rubbishes,
loose stones and other materials. Roots of trees, if any, shall be removed to a depth of 60 em (2 ft)
below ground level. For banking the existing surface shall be ploughed to a depth of 15 ern (6") to
make bond with new earth, and all clods broken and surface roughly levelled. Earthern or pole
profiles shall be made 30 m to 100 m (lOO' to 300') apart and extra profiles may be made at curves or
where there is change in direction or gradient. For banking settlement allowance sha.ll be allowed
and profiles shall show the total height including allowance for settlement. In case of ordinary hand
rammed consolidated fills 10% settlement allowance and in case of consolidation by heavy
machinery 5% settlement allowance shall be provided.
Bank shall be made in layers of25 cm (9") thickness and each layer should be slightly concave
towards the centre. In banking side slopes of I Y2: 1to 2: I should be given as specified depending on
the nature of soil. All clods of earth shall be broken in borrowpit, and all roots, stones, etc.,
removed. Earthwork shall rye done from the edge to the centre and with
wooden rammer of 5 to 8 kg (to to 15 Ib) weight. Thorough compaction if required shall be done by
rolling each layer with sheep foot roller.
In cutting. first the central rectangular port ion shall be excavated from top to bottom and then
the side with side slopes of I; , to I : I depending on nature of soil. J
Depth of borrowpits should not he more than 30 em (l foot). spoil banks where required
should regular ofun.iiorm height with the slope. Old and new bank shall be joined
by stepping. If there IS cutting and banking alternately, the cutting earth should be used for filling
up to the economical limit. In irrigation channel the excavated earth should be utilised for side
banks for which no extra payment shall be made.
Surface and side slopes shall be dressed and finished neatly. Rate shall include normal lead and
lift oDO m (100') lead and 1.5 m (5') lift. Profile or fill measurement allowing settlement allowance
or borrowpit measurement shall be taken as specified. Where terupc rnr y land is costly borrowpi:
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SPECIFICATIONS 593
may be made deeper on the approval of the Engineer-in-charge.
41. Cement mortar-
The proportion ofcement and sand be as specified, may be of I : 2, I : 3, I: 4, I : 5 and I : 6.
Cementshall' be port landcementof standard specifications. Sand.shall.be.clean.and.free from-dust, ..
dirt and organic matters and shall not contain more than 4% silt. Fine local sand may be used which
shall pass through screen having 9 meshes per sq cm (64 meshes per sq in). Fineness modulus of
sand shall not be less than 10.
. The mixing shall be done first day on a pucca platform and then with water. Cement and sand
shall be meas ured wi th boxes to ha ve the req uired proportion, sand spread out on the platformand
the required quantity of cement spread on top of sand and the whole mixed dry. The dry mixture
shall then be formed roughly into a hollow cone shape and water added slowly and gradually by a
can, and the whole mixed thoroughly to have a uniform colour and consistency. Quantity of water
I
should not exceed 30 litres (6 gls.) per bag of cement. One bag of cement (50 kg) shall be taken at
I i/ 30 cu m (12 cu It) and sand shall be measured with box to have the required proportion.
Mixing may also be done by means of mechanical mixer. In this process first about 5 to 10per
cent of water shall be put in the mixer and then sand and cement in the required proportion shall be
added. Mixing will be continued until the mix becomes uniform in colour and consistency.
Only such quan tity of mortar as can be used before setting begin, s hall be mixed wi th water at
one time. No mortar which has begun to set shall be used even after remixing, such set mortar shall
be immediately removed from the site of work.
42. White lime mortar- .
The mortar shall consist of freshly slaked white lime and surkhi or sand or cinder, of
proportion I : I, I : 2 and I : 3 as specified. The lime should be slaked at the site of work, and
screened through a sieve of 9 meshes per sq ern (64 meshes per sq in), before mixing. Lime shall be
free from ashes and organic matters. Surkhi, sand or cinder shall be clean and of standard
specifications. The ingredients shall be first dry mixed by measuring with boxes to have the
required proportion, and then mixed by grinding in masonry mortar mill for not less than 180
revolution by adding water to give a uniform plastic mix. Mortar for the day's work shall be mixed
and used on the same day; no old and stale mortar shall be used, but removed from the site of work.
For small work hand mixing in pucca platform may be done as in cement mortar above.
43. Kankar lime mortar-
The mortar shall consist of kankar lime alone or kankar lime and surkhi or sand or cinder in
the proportion of I : lor I: 2 as specified. The materials should be clean and of standard
specification. Kankar after 'burning shall be ground tine and screened through a sieve having 25
meshes per sq cm( 144 meshes per sq in). The materials sh all be measured with measuring boxes to
have the required proportion and mixed by grinding in a masonry mortar mill continuously fortwo
hours, with sufficient water to give a uniiorm plastic mix. Mortar for the day's work only shall be
mixed and used on the same dav: no old and stale mortar shall be used but removed from the site of
works. Mortar shall have a tensile strength of7 kg per sq ern at 21 days. For small work
hand mixing in pucca platform may be made.
i
44. White lime-
I Lime shall be of freshly burnt lime stone of approved quarry. Lime should be fresh slaked.
Unslakcd white lime should be brought to the site of work and slacked on pucca platform and
slaked. at site and screened through a sieve of9 meshes per sq ern (64 meshes per sq in) and residue
/
dOd ,'-'-- ----------
" , .
. ESTfMATING COSTING
594
. .
on the screen rejected. Lime shall bJ free from foreign should be
stored in a covered weather proof shed. Tank slaking may bedone If specified and lime putty may
be used. q..... . '_. __ ::______ .
45. Kankar lime- '. .: ...'. '...
, Kankar lirue should be made from "bichwa" kankar free from earth and other impunues..
Kankar should be burnt in kiln and then ground fine and screened through sieve of25 meshes per sq
em (144 meshes per sq in) and the residue 011 the screen rejected. Kankar lime shall be clean and free
Irorn dirt, dust and foreign matters. Kankar lime mortar briquetc should give a tensile strength on
kg per sq ern at 21 days. .
46. 'Brick ballast- ,
Brick ballast shall be broken to the specified gauge from dense over-burnt or well-burnt bricks
or brickbats of copper colour or deep cherry red colour. No under burnt porous or jhama bricks, or
bricks showing signs of saltpetre shall be used. The ballast shall be free from dust, dirt and foreign
matters. For foundation 40 mm (I 'hIt) gauge and for roof terracing 25 mm (I") gauge well graded
brick ballast should be used. .
47. Surkhi-
Surkhi shall be made from fully burnt bricks but not over-burnt bricks. Surkhi shall be ground
fine and after grinding, shall be screened through sieve of25 meshes per sq em (144 meshes per sq in)
and residue on the screen shall be rejected. Surkhi shall be clean and free from foreign matters.
Surkhi shall be stacked on brick platform and protected from earth dirt, etc.
48. Cinder-
Cinder should be made from coal-ash and should be free from burnt clay, wood ash, dirt and
foreign matters. Cinder should be obtained from furnaces using coal fuel only. Cinder should be
ground fine and screened through sieve meshes per sq ern (64 meshes per sq in) and residue in'
the sieve should be rejected. Cinder shall not contain more than 10% of unburnt carbon
(combustible matter).
49. Sand-
Sand shall be clean hard, durable, angular, sharp and gritty to touch and free from mica, salts,
alkalies, organic and' vegetable matters. It should not contain more than 5% .of clay or silt. Sand
should be perfectly dry before being measured. If damp sand is used, compensation shall be made
lor bul king by adding additional sand up to the extent of bulking. Sand shall be natural river sand
,r pit sand of approved quality.
For concrete coarse s:J.NI of.maximum size of" rnm .16") shall be used. All sand shall pass
through a sieve of 5 rnrn Oi 16") sq mesh and 60
cc
(1 retained on I.S, sieve 60 (B.S. 25). Fineness
modulus of coarse sand shall not be less than 2.5.
For brickwork or masonryand for plastering or pointing fine or medium sand shall be used.
This shall be screened through a sieve having 9 meshes per sq em. and the bigger particle excluded
and rejected. Fine sand should not pass more than 20% through a sieve or 400 meshes per sq em and
not more than 5% should pass through a sieve of 1600 meshes per sq em. Fineness modulus ,If [inc
.sand should not be less than 1,0. .
50. Determination of silt contents of sand by field test-
Take a (narrow long) glass measuring cylinder (say 200 ml) fill half the cylinder with sample of
sand (100 ml mark), add clean water up toy." height ofcylinder(150 ml mark), shake vigorously
allow the contents to settle Ior J hours. Coarse particle settle first at the bottom and gradually the
finer particles 'and finally thesilt at the top. The height of the silt layer(h) as visible above the sand 'IS
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SPECIFICATIONS
measured from the graduations of the cylinder and expressed as percentage of the height (H) of the
sand below ;- .
Percentage of silt content">
H
If the percentage of silt content is above the allowable percentage, then the sand should be
washed to remove the silt.
. ,
!
51. Determination of bulking of damp sand by field test-
Take a glass measuring cylinder and fill three-fourth of the cylinder with the sand under test
and lightly tap the cylinder and read the volume of sand (say V). Then pour water in the-cylinder to
submerge the sand and stir the sand well and allow to settle and then read the volume of sand (say
\
v). When the sand is fully saturated by submerging its volume is same as dry volume.
The difference in the original volume and final volume is the bulking and the percentage of
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bulking is { V-v x 100.}
v
Note-:-For spe!i(ications ofMud roof, Mud well, Mud plaster, etc., Chapter on Village
Housing given at the end may be consulted.
. ,ROAD SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL SPECIFICATION OF MODERN ROAD
1. Subgrade-Shall be well consolidated and compacted each with a camber of 1 in 60.
2. Soling-Shall be 30 ern (I ') wider than the metalled width of the road surface, and may be
either of :- .
(i) Over burnt bricks laid flat or on edge well packed and joints filled up with sand'and the
surface blinded with 2.3 ern (I") thick earth and lightly rolled with roller.
Or
(ii) Split stone boulders 15 em (6") thick laid well packed, and the surface blinded with
earth and rolled with roller. .
3. co'at-Shall be of Slone ballast. or over burnt brick ballast of l2cm (4'12") thick layer
and consolidated and compacted by road roller to 8 ern (3").
4. Top coat-Shall be of stone ballast laid in 12 ern (4
1
12") thick layer. and and
compacted by road roller to Rcmt I").
5. First coat of bituminous painting-Shall be with Asphalt or Road Tar 3 and stone grit
of 20 mm gauge at 220 kg of asphalt and 1.35 cu m of stone grit per 100 sq m. .
6. Second coat of bituminous painting-Shall be with Asphalt or Tar No. 3-A and stone grit
III'
of 12 mm (112") gauge at 120 kg of asphalt and 0.75 cu m of stone grit per 100 sq m.
7. Brick edging- Brick edging with straight over burnt bricks shall be provided on both Sides.
_
596
, 'ESTfMATING 1ND
\ .' . .:'
8. Iftraffic is heavy painting rhewearing surface may be with
bituminous carpet OJ cement concrete. .' , ; " ,
" "9. Ifsubgrade is soft or weak, sub-base ofcheap.and
should be used. DETAiLED OF ROAD WORK
, 1. Overburnt bricks.-:-I-class over, burnt bricks made from good brick-earth shall be used.
The brick-earth shall be free from gravel, kankar and other materials. All bricks shall be overburnt,
of copper colour, no lhama or under-burnt brick shall be used. ' ,
2; Overburnt brick ballast.i--f-class brick ballast of 50 mm(2") gauge, broken at site from
overburnt bricks of copper colour shall be used. No lhama or underburnt ballast shoul.i be used.
'Brick ballast shall be homogeneous intexture and roughly cubical in shape. shall be clean
and free from dust etc. and shall be stacked 30 crru (12") high on the levelled side-berm along the
road having the section as required per metre length for the full width of metalling. The stack
'should be continuous without any gap. For 3.70 metres wide road and 12em loose layer the stack
may be trapezium section of 1 m width 1.48 m bottom width and 30 em high .
. '3. Stonebellesto--Hard, rough and durable granite stone ballast 60 mm gauge, shall be used.
Ballast should not absorb water and should not be effected by weather action andshall be clean and
free from dust, dirt, etc. Ballast should be stacked 30 em (12") high on the levelled side-berm of the
road in a continuous stack along the road having the section as required per metre length of the
road. Size of stack may be similar asfor brick ballast.
4. Kankar.-Good hard Bichwa kankar65 mrn to 20 mm (2Y2" to *") gauge, free from earth,
dust, dirt, etc., should be used. Kankar should show a bluish surface on fracture. Kankar shall be,
stacked 32 ern (13") high on the levelled side-berm along the road, and measured as 30 cm (12")
high. Kankar should be, cleaned and broken to gauge at the quarry and then carried to the roadside,
and cleaned again before' stacking and the stack should be made continuous without having any
gap. The top width and bottom width of stack may be I m and 1.48 m respectively and the height
will be 32 em.
", "'';'..
5.: Layin2 and consolidation of road metal, stone ballast or brick ballast.-Laying and
consolidation shall be done during early rainy season, so that sufficient water is available for
..:";",:.
consolidation, and during the later part of the rains the ballast gets fully compacted. The surface
shall be made to a camber of I in 60 or 1 in 48 as specified and two mud walls 20 em (8") wide and 15
em (6") high shall be m Ide along the outer edges for the metalling and ballast spread evenly hand
packed to the required camber with template and bigger pieces of metal placed at the bottom. The
,ballast shall firstbe dry rolled longitudinally with 10tonne roller commencing from the edges and
working towards the centre, and dry rollmg continued until ..he metal is compacted.
The metal shall then be fully saturated with water and rolled until thoroughly compacted and no
mark of roller left on the surface. Rolling should be done slowly without any jerk. For checking
consolidation a few J;'ieces of stones shall be placed over the surface and roller passed over them, the
stones shall not sink if consolidation is perfect. The surface shall then be thinly blinded with sandy""
earth and' watered and rolled. Finally the side mud walls shall be rolled and pressed flush to the
surface. The surface should be brought to the required camber by placing template at regular
intervals. The road shall be opened to traffic when dry but still damp, and the traffic should be
spread over the full width by traffic diversion (Iikh katai). The patries or side-berms shall be
repaired with earth to a slope of I in 36.
6. Laying and consolidation of kankar metal-The laying and consolidation of kankar shall be
done during the early rains so that sufficient water is available for consolidation and during later
part of the rains kankar metal gets fully compacted. !
,
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:11
ROAD SPECIFICATIONS
597
The kankar stacks shall be opened before rain starts and three rows as fOllo
ws:
. r. ,:\... . _. .'.
(1) Largest kankar (size 63 mm to 40 mm) to be used at the . .'..-:
. (h) inthe_mM1Jile.
(iiI) Smallest size kankar (25 mm and below) to be used at top. . ',':- --- .....
. . The should be broughtto the required camber and two mud walls 20cIn(8") wide and
15ern (6") high shall be made along the outer edges of metalling and the surfacecleaned, and then
kankar spread in three operations, first the big sizekankarthen the medium size kankar and finally
at the top small size kankar and the surface brought to camber with template placed at 10m (30 ft)
apart. Kankar is then fully saturated with water and consolidated with rammers of5 to 8 kg(10 to 15
los) weight and 16rammers shall be used for the 3.7 m(12 ft) wide road. The ramming shall be done
first at the side (haunches), to width of I m (3 ft) on each side working along the road, and then the
central portion working across the road. The ramming is. continued until. the metal has been
thoroughly compacted and no marks are left by the rammers or by any traffic moving over the new
.surface. 'When the consolidation is completed the mud-walls shall be rammed flat with the metal
surface and the surface blinded with standy soil. No blinding'should be done on kankar surface
during consolidation. .
The road shall be opened to traffic when the surface is drybut still damp. The traffic shall be
spread over the full width by traffic diversion (likh katai). The patries or sides-berms shall be
repaired with earth to a slope I in 36.
7. First coat of painting or surface dressing with bitumen-The surface shall be bone dry and
absolutely free from dust, dirt, cowdung, etc. The cleaning shall be done first by wire brushes then
by hard brush brooms and then with soft brush, so as to expose clean metal surface to a depth of
6 mm to 12 mm (W' to W') without loosening the stone. Finally, immediately before painting all
dust, dirt, etc., should be blown away with blower of blowing with gunny bags.
Road Tar No: 3 heated to a temperature of 200 to 225F, 0t: Asphalt, 80/ 100heated to 350
to 375 F, shall be applied.to the road surface uniformly along the road with.pouring cans or with
hose pi pe di rectly connected with tar boiler, and brushed evenly over the surface' with brush brooms
or rubber squeegees working from .edge to the. crown of the road. For proper control and
uniformity ofspreading of tar, the surface area which.can be covered by one can marked-with chalk,
or the length which can be covered by one drum of tar should be marked.About 220 kg of tar of
asphalt are required per 100 sq m of surface (45 lbs % sq ft.).'
Assoon as che paint[Tar or Asphalt) has beenapplied, stone grits 7QtIlm to 6 mm (W' to W')
gauge, should be spread evenly on the surface. The grit should be screened. into two portions.bigger
and smaller pieces beforehand. The bigger grits shall be 'spread first and then the smaller grits at the
top. The surface shall then be rolled slowly and lightly with light road roller just to press the grits
into the paint and to give a uniform smooth surface. the quantity of stone grits should be 1.35 cum
per ,100 sq m (4.4 cu ft %sq ft). If any signs of bleeding is developed anywhere on the surface, the
spot should be covered with small stone grits or coarse sand and lightly compacted. Road may be
opend to traffic after 12 hours of rolling. .
No painting shall be done during December and January.No hot painting shall be done during
rainy season.
8. Second coat of painting or surface dressing with bitumen-The second coat ofpaintingsha.ll
be applied when all loose grits of the first coat have been. absorbed and the surface shows a mosaic
." .:)
"':1.
',.rh-- .- --_....-.. ------------------_--..:.:..::.----'--
598
ESTIJATING COSTING
t. . t . Z
" ,.
Binder, shelmac or shelspra heated to a temperature of 320 to 340 F (or Tar No. 3-A heated
to 220 to 240F) should be applied on the cleaned surface uniformly at the rate of 100 kg per %
sq m(20 lbs per %sq ft). Application should be made with sprayer but if this is not available, with
pouring can and brushed evenly. Thetack coat should be applied just ahead of spreading carpet.
CARPET
Preparation ofpremix.-Two part's of stone chips 12 mm size (passing 20 mm mesh and
retained' on 12 mm mesh) and one part of stone chips 10mm (3/8") size (passing 12 mm mesh and
retained on 3 mm mesh) shall be loaded in drum mixer and thoroughly mixed dry. The stone chips
should be hard tough and durable and perfectly clean. Stone chips need not be heated but
should be perfectly dry. ,'. .
The binder @ 56 kg per cu m (@ lbs per cu ft) of chips, shelmac or shelspra heated to a
temperature of 320 to 340F (or Tar No. 3-A heated to.. 220 to,"4()OF) s,hqlll)p.poured into. the
mixer and thoroughly mixed until the stone chips are thoroughly coated with binder', '
The mix shall then be discharged from the mixer on wheel-borrows or stretchers and carried to
the site.
. For 100.sq m of premix carpet surface 1.8cu m of 12mm size stone chips, 0.9 cu m of 10 mm
size stone chips and 155 kg of bitumen shall be required.
If mechanical mixer is used larger quantity can be mixed at a time.
Spreading of premix.-Immediately after applying the tack coat to the road surface the hot
premix shall be spread evenly with rakes to the desired thickness and to the correct camber and
by template. Any unevenness on the surface shallbe adjusted by adding premix bcforb
rolhng commences. . .. .
":.' i
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599
,.',
ROAD SPECIFICATIONS
Rolling.-As soon as sufficient length (15 m) of premix has been laid, rolling should bestarted
with 7 to 8 tonne roller. Rolling should commence at the edges and progress towards the centre.
After light rolling high spots or depressions, which become apparent should be corrected by
removing or adding premixand then-rolled to-thorough-compactien.Bxeessive rolling.should.be
avoided. Roller wheel should be kept damp to.prevent the premix from adhering and picking up.
SAND FLUSHING
Over this compacted surface immediately after rolling, dry coarse sand should be spread at the
rate of 0.3 cu m per %sq m (I cu ft per %sq ft) and rolled again until a smooth surface is obtained.
Sand should be coarse, clean, hard, durable and free from dust, dirt and organic matter.
Traffic may be allowed on the carpet surface after 24 hours of completion of rolling.
Seal coat-A seal coat shall be applied as soon as found necessary but not later than 1~ years
after laying the carpet. The binder shelspra or shelmac orTar No. 3-Ashould be heated (as for tack
coat) and mixed with dry coarse sand (or 6 mrn size stone chips) and then spread on the road surface
uniformly and rolled. The quantity of sand and binder should be at the rate .75 cumofsand per %
sq m (2.5 cu 1%sq ft) of surface and 128 kg of bitumen (binder) per cu m of sand (8lbs per cu ft) .
..... -' .
Instead of seal coat of premix and binder, a coat of surface dressing may be applied as in
second coat of painting, item No.8. . ,
Cold-mix and Hot-mix Premix Carpeting
Cold-mix-The above specifications of premix bituminous road is for Cold-mix type in which
stone chips or aggregates are not required to be heated. Bitumen should be of the qualityand grade
such that the heated bitumen when mixed with cold (atmospheric temperature) and dry stone chips
they will be well coated and form a good mix and will not harden by the timethe mix isapplied on
the road surface and rolled. Shelspra, shelmac and Road Tar No. J,A possess quality for Cold-mix.
Hot-mix- Hot-mix type rnay be used' with suitable quality and grade of asphalt where both
the binder and the aggregate shall have to be heated separately and then mixed together, and then
carried and applied on the road surface while hot and rolled. ' :;;'; ::CL, ~ !: .T,' .. '
. .#.; .I' ~ :1: . : . ~ f . . . '7.": : .::;.. ,
Stabilized Soil Road-See Chapter /9 Village Housing. '.~ < -:j: . ,,".:". :
REQUIREMENTS OF DIFFERENT CLASSES Ot'ROA:DS'
The requirements of different classes of roads are as follows ;
YilIage
Particulars National Major
Other.
Highway District
District
Road.
Road
(V.R.)
(N.H.) and Road
State High (M.D.R)
(O.D.R.)
ways (P.H.)
I. Controlled land width against
ribbon development in open
country
. 70 metres from centre of road on either side
2. Width of permanent Iand
24m
12 m
Minimum 30 m
30 m
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
600
Particulars Natidnal
Major , Other Village
HighWay
, IiistricttDistrict Road
Road :; Road ,,';, (V.R.)
(N.H.)'.'and
" .,..
'<M}t.RJ. __, . .
ways (r.H.)
':": i)
Minimum if' uncultivated or Usar
30m 12 m
areas 45 m m
10 m ,:10 m 10m 5m
3. Width of road foundation in plains
\
'. Width of road formation in Hills 5.5 m-7-5 m 5.5 m-7.5 m 2 m for Briddle road
Briddle road
4. Minimum height of bank above,
flood level 60 ern '60 em 45 em 30cm
5. Width of metalled surface
Single Lane
Double Lane
,3.70 m
7.00 m
3.70 m
7.00 m
3.70 m
. 6. Minimum thickness of metal,
crust compacted (in three layers) 24cm 24cm 24cm
1. Width of soling coat so ernmore than metalled width
8.: Camber or cross slope of
metalled surface
9. Maximum gradient in plains
'Maximum gradient in hills
Ruling gradient in plains
Ruling gradient in hills
10. Visibility at vertical curves
mirumurn
It. Minimum radii of curves-
In plains .
In hills
J"
I 2. Maximum superrelevation
In plains
In hills
13. Design load for bridges and
culverts
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ROAD
6bi
Particulars
14. Road width over culverts
ln plains
I n hills (minimum)
15. Road width over bridges-
In plains
In hills (minimum)
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16. 'Approaches to bridges and'
"\ ',
culverts
17. Kilometre and half kilometre
stone
18. Boundary stones
19. Gang huts
20. Overseer's Rest House'
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21. Inspection House
22.
23.
,
Arboriculture-
Distance on either side from,
centre
Distance apart along road
Side slopes of earthen
formation-
in banking
in cutting
:\ atiorial
Highway
and
State High
w avs
Major
District
Road
(M.D.R)
Other
District
Road
(O.D.R.)
Village
Road
(V.R.)
10.00 m
5.50 m
10.00 m
5.50 m
10.00 m
5.50 m
5m
4m
7.50 m
4.JO m
7.50 m
4.30 m
7.50 m
4.30 m
5m
4m
Minimum straight level length of 30 m on
either side '
, At every half kilometre
At every hectometre(IOO m) and at
changes in land width and curves
At every 15 kilometres apart
At every 30 kilometres apart
At every 40 kilometres as far as possible '
close to town.
11m'
II m
12m 12 m
2: I to Ilh : I
, 1i;2: I to I : I
9m
12m
depending on the
nature of soil.
'Note.-Thickness of metal crust should 'be designed taking the intensity ofiraffic iru o , '
consideration and working out P.!., C.B.R, value, etc., of the soil (See Chapter 16).
Culverts and minor bridges should be provided in the road For major bridge-s
separate should be prepared.
'1,1
AI!lI' ----------------:--

CHAPTER 4
RULES AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENT OF WORKS
.AND TAKING OUT QUANTITIES
(Based on Indian Standard-IS: 1200 may be referred)
Measurement of works occupies a very important place in the planning and execution of any
work or project, from the time of the first estimate are made until the completionand settlement of
payments. The methods followed [or the measurement are not uniform and the practices as
prevalent differ considerably in between the States. Even in the same state different departments
follow different methods. For convenience a uniform method should be followed throughout the
country. The uniform methods of measurement to be followed which is applicable to the:
preparation of the estimates and bill of quantities and to the side measurement of completed works
have been described below.
GENERAL RULES
I. Measurement shall be item wise for the finished item of work and the description of each
item shall be held to include materials, transport, labour, fabrication, hoisting, tools and plants,
overheads and other incidental charges for finishing the work tothe required shape, size, design and
specifications. The nomenclature of each item shall be fully described so that the work involved in
item is self-explanatory. .
2. In booking dimensions the order shall be in the sequence of length, breadth and height or
depth or thickness. .
3. All work shall be measured net subject to following tolerances unless otherwise stated
(a) Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 metre, i.e., I em (Y2").
(b) Areas shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 sq m (0.1 sq ft) ..
(c) Cubic contents shall be worked up to the nearest 0.0 I cu m (0.1 cu ft).
4. Same type of work under different cond itions and nature shall be measured separately under
separate items.
5. The bill of quantities shall fully describe the materials; proportions and werkrnanships, and
accurately represent the work to be executed. Work which. by its nature cannot be accurately taken
off or which requires site measurements. shall be described as Provisional.
6. In case of structural concrete, brickwork or stone masonry, the work under the following
categories shall be measured separately and the heights shall be described
(a) from foundation to plinth level: (b) From plinth level to first floor level; (c) Frornfirst floor
level to second floor level and so on.
The parapet shall be measured with the corresponding items of the story next below:
Principle of units- The. units of different works depend on their nature, size and shape. In
general the units 0: liii-:ercnt items of work are based on the following principle "
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MEASWREMENTj
603
"
i) Mass, voluminous and thick works shall be taken in. cubic unit' or volume! The.
measurement of length, breadth and height or depth shall be taken to compute the
volume or cubic coP,tents (cu m), , .',,' ... , ".: ' ., . ,.. ' .. "., ,.' , \
ii) Shallow, be: taken' in square units' or in area. The
measurement of length and breadth or height shall be taken to compute the area (sq m).
". 1 ' .
iii) Long and thin work shall be taken in linear or- running unit, and linear measurement
shall be taken (run?ing metre).'
iv) Piece work, job work, etc., shall be enumerated, i.e., taken in number.
EARTHWORK
, "
Earthwork shall be taken in cu m (cu ft)and the length, breadth and height or depth shall be
measured to get the cubic content. '
Earthwork of different nature as in excavation in foundation, in trenches, etc., and in filling in
plinth, in banking, etc., shall be measured under separate items.
, '
Earthwork in different kinds of soil as ordinary soil, hard soil, ordinary rock, hard rock, etc.,
shall be classified separately and measured under separate item.
Excavation shall include throwing of the excavated earth at least one metre clear of the edge of
excavation.
Dressing or trimming and levelling or grading, ramming and consolidation thickness of each
layer, etc., shall be described and included in the item of earthwork.
I
Measurement of excavation or .trenches or borrowpits shall be taken for average dimensions.
When the ground is fairly uniform 'Desdmen 'or 'Tell-Tales 'which shall be \eft atsuitable interva\s
to determine the average depth of excavation. For uneven or sloping ground diagona\ 'Tell-Tales'
shall be left.
No deduction shall be made for Deadmen, Tell-Tales, which shall be removed after the
measurements have been taken and checking has been completed.
When the ground is very uneven levels shall be taken before the start and after the completion
of the earthwork by levelling instrument and the average depth of excavation or fillirig shall be
determined from these levels.
I
Whenever it is not possible or convenient to make measurements from cutting the filling or
banking shall be measured and deduction for shrinkage or voids (settlement allowances) shall be
made from actual measured cubic contents depending on the nature of the soilanc' ')f
consolidation. Generally 10% deduction shall be made in case of ordinary consolidated fills and in
case of consolidation done by heavy machinery a deduction of 5% shall be made.
For road earthwork in banking, the profile or fill measurement may be taken and usual
I
settlement or shrinkage allowance shall be given, The volume 0: quantity shall De obtained by
multiplying sectional area by the 'length. Quantity = Length x (Top width +Bottom width) x
Height.
I
!
. No separate measurement shall be taken, for setting out works, profiles. site clearance,
deadmen, stepping, removal of slips or falls, bailing out watcr frorn rains, ctc., these arc included in
the rate.
Lead and lift-The measurement shall be taken separately for every 30 m (100 ft) lead or
distance and every 1,5 In (5 ft) lift or heigh lor depth. The lead shall be measured from the centre of
ESTIMATING AND COSTlNG 604
the area of excavation to the centre of the area ofspoil heap. Similarly lift shall be measured from
the centre of excavation to the centre of spoil heap. .
.. The normal rate is for each unit of 30m-(-I-00'-) lead-and -L5m{5') lift. For-greater.lead.or.lift..
the rate shall tie different for every unit of 30 m (100ft) lead, and for every unit of 1.5m (5 ft) lift.
I.S.1. specifies the unit oflead as 50 m, measured over the shortest practicable route.
Foundation trench- Unless otherwise specified the foundation trench shall be measured in cu
m for rectangular section, bottom width being width of concrete and the depth shall be measured as
vertical depth even though the contractor might have excavated with sloping sides for convenience.
Return, fill and ram - Returning, filling and ramming excavated earth shall be taken .in cu III
(cu ft) under a separate item and shal.1 include spreading in layers of 20 ern (8") in depth, watering,
ramming and levelling. .
Puddling-Clay puddle work shall be taken in cu m (cu ft) and shall be described including
supply of clay, its preparation, placing in layer of 15 em (6"), ramming, etc.
Surface dressing-Trimming and dressing of natural ground to remove vegetation and small
irregularities not exceeding 15 ern (6") deep shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) under a separate item
'Surface Dressing'.
Cutting down trees exceeding 30 ern(12") girth shall be accounted separately and enumerated,
i.e., taken in numbers, stating the girth at I m (3') above ground and paid separately.
Surface excavation-Excavationexceeding 1.5 m in width as well as 10 sq m in plan but not
exceeding 30 cm in depth shall be described as Surface excavation and measured in sq m.
Pumping- When spring water requires pumping the workof pumping or dewatering shall be
taken under a separate item.
Timbering-Timbering or 'Planking and Struting' for protecting the sides of trench or loose
earth.shall be measured in sq m of face supported, and shall be classified under separate items as :
(a) Depth not exceeding 1.5 m; (b) Depth exceeding 1.5 m but not exceeding
5 m; (c) Depth exceeding 5 m.
Timbering shall include all necessary tir-ber etc.....
Both sides of trench shall be taken.as one side area and shall be equal to length x' depth of timbering.
CONCRETE
For concrete kind, size, grading and proportion of materials, method' of mixing, cutting, etc.,
shall be described. Different kinds of concrete work as Lime concrete, Cement concrete.
cement concrete. etc .. of different proportions, different materials shall be taken under
separate items. Concrete foundation, roof, wall, mass concrete, etc., shall be classified and
measured under separate items: ..
Concrete shall be taken in cu m (cu ft) and measurementsof length, breadth and height or
thickness shall be taken to the nearest I ern ('12"), except that the thickness of slabs, partitions,
post, beams, and the like shall be measured to the nearest 0.5 cm (14"). No ded uction shall be made
for openings up to 0.1 sq m (l sq ft),
- -
605
METHODS OF MEASUREMENT
..
\
Formwork, centering and shuttering shall be taken under separate itemin sq m (sq ft) unless
otherwise herein provided. Formwork shall be measured as the actual surface in contact with the
concrete, For slabs vertical sides (edges) shall not be measured. '
._-_.... _.,-_..
., Fair finish to the exposed surface ofco'ricrete"o-; surfaces of concrete
shall be include:' in the description and the thickness of finishing shall not be measured with the
concrete..Special finishes, except in precast concrete shall be measured separately in sq m (sq ft ).
R.C.C. work- Reinforced cement concrete shall be kept separate from unreinforced concrete.
R.C.C. work shall be taken in cu m (cu ft) excluding steel and the steel reinforcement shall be
measured under a separate item in quintal (cwt) authorised overlaps hooks cranks, etc.. of bars
shall be measured. Normally, centering and shuttering (forrnworkjshall not be measured separately
but included in the rate of R.C.C. or C.c. work. Binding wire is not measured separately. The
volume occupied by reinforcement shall not be deducted from the measured concrete volume. The
item of R.C.C. work shall include R.C.C. slabs, beams, lintels, columns, chujjas, staircases,
foundation, rafts and footings, etc., and each of them shall be classified under a separate item. The
exposed surface shall be fair finished which shall not be measured separately. Chujjas may be
measured in running metre stating the projection and its average thickness, if.specified.
Special light weight partitions shall bemeasured in sq m stating thickness and fully described.
Precast cement concrete-Precast C.C. reinforced or plain shall be taken separately in cu m
(cu ft) and shall be described as including all moulds, finished faces hoisting and setting in position.
Reinforcement if any shall be described and included in the item or measured separate if specified.
Expansion joints-Expansion joints in roofs, floors, walls, road, etc., shall be measured in
running metre (r ft), the depth and width of joint and materials used for filling shall be described.
Joints-Jallies or Jaffries, louvers shall be described and thicknesccpccified and taken in sq m
(sq ft). Reinforcement shall be described and included in the item.
Concrete posts-Fencing posts, corner posts, struts etc., shall be taken in cu m and
reinforcement and formwork shall be included and described.
Concrete piles-Concrete piles shall be described and taken in eu m (eu ft) and classified
according to the section and length. Steel reinforcement shall be included with the item and fully
described.
Head and shoes of steel or iron shall be enumerated, i.e., taken in numbers and weight of each
stated.
Pitching and driving of piles shall be enumerated stating size and length. If specified the
driving of piles may' be taken and measured in running metre for the portion driven below ground
level.
Damp proof course-Damp proof course shall be fully described and taken in sq m (sq Tt)
stating the thickness. The item shall include formwork finishing, levelling, curing, etc. The
horizontal and vertical damp proof courses shall be measured separately.
BRICKWORK
The description of the bricks, and of the materials of mortar with proportion shall be stated.
Different kinds and classes of brickwork shall be taken under separate items, The brickwork of
Iii
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606
ESTlMATlNG AND COSTlNG
. ~
\,
. ~ .
foundation and plinth, of first floor, of second floor, etc., shall be measured under separate items.
Scaffolding works are not measured separately but included in the item of brickwork.
. Brickwork shall betaken in eli m (cuft), and rtieasurements-oHength,breadth,Q[.thicknessand.
height shall be taken to compute the quantity. The length and height shall be measured to the
nearest 1 ern ('h").
Thickness of wall-Brick walls upto and including three bricks in thicknessshall be measured
in multiples of half brick, which shall be deemed to be inclusive of the mortar joint. The following
shall be taken as brick measurement :- .
For brick nominal size 22.9xl1.4X7.6 em (9"X4Y2"x3"), Half brick size is 11.4 em (4\12").
For brick nominal size 22.5xI2.7x7.6 em (1O"x5"X3"), Half brick size is 12.7ern (5").
For module bricks 20 cmx l Ocmx lOem
(actual size 19 cm
x
9 cm
x
9 em) Half brick size in 10em
Thus for different bricks , 20xlOxlOxcm 9"x4Y2"x3"
One brick wall shall be measured as 20 em 22.9 em (9")
One and half brick wall shall be measured as 30 em 34.3 em (l3V2")
Two brick wall shall be measured as 40 em 45.7 em (18")
Two and half brick wall shall be measured as 50 ern 57.1 em (22\12")
Three brick wall shallbe measured as 60 ern 68.6 em (27")
For walls which are more than three bricks in thickness, the actual thickness shall be measured
to the nearest 1 ern (W').
Where functions of half brick occur due to architectural or other reasons, the measurements
shall be taken as follows :
(a) For fractions of 2 ern under actual measurement.
(b) For fractions exceeding 2 em-full half brick.
Deduction-No deduction or addition shall be made for the following.:
, (a) Opening up to 0.1 sq m (I sq ft) in section.
(b) Ends ofjoints, beams, lintels, posts, rafters, purlins, corbels, steps, etc.
( ~ ) Wall platesand bed plates, bearing' of slabs, chajjas and the like where the thickness
does not exceed 10ern and the bearing does not extend overthetull width (thickness) or
wall, '
Fire place, chimneys, etc.i--Brickwcrk shall be measured as solid in cu m (cu ft) if smoke or
airflues do not exceed 0.25 sq m (2.5 sq ft) in sectional area, no deduction shall be made for flues and
no extrct payment shall be made for pargetting and coring of flues. When flues exceed 0.25 sq m (2.5
sq ft) in.sectional area deduction shall be madefor the core opening andpargetting and coring of
flues taken separately in running metre (I' ft) stating the siz.e of flue.
,Pillars-The pillars shall be measured in cu m (cu It) for their net volume and fully described.
Arches and vaultso--Brickwork in arches and vaulting shall be measured in cu m (cu ft)
separately and shall include centering for spans up to 6 metres (20 ft). For spans exceeding 6 metres
. ~
607
METHODS OF MEASUREMENT.
, ,
(20 ft) centering shall be measured separately in sq m (sq ft)as the actual area of the soffit to be
supported. '
Well steining.-Brickwork in well steining shall be measured in cu m (cu ft) separately stating
themean radius-an'dffi-e-tofil'depifi-ofsterriiil."g.-SteeTfier(jas"a:-rid-fiafsshall"be"meastifeasepatately
in quintal (cwt).
Sinking of well steining shall be measured in running metre(r ft) separately in stages of 3 m(lO
ft) and shall include all tackles, loading platform loads, dredgingor excavation, etc. The rate of
sinking for every 3 m (10 ft) is different.
Well curb of R.C.C. or timber shall be taken under separate item in cu m (cuft) and shall be
'fully described. Steel in R.C.C. or in wellcurb shall be taken separately in quintal (cwt).
Honeycomb brickwork.-Honeycomb brickwork shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) stating the
thickness of well and the pattern of honey-combing. Honeycomb holes or opening shall not be
deducted.
Partition wall.-Half brick wall or brick-on-edge shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) stating the
thickness and shall be fully described including mortar and its proportion. Reinforcement as hoop
irons, wire netting or bars if provided shall be included in the items and fully described, stating type
width, gauge or thickness or diameter and spacing. '
Reinforced brickwork.- Reinforced brickwork shall be taken in cu m (cu ft) under separate
item the steel reinforcement shall be measured separately in quintal (cwt).
Brick edging.- Brick edging by the sides of roads, paths and the like shall be described and
measured in running metre (r ft). '
Moulding and cornices.-String courses, corbel, drip course, cornices, etc., shall be fully
described and measured in running metre (r ft).
Toothing and bonding.-Toothing and bonding for new and existing walls shall be taken
under a separate item, in sq m (sq ft) and measured on the vertical face.
Brickwork around steel joists.-Extra labour in cutting and fitting brickwork around steel
joists, stanchions, girders, etc., shall be measured in sq m(sq ft) the girth ofjoists, girders, etc., being
measured.
STONE MASONRY
The de scr iptionof stc.ie, C;" .nortar andtheir pre porticn and the nature-and type. 01
walling shall be stated. Different kind of stone masonry as Random or Uncoursed rubble walling.
coursed rubble walling, ashlar walling, etc., shall be taken under separate items.
Stone masonry work shall be taken in cu m (cu ft). Thr thickness of wall shall be measured to
(he nearest I em (iF'), fractions including 0.5 Col (Y.i") and above shall be measured a:. I ern t y;")
and fractions he10''''' 0.5 Col (Yt") shall be ignored.
Rules for deduction, measurement of an arch work andother items of stone masonry shall be
same as for the ... imilar items of brickwork.
Stone face work or wall lining shall be described and taken in sq m (sq ft) stating the thickness.
Stone chujja, stone shelves, stone sun-shades and stone slabs shall be taken in sq m (sq ft)
stating the thickness and described including, dressing, etc.
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
608
Dressed stone work in sills, steps, columns, copings lintels, etc., shall be taken in cu m (cu ft)
and the type of dressing shall be described fully. Each dressed stone shall be measured as the
smallest rectangular dressed block from which finished dressed block can be worked. String course,
shalU;>G.J:neasuredjnrunning.metre.(dt) describing-dctails-of-seetions. 00 0 0
Boulder work shall be taken in cu m (cu ft) stating the size of boulders. Different kind and
nature of boulder work shall be taken under separate item.
WOODWORK
Carpenter's work.-Generally all wood work of which the scantling exceeds 20 sq ern (3 sq in)
in section and which is not specially moulded or carved comes under carpenter's work. This
includes all timber work in door and window chaukhats, in roof works as beams, struts, tics, rafters,
purlins (all work in roof trusses), in timber bridge in verandah posts, in centering and shuttecing, in
shoring, and the like.
Joinery.- Woodwork which is prepared, turned, moulded, carved andjointed together comes
under joinery. Joiner's work requires finishing and putting together at the bench and includes door
and window shutters, framed partitions, furnitures and the like.
o CLASSIFICATION OF TIMBER
(a) Batten.-Battens are pieces of sawn timber, whose dimensions do not exceed 5 ern (2")
either in breadth or in thickness.
(b) Scantlings.-Scantlings are pieces of sawn 'timber whose cross-sectional dimensions
exceed 5 ern (2") in both directions and do not exceed 20 cm (8") in both directions.
(c) Baulks.-Baulks are pieces of sawn timber whose cross-sectional dimensions exceed 5 em
(2") in one direction and 20 ern (8") in other direction.
,- .
(d) Planks. -Planks are pieces of sawn timber whose thickness does not exceed 5 ern (2/1) and at
the same time the width exceeds twice the thickness.
CARPENTER'S WORK
Different kind of wood and different nature of woodwork shall be taken under separate item
and shall be fully described stating the wood and the work. 0
-:
I
Woodwork (carpenter'< ..... or ]; 1 <hal] be taken in cu m (cu ft). Length shall be measured to the
nearest 2 ern (I."). Width and shal] be measured ro the.nearest Z rnrn (LI 16"), All week
shall be measured net as fixed arid tolerance of2 mm (I f 16") may be allowed. No allowance shall be
made for the sawn or wrought [aces for the finished work. Scantlings.bauens etc., in sections other
than rectangular. shall he rncasurcd a- the least rectangular form which the section can be obtained.
All woodwork shall include nails. .screvvs. spikes etc., required for fixing. .
.
Boarding.-Roof boarding, ceiling. floor shelves, partition, etc., shall be taken in sq m (sq ft)
staring the finished thickness and shall be fully described. Supporting beams, framework, shall be
taken separately in cu rn (cu ft). 0 0
o I 0
Cfntering and shuttering-Normally centering and shuttering (formwork) shall not be
measured separately but included in t he rate of ct: or R.C.C. work. If specified that the formwork
shall be paid separately the Iorrnwork shall be measured and the actual surface in contact with the
cor-crete and tukenjn sq rn (sq ft) and shall include plankings, beams. props, wedges. nails, etc.
-,-'
.._
t
III
. METHODS OF MEASUREMENT
609
Formwork of different kind of works as beams, lintels, floors, roads, walls, columns.staircases,
etc., shall be measured under separate items and fully described.
, ForsJabs,chajjas, arc.hcs,.s}u;J./HUJc! wit]:
concrete surface shall be meesured and side shuttering shall not be taken into account (C.P. W. D.
Specifications). .
Roof battenso-- Roof battens, where not included with the item of roof, shall be taken as
surface area of the roof in sq m (sq ft) stating the size of battens and the spacing.
FiIlets.-Fillets; beadings, etc., shall be measured in funning metre (r ft) stating thewidth and
thickness. Finishing of fillet as edges charnferred, rounded or moulded shall be described.
Ballies.-Ballies shall be measured in running metre (r ft) stating the mean diameter which
shall be average of the two diameters at the ends.
Wood piles.- Wood piles shall be measured in running metre (r ft) stating the size. Steel shoes li,.,'\, I,
and heads of piles shall be enumerated separately stating their weights.
Sheet piles shall be measured separately in sq m (sq ft) stating the thickness and shall be
described.
Driving and pitching of whole piles shall be taken in running metr-Jr ft) and of sheet piles in
sq m (sq It) stating the size in each case. Portion in ground only shall be measured.
JOINERY
Description and quality and kind of wood shall be stated and joinery of different kind of work
shall-be taken under separate items.
. Joinery work shall be taken in sq m (sq ft)ofthesurface stating the thickness. Alljoiner's work
shall include nails, screws, keys, wedges, pins, glue, etc., required for fitting and all fittings shall be
included in item. Unless work is described as finished sizes, 2 mm (1/6")-shali be allowed for each
wrought face.
. Door and window shutters.-Shutter shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) stating the thickness and the
. kind of wood and both faces shall be described. Measurement shall be taken from inside after
,clOSlOg the shutters excludingchaukhat. Different types of shutters as (1) Ledged, and
oattened, (ii):"'ecged; braced and battened. (ifi,! Framed, ledgedbraced and battened: (iv) Framed
and panelled, (\.) Framed and louvered. ( Ii) Flush, (vii) Glazed, (\'iil) Part panelled and part glazed,
etc., shall be taken separately and each type fully described.
r
Thickness of battened leave shall be the thickness of battens only, not the combined thickness
of battens and ledges the thickness oi ledges and braces shall be stated in the description.
Glazed shutters shall be measured flat over all in sq rn (sq ft) including the timber Irurncwor k,
stating the thickness of timber frame and of glass panes. Glazing shall not be measured separately.
The method of fixing glass panes as puttied. felted. wooden beading fitted with nail. screws. etc.,
shall be described and different type of fixing shall be measured under separate item.
Part panelled and part glazed shutters. shall be measured flat over all in sq m (sq It ) and how
much glazed as half one-third, ctc., shall be stated. .
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
610
.... _.
. ~ ",
Glass panes.s--For supply glass shall be measured in sq m (sq ft) stating the thickness and type
of glass. Measurement, length and breadth shall be taken to the nearest 5 mm (y-!"). Irregular or
circular panes shall be measured at the smallest rectangular area from which theycanbecutunless ~ __
otherwisespecified, . ...-- ... ---.,- -- ------------- --
Doorand window chaukhat.-Chaukhats mullion and transomes shall be taken in cu m (cu ft)
and the length of tenons, horns etc., shall be added to the sight lengths. The sectional area shall be
the area of the least square or rectangle from which they may be cut or made. Rebates, beads,
chamfers etc., shall be described and included with the item. Portion of chaukhats of segmental or
circular shape shall be measured separately and described. Type of wood shall be stated and
chaukhat of different kind of wood shall be kept separate.
Wooden' staircase- Work of staircases shall be measured under separate headings.
Landing.including bearers shall be measured under a separate item in sq m (sq ft) of the upper
surface, stating the thickness.
. Treads and risers shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) stating thickness, the area being obtained by
multiplying the length of tread by the exposed width of the tread, plus the rise from step to step and
the work shall be described stating the kind of timber's method of jointing, fixing, etc .
Hand rails shall be taken in running metre (r ft)'and measured along the top centre line stating
the extreme section of the straight portions and mouldings and rounding.
Balusters shall be taken in numbers stating the size and shall include framingsat ends shall be
fully described. . .
Newals shall be described and measured in running metre (r ft) stating the section and the
nature of finishing. .
Miscellaneous items.-Towel rails, contain brackets, plate racks, toilet fixtures, small fittings,
furnitures etc., shall be taken in numbers stating the size and shall be fully described.
Builder's hardwares.-Builder's hardware is the trade name of the articles made of base metal
as iron, steel, copper, etc. The various kinds of builder's hardware shall be described and
enumerated and taken separately according to the materials, finish, size and pattern. The following
articles come under builder's hardware :- . .
Hinges, door hand les, hasp and stapples, locks, hat pegs, hat and coat hooks..... ardrobc hooks,
knobs, springs, screwed eyes, cle-ats, latches, bolts and the like.. :
Curtain rods or poles, curtain rails, for running sashes, etc., shall be measured in running
metre stating diameter and size. .
Clazing.-Giazing shall be measured in sq m (sq ft) ~ t a t i n g the quality, weight and thickness.
The method "f ~ I a l i n g and fixing with putty, wooden beads, metal beads, .etc., shall be fully
described. Diftcrcru kind of glass and different methods of fixing each shall be taken separately,
STEEL AND IRON WORK
In general steel and iron work shall be measured by weight in.juantity (cwt) and fullv described.
Various items of rolled steel sections as joists, channels, angles, tees, mild steel rounds, flats. bolts,
cast iron, wrought iron. etc .. shall be measured under separate items .
611
M ETH<}DS OF MEASUREMENT
(
. ,
Structural steel works-e-Structural steel asgirdersccompound.girders, plate and
girders, steel'stanchions, trusses, fra'med steel work, etc., shall each be taken under separate lfem
and measured in quintal (cwt) and fully described. No deduction shall be made for rivet and bolt
holes.Ln-riveted work the weight of.rivet heads except lncaseof countersunkrtvers.sbart be added.
Tl1e weight of cleats. brackets, packing pieces, separators, gusset and fish plates, bolts and nuts,
rivet heads, etc., shall be added to (he weight qf the respective items. The work shall include
fabrication, hoisting, placing, fixing i;n position. ':
Site drilling to existing steel work shall be enumerated stating the diameter of bolts and
thickness of metal. Rivets driven at site shall be enumerated as 'extra over'
Bottsv--Bolts. holding down bolts. anchor bolts, etc., shall be measured in 'quintal (cwt)
separately including nuts and head and washers shall be grouped according to the diameter.
Grills grating, framed gaurd bars. ladders, brackets, etc., shall be measured in quintal (cwt)
separately and shall be fully described. If specified grills, gratings, etc., may be taken in sq m and
fully described. .
Iron hold fasts shall be taken by weight in quintal (cwt), or enumerated stating the length,
f
breadth and thickness of flat iron. The method. of fixing with bolt or screw and embedding in
cement concrete or cement mortar shall be described and included in the iten.,
Flue pipes shall be measured in running metre (r ft) stating the diameter and thetype of pipe,
gauge or weight per unit length and the method of jointing and fixing shall be described.
Cast iron balusters and newels shall be enumerated and fully described including the methods
of fixing.
Cast iron railings shall be measured in running metre (r ft) stating the height and fully
described including the method of fixing.
Spiral staircase-Cast iron spiral staircase shall be enumerated (i.e., counted as one for the
complete work) stating the overall diameter, total number of treads and total height above ground
level. description shall include tread, riser and sleeves in one piece including hand rails,
bal usters, etc. .
Cast iran chcqucrcd plates shall be described and measured in quintal (cwt).
Expended ttictsl. wire netting etc., shall be measured in sq m (sq ft) stating gauge and mesh. No
ded uction shall be made for openings up to 0.2 sq m (2 sq ft), Different items
Steel reinforcement.-Bar reinforcement shall be measured by weight in quintal (cwt) stating
the diameter and shall include cutting to length, hooked endscranking or bending etc. Aut horiscd
overlaps shall be measured. Different diameter bars shall be kept separate.
Binding wire shall not be measured separately, this shall be included in the item.
Fabric reinforcement shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) stating the mesh ana size of strands.
. .
Wire netting in wrappings to steel work embedded in concrete or plaster, in encasing steel work
shall be measured separately in sq mIsq ft) stating the mesh and gauge.
Hoop iron shall be measured in running metre (r ft}stating the width and gauge.
612
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Wire fencing.c-Plain or barbed wire in fencing shall be measured in running metre (r ft) and
shall be described stating the gauge. Each line of wire shall be measured. Fencing posts shall be
measured separately. _ _
by overall area in sq m (sq ft) or by weight in quintal and fully
describe d stating the size of gate opening, channel pickets, pivoted Oat bars, size of mesh when fully
extended. The top and bottom runners, locking Iugs, handles, etc., shall be described and included
in the item. The work shall include erection in position and securing runners with hold fasts or
brackets which shall be described.
Rolling shutters shall be measured flat in sq m (sq ft) stating the gauge and width of slats,
distance between centres of interlock and the bridge depth. The description shall include spring
winding mechanism, top cover, jamb guides, bottom rail and locking arrangements including
erection and finishing in position. .
Steel doors and windows shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) stating the sizes of various numbers and
shall be described. Hanging, fixing and fastening in position shall be included and described.
Manufacturer's protective treatment as galvanizing, painting, etc., shall be described.
Lightning conductors.-Conductors and band of tape shall be measured in running metre (r
ft) in position after fixing stating width, gauge or thickness, metal, etc and shall be described,
induding the method of fixing. Socket attachments and rods shall be enumerated and shall be fully
described.
ROOF COVERING
General.-Roof covering shall generally be taken in sq m (sq ft) and measurements of laid roof
shall betaken without any allowance forlaps. Opening up to 0.4 sq m (4 sq ft) shall not he described.
Supporting structure of the roof shall be taken under separate item. Timber trusses (rafters, ties,
purlins, etc.) shall be taken in cu m (cu ft) and steel trusses shall be taken in quintal (cwt),
SLOPING ROOF
Sheet roofings hall be taken in sq m (sq ft) ofthe laid work net. The gauge of the metal, whether
black or galvanized, plain or corrugated and the methods offixing including side and end laps shall
be described. .
Corrugated sheeting shall be measured flat not girthed.
. Ridges, hips, valleys flashings, etc., shall be measured in running metre (r ft) stating the girth.
lap, etc., and shall be desci ibed includingtbemcthod of fixing.' ..
Asbestos cement sheeting shall be measured nat and not girthed, The type of sheeting plain.
corrugated or semi-corrugated shall be described stating the thickness. When the ridges or hips are
in two pieces measuremetit shall be taken in running metre (r [t) for one length only for the two
interlock pieces.
Roof tiling shall be taken in sq m (sq Inofthe laid work net stating the kind. pattern. quality,
size and thickness of tile numbers of layers, etc .. and the method of laving shall be described. If laid
in two layers only one surface area shall be measured and shall be stated. Different
kind of tile roof shall be kept separate. - . .
Ridges and hips shall be measured in running metre(r It) stating the girth.
Eave bedded in mortar or walls shall be taken in running metre (r It) as 'extra ov-r ' for
eaves describing the mortar and width of bedding. . ...
61J
METHODS OF MEASUREMENT
Slate roofshall be measured in the same way as for the rooftiling.
. Thatched roofshall be taken in sq m (sq ft) stating the finishing thickness, kind of straw,
numberof layers including.bamboo befully..described. Thedescripti.on
shall include method of laying, tying string, trimming to eaves and verges, and bamboojaffri work.
Ridges and hips shall be described and taken in running metre (r ft).
Matting if provided and incl uded with the roof shall be taken separately in sq m (sq ft) of the
laid work net stating the number of layers, laps and the method of fixing. Different kind of matting
shall be kept separate.
Bamboo jaffri or trellis work.-Independentjaffri work shall be taken separately insq m (sq ft)
and overall surface measurement shall be taken stating the size of bamboo quarter, half or full] their'
spacings, one way or two way, type of string Or wire for tying, etc.
Framing shall be included with the item and described.
Bamboos fixed independently as supports shall be taken in running metre (r ft) stating the
l\
girth.
FLAT TERRACED ROOF
Flat terraced roof shall be taken in sq m(sq ft) stating the thickness, size and quality of bricks,
tiles, or stone slabs. The spacing, number of layers, type of joint, kind of mortar and its mix,
pointing,and the method of laying shall be described.The finish on top and 'underside of roof shall .
be included with the roofing. Different kind of terraced roof shall be taken as separate item.
Madras terrace roofing.shall be measured in sq m (sq ft) and shall includetop and underside
plaster finish and shall be fully described.
Lime concrete in roof terracing over R.C.C. slab,jack arches, etc., shall be taken in sq m (sq ft)
stating the type and size of aggregate (ballast), mortar and its mix, and the thickness of the
consolidated layer, Finishing of the surface shall be described and included with the item. If special
surface finishing is req uired this shall be taken separately in sq m(sq ft) and fully described.
Stone slab roofing shall be measured in sq m (sq ft) stating the thickness and centre to centre
distance of battens or joists.
Mud roof-Mud layer shall be described including the quality of clay and its mix and shall be
measured in sq m (sq It) in the same way as for lime concrete in roof.
Weep boles ot rain wale: holes in parapetor in edging shall be enumerated stating the size and
finish.
Waterproofing layer with tar or hitumen shall be taken in sq m(sq ft) stating the quality. type,
and quantities of materials to be used per sq m (sq It).
Fell work shall be taken in sq rn (sq ft)and shall be described stating the weight per sq m (sq It),
method of application, laps. etc.
Jack roofing--v-Jack arch work including haunch filling concrete shall be measured flat
overall, and taken in sq m (sq ft). Centering and shuttering shall be included in the item. The clear
span, rise, and thickness of arch. method of laying.jointing, mortar and its mix, and pointing shall
be described. The haunch filling. finish of top and underside shall also be stated and included. Lime
concrete in tel racing over jack arch shall be taken in sq m under a separate item stating the
consolidated thickness.
ESTIMATING AND Co.STING
614
Ifspecified the brickwork injack arch may be taken in volume basis in cu tn, the concrete in
haunch filling may be taken in cu m and the plastering in soffit may be taken in sq m each under a
sepereteitcm. __ ____ ..__ _ .___ .___ ___ ._ _ . .__ ______. .
Lime concrete t-:.,i.-:.cing haunch filling, and top finishing shall be taken separately in sq m (sq
ft) in the same way as for terraced roof.
Rain water fitting.-Rain water pipe gutter, etc., shall be taken in r u ~ n i n g metre (r .ft) stating
the material, diameter or girth, gauge or weight or thickness, etc. All specials as bends, Junctions,
etc. and. fittings and jointings shall be included in the item. Iron brackets for gutters shall be
measured separately in quintal.
,CEILING
Ceiling shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) and the materials, thickness and the method of fixing shall
be described. No deduction shall be made for opening not exceeding 0.4 sq m (4 sq It). Different
kind of ceiling shall be kept separate.
Cover fillets or beading over joints shall be measured separately in running metre (r ft) stating
the materials, width and thickness. If the edgesof fillets are chamferred or rounded or moulded, this
shall be described.
Supporting member shall be measured separately under the respective items.
-"
Insulation layer, boards or slabs in walls or roof shall Le taken in sq m (sq ft) stating the
materials, number of layers, thickness of each layer and the manner of fixing.
FLOORS AND PAVINGS
Floors and pavements shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) and net area covered shall be measured
stating the thickness, kind of materials, size, mortar and its mix. The method of bedding, jointing
and surface finishing shall be described including the formwork.
Different kind of flooring as brick flat, brick-on-edge stone, marble, cement concrete, mosaic
terrazo, etc., shall be taken under separate' item. .
The surface finishing of cement concrete floor shall be measured in sq m separately unless
otherwise stated and fully described. In practice the surface finishing of cement concrete floor with
a floating coat of neat cement is usually included in the item. The rubbing and polishing of mosaic,
terrazo, marble or stone floor are usually included in the item. Pointing of brick floor shall be
measured in sq m (sq ft) separately unless otherwise stated. .
. .. . '. - .': .' "
Under layer of lime concrete, or cement concrete sand, etc., shall be described and measured
separately in cu m (cu ft) unless otherwise stated. . .
Skirting and dado.-Skirting up to 30 ern in heightshall be measured in running metre (r ft)
and skirting or dado ex.ceeding 30 ern shall be measured in sq m (sq ft) stating the type of finish.
PLASTERING AND POINTING
Plastering.-Plasterillg shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) stating thickness, mortar and its mix.
Plastering of all roofs ceiling, walls, etc., shall be measured under separate items. The measurement
of all plastering shall be taken for the dimensions before plastering for length and from top to floor
or skirting to the ceiling for height. Exterior plastering to a height greater than tOm (30 It ) from
average ground level shall be measured separately in stages of 3 m ( 10ft),. .
Plastering bands 30 em (12") or below shall be measured in funning metre (I' It ).
'i
Cd5
METHODS OF MEASUREMENT
Deductions
(a) No deductions shall be made for ends of joists, beams, posts, etc., and openings. not
exceeding 0.5 sq rn (5 sq ft) each and no addition shall be made for reveals, jambs,
soffits, sills, etc., of these openingsnorfinishing pl-aster around ends ofJoints, beams,
posts, etc.
(b) For openings exceeding 0.5 sq m (5 sq ft) but not exceeding 3 sq m (30 sq ft)' each
deduction shall be made for one face only and the other face shall be allowed for jambs,
soffits and sills which shall not be measured.
(c) When the two faces are plastered with different mortars or if one side is plastered the'
other pointed, deduction shall be made on the side of chaukhat of door and windows on
which the width ofjambs or reveals is less than on the side. (Usually, deduction shall be
made for the outer face only).
(d) In case of openings of area above 3 sq m (30 sq ft) each deduction shall be made for both
faces of the openings, and the jambs and sills, shall be measured andadded. In taking
measurement of jambs, soffits and sills, chaukhat if any shall be neglected and the whole
shall be measured.
Moulded cornices and eaves shall be measured in running metre (r ft) stating the girth and shall
be fully described. - _ -_ 1
s?all be taken in m.(sq ft) measured the whole surface
area stating the type of pointing mortar and Its mix. Various types of pomting as, struck flush,
. keyed, truck, etc., shall be taken separately. Pointing of wall, floor, roof, etc., shall be kept separate.
Raking of joints shall be included in the item.
Deductions shall be dealt in the same way as for plastering.
WHITE WASHING, COLOUR WASHING AND DISTEMPERING
All works falling under this shall be taken in sq m (sq ft). Preparation of surface as cleaning,
brooming, scraping, etc., shall be included in the item. The items shall include repairs of surfaces as
holes, cracks, patches.etc., not: exceeding 0.1 sq m (I sq ft) with materials similarto existing surface.
Different types of works shall be measured separately and described. Deduction shall be dealt in the
same way as for plastering.
Finishing coat on corrugated surface shall be measured flat as fixed in sq m (sq ft) and not
girthed and the quantities so measured shall be increased by the following percentages and added
wit': the measured ;n'a :----,-
Corrugated iron sheets . 14 per cent
Corrugated asbestos cement sheet with large corrugations (as Big sixsheets) 20 per cent
Semi-corrugated asbestos cement sheets (as Trafford sheets)
'.'>
10 per cent
Cornices and mouldings, when these are not taken as separate item, shall be girthed and J
included in the wall measurement.
PAINTING
Painting shall be taken in sqm (sq ft) stating the number of coats and measurement shall be taken
flat. Preparatory work as cleaning rubbing down, removing, burning off, etc., shall be described.
Different types of surfaces as steel, wood, fibre board; concrete surface etc., shall be measured under
separate item. Painting in large area as roof ceiling etc., shall be kept separate and painting of small
areas as doors and windows. steel works. etc.. shall each be taken under separate item.
616 ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Corrugated surfaces shall be measured flat in sq m (sq ft) and percentage )ncrease similar to
white washing, etc., shall be added.
. Doors and windows.-Painting of doors and windows shall andflat.no]
girthed in sq m (sq ft) and shall includechaukhat edges,cIeats, etc. Different types of doors and
windows as battened, panelled, glazed, etc., shall be grouped .under one item and the areas of
uneven surfaces shall be covered into equivalent plain area by multiplying the flat measured area by
a multiplying factor.
The co-efficients or multiplying factors for different surfaces to get equivalent plain area are as
given below :
Particulars Method of Multiplying
Measurement Factors
Doors-end Windows-
I. Panelled, framed, and braced, ledged and Measured flat not I Y8 (for each side).
battened, ledged, battened and braced. girthed including
chaukhat, edges, chocks,
. cleats, etc., shall be
included in the item.
2. Fully glazed or gauged. Same as above. Y2 (for each side).
3. Part panelled and part glazed or gauged Same as above. I (for each side).
4. Flush door
Same as above. I (for each side)
5. Flush venetioned or lauvered Same as above. I Y2 (for each side).
Miscellaneous works-,-.
6. Boarding with cover fillets and match Measured flat not I 1/20 (for each side).
boarding.
-grithed
7. Roof battens (tile or slate roof).. Measured flat overall, (for painting all-
no deduction for open over).
spaces.
8. Trellies or jaffri work one way or two
Same as for (6) above, 2 (for painting all-
way.
(Supporting members over).
shall not be measured
separately).
9. Guard bars, balustrates, grating, railings, Measured flat overall no I (for painting all
griltsv.expanded .metal, etc. deduction for open over)
spaces.
10. Corrugated iron sheeting in roof: '. Measured flat not 1.14 (for each side).
girthed.
r I.
A.e. corrugated sheeting in roof Measured flat not 1.20 (for each side).
girthed.
12.
A.C. semi--eorrugated sheeting in roof Measured] flat not 1.1J (for each side).
girthed
13. Steel rolling shutters.
Measured flat not . I (for each side).
girthed.
Painting upto 15 ern (6") in width or in girth and not in conjunction with similar work shall be
measured in running metre (r ft).
OF MEASUREMENT 617
I
. i
,. ,
r
'. t- 1
Painting on components of compqun?' girders. stanchions.ilatices and work
shall be taken in sq m (sq ft).and shall be takenfO'get the area.
. .Painting on eaves.vgutters, pipes, steel poles, etc., shall be measured in runnirtg metre (r ft)
stating thesizeand girth:' ... ... .. _.._.'.--. ...--;.. .... .----------..---.. -
Small articles up to O. I sq m (I sq ft) painted surfaces shall be enumerated and described.
Painting of furnitures shall be enumerated and fully described. .
; ..
Coal tarring shall be measured similar to 'painting.
Varnishing of wood work shafl be measured in the same way as for painting.
. Painting ofletters and figures and similar items shall be enumerated stating height, form and
style, namely block italics, etc. Stops, commas, hyphens and the like shall be deemed included in the
item.
SANITARY AND WATER SUPPLY WORKS
Ail pipes and fittings should be classified according to their types, diameters, jointing and
fixing. Pipes of different types and different types of joints shall be taken separately. The diameter
shall be the nominal diameter of the internal bore.
Pipes shall be measured in running metre (r ft) net as laid or fixed with overall fittings such as
bends, junction, etc., which shall not be measured separately: The length shall be measured
the centre line of the pipes -and fittings. Methods of laying and jointing shall be fully described.
Testing of pipe line shall be included in the item. Lead caulked joints shall be enumerated
separately. . . i
Digging and refilling of trenches, concrete bedding, etc., shali be either measured separately or
cl ubbed with the main item. Usually for small diameter pipes the digging and refilling, timbering if
required, concrete bedding, etc., are included with the main item and fully described.
Fitting and apptiances---Gullies, syphons, intercepting traps, etc. including concrete bedding
and setting in position shall be enumerated stating the size.
Connection of fittings, elbows, bends, tees, connectors unions, diminishing sockets and the
like shall be enumerated.
Cutting through walls, floors, etc., and making good shall be included with the item.
. . . . .
Closet pans.' urinals. flushing cisterns, lava.o..y shower rose and ot he r
fillings shall be enumerated stating the size and fully described.
Sluice valves, stop cocks, hydrants, surface boxes, water metres, etc., shall be described stating
size and enumerated.
I
i
;
Bib-cocks, pillar cocks, ball cocks, ferrules, gratings, etc., shall be described stating the size
!
and enumerated.
Boilers, cisterns, cylinders, water tanks, etc., shall be-enumerated stating the size, capacity.
materials, etc., and fully described.
Manholes.-Manholes up to 6 m (20 It) depth shall be enumerated stating the size and depth
and shall include cast iron cover with frame (weight to be stated) foot iron, inverts, materials and
mortar, formwork, etc., all of which shall be fully described. . .
"''''';0.,., .,.- .. __.....
618 ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Manholes shall be classified under three different groups as follows :
(J) Shallow up to 2.1 m (7') in depth.
(iJ) Deep above 2.1. m and up to 7.2 m (7' to 14') in depth.
(iiI) Extra deep above 4.2 .m,and. up.to 6.0 -m-C14' to 20'_)-in.depth._
Manholes under each classification shall be enumerated separately stating the size and least
depth and the extra depth shall be measured in running metre (r ft) and totalled up separately for
each classification and taken as 'extra over'under separate item following the main item. Depth
shall befrorn the top of manhole to the invert of channel.
Manholes exceeding 6 m (20') in depth shall be measured in details under the various items of
works, brickwork, concrete, c.1. cover with frame, etc.
ELECTRICAL WORK
Electrical wiring shall be taken in points as light point, fan point, plug point, etc., and shall be
enumerated under different items and fully described.
Wiring in different systems such as Tough rubber sheathed (T.R.S.) on battens. Vulcanized
insulated rubber (V.I.R.) in casing or capping, Vulcanized insulated rubber (V.I.R.) in conduit.
etc., shall be fully described and taken separately. These shall be further classified according to the
size of cablesused, number of wires and size iri the cable shall be described under each classification.
Point wiring shall include all work necessary in complete wiring of a tumbler switch circuit and
length from the tapping point on the distribution circuit to the various points as ceiling rose, lamp
holder, back plate, call bell, etc., via the switch. Point wiring shall include switch, ceiling rose, wood
and metal blocks, switch boards, battens, clips, nails, screws joint and junction boxes, bulk head
fittings, earth wire, etc.
Lamps, brackets, lamp holders, shades, sockets, outlets, fans, regulators, call bells, fuses, main
switch boards etc., shall not be included in the point wiring but shall be enumerated separately and
fully described.
Classification.i--Point wiring shall be classified according to the length of wiring as under:
(a) Short points riot exceeding 3 m (10') in length.
(b) Medium points 3 to 9 m (l0' to 20') in length.
(c) Long points 6 to 10.m (20' to 30') in length.
(d) Special pointsof length exceeding 10 m
(30').
Circuit. wiring.-=-:The length of wiringfrom the mainswitchboard tothe sub-main board shall
be considered as circuit wiring and shall be measured separately in running metre (r ft) stating the
type and size of wire.
Service connections.-Service connection shall be fully described stating the type and size of
the wire and shall be measured as follows :- .
Insulated cables in running metre (r ft),
Bare cables in kg or quintal.
All over-head bare wire or cables shall be measured in kg of the actual length fixed.
Pole and struts for over-head links shall be enumerated and described stating the type,
sectional size, girth and diameter and the total length. .
Steel brackets, cross-arms, clamps, etc., fixed to poles and struts shall be fully described and
enumerated under separate item. .
--------------------
619
METHO;DS OF MEf'SUREMENT
J ,.
. " (
. .
Stay assemblies shall be enumerated and fully described including excavation, concrete, etc.
Earthing poles and sen/Ice conncctionsshall be enumerated and fully described as including
earth electrode! packing charcoal, earth. ..i . .
ROAD WORK I
. . . I
Road metal cclleetlon---Rcad metal, ballast, grit, ctc., shall be measured in cu m(cu ft) stating'
gauge, the type, quantity, etc .. and shall be described. Measurement shall be taken in bottomless
boxes or 'firrnas' or in closely packed stacks on level ground. Road metal of different type of gauge
shall be taken separately. Usually road metal is stacked along the road on the side berms and
cross-sectional measurement is taken with the help of stacking template of trapezium type and the
length of the stacks arc measured to get the quantity. Stacking of metal shall be included In the item.
Stacks of kankar shall be 32 ern (13") high and shall be measured as 30 ern (12").
Boulder-deduct 10% for voids.
Road metal consolidation.-The same quantity as collected shall betaken as consolidated, in
cu m (cu It) stating the method ofconsolidation; type and weight of rollers or hand rammers, etc.
Thickness consolidated thickness, if required, shall be the minimum thickness of layer after
consolidation. Spread thickness, before consolidation shall be derived from dividing the quantity
collected by the superficial area over which the metal is spread.
. Soling.-Soling coat of Brick flat or brick-on-edge shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) of the laid.
work stating the thickness of layer, number of layers, quality of bricks, etc. The method
filling of joints, blinding of the Surface and rolling shall be fully described. .
Boulder or stone soling shall be taken in cu m (cu ft)of the collected metal. Laying shall be'
taken as the same quantity as collected stating the thickness of layer, method of laying, blinding,
rolling, etc. .
Earthwork.-Earthowrk shall be measured in accordance with the rules and methods
described under 'earthwork' at the beginning of this chapter. Trimming and dressing of formations
to exact level, camber, gradient, superelevation, etc., shall be included and described.
Berms.-Preparation and repair of side berms shall be measured in km (miles) stating the
average filling and width. Both sid :s shall be included under one linear measurement.
Preparation ofsub-grade or formation to proper camber shall be measured in sq m (sq ft) and
described fully, depth of excavauonno. exceedingl S em (6").
Sub-bases or light-wearing surfaces of clinker, cinder, shingle, gravel, moorum, bajri, etc ..
shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) stating the minimum thickness and describing the method of
consolidation.
TAR AND BITUMEN ROAD
Tar and bitumen roads in general shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) stating the quality and quantity
or binder, stone grit, etc. The method of preparation of surface, mixing, laying, consolidation, etc.,
shall be included and fully described.
SLlrf"CC pairitin1?shall be taken in sq rn(sq ft) and the quantity of binder (tar or bitumen) in kg
per sq m rlbs per':f.stl ft) and the quantity of stone grit in cu m persq m(cu ft per%sq ft) required on
road su. face shall be described in the item.
620
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Premix carpet shall be taken in sq m (sq ft) and the quality of binder in kg per cu m (lbs per ClI
ft) of aggregate shall be described in the item and the consolidated thickness stated.
Grouting(full grout or semi-grout) shall be taken, in sq m(sq ft) and the quantity of binder in
kg per sqm(lbs p-er %sq ft) shall be-stated. The consolidationthieknessof Gnist.oflaycF.shallalsobc
stated. . .
Saerlfylng.v-Sacrifying of road shall be taken in sq 111 (sq It) stating the depth of sacrifyiug and
. the metal and surface.
. Cement concrete road.-Cement concrete road shall be measured in cu rn in accordance with
rules stated under concrete in this chapter. Forrnwork of pavement not exceeding 20 em (8") in
thickness shall be included in the concrete item and described including formwork. For those
exceeding 20 ern in thickness the formwork shall be measured separately.
DISMANTLING AND DEMOLITION
The term dismantling implies carefully taking up or down and removing carefully without
damage.
The term demolition taking up or down or breaking up without care.
The units and methods of measurement of dismantling and demolition shall be generally the
same as those employed for the construction of the respective item of work. Full description of
work including necessary precautions and protections required shall be stated. Parts of work
required to be dismantled and those required to be demolished, shall be measured separately. The
description shall also include separation and stacking of serviceable materials and disposal of
unserviceable materials within 30 m (100'). Thickness of plaster shall be excluded in the
measurement of wall. .
Dismantling of door and windows shall be enumerated stating their size.
Repairs-The units and methods of measurement for repair works shall generally be the same
as those employed for the construction of the item of work. .
MATERIALS
Bricks and tiles shall be taken in numbers stating the size and quality under different
classification as first class, second class, etc. Bricks are stacked by 1000 in each stack and stacks are
numbered and the number of stacks entered in the measurement book.
. .
The following materials shall be taken in cu m (cu ft) and measurement shall be taken in
bottomless boxes or 'firrnas' or closed packed stacks prepared on level ground, stating the size,
gauge., quality, type, etc. . . .
Sand, surkhi, cinder, bajri, kenksr.Iimc etc. Brick bellest.brick pats, boulder, stone ballasts.
gravel. shingle scone grit, etc. Different item of materialsshall be taken separately. .
Vlhite lime or scone lime slaked or unslaked shall b'e measured by weight in kg. or qui ntal
(rnaunds) and described. Slaked lime may also be measured in cu rnif specifed.
Cement shall be measured by weight in 50 kg bag in quintal or tonne. Loose cement in
q uantities shall be measured by weight in kg. . .
. B}.eaking ofstone, brick, etc., shall be measured in cu m (eu ft) in bottomless box or stacks as in
road metalstating the size and shall include stacking. ... .
Screening of ballast, grit, sand, etc. shall be measured by weight in kg or quintal by actual
weighing. . ...
Large sizes orsections of steel are measured in length (metre) and weight is calculated in kg or
quintal from steel section book by multiplying the weight per metre by the length.
CHAPTER 5
ANALYSIS. OF RATE
13-1. What is analysis of rate? The. basis of arriving at a correct and reasonable rate per unit work
orsupply, for aparticular item following its specification anddetailed equiP-
merits etc. as required fer the unit work and their prevailing rates may be called as an analysis of rate.
13-.2. Purposes of rate analysis. - Main purposes of rate analysis are the following :
(a) To determine the current rate per unit of an item at the locality,
(b) To examine the viability of rates offered by contractors,
(c) To calculate the quantity of materials and labour strength required for project planning and
.. (d) To fix up labour contract rates.
13-3. How to fix up rate per Unit of an item. - (Unit means unit of rate viz, cost of 1 GU m brick
work,) cu m concretework etc.) The following five sub-heads are estimated and a summation of these is
the rate per unit of an item. . . .
(a) Quantity of materials and cost,
(b) Labour costs,
(c) Costs of equiprnents or Tools and Plant (T. and P.),
(d) Overhead or Establishment charges (including incidental).and
(e) Profit,
(a) Quantity of materials and cost. -: The estimator takes off the quantities of various materials
required per unit quantity of an item following the detailed specification and calculates costs from local
market rates.
Quantities of materials are those required per unit rate of work delivered at work site and its cost
'include first cost, freight, transportation, sales. tax and insurance charges as arises in question. In case
when materials like cement, steel, stone chips and bitumen are supplied departmentally then profit on the
cost of materials is not allowed, but cost of carriage from godown to work site shall be added. ..
(b) Labour COSI. - 1 U UUli1iUII1UVLH ,",v::'l.3, 'h..uUU'" auu ''''6.:: __ _ _ .gories of
labourers, skilled, and unskilled, namely mason or carpenter, mazdoor, boy etc. required for each unit of
work should be known and this number is to be multiplied by the respectivewage per day (or per hour).
(c) Cost of equipments, Tools and Plant (T & P). - Wherever possible the cost of equipments
and ordi nary T. & P. those are required for general use should beallocated to specific item of rate. For ex
ample, the cost of operating a . concrete mixer should be spread over those items of rates for which it is
used. For certain tools and plants it isdifticult to allocateti.eir use to an individual item of rates and it is,
therefore, suggested to add costs in such cases of expenditure to over-head i.e, establishment charges.
Special Tools and Plants. - . For big work or project it becomes necessary to use special type of
tools and plants, viz, special type oe concrete mixing machines named. as Batchingplants, special type of
mixed concrete transport vehicles named as 'Tripping wagon or Dumper'. Cranes etc. are in use. In order
to purchase such type of special cquiprncnts an amount of 1%to l:t % of the estimated cost is provided
in the estimate.
(d) Overhead or Establishment Charges. - This includes such items as office rent and deprecia- .
tion of its cquiprncrus, salaries of office staff', postage, lighting, travelling, telephone account, plan and
specification etc. Small tools, planks, ladders, ropes and such hand-tools as the contractor provides for his.
workman should also be included in the overhead ciiargc as suggested in (c). This is usually 2"1 % of the
net cost or a unit orrate and may rise up to 5%.
()"c:-I":ad chargci; increase if the prC1gfC';:-; 01;'. project is delayed, charges may JCdivided
1I11lkr ["In
---..----- .
474
. .
ESTIMATINO COSTING' AND SPECfF!CATION'
(A) General Overheads and(n) Job Overheads.
(A) General Overheads : /\ contractor firm used' to maimainoffice through the years irrespective to
running works in hand. At times there may be no work or several works under execution. But general ex
penses to maintai 1\ the 0 lficc have 10 be borne and all such expenses-are considered general overheads such
'as(i) Salaries of office' staff; (iijPurchase of -_.
rent, (iv) Telephone and electric bills, (v) Travelling etc. and all such expenses required to the run office.
General overhead is a recurring known expenditure and docs not depend on the velum- '""work ur.der exe
cution. This account is spread proportionately on all work in a year. A construction Firm has to rear such
expenditure even though there is no work in hand. For a big Firm general overhead is high. On :..':c other
hand small Firms require nominal general overhead. Any amount for such expenses can not be
from the work. Volumes of work can be executed with proportionally low general overhead
ment.
(B) Job Overheads: These are the nature of expenses directly incurred to construct a job cr. ;::roj-:.et
such as (1) Salaries of all personnels (technical or non-technical) engaged for the work, (2) Te:::porx)'
sheds or house and godown rents for the work. (3) Small tools, planks ladders, ropes and hand tn.-'s as L'1e
contractor provides for his workmen, (4) Repairs and depreciation for Tools and Plant, (5) at
site, (6) Mobilization of establishments, Tools and Plant, (7) Public relations. (8) Labour and
safety measures, (9) Workmen's compensation, Insurance etc., (10) Interest on investment, (1i)
or loss etc. All such other expenses required till the work is completed and handed over to the owner for
which no separate payment is received by a contractor against the work. Job overhead is not a krown ex
pense, depends on the volume of work under execution. When there be no work no expense is required. In
case there be idle labour or maintenance due to owner's fault recovery of expenses for such p:o..-: or job
overhead becomes possible. . .
(C) Profit. - Generally a profit of 10% should be considered reasonable for ordinary contracts .,t'ti:r
allocating all charges of equiprnents, establishments etc. For small jobs 15% profit and for large jobs 8::i:
profit should be considered as reasonable.
The method ofpreparation ofan analysis of rate has been based on All India Standard Schedule of
Rates which is documentary and prepared by the National Building Organisation and U. N. Regional
Housing Centre. ESCAP (India). The conference of State Housing Ministers held at Bhopal during Octo
ber 1975 has recommended that the Standard Schedule of Rates being a necessary adjunct to the National
Code should also be adopted by all construction agencies in the country. There may be some variations
between the prevailing practice and the provisions made in the analysis of rates but "All India Sizndard
Schedule ofRates" may be considered as authentic end a basic document.
Water Charge: - For drinking purpose of the workers and.for the work, .f water
either by sinking tubewell or by taking temporary water connection from the- C0rp0r:l:10:1 or
becomes r.ecessary. In order to meet up theexpensean amountor i % of the total C'OS! of rnater.ais and
labour has been provided in the analysis of Rate as per provision made in the SundarJ ..\:-.J.::. sis ;:'::-
13-4. Factors effecting the rate analysis. - The rate of an item or work mainly depends on the IC'l!t.:,win;
factors :- (I) Specification of the item which indicates the quality and proportion or materals, the
methods of construction and protection or work; (2) The present rate of materials for the item .:f work
t, t::.: orksitc ; (.') Daily W:lgCS of different categories of labourer at the locality ',>,::j their
respective outputs: (4) The range of lead and lift required- for deposition of male-rials to om
the item or work ; (5) Percentage charge for overheads which includes insurance .ind the pcssibilit'.
or lh;::ft or loss etc; (6) The range of profit and availability or water in connection with th;? construction work,
Beside these the site condition. site organisation and cost-control during cxcctuticn ('[2 .. be
considered as U1(',s(' factors affect the cost per unit of work done at site.
" .,
!
-1-75
ANALYSIS OF RATE
13-5. Quantity of Materials Required
Name of work
1. Briekwork
2. Halr brickwork-s
3. Random Rubble
stone Masonry
4. Ashlar Masonry
5. Coursed Rubble
stone Masonry
6. Single brick
flat soling
7. Brick on edge floor
with cement mortar
8. 20mm thick D.P.C.
with cement mortar
9. Reinforced
3 r c ' : : ' : , r ~ .
10. Precast Terrazzo
Tiles on 12 mm
thick cement plaster
11. Lime terracing on
roof 2: 2: 7
(a) For 7.5 em thick
(b) For 10 em thick
per 10 cu. Ill.
per 100 sq. m
per 10 cu. m
per 10 cu. m
per 10 cu. m
per 10 sq. m
per 10 sq. m
per 100 sq.m
per 10 cu m
per 100 sq.rn.
per 100sq m
for Different Items of Works
Materials
Bricks 20 em x 10 em x 10 em
..... 25.4 em x 12.7 ernx7:6em
" 22.9 ern x 11.4 em x 7.6 em
Dry cement mortar
.. lime mortar
Bricks 20 em x 10em x 10 em
" 25.4 em x 12.7emx 1-6 em
" 22.9 cm x 11.4 em x 7.6 em
Dry mortar
Stone
Dry lime mortar
Dry cement mortar .
Stone
Dry cement mortar
It lime mortar
Stone
Dry cement mortar
It lime mortar
Bricks 20 em x 10 em x 10 em
.. 25.4 em x 12.7 em x 7.6 em
It 22.9 em x 1i,4 em x 7.6 em
Bricks 20 em x 10 em x 10 em
.. 25.4 em x 12.7 em x 7.6 em
.. 22.9 em x 11.4 em x 7.6 em
Dry mortar
Cement
Sand
Water-proofing compound
Bricks
. f)ry el'IT'eflt mortar
Tiles
Cement
Pigment
Lime
Surki
Brick ballast
Lime
Surki
Brick ballast
Quantity
5000 nos.
.. 4-tOO- _."
5000
3.5 cu m
4.0 eu m
5000 nos.
4100 nos.
5000
3.15 ell In
12.5 cum
4.4
4.2
12.50 eu m
... "2.5 "
3.0
12.5 eu m
4.0
4.2 eu m
425 nos.
320 It
425
500 nos.
410
500 .
-;
3.:5 eu m
27 bags
1.8 cu m
27 kg
. 4,500 nos.
4.R.Cll m.
110 sq m
13 bags
oA/i kg
2.1 cu m
2.1 eu m
7.5 eu m
2.9 cu m
2.9 eu m
10.2 cu m
Ii'
ESTIMATING AND, SPECIFICATION
76
Najne or wnr.k
Materials
2. Ranigunj Tile roofing
Ranigunj Tiles
in lime mortar- pCf 10 sq.m.
Dry lime mortar
. .._. , ,_ ...
3. C. G. 1. Shectroofing- per 10 sq. m.
G.1. sheet
l. A. C. Corrugated sheet roofing per 10 sq. m. A. C. sheet
;. 1201m thick cement plaster PCi 100 sq.m. Dry mortar
). Neat cement punning per 100 sq.rn Cement
(about 1.5 mm)
1 flush pointing in cement per 100 sq.m Dry mortar
mortar
L Single coat while-washing per 100sq.m Stone lime (unslaked)
to old work
I. Two coats white-washing on a per 100 sq.m . Stone lime (unslaked)
coat of primer to new work
l. Distempering two coats per 100 sq. m. Tropic dry distemper
to new cement plaster 1st coat
. 2nd coat
.. Lime punning over plastered per 10 sq. m. Slaked stone lime
surface Shell lime
I Snow-cern washing on per 100 sq. m. 1st coat
plastered surface- 2nd coat
I. Primer coat on steel work per 100 sq. m Primer
with 'ready mixed primer
Primer coat on wood work per 100 sq. m.. Primer
with ready mixed primer.
I. Painting two coats on new
- do '- Ready mixed paint
work with ready mixed paint .
I. Water-proofing cement . per 10sq. m. Mixed cement paint
painting two coats to '
new plaster to exterior walls
Spray painting with wall per 100 sq.m. Priming coat primer
paints on new work inclu- Wall paint
ing under coat .
Painting with synthetic per 100 sq.m. Enamel paint
enamel paint on new work
(excluding primer.coat)
Varnishing with Copal . per 100 sq.m. Under coat varnishing
varnish on new work inclu Cop31 varnish
ding under coat
Wax polishing, on new
woodwork with ready
made polish per 100 sq.m. Ready-made wax polish
Floating coat of cement per sq. m. Cement
Quantity
124 nos.
0.15 cu III
O.14__cum .. '..
12.8 sq m
11.50 sq m I
."
1.92 cu m
5.5 bags
'0.7 cu m
10 kg
,30 kg
12 kg
7.5 kg
18 kg
8 kg
30 kg
20 kg
5.5litres
7.5 litres
12.5 litres
2 litres
8.1 litres
11 litres
11.6 litres
7.0 litres
11.6 litres
5.0 kg
2.2 kg
- I
477
ANALYSIS OF RATE
32. Quantity of coarse aggregate, sand and cement for different proportions.
,I
II
-_/
J
1
.1
1
I
__ I
In the analysis of rates per CU m, at first a volume of 10 cu m has been considered in the calcula
tions to avoid one place of decimal. - - . .
to But it is difficult to assess exactly the amount of each material required to produce 10 cu m of wet
concrete- when-deposited in placee- Quantities of.ingredients. maycloselyhe determined.by. a.thumb.rule' as.,
given below.
To find out the volumes of cement, sand and coarse aggregate divide a numerical number 15.4 vari
able up to 15.7 according to the proportioning and 'Water cement ratio' by the summation of the propor
tions of the Ingredients used and then muluply theresult thus obtained by their respective strength of pro
portioning. In case of brick ballast (or jhama chips) the nume-rical number is variable from 15.7 to 16.0
as void in brick ballast is higher than that of stone chips. Variation should be adjusted with an aim to get
a round number as far as possible.
Example 1.- For 1 : 2: 4 proportion with stone chips:
Summation of proportion =1 + 2 + 4 =7. The numerical number should be 15.4 to obtain a
round figure (as far as possible) after dividing the number by 7.
- 15,4 - .
:. Cement = -7- =2.2 cu m ; Sand 2.2 x 2:= 4,4 cu rn ; Stone ChIpS = 2.2 x 4= 8.8 cu m
For 1 : 2 : 4 proportion with brick ballast (or jhama chips) the numerical number (variable from
15.7 to 16.0) Il}ay be considered ne-arlyas 15.8.
15.8
:. C =-::;- =2.25 cu m; Sand= 2.25 x 2= 4.5 cu m_; Brick ballast =2.25 x 4 =9.0 cu m..
Note 'that the last-figure of the numerical number has been adjusted in both the cases during divi
sion to obtain the result as round as possible.
Note : volume of cement 1 cu em of ordinary portland cement. 1.440 grams
:. 1 cu m .. .. =1440 kg
Now, weight of 1 bag cement = 50 kg. :. VoL of 1 bag = 0.0347 cu m
A table has' been prepared for quantity of materials that may be required' in different proportions
subject to a variation .of plus/minus five percent and mostly same as adopted by Government. departments
and also recommended by All India of rates.
Quantity of materials "or 10 cu m of concrete (varlation 5% allowed) based on as
sumption that dry sand with necessary allowance for bulking in used.
Brick I Wat.er
Volumetric
proportion]
Cement
-\
Dry Sand _I
Dry Sand
'oallasr
20mm to
peroog
of
m bags
eu m _ eu m 6mm cement
----j
1 : 1: 2 i 3.9
1
IJ . - ., 8
. 2' -" ....
112,4
80.7' 4.2
recommender
-do - do
71; Hues
8-i ..
1 : 2: 4 : 2.2 63.4 4.4 4.5 9.0 cu m
..
l
. ') Ii. ,,:
. - -2 . -':
1 8
.
51.9 4.6
- 4.7 9.3 " 10 "
. 1 : 3 : 6 i 1.57 45.2 4.7 4.8
9.6 n
11 II
) : 4 : 8 ! 1.20 J 34.6 4.8 4.9
9.8 If
13 1
. L.
..
4.9
28_.2--,-_____ _ __
5.5
10.0 ..
14 ..
478
ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFICATION
13-5. Estimating labour. During preparation of labour estimates due allowance must be made for
variations in wages, working conditions and for the di(ferent classes of labour required for different kinds
ofworks. . , -., - -', t .
The length of time required to do piece of work may vary according to the skill and
tal development of the workman and alsqaccording to the working 'conditions to the particular job. When
, work is-plentiful, labour scarce, andjobs are easy-to:get-thetime-required-for-a-labGurer-todo-a-certain ._-
piece of work is generally more than the average and vice-versa. However, the experience ofa contractor,
after a few months when he has had a number of workmen under hirri, should enable him to estimate quite
accurately the length of time that any of the workmen will need to do a certain job. Local customs or un
_.)on regulations often require to specify number and classes of labour for a certain work. The recommenda
tions 'of All India Standard Schedule of Rates for different kinds of labourers as required to do a certain
piece of work have precisely been adopted to prepare the analysis of rates.
13-6. Task or out-turn work: -'- This is the quantity of work which can be done by an artisan or
skilled labour of the trade working for 8 hours a day. Although out-tum work is variable yet in order to
specify the same an average approximate quantity has been worked out following the Standard Analysis of
Rates as far as possible. The out-turn work does not mean that the quantity of work can be completed
only by the labourer asdesignated below. But other types of labourers or helpers are also to be engaged to
complete the quantity of work. For an example a Mason can complete 1.50 cum of brickwork per day
(8 hours a day) provided he is helped by 2'Mazdoors to carry and mix the ingredients of mortar and also to
carry and place all other materials at his disposal etc. Instruction from a Head Mason for a few hours 'is
also necessary to complete the quantity of brickwork.
Description of Work
Quantity of work per day
(8 hours a day)
1. Earthwork in excavation in foundation trenches in ordinary
soil, lead up to 50 m and lift up to 1.5 m '
2.27 cu m per Mazdoor
2.
Earthwork in excavation in foundation trenches in hard soil,
lead up to 50 m and lift up to 1.5 m .
2. 1(} cu m It
3.
Excavation in soft or decomposed rock by blasting, lead up to
- ;
50 m and lift up to 1.5 m. '
;
0.55
It
4.
Sand filling in plinth, consolidating and dressing _
4.00
5. Single layer brick flat soling includingramming and
dressing the bed etc.
9.00 sq m
6. Lime concrete in foundation
10.00 Cll m per Mason
i. Cement concrete
5.00
8. Cement concrete ( 1 : 2 : 4 ) for R. C. C. work
3.25
<;.
in Ioundation and plinth
L25
10. Brickwork in superstructure ground floor
1.10
11. Half brickwork in partition wall
7.00 sq m
12. Brickwork in plain arches
1.00 m
13. Reinforced Brickwork in slabs
1.00 cu m
14. 2.5 ern thick cement concrete D. P. C
12.50 sq m per Mason
15. 20 mm thick D. P. C. with cement mortar 20.00 sq m per Mason
16. Random rubble masonry in foundation and plinth '
1.00 cu m
17.
in superstructure 0.90
479
':,

,.?
.ct,
..
."

.wc

'>.If

,;,\
-;
18.
..
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
-,
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
Descriptior; c-
f
ANALYSIS OF RATE
Work
Ashlar masonry in superstructure
Coursed rubble stone masonry in superstructure
Brick-on-edgefloor with cement mortar .
7.5 cm thick cern concrete floor ( I: 4 : 8) .
Terraced DOOling 7.5 em thick
2.5 ern thick cement concrete flooring
Neat cement punning (about 1.5 mm thick)
Terrazzo floor 6 mm thick mosaic work over 2 em
thick cement concrete ( 1 : 2 : 4 )
Terrazzo skirting or dado 6 mm thick Terrazzo layer
over 12mm thick cement plaster
Precast Terrazzo tiles 20mm thick laying ona bed of
25 mm thick lime mortar
Precast Terrazzo tiles 20 mm thick in skirting and rises of
steps on 12 mm cement plaster
10 em average thick lime terracing on R. C. roof
Flat terrace roofing average 10 cm thick over two layers
of tiles (with 2.5 ern mortar)
Ranigunj Tile roofing
Mangalore Tile roofing including wooden battens,
Tiles set in cement mortar
Corrugated Galvanised Iron sheet roofing
12 mm thick cement plaster on new brickwork
6 mm thick cement plaster to R. C. ceiling
Rule pointing on brickwork
Single coat white-washing over old white-washed surface
White-washing two coats on a coat of primer
Distempering two coats to new cement plaster with a coat of primer
Lime punning over interior plaster
4L . Water-prooflng cement paint (snow cemjto new cement piaster
42.
Wall painting with plastic emulsion paint for even shade
, ,
43.
Primer coat with ready mixed primeron wood or steel-work
44.
Painting two coats (excluding primer coat) with ready
mixed. paint for wood-work
45. Painting two coats (excluding primer coat) ready mixed
paint on old wood-work
46. Breaking of overbumt brick to ballast 40 mm down
i. .
47. Breaking of overburnt brick to ballast 25 mm down
Quantity of work per day
(8 hours a day)
0.40 "
0.67
_..._." .. - - _. - ._.-_.. _--
1.00 sq m
10.00 II
20.00 "
12.50 II
40.00 "
5.00
fl.
3.85
5.00 sq m per Mason
II II
3.20
9.10
5.00
II
..
6.70
10.00 II
II 10.00 " Carpenter
II II 10.00 Mason
10.00 " II
10.00 "
133.00 " .. Painter
66.70 ..
..
17.00 ..
10.00 .. " Mason
20.00 " " Painter
II 28.00 " Painter
40.00 " "
18.00 sq m per Painter
28.00 "
0.75 cu m per Mazdoor
0.55
..
ESTIMATING COSTTNG AND SPECIFICATI0l'!'
480
Students and beginners having little practical experience often find it difficult to bear in mind the
number of labourers (skilled and unskilled) which are to be engaged to complete different types of works.
Therefore. the number of labour gangs having different working strength has been shown in a tabular
form and the item of works that are 'to be completed by such a gang has been indicated against them.
Consider-ing allthe..factors as discussed beforea ?% in' some cases. if it ever occurs.
should not affect the accuracy of the estimate. .. .. _._.. . - .
(i)
Name
of
Gang.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(ii)
Strength of
Gang.
1 .
-4 Head Mason
1 Mason
20 Mazdoors
(Beldars)
1. Head Mason
10 Masons
15 Mazdoors
(Belders)
. . ..
.I
(iv) (v)
I Anyone item of work which may Volume Adjustment
be completed by the gang. Volume of 'for column (ii)
of work is an in column (iv) work
(1) Lime concrete in foundation ... l O'cu m
(2) Lime punning over plastering IS1. (2) decrease 18 Mazdoors . ... 10sqrn
and the head mason.
(3) Cement concrete in foundation ... 10cu m SI. (3) Increase 1 Mason
I (1) Brick work in ground floor 10 cu m (1) For plinth and foundation
reduce 2 Masons and increase
(2) Brickwork inplain arches ... 10 cu m 2 Mazdoors (Beldars) & for
first floor reduce 1 Mason and
increase 5 Mazdoors
(3) Brick on edge floor .. . 100 sq m (3) Add 4 more Mazdoors.
,
I For ground floor add 1 Mason
. !
Reinforced concrete brick slab .. lOcum and 2 Mazdoors overplinth
(5) Random Rubble masonry in
foundation and plinth ... 10.cu m
(6) 6 mm thick cement plastering
to ceiling ... 100sqm (6) reduce 3 Mazdoors
(7) 12 mm thick cement
on walls .. 100 sq m I (7) reduce 5 Mazdoors
(8) Rule pointing on brick wall .. 100 sq m I(8) reduce 5 Mazdoors
(9) 7.5 em-thick cement concrete
. '.'
I
floor .. 100 sq m i (9) Increase 5 Mazdoors
(1) Ashlar Masonry in super
1
i .
10 cu m I (1) Add 10 Masons and structure at ground floor ..
10 Mazdoors,
(2) Coursed Rubble stone Masonry
I
in superstructure at ground floor 10cu m (2) Add further 4 nos.
Mazdoors.
'j (3) Half brickwork at ground floor ... 100 sq m (3) Reduce 1 Mason,
I
increase 1 Mazdoor.
v
i
Head 'Mason
15 Masons
20 Mazdoors
!
I .
I
I
I
-.
I
_.,
481
ANALYSIS OF RATE
137 Labour output constant in Days (8 working hours) following All India Schedule
of Rate. This is helpful to fix up labour contract rates.
Sf. Description of work Unit Labour in days (8 working hrs.)
No
(A) Earthwork
1. Excavation in trenches for foundation
not exceeding 1.5m in width. lift up to
105mand lead up to 30m
(a) In ordinary soil ... 10 cu m
(b) In dense or Hard soil
"'110 cu m
2. Filling excavated earth in trenches
. I
plinth, sides of foundation in layers
I .
'I
not exceeding 20 ern in depth ... 10eu m
I
i 3. Lime concrete in foundation ... 10 cu m
(B) Concretework
4. Cement-concrete (hand mixed) in
foundation prop. 1 : 5 : 10; 1 : 4: 8; 1 : 3: 6 10 cu m
5. Cement concrete (machine mixed)
in foundation
... 10 cu m
6. Cement concrete for R. C. C. work . .. 10 cu m
8. . Centering and shuttering for
flat surface
... 10 sq rn
9. Reinforcement work for R. C. C.
\ perQt1.
10. R.B.Work
... 10 cu rn
I
I
1
I
Mazdoor-3 '4
Mazdoor- 7 1.
4
Mazdoor-2 t
Head Mason-i; Mason- 1
Mazdoor- 18; .. Bhisti- 2
Head Mason- -t; Mason- 2
Mazdoor- 10 ; Bhisti- 2
Head Mason- 21
Mazdoor- 12 ; Bhisti- 2
Head Mason-i; Mason- 3 .
Mazdoor- I? ; Bhisti- 4
Carpenter- 3; Mazdoor-4
Mason-cum- blacksmith- 1
Mazdoor-l
Head Mason-I; Mason- 10,
Mazdoor- 16, Bhisti- 4,
Black-smith- 5
Mazdoor for M.S. work- 6
11. 2.5 cm thick cement concrete D.P.C
10 sq rn .. Head Mason- 0.p5 : Mason- 0.8
. I
. I
(C) Brick work
] 2. Brick work foundation and plinth . 10 Cll m
13. First class brickwork in superstructure
ground floor .,. 10 cu m
14. First-class brickwork for 1st. Floor ... 10cu m
(The rate of grou nd floor + 1% for each
addition floor avo 3m ht.as extra over)
15. Half brick wail (wilhout hoop iron
reinforcement) ... 10 sqm
-do- do- with H. B. wire netting ... 110 sq m
I . .
I
31
Mazdoor-O.8; Bhisti- 0.01
Head Mason-1 ; Mason-8
Mazdoor- 14 ; Bhisti- :2
Head Mason-i ; Mason-8
Mazdoor- 15 ; Bhisti- 2
Head ; Mason-9
Mazdoor- 18 ; Bhisti- 2
Mason- 1.2; Mazdoor- 2.0
0.3
Mason- 1.4 ; Mazdoor- 1.8 ; .
Bhisti-- 0.3
. . "'b";r=uJiiI"-_
i
:i
.'
482 ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFICATION
sr, Unit Labour in days (8 working hrs.)
No
Description of work '
17. Random rubble stone masonry in
I
foundation and plinth in lime or cement 10 cu III
mortar '. . '
..
...
. ,-- .
.
18. Coursed rubble stone masonry in
lime or cement mortar in superst, ... 10 cu m
19. Ashlar masonry in lime-or-cement
mortar in superstructure ... 10 cu m
(D) Flooring
20. 7.5 ern thick terraced (lime concrete) Floor ... 10 sqm
21. 7.5 em thick cement concrete floor 10 sq m
22.
25mm thick cement concrete or artificial
stone flooring
... 10 sq m
23. Terrazzo skirting or Dado
... 10sqm
24. Precast terrazzo tiles to floor
... 10 sqm
(F) Roofing
25: 10 em (av.) thick lime terracing at
10 sq m
Ist, floor .
26. Mangalore Tile roofing with battems
... 10 sq m
27. Corrugated Galvanised iron roofing
... 10 sqm
(G) Plastering and polnung
28. 12 mm thick plaster to brickwork
... 10 sq m
29. Rule pointing' incemenr mortar on'
10 sq m
brick on walls
(H) Finishing
30. , White washing or colour washing
2 coats with a coat of primer coat
100 sq m
31. Distempering two coats with a coat of primer
100 sq m
32. Lime punning ...
10 sq m
33. Painting two coats with '
aprimer coat with ready mixed paint to new
woodwork ... 100 sq m
Head Mason-i ; Mason- 10 ;

j
!
Head Mason-l ; Mason- 15 ;
Mazdoor- 22
2
' ISU- "2
Bh" 1 1
Head Maso;j ;
Mason- 25;
Mazdoor- 3 2' Bhisti- 11;
Head 1VIason-1; Mason ,
1
Mazdoor- 3
2,
Bhisti- 0.3
Head Mason do; Mason- 1;
1
Mazdoor- 1.8 Bl
"
usu- 5
Head Mason-io; Mason- 0.8
Mazdoor- 1.2; Bhisti- 0.2
Head Mason-lo ; Mason- 2 1: ;
Mazdoor- 4; Bhisti-t ; Polisher- 9.8
Head Mason- -to ;Mason-, 2; ,
Mazdoor- 2; Bhisti- Polisher- 61
1 .
Head Mason- 20 ; Mason- 1; .
Mazdoor-. 1.9; Bhisti- 0.3;
Mazdoor (femalej- 6i
Carpenter-!; Tile layer- i;
.
Mazdoor- 31
Carpenter- 1;
Blacksmith---! ;
Mazdoor-2
Head Mason- in
Mazdoor-.l.4; Bhisti- 0.10
Head Mar.on-l0; ,Mason- 1;
Mazdoor- 0.9; Bhisti- 0.10
I
Painter- 11 ; Mazdoor-2.
Painter- 21 ; Mazdoor-2
2
1
Mason- 1; Mazdoor-2
Painter(lst class)- 8; Helper- 8.
I
13-8. Rate of Materials and labour : This is variable from place to place and time to time. In practice

the actual local market rates should be collected from the area concerned. For metropolitan towns the rates
-, ofbricks, sand, stone chips, and surki should be increased even up to 10%. The rates provided in the analysis
for different items 1 to 81 arc all old. The cu rrcntrates for materials and labou r are given below. These
[J,
new rates should rephlcc the old nltcs in the tables of analysis of rates for items 1 to 8i. ' ,
Description of Item Unit of Rate Rate Rate of hilly
'.
:I
Rs. P. or sandy area
-- - -, -. Rs:-P
(A) Materials as per approved specifications
delivered at wurksitc including stacking,
"
I. Bricks first class (kiln burnt) 20 em x LO em x 10 em
or traditional 9" x x 3" (nominal)
2. Bricks first class (kiln burnt) 10" x 5" x 3" ,
3. Bricks 2nd class (kiln bunu) 20 em x 10em x lu cm or
traditional 9" x 3" ,
- \
4. Bricks second class (kiln burnt) 10" x 5" x 3"
5. Over burnt of'Picked jhamabrick 20 em x 10em
x 10 em or traditional 9" x 41." x 3" '
2
6. Over burnt or Picked jhama bricks 10" x 5" x 3"
7. Over burnt brick bats
8. Sand (coarse)
; ....
9. Sand (medium)
10. Sand (local)
11. Surki
12. Cement
13. Lime (slaked stone or white)
14.- Lime (unslaked stone or white) free lime 60%
& above
15. Stone ballast 40' mrn down
16. Stone chips 20 nun down
17.. Stone chips 12 nun down
18. Hard stone ballast 40 nundown (local)
19. Over burnt brick chips 25 mm down
. 20. Brick ballast or jhama chips 40 nun down
"
','
21. Marble chips (grit Dehradun)
22. Tor steel up to 16 nun diameter
23. 'Tor steel frOI11 16 up to 32 mm diameter
24. Black iron wire '
25. Ft.B. wire netting .
26. Water-proofing compound
27. GUl11
28. Primer
29. -hopic distempering
Raniganj Pattern Tiles
B. Labour t S hours working period in day time)
I. Head mason '
2. Mason (ordinary')
3. Mazdoor (Bcldar)
-l. Carpenter
5. Black-smith and Fitter
G. Painter
7. Plumbing Mistry
I
.. _..
%0 Nos.
2,200.00 2.000.00
%0 Nos. 2,800.00 2.500.00
%0 Nos. 2,500.00 1.800.00
%0 Nos.
2,500.00 2.300.00
%0 Nos.
2,000.00 1.800.00
2,000.00 2,200.00
.... %0 Nos.
350.00 400.00
cu. m.
600.00 400.00
cu. m.
500.00 300.00
cu. m.
cu. m.
200.00
cu. m. 400.00 260.00
per bag 173.00
cu. m. 1,400.00
450.00
quintal
800.00
cu. m.
900.00
cu. m.
850.00
cu. m.
800.00
cu. m.
600.00
cu. m.
450.00 570.00
cu. m.
300.00
quintal
2,800.00
quintal
2,600.OQ
quintal
23.00
. kg.
70.00
. sq:m.
.., :i5.JO'
kg.
kg.
40.00
. Litre
70".00
kg.
40.00
. %0 Nos. 500.00
Each per day
110.00
"
100.00
60.00
"
II
100.00
lJ

u
u . 100.00
, I00.00
Note :
For a short
period .... -ork
increase the
rare@Rs.5
for each kind
of labourer
X. SHlllras __ lOQJXL _
F'h-ar;;::;;rs-- ..... - ....- .._-_......
';;..------
.
484 ESTIMATING COSTING SPECIFICATION
13-9. Statement of Building Cost Indices over plinth area rates on Oct6ber 1976 as lq<l Received dur- -:
.io.!!LM period 31. 10.87 to 31. 08. 88 C.P.W.D. as effective from 1988. (Cost Index IS variable but to have
a general idea of comparative cost between important towns of India the Cost Index may be helpful). .
"St. Name of City/Stale Cost Sl.. Name of City/State Cost
"
No: .
Index
""
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
II,
12,
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
Ambala (HR)
Arnritsar (PB)
Allahabad (U. P.)
Agra (0. P.)
Arnarkot
Bilaspur
Bulandshahar (U. P,)
Bharatpur (RAJ)
Bikanear (RAJ) ,
Barcilly CU. P.)
Chittorgarh (RAJ)
Churu (RAJ)
Derababananak (FB)
Faridkot (FB)
Fazilka (PB)
Ferozpur (PB)
Gurdaspur cPB)
Jaipur (RAJ)
Jallalabad
Jaiselmer (RAJ)
Kargil (J & K)
Kanpur CU. P.)
Kota (RAJ)
Leh (J & K)
Lucknow CU. P.)
Madhupur
Meerut CU. P.)
Mount Abu (RAJ)
Dhanbad (Bihar)
Pant Nagar CU. P.)
Srinagar (J & K)
Shirnla (H. P.)
Udharnpur (J & K)
Aurangabad (Maharasntra)
Arnravati (Maharashtra)
Bombay (Maharashtra)
Bhavnagar(Gujarm)
38., Kolhapur(Maharashtra)
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
Nasik (Maharashtra)
Nanded ( " )"
Parbhani ( " )
Ratnagiri ( "" )
Shcgaon ( " )
Anarnhapur (A. P.)
45'1 Calicut & Karipur (A. P.)
46. Coimb::llore (City & Ca) (T.N.)
.,li .
Indexi..:.::_No.----""-""
"," "---'-'-:396:-

374 ! 47.
366 i 48.
424 I 49,
360 "I 50.
372 ' 51.
358 I 52.
401, 53.
348 : 54.
358 I 55.
,436' 56.
299 !' 57.
359', 'I' 58.
369 59.
377 60.
384 61.
372 62.
376 63.
328 64.
380 65.
333 66.
556 67.
389 68.
333 69.
524 70.
412 71.
362 ,72.
394 73.
342 74.
452 75.
389 76.
473 77.
509 78.
386 79.
Gulbarga (Karnataka)
'l.iUrltur
Kouayarn (Kerala)
Bakara (Bihar)
Kalapct (Pondichcry)
Kakinada (A. P.)
Karim Nagar (A. P.) ,
Mangalorc City (Kamataka)
Madras City (T. N.)
Machili Pamam (A. P.)
Mallapuram (Kerala)
Nizarn Sagar (A. P.)
Nellore (A. P.)
amy (T. N.)
Pondicherry CU: T.)
Qullon (Kerala)
Salem (T; N.)
Trivandrurn (City & CA)
Trichy (T. N.)
Vijayawada.fTown) (A. P.)
Warangal (A. P.)
Calcutta
Baruini
Baripada (Orissa)
Chaibasa (Bihar)
Chiplima (Orissa)
Coochbehar (W. B.)-
Dirnapur (Nagaland),
Gaya (Bihar)
Hazaribagh (Bihar),;
Imphal (Manipur) "" ,
Pumea (Bihar) , '
Paradeep (Orissa)
3S4 ' ba. ' Rouzkela(Orissa) ,
393 81. Siliguri (W. B.)
416 82. Shillong (Meghalaya)
382 83. Santiniketan (Bolpur) (W. B.)
409 84. Bhopal (M. P.)
379 85. Muzaffarpur (Bihar)
372 86. Ludhiana (PB)
357 87. Raipur (M. P.)
427 88. Bilaspur (M. P.)
383 89. Asansol (W. B.)
372 90. Durgapur ( .. )
443 92. Burdwan ( .. )
427 93. Santiniketan(")


414
.. ....
521
433
402
]
422
,; ,.J,
349
..'
469
'
.
"
{
418
430
456
386
396
464
361
523
366
470
422
387
382
. 552
418
381

, '406
4@3
437
.........
377
438
516
447
454
376
366'
391
364
407
469
388
353
436
524
491
529
465
--
:1

ANALYSIS OF RATE .
48

.1310. Analysis of Rates for Manufacturing materials .

1. Manufacturing common Burnt clay; Bricks in kilns.

..; Unit =1000 no:
..
..i . - - . ..
;',1
It is not economical to bum less than 6 to 7 lakhs of bricks in a single kiln. The quantity of coa
required {Jr burning varies considerably depending upon the sun-soil waterlevel, nature of soil and climat
.j
ic condition. Top bum one lakh bricks x 9cm x 9cm) where water level is low 14 tonnes of coa
"j
"
may be considered fair, but where the sub soil water level is high the quantity of coal may be as high a
"j 24 tonnes. Considering such variations about 20 tonncs of coal may be considered to bum one lakh 'brick
in Bull type kiln. .
II'
Particulars
. '.;

(a) Materials :
Steam coal and coal dust .
Fuel wood for first fuelling
Sand (local) for moulding
Pug-mill charge
Cost of land or Royalty
Moulding boxes, chimney & kiln charge
Sundries, T. & P. etc.
(b) Labour :- Head Mason (Mistry).
.Mazdoor for Moulders
" " loading in kiln
" " unloading &. Stacking
Fireman ..
Mazdoor (as waterman i.e, Bhisti)
..
(c) Water charge .
.'!.
(d) Profit and Overhead
...
...
Quantity
0.2 Tonne
0.5 kg .
...
I
O.ll cu m
...
...
...
'"
'"
'"
...
I
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
Lump Sum
-
1
TIl no.
5 nos.
3 nos.
2-! nos..
1
"2 no.
1
'2 no.
.
Rate
Rs. P.
700.00 perTonne
2.40 kg
120.00 per cu m
35.00 L. S.
45.00 L. S.
30.00 L. S.
12.00
50.00 Each per
45.00
25.00
25.00
45.00
25.00
" "
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..
..
"
Total-
@ 1% of the total
Total =
. I "
@ 10%
=
Amount
Rs. P.
140.00
1.20
13.20
35.08
45.00
30.00
12.00
5.00
225.00
75.00
62.50
22.50
12.50
6.79 .
685.69
68.57
Grand Total =
754.26
:. Rate per 1000 nos. =754.26 and this consists of the following categories of bricks after; ideal
burning :- 1st class... 60%. 2nd class ... 15%, 3rd class ... 10%, and breakage...5o/c.
]81cmtt cz,..,::::;rrex-rr .. .";;a
... ..........

0111.-------
.
678.90
__
.486
ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFICATION
2. Manufacturing and Burning Kankar Lime.;
': ' Unit = 1 cu m
1.1 cu m of Kankar shall be taken'to produce 1 cu m of lime (Note: 1 m of unslaked lime =
580 to 600 kg.) '._ ... ......,'. .._.. '... '
. __ ._ ..
...
.. -._ .... , .. ... .. _... ._.-' .
Particulars
..
,.
(a) Materials :-Kankar ...
Charcoal ...
Fuel wood for first burning ...
(b) Labour .- Head Mason ...
,
Mazdoor(Beldar) ...
Grinding of burnt kankar ...
Cost of land or Royalty ...
Kiln etc. ...
Contingencies, T. & P. Insu. etc.
(c) Water Charge :- ...
(d) Profit and Overheads :- ...
Quantity
1.1 cu m
150 kg
25 kg
J. '
10
5 nos.
L.S .
. L.S.
L.S.
L.S.
Rate
Rs. ' P;
95.00
2.00
2.00 per kg
50.00
25.00
4.00 L.S.
3.50 L.S .
3.00 L.S. '
3.00 L.S.
Total =
@ 1% of the total
=
Total =
@ 10% ... do
=
:. Rate per cu m =Rs. 664.38 Grand Total =
Amout
Rs. - P.
104.50
300.00
50.00
5.00
125.00
4.00
3.50
3.00
3.00
598.00
5.98
603.98
60.40
664.38
3. Production of Brick Ballast (Le. jhama metal) from Overburnt Bricks to 40mm. gauge.
, Unit =1 cu; m.
For conversion of brick materials from one to another 380 nos. of Metric "Bricksof 20 em x 10 em
x 10 em (nominal) or traditional em x 11.4 em x 7.6 em (Nominal) and in' case of traditional
bricks.Zfi.d em x 12.7 em x 7.6 em (nominal) 314 nos. shall be taken as equivalent to 1 cu m of bats.
1.1 cu m ofbats shall be taken to produce 1 cu m of brick ballast.
Unit =1 cu m.
Particulars
1
I
Quantity Rate
Rs. P.
Amount
Rs. P.
(a)
(b)
Materials .-Ovcrburnt brick bats
Labour:"': Mazdoors
Contingencies. T. & P. etc.
I
I
... '1
1.10 cu m 150.00 ncr cu m
i
1
nos."125.00 Each per day
L.S. @ .\ % (a + b) = 0.99 L.S.
Total =
165.00,
33.33
0.99
199.32
/
(c) Profit and Overhead @ , 10% of' the ' total = ' 19.93
Rate per eu m = Rs. 219.25 Grand Total = Rs.219.25
4. Production of Brick chips from overburnt bricks to 25 mm gauge.
Unit = 1 cu m
The number of Mazdoor shall be 1 3/4 nos. in the labour column (b) of item no 3. AU other par
ticulars are same as in item no. 3. '
ANALYSIS OF RATE
487
l3-11.Analysis of Rate for Earth work :
5. Earthwork in excavation in trenches for foundations and for pipes, cables etc. not ex
ceeding 1.5 m in width including dressing of sides dhd ramming of bottoms, lift up LO 1.5 m and lead
up to 30m (a) in ordinary soil (i.e. loose or soft). .
Considerflrst l Oell m Unit == 1 cu m
Amout
Rs. P.
--
Rate
Rs. P.
Quantity
I
3-:1 f-
2
-
5
-.
00
---1 81.25
(a) 1% of the total 0.81
Particulars
(a) Labour. - Mazdoor(Bcldar)
(b) Water charges. -
Total = I 82.06
(c) Profit and Ovethead. - @'100/0 == I 8.20
Rate per cu m :::: Rs. 9.03 Grand Total = Rs, 90.26
(b) For Dense or Hard soil, Mazdoor(Male):: 2j 'nos. &Mazdoor(Female) == 2nos. .
(c) For Mud. Mazdoor (Male =3 nos. & Mazdoor(Ferriale =2 10s. Other particulars are same
as sl. 5
For additional Lead and Lift. -For every additional lead of 30m beyond the initial lead add
1Mazdoor. For every additional lift of 1.5mbeyond the initial lift add 1Mazdoor.
For Shoring-If the work requires shoring but not pumping add an amount 25% of the total la- .
bour charge from (a). . .
6. Excavation in trenches' for foundations and for pipes, cables, etc. not exceeding
1.5 rn in width and for shafts, walls, etc. not exceeding 10 m
2
on plan including dressing of
up to 1.5 m and lead up to 50 m for disintegrated or soft rock (not requiring. blasting).
Considerfirst 10 cu m Unit == 1 cu m
(a) Labour. - Excavator (skilled) .
Breaker - do
Hole driller - 'do -
Mazdoor (Male)
(b) Ma terials.-Fuse
Powder
T. &0., etc.
(c) Water charges. - .
(d) Profit and Overhead.
I
1..1
nos.
4
3.1
nos.
2
1 nos.
7 1 .
'2 nos.
I 3 nos...
2i kg.
;'..s. b)
@ 1% of
@ 10% of
.. Rate per cu m
:
R5. 64.62
50.00,Each per day
25.00
II
45.00
II
25.00'
II
15.00 Each
25,QO per kg
2.89 Le:;..
Total:
the total
:
TOLaI=
the total
:
Grand Tow.l Rs.
87.50
157.50
45.00
187.50
45.00
56.25
2.89
581.64
5.82
587.46
58.75
646
121
When the excavation/or item no. 6 shall be in Hard rock requiring blasting.
. .
Labour for Excavators, Breakers and Hole drillers shall be considered as twice for Decomposed rock
(as in 51. 6.). Mazdoor shall be same as item no. 6. Fuse shall be 7 nos. and powder shall be 6.5. kg.
_____ ... r' .....';'..,J
488
ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFICATION .
7. Fiiling availabIcexca,'ated earth in trenches, plinth sides of in 'layers not
exceeding 20 cm in depth consolidating layer by layer ramming and watering, lead up to 50 m and lift up
1.50 m.
Considerfirst 10 etcm
Unit = 1 cum
...
._- ._---_. . -
..,. _____e_". _._- . .- ... _...... _._-
Quantity. Rate Amount
Rs. P. Rs. P.
1
25.00 Each per day 58.33
23 nos.
@ l%of the total 0.58
Total =
58,91
@ 10% of. the total =
5.89

\
! Particulars
,1\
I
(3) Labour. -
Mazdoor (includes Bhisti) ...
(b) \Vater charge.

(c) Profit including Overhead.


:. Rate per cu m = Rs, 6.84 Grand Total = 64.80
8. Filling in plinth with local sand under floors including, ramming, consolidating and
d r esslng corn plete
Consider first 10 cu m
Unit 1 cu m
(a)
(b)
l\iateria!s.
Labour.
Fine sand (Local)
Head Mason
Mazdoor
(includes-j rd as Bhisti)
...
...
(c) 'Vater charge.
(d) Profit incl udingOverhead.
'oo
:. Rate per cu m = Rs, 128.23
10 emu m 110.00 1,100.00
1
12 nos
50.00 Each per day 4.17
2 nos . 25.00 "
u n
50iOO
Total= 1,154]17
@ 1% =
11.54
Total = .1,165.71
@ 10% = 116.57
Grand Total = 1,282.28
9. One' layer brick flat soling joints filled with local sand or powdered .earth
. Considerfirst 10 sq m Unit =1 sq m
Calculation oj materials :- Metric brick each to occupy a space of 10 ern x 20 em number of
bricks per 10 sq m 10 10 -500 nos. But due to irregular shape of over bricks and also
em x em .
3S open space between bricks less 15% = 500 - 500 x. 11
50
= 425 nos. (as adopted by
All/ndia Standard Schedule ofRates).
(a) t\'1ateri:t1s - Brick metric. ( for
22.9 x 'i2.7 x 10 ern :::: 320 nos.) 425 nos 1000 per % nos. 425.00
(0) Labour. - Mazdoor
Contingencies: T. s. P. 'etc.
4
? no.
J 1 .
L. S. -2 % (a + b)
25.00 per day
2.33 L.S.
20.00
2.23
Total = 447.23
(c) Water charges. - @ 1% of the total = 4.47
Total = 451.70
(d) Profit and overhead. - @ 10% of the Total = 45.17
:. Rate per sq m ::: Rs, 49.69 Grand Total = Rs.496.87
ANALYSIS RATE'
13-12. Analysis of Rate for concrete Works:
10. Lime concrete in foundation with 25 'rnm down brick chips (of Jhama chips) -wil
1 lime and 2 Surki mortar. Prop. 1 : 2 : s! (18: 36 : 100).
Considerfirst 10 cum-l}nit-= I-eu
Calculation of Materials: - Summation of proportion =1 + 2 + 5.5 =8.5. Following the proc
durc as described in tile article 13-5 S1. 32. "
Lime = = 1.8 cu m; Surki = 1.8 x 2 =3.6 cu m: Brick chips =1.8 x 5.5 =9.9 say 10 cu m
Analysis:
Particulars
(a)
(b)
Ma terials.
Brick chips (or Jhama chips)
Surki
Stone lime ( slaked)
Labourv-s- Head Mason
Mason ...
Mazdoor (Beldar) (2 Mazdoors as Bhisti)
Contingencies. T. & P. etc.
'0'
...
."
...
...
...
...
Quantity Rate Amour
Rs. P. Rs. I
2,500.0 10 cu m 250.00 per cu m
720.0 3.6 cu m
1200.00 per cu m
1.8 cu m 450.00" .. 810.0
1
25.0'
1 no.
45.00 .. .. "
2. no. I 50.00 Each per day
45.0.
.. .. ..
500.0'
20 nos.
23.d,
Total = 4,623.0
L.s. - (a + b)= 3.00
(c) Water charges. ... 1% @of the total = 46.2
Total = I 4,623.?,_
(d) Profit including overherd @ 10% of
the total, = "466.9\
:. Rate per cu m = Rs, 513.62 Grand Total = Rs. 5.136.1;
11. Lime concrete in foundation with 40mm down stone ballast, lime and sand pro!
1 : 2 : 4
I
Considerfirst 10 cu m Unit =1 cu I
/ ".
Calculation of Materials: -summation of proportion = 7. Following the article 11.5. S1. 32
Lime = 15.4(7 =2.2 eu m. sand =2.2 x 2 =4.4 .cu m; stone ballast =2.2,x 4 := 8.8 cu m.

Quantity Particulars Rate Amour
Rs. P. Rs.
(a) Materials. t
8.8 cu rn" 1165.00 per eu rn I 1.452.0
I 4.4 cu m 11120.00 per cu rn 528.0
I 2.2 cu m 450.00...." 990.0
I as in I (10) = 570.0
(a+ .70 L.S. 17.7
ToW =.'" --3S57.7
Sto:1C ballast (local)
(c) Water charges. - @ l%of the total = 35.5
Total = 3.593.2
(d) Profit. - @ 10 % of the total :=: I 359.3
I"
Sand (local)
Stone lime (slaked)
(b) Labour.
Contingencies, T & P. etc.
.. Rate per eu m = Rs, 395.26
Grand Total :=:R.s.3.952.6
-_ ..
....... _-_..... ,
490
ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFICATION
. .
12. Cement .concrete1: 5 : 10 with graded brick ballast (jhama chips) 40mm down in
foundation.
Considerfirst ]().cu m
Unit =I cum
Calculation of Materials: - Same as described in the article 13-5 S1. 32
. Analysis:--'
Particulars
i
Quantity
(a)
(b)
Materials.
Brick ballast (or Jharna chips)
Sand (medium)
Cement
.Labour. . Head Mason
Mason'
Mazdoor (male 2 nos. as Bhisti)
Contingencies. T & P. etc
...
'"
'"
...
......
...
9.8 cu m
4.9 ell rn
0.98 cu m
= 29.4 bags
. 1 .
"4 no,
2 nos.
2? nos.
L.S. 2% (a + b)
(c) Water charges. '- @ l%of
'"
(d) Profit and Overhead. - ... @ 10% of
Rate Amount
Rs. P. I Rs. P.
300.00 per ell III
160.00 per cu rn
g .00 per bag.
50.00 Each per day
\I II
'45.00. II
II \I II
25.00
,
33.39 L. S.
Total =
the total
=
Total =
the total
=
2,940.00
784.00
2,352.00
12.50
90.00
500.00
33.39
6.711.89
67.12

677.90,
I
I
':. Rate per cu m :;; Rs, 745.69 GrandTotal:;::: 7456.91
13. Cement concrete 1: 4 .8 with graded stone ballast 40 mm down in foundation
Considerfirst] 0 au m Unit = 1 cu m
Calculation ofMaterials: - Same as described in the article S1. 32.
.
Particulars Quantity
Rate '.
I" Amount
RS. P. Rs. P.
(a) Mater'ials--Stone ballast 3,120.00' 325.00 per ell rn ell m
Stand (coarse) 1,080.00 225.00 per ell m 4.8 ell m
Cement 1.2 cu m
2,880.00 = 36 bag 80.00 per bags
(b) Labour. -
57(\00 ..
.! as .in I .itp.mnl). 1. ,
Contingencies, T. & P. etc, 38.41
... !LS.@ ,c(a+b) .. 34.68 .
7,720.91
TOlal == I
(c) Water charges'. - @ 1q of the lo:f3l 77.21
r
Total = I
7,798.12
(d) Profit and Overhead. - @ of the 10l.31
=1
779.81
:. Rate per cu m = Rs. 857.79 Grand Total =8,571.93
For proportion 1 : 3 : 6 the above labour strength is to be considered, But for 1 : 2 : 4 or 1 : : 3 pro
portion quantity of materials arc in page 446and increase the strength of Mason by no. and Mazdoor
by 2 nos. for greater care of mixing and compaction of concrete work in foundation.
.. -
491
ANALYSIS OF RATE
14. C-ement concretei: 2 : 4 with graded stone chips from 20 mm down to 6 mm 'for
R. C. works exclusding shuttering and reinforcement.
Consider first It) ell m
Calculation of Materials: - Same as in the article 11-5. S1. 32
. Analysis :..:....:..
Particulars
-
(a) Mater lals--Stone chips
Sand (coarse)
Cement
'-'
...
...
'I,
II'
II
(b)
(c)
(d).
Labour. - Mason
Mason
Mazdoonincludes 4 Bhisti)
Contingencies T. P. etc.
Water charges. -
Profit and Overhead. -
.
...
...
...
...
...
...
Quantity
8.8 cu m
4.4 cu m
2.2cu m
== 66 bags
1
7. no.
3 nos.
23 nos.
L...5. (a +b)
@ l%of
@1O%
Unit == 1 cu m
Labour Gang -,(8)
Rate
Rs. P.
325.00 per cu m
225.00 per cu m
80.00 per bag
Each per day
.45.00 " " "
25.00 " " "
43.64 L.S .
Total ==
the total
==
Total =
==
Amount
Rs. P.
,
2,860.00
990.00
5,280.00
25.00
135.00
575.00
48.83
9,813.83
98.14
9,911.97
991.20
:. Rate per cu m =Rs. 1,090.32 Grand total == 10,903.17
Note :-For each additional storey the strength of Mazdoor (Beldar) should be increased by 6 nos.
for volume of 10 cu m to lift the materials. All India Standard Schedule ofRatesprovides an increase of
rate by 1% per floor per cu mfor lifting-the materials assuming each floor to beaverage of3m height. .
15. Cement concrete work (propv.L : 2 : 4) pouring into moulds complete.
Consider first 10 cu m Unit =1 cu m
Particulars
(a) Mater-ials.
Quantity !, c , Rate'
IRs. P.
....
I Amount
Rs. P.
Stone chips 8.8 cu m 325.00 per cu m 2,860.00
Stand (coarse) 4.4 eu m 225'()() per eu m 990.00
Cement 2.2eu m 80.00 per bag 5,280.00
:: 66 bags
(b) Labour.-{For pouring concrete in thin section as
provided by All India:Standard SC:,.;;du10 ofRates).
I
Mason I class
Mason II class
5 nos.
5 nos.
50.00 Each per day I
'4"5.00 It n' II I
250.00
225.00
Mazdoor
10 nos. 2S.00 " 250.00
Contingencies, T. & P. risk etc. t.s, (a+b) .43.55 L. S. 49.28
Total = 9,904.28
(c) Water charges. ., @ l%of . the total
==
Total = 10,003..32
(d) Profit and Overhead. @ 10% of the total = 1,000.33
:. Rate per cu m = Rs. 1,100.37 Grand Total == ll,003.65
Note :- The above analysis of cost does not include for mixing of concrete.
ESTIMATlNG COSTING AND SPECIFICATION .
492
.
2.5an PLANKING"
25crnx5an BOITCM PUNK
.. v. ,.

".:'.::::, .
.
.
1 I ' I
Posit
o
on it!. .Posi ion of
I ! I
.Eh"! Brae ,5 . .-t----1
. .
1---h--pOO:mSlt o "o4J++
it 'Of
15cm x 5cm"
l--............c....L:W:Jj Beam ..oode
I
.
O.<h1
"I' ""I"' '. I
1
I . I
I;/
.
o

of R.,C.T. Be,
.' 1'
Ball i' Props
A:
I
I
I'
.....
PLAN OF SHUTTERING
-------
I
f
ANALYSIS OF RATE
493
I
16. Supplying, fitting, fixing and removing shuttering. and staging. Unit = 1 sq m
f
Consider a room =5m x 4m with an intermediate T-bcam 25 em x 20 em wide web. Height of the
room =3.5 m(Fig. 13-1). Area of shutLering.--{a) For beam =(20 em + 2 x 25 em) x 4 m =2.8 sq m.
I
(b) For slab =5 m x 4 m - (20 em x 4 m) =19.2' sq m. :. Total area::: 22 sq m,
., _.. .'.

Particulars
.' -.
J
--------.--..------ ------.-
Materials.

For beam>
Side planks ... 2 4m
.B. ..
cm em
.----f-.-----t------j-.------ --"---.
25 2.5 0.050. cu m
Side cleats @ 1m e/e ... 2x4 30em 8 4 0.008 eu m
I
Bottom Plank 1 4111 25 5 0.050 cu m
Base beam (at prop only) ... 4 50 ern 10
'" I
5 0.010 Cll m
Brackets (2 nos. at prop.) ... 2x4 50cm 5 4 0.008 ell rr
For slab-
I Planks =(5m - 20 em
- 2 x 2.5cm) 1 4.75 m 2.5 I 0.475 eu m 4
Beam @ l mc/c =1 x 4.75 2x4 2.375m 15 5
(ii) For beam.and slab braces-
(a) Short side
... , 7 4m 10 4
\.. -
(b) Long side .., 4 5m 10 4
Wedges under props 28 22cm 10 8
'"
Bearingplanks under wedges 28 50cm 22
Total =
)
/I
)
3.45 m
Deduct the cost of scrap value of timber @ 8%
J
)
Assuming that this set of shuttering and staging becomes unserviceable
,,'
after being used for 12 times (time of use is governed by the availability
).
ofwork, cuuing the frame work to suit different dimensions, damage for
) nailing etc.) for using once. . ..... . . .. . .' .... "
(b) Labuur-e-- Head Carpenter .
r
Carpenter
Mazdoor (Bcldar)
Carriage within a town
Nails
Contingencies. T. & P. ClC.
(e) Profit and overhead @ 10%'
:. Rate per sqm. Rs. 50.67' GrandTotaI = Rs. 1.114.72
0.143cll.m
0.112cu m
0.080 eu m
0.049 cu m
0.154 eu m
1.139 cu m 6;000.OC 6,834
per eu r .
96.60 r.m. 6.00 r.m 579.60'
Total = 7,413.60
= 593.09
Total = . 6,820.51
6.820.51 ..
+12= 568:j15
1
50.00 25.00
3 nos.
no.
45.00 135,00
6 nos. 25.00
2 times 50.00 100.00
L. S. 30 L.S. 30.00
L. S. 4 L. S. 5.00
Total = 1,013.38
=
101.34
494
ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFICAnON
17. Providing mild steel reinforcement for R. C. C. work including bending,
and placing ill position complete up to two floor level.' , !\I': '
Particulars
...... -_... .... '" '-..__. .. . .
(a) Materials.-M.S. reinforcement ...
Wastage 5%
'"
Black iron wire ...
(b) Labour. Blacksmith ...
Mazdoor (Beldar) ...
Contingencies, T. & P. etc. ...
(c) Water charges.
(d) Profit and Overhead.
Quantity
i Quintal
..-.
0.05 QU.
l.05 quo
1 kg.
1 no.
1 roo
lL.s.2,% (8 + b)
@
@ 10% of
Unit = 1 tu m
Amount Rate
Rs. P. Rs. P.
. - .. -, ..,,-_ ..- .- .. "_.. __. __ ..
924.00 880.00 per quintal
15.00 per kg. ' 15.00
45.00 Each per day I 45.00
25.00 Each per day 25.00
5.05
Total = 1,014.05
the total .- 10.14
Total =
5.05 L. S.
1,024.19
the total
=
102.42
:. Rate per quintal = Rs. 1,126.6 Grand Total = 1,126.61
18. Cold twisted steel reinforcement R. C. C. work :- .Same as M. S. reinforcement con
sisting of 10 rnrn diarods (0.62 kg/rm) at 10 ern centres and 6 mm diu. rods (0.22 kg/rm) at 20cffi centres
for the roof slabs. .
Consider first 10 mx 10m ofa continuous slab Unit=] sqm
. 10 mm dia. rods _ lO X m. = 1000 m,
. a.1
Since alternate bars of continuous slabs are carried into the next span to a point{ th, span away from the
support from each side, increase this amount by 25% and 5% for hooking, bending etc, . .' .
., Total length = 1000 + 1000 x -{go-BOO m. Weight of 1300 m @ 0.62 kg/rm = 806 kg. .
. WxW ' . . . 5
. 6 mm dia. rods . = 500 m. Increase this amount by 5% for hooking, bending etc. =500 + 500 x-.
0.20 . 100
= 525m. Welght of 525m. @ 0.22 kg'/rm= 115.5 kg.
.'. Total M. S. work in theslab = 806 + 115.5 = 922 kg. (say) = 9.22 quintals.
: Black iron wire@ 0;75 kg. per 10 sq m'=:7.5 kg.
Labour. -Mason-cum blacksmith @ I no. per quintal = 9 nos. Mazdoor@l.no. per quintal =9 nos.
Particulars .Quantity
(a)
(b)
Materials.-M. S. reinforcement
Waslage@ 5%
...
Black iron wire (18 G)
Labour. Blacksmith
Mazdoor (Bcldar)
Sundries, T. & P. I
...
...
...
...
...
...

0.4
9.68 quo
I
7.5 kg.
I
9 nos.
I ?nos.
IL.S.-2% (a + b)
lC) Water charge. - ...
. @ 1% of the
(d) Profit and Overhead. -
:. Rate per sq.
...
rn, =
@ 10% of
Rs. 103.40
Rate
Rs P.
880.00 per
15.00 per kg.
45.00 per day
Amount
Rs. P.
8.518.40
112.50
405.00
25.00 225.00
I
46.30 L. S. 46.30
I
Total = 9,301.20
total.,;
,
=
Total =
93.07
9,400.27
the total
=
940.03
Grand Total == 10.340.30
Note :-R. C, C. work are paid separately (a)for cement concrete work. (b)for M. S. reinforce
ment work and (c) for shuttering and staging as per practice of C. P. W. D. and also the procedure as
adopted by All India Standard Schedule ofRates.
._-"" .
ANALYSIS OF RATE
495
17(a). R. C. C. work 1 : 1 -}: 3 for Beam with 2.0 % steel.
Consider first 10 cu m Unit ~ 1 cum
Materials For concrete I: i :3 same as in the articlell-5. S1.32
Steel @ 2% =10 X 0.02 =0.2 cu m@ 78.5q/cum =15.7 Qtl
. Binding wire@ lkg/q 15.7 kg:"
Particulars
(a) Materials.
Stone cheps 20 mm down ...
Sand (Coarse) ...
Cement ...
I
Steel ...
-
Binding wire ...
(b) Labour
(i) For concreting
same as in item no. 14 ...
(ii) For reinforcement
Blacksmith ...
Mazdoor (Beldar) ...
Sundries, T. & P. etc. ...
(c) Centering and sh.uttering
(Hire charge) including removing
Quantity
8.4 cu m
4.2cu m
2.8 cu m
= 80.7 bags
15.7 Qtl.
15.7 Kg
-
15 nos,
15 nos.
~ % (a) + (b)
@ 5% cost ofmaterials (a)
Carpenter ...
Mazdoor (Beldar)
'"
Nails @ 10% of hire charge
. 24,182.50 x
10 nos.
10 nos.
i ~
..
_-_ ..
Rate
Rs. P.
325.00 per cu m
225.00 per cu m
80.00 per bag
880.00 per QtI.
15.00 per Kg
Total =
-
40.00 Each per day
II 1\
25.00' "
L. S.
L. S.
40.00 Each per day
25.00 " " "
L. S.
Amount
Rs. P.
2,730.00
945.00
6,456.00
13,816.00
235.50
24,182.50
735.00
600.00
375.00
122.79
1209.10
400.00
250.00
120.90
Total = 27,995.29
(d) Water charges- ... @ 1% of the total 279.96
Total = 28,275.25
(e) Profit and Overhead ... @ 10% of the total 282.75
r., Rate per cu m .=Rs, 2,855.70 Grand Total = 28,557.00
.. .".,"..' ..... . . ... . .
Note: - One number Blacksmiih should be consideredfor one quintal of reinforcement:
The rate analysis for R. C. C. column is the sameas that ofR. C. C. beam. Only the quantities of mate
rials shall have to be worked out according to the proportion of concrete and percentage of reinforcement.
In the rate analysis for R. C. C. column in basement in the item (c) above. shuttering only is required,
Therefore, shuttering should be 2% of the cost of materials of (a) above. 5 nos. Carpenters and 5 nos.
Mazdoors (Beldar) should be considered.
.....
\I. 15(b) R. C. C. Lintel in 1 : 2 : 4 cement concrete and 0.9 % steel.
The procedure for rate analysis is same as that of Sl. 17(a), Labour Blacksmith = 7 nos.
t
Mazdoor =7 nos. For (c) above Carpenter =7n05. Mazdoor =7 nos.
w
v-
r
i
f
__oO<==rioo-'........-_...._ ,:.;/
= ' ~ 7 ' 7 ' "
L--_.. __ .
496 ESTIMATlNG, CqSTING, SPECIFICAT I O ~ AND VALyATION
19. Reinforced Brickwork in Slab with cement mortar (1': 3)
Considerfirst 10 cu m Unit = 1 cu m
Mortar required per 10 cu m =4.8 cu m. Cement = 4.8 ~ 4= 1.2 cu m, sand = 1.2 x 3 = 3.6 cu m
Particulars
--- --Quantity .. -----Rate
. .. Amqu!lt.
. Rs, P. Rs. P.
1-
(a) Materials.
1st class bricks @ 450 nos. per cu m . ... 4,500 nos. 950.00 per % nos. 14,275.00
Cement .,. ... 1.2 cu m.
=36 bags. 80.00 per bag 2,880.00
Sand (coarse) ... . .
M. S. bar@ 0.8% =0.8 x -rtfif' 0.08 cu m
... ;3.6 cum 225.00 per quo 810.00
(of 1 cu m of M. S. bar = 78.5qu) ... 6.28 quo 880.00 per quo 5,526.40
(b) Labour.
HeadMason ... ...
'.
-1 no. 50.00 Each per day 25.00
Mason '" ... . 10.nos. 45.00 " " "
-
450.00'
Mazdoor (4 nos as Bhisti)
." 20 nos. 25.00 " " " 500.00
(c) M. S. work, -Bending, binding etc.
Black smith ... 5 nos. ~ O . O O " " " 200.00
Mazdoor
... 6 nos. 25.00 " " " 150.00
::- .. "
(d) Centering and Shuttering.
Hire charge of timber planks
and hollies =1. labour charge
for M. S. work .
... 1. (290+150) 1,75.00 L. S. 175.00
i~ .
t'
Carpenter ... 7 nos. 45.00 Each per day 315.00
.;"
.:,;.'
Mazdoor ... 8 nos. 25.00 " " " 200.00
"
~ ~ ~ :
Nails ... L. S. 25.00 L. S. 25.00
.' Contingencies T; &P. etc.
... L.S. @~ (a-b) 59:65 72.33
. : ....
.:
Total= 1::,603.73 "'
... @l%.ofthe total
= 156.04
Total = 115,759:',7
(f) Profit including Overhead. - @ 10% of the total :;:
I
I 1,575.98
.. Rate per cu rn. =Rs, 1,733.57
' ~ !
Grand Total 1= 17,335.57
20. :R. B. work in roof slab when the unit is per sq. m. Conrider first 10 sq m.
For (i) One brick thick 10 cm slab :- Materials and labour =10 th of item no. 19.
(ii) Two brick thick 20 em slab :- Materials and labour =1 th of item no. 19.
}l. R. B. work in roof slab with cement mortar' for any other proportion to that of
item no. 19, find out quantity of cement and sand dividing 4.8 cu m of mortar by the summation of pro
portion. Others arc same as ill item no. 19. .
I
I
ANALYSIS OF RATE 497
22. 2.5 em. thick cement concrete 1: 2 : 4 Damp-proof Course.
\ Considerfirst 100 sq m. Unit: 1 sq m
Calculation of Materials: - Vol. of concrete: 0.025 x 100 == 2.5 cu m. Summation of prop == 7.
Following the same principle as in the article 13-5. S1. 32; ecme?t eu!!!:
r
J
bags; sand == 0.55 x 2 == 1.10 cu in; sr<:)nc'chips' == 0.55 x4 cu m.
Warcr-proofir; compound = 3% by the weight of cement =lio x (16.5 x 50) = 25 kg (say)
I Particulars
"
(a)
(b)
Materials.-Stone chips
Sand (coarse)
Cement
Water proofing compound
Labour. - Head Mason (Mistri)
Mason
Mazdoor (including 1 no.
as Bhisti)
.Form work
Coningencics, .& P. etc.
(c) Water charges. -
(d) Profit and Overhead. -
Rate Amount
Rs. P. Rs. P. .. __ __-+---=-:.=.:--=--:..
2.20 cu m 360.00 per cu m 792.00
1.10 eu m 225.00 per cu m 247.50
16 . r1gs 80 per bag I 1,320.00.
kg
10.00 per kg 250.00
2 no:
50.00 Each per day 25.00
S nos. 45.00 " 360.00
25.00 .. 225.00 9 nos.
25.00 L. S. 25.00
"'1 LV
mp
sum
16.22 L. S. 6.22
Total = 3,260.22
@ I % of the total : 32.60
Tolal = I. 3,292.82
.@ 10% of the total - I 329.28
.:. L.S.-pro(a+b)
:. Rate per sq m =Rs. 36.22 Grand Total: 3,622.10 .
23. 20 rnm thick Damp-proof course with cement mortar (1.: 2)
Considerfirst 100 sq m Unit == 1 cu m
1 Calculation of Materials: - Vol. of wet mortar == 0.02; 100 == 2 cu m; Vol dry mortar == 2 + 2 x
'5 == 2.7 cu m. For 1 : 2 prop. Vol. of cement == 'kJ =0.9 cu m: 27 bags, sand =0.9 x 2 == 1.8 cu m.
Water-proofing compound @ 2% by wt. of cement == (27 x 50) x.r6n = 27 kg.
(a)
(b)
Particulars
Materials.-Cemcnt
Sand (coarse) .
Writer proofingcompound
Labour. - Head Mason (Mistri) ,
Mason ,.
Mazjioor (1 no. as Bl.isti
Form work
Contingencies, T. & P..etc.
Quantity
... ' 27 bags
1.80 cu m
:Pkg
2: no..
. .. ' 5 nos.
, .. \ 6 nos.
"'i Lump sum
... [LS.@ -fo (a +b)
Rate
Rs. P.
80.00 per bag
225.00 per eu m
10.00 per kg
50.00 Each per day
45.00 "
25.00 ..
25.00 L. S.
14.95 L. S.
Amount
Rs. P.
2,160.00
405.00
270.00
25.00
225.00
150.00
25.00
14.95
Total =
(c) Water charges. - @ 1% of the . total =
Total =
(d) Profit including Overhead. @ 10% of the total ==
3,004,95
30.05
3,035.00
303.50
.. Rate per sq m =Rs. 33.39
Grand Total = 3.338.50
498
ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFICATION
! ; , .
1313. Analysis of Rates for Ilrlckwork ; .
Calculation of materials pet 10 ell It). volume of brickwork ";
Number of metric brick having with mortar 10 em x 10 em x 20 em
.. ---- ..
. 0.1 x O. i x 0.1
1'./1e size of one metric brick without mortar is 9 em x 9 ern x 19 em.
., Mortar required per 10 cu In = 10 - <'5.000 X 0.09 x 0.09 x 0.19)= 2.3 cu m. Due to frog filling, brick
bonding courses and wastage etc. increase this quantity by 15%. Volume of wet mortar = 2.3 + 2.3 x
0.15 =2.64 cu m. When dry, increase this quantity bY1 I'd=2.64 +2.64 x -j = 3.50 cu III (approximately),
In case of lime mortar the above quantity 3.50 cu m reaches up to 4.0 cu m. Such increase may be
justified considering the void in surki is more, joints are generally thicker and additionally less care ob
served towards wastage. .
With 2nd class bricks, the quantity of cement mortar of 4.0 cu m and lime mortar of 4.2 cu mare
required according to t.he shape and size of 2nd. class bricks.
Number of traditional bricks having size with mortar 25.4 ern X 12.7 em x 7.6 em (i.e, 10" x 5" x 3"
=
___-'-1_0__ ._ '::079 nos. say 4,HJ<) '105. With this traditional size of bricks, joints are less
0.254 x 0.127 x 0.076 . '. .
and therefore lesser amount of mortar should be required. But due to larger size of frog and wider area of a
brick such variation may be minimised.
Number of traditional bricks having size with mortar 22.9 em x 11.4 em x 7.6 em
(i.e. 9" x 4 i "X 3" = 0.229 x x 0.076
504 1
nos. say 5.000 nos. (due to thicker joints). The number
of bricks being same to that metric brick and the quantity of mortar is also same..
24. First class brickwork in lime and surki mortar (1 : 3 in foundation and plinth.)
Consider first 10 cu m Unit =1 cu m
Calculation of Maie:iq.[s : - Lime d!.:P = 1.0 eu m, Surki =.1.0 x 3 = ,3.0 cu m.
Labour Gang :-(B) with adjustment. .'
Particulars Quantity Rate
Rs. P.
l
'Amount
Rs. P.
(b)
(a)
Surki
Lime
Labour. - Head Mason
Mason
Mazdoor (2 nos. as Bhisti)
Materials. - Brick (kiln)
Metrie 20 cm x 10 em x 10 em
Traditional125.4 em x 12.7 ern x 7.6 em
. 22.;'cm x 11.4 em x 7.6 em
5,000 nos.
4,100 nos.
... 1 5,00(rIIIJ,:,..
3.00 cu m
IrOO eu m
2 nos.
8 nos.
... 15 nos.
600.00
450.00
25.00
360.00
375.00
200.00per cu m
450.00 per Cll m
50.00 Each per day
45.00
25.00
950.00%0 nos.
Contingencies, T. & P., risk etc. ... I L. S. fa (a + b) 32.80 32.80
Toul= : 6.592.80
tl:) . Water charges. - @ 1% of the total : 65.93
(d) Profit and Overhead.
. _.... - ----_...""'" .....-_.....
499
ANALYSIS OF RATE
25. First class brickwork in cement mortar (1 : 4) in superstructure, ground floor.
Consider first 10 cu m Unit = 1 cu m
. Calculation of Materials: - =0.70 cu m; Sand::: 0.70 x 4 =2.8 eu rn,
Labour Gang -{B} with adjustment
Particulars
(a) Materials.

Bricks (kiln) 20 em x 10 em x 10 em
Sand (medium)
Cement 0.70 cu m =21 bags
Scaffolding ...
(b) Labour.
Head Mason ...
Mason ...
Mazdoor (2 nos.as Bhisti)
Contingencies, T. & P. etc.
(c)
Water
(d) Profit and Overhead.
(a)
, ..
(1))
(c)
(d)
Materials.
Bricks (kiln) 20 cmx 10emx 10 em
(For 25.4 em x 12.7 em x 7.6 em)
(For 22.90 em x 11.4 em x 7,6 em)
Sand (medium)
Cement =0,5 cu m =15 bags
Scaffolding .
Labour ... Mac::on".
Mason
Mazdoor (2 nos. as Bhisti)
Contingencies, T. & P. etc.
Water charges.
Profit and Ourhead.
. Quantity
.,. 5,000 nos.
2.8 cu m ...
21 bags < ..
I
L. S.
I
...
... 2. no.
8 nos. ...
.. _.
. -Rate
Rs. P.
950.00 per'%o nos.
160.00 per eu rn,
80.00 bag
I
25.00
...
... L.S. -7o(a+b)
... @ l%of
... @ 10% of
50.00 Each per day
45.00 Each per day
25.00 " " "
38.44
Total
=
the total
=
Total =
the total
=
--AmOllnt-
Rs. P.
4,750.00
448.00
1,680.00
25.00
25.00
360.00
400.00
38.44
7,726.44
77.26
7,803.70
780.37
:. Rate per cu m = Rs. 858.41 Grand Total =8,584.07
, .1
Brickwork for storey, labour cost of 1 Mason, 3 Mazdoors (Beldars), and a lump sum
amount Rs. 25.00 for scaffolding per 10 cu m volume of work are to be added over the ground floor as
illustrated below. According to All India Standard Schedule ofRate an extra over rate of1% shall is added
per floor of brickwork (taking each floor to be of avo 3m ht.) ..
26. First class brickwork in cement mortar 1 : 6 superstructure first floor .
. - Considerfirst 10 cu m . Unit = 1 cu m
Calculation of Materials: - Cement 2;f = 0.5 eu m; Sand = 0.5 x 6 = 3.0 cu m.
Labour Gang - (B) with additions as stated in the above note.
5,000 nos.
4,1000 nos.
5,000 nos.
3cum
IS bags
S.
.:2 no..
9 nos.
2q nos.
L. S. ---;p,!o (a + b)
950.00 per%o nos.
160.00 percu m
80.00 per tag
38.00 L.S.
50.00 Each per day
45.00- .;...,'
25.00
36.99 "
I
Totnl=
@ 1% of (a + b). the total
=
Total =
@ 10% of the total ==
4,750.00
480.00
i,200.00
38.00
25.00
405.00
. 500.00
36.99
7,.n4.99 "
74.35
-7.509-34"
750.93
:. per cu m =Rs. 826.03 Grand TOIll = H.260.27
27. Second class brickwork in crmeut mortar (1 : 6) in foundation and plinth.
Consider first 10 cu m . . . Unit =1 cu m
Calculation of material is same as item no. 2-\. Only reduce the Labour-head. Number of labours Mason >
7 nos., Mazdoor 14 nos. (2 nos. as Bhisti) 9thcrs arc the same.
500
ESTlMtTING COSTING AND SPEClFlCA:rlON
28. 'First class
cement
.
mortar
brickwork in plain arches: in superstructure
1 ; 4 including andshuttering complete.
'Considerfirst 10 cu m , .
not exceeding
Unit
6m in
= 1 cu m
Centering and shuttering :- Considering a semicircular arch 3.601 clear span 3.0 m long an4 0.40 m thick
area of centering nrl, =3.142 x 1.8 x 3,0 = 16.97 sq m,' Brickwork in arch= 1t X r
m
x t xL=3.142 x 2 x 0.4
--: .._-' "',", :T6.97' ,." '.'"
x 3.0 = cu m. Area per 10cu m'= 7.54 x 10 =22.5 sq rn.'
Particulars
' '
Quantity
(a) Materials. -
First class bricks (Metric)
Sand (medium)
Cement 0.70 cu m =21 bags
Centering and shuttering
;
...
...
.,.
...
sooo' nos.
2.80 cu m
21 bags
22.5 sq m
(b)
Scaffolding
Labour. -
Head Mason (Mistri)
Mason
Mazdoor (2 nos. as Bhisti) "
Contingencies, T. & P. etc
"'1
Lump sum
.,. 1no.
10 nos. ...
:.. 27: nos. ,
... L. S. -Wo (a + b)
(c) Water Charges. -
@ of the
(el)
Profit and Overhead. -
:.Rate per cu m
@ 10%
= Rs.989.71
Rate
Rs, P
950.00 per %0 nos.
160.00 per cu m
80.00 per bag
40.00 per sq m
35.00 L. S.
50.00 each per day
It 11 II
45.00
It II II
25.00
'45.32 L.S,

Total-
total = '
Total =
-
Grand Total-9897.14
According to is-1200. the brickwork rate for arches ofspan not exceeding tim, hire and labour charges for
centering and shuttering shall be included in the item and for spans exceeding 6 m centering and shuttering
shall be measured separately.
29: Half brick i.e. 10 em brick wall in :ceinent mortar (1 : 3) with H..B. netting in every';
third layer (ground floor). ' . 'Considerfirst 100 sq m. Unit 1 m
Calculation of Materials : - Bricks (metric) 100 =5,000 nos.
. _ , ' 0.10 x 0.20
Volume of mortar 35% to the volume of work =100 x O.10x 0.35 = 3.5 cu ID'. Due to half brick
work, volume of morlf becomes 10% less than 3.5 cu m. '= 3.5 -r- 0.35 = 3.15 cu m.'
:. Cement It' = 0.79 cu rn; Sand =0.79 x 3::::; 2.37 cu m. , .
V(ife netting for every third layer i.e.;30 em intervals (considering awall 10m length x10 m height)
::::; 10 x U31) = 334 rm; with 10 em wide.area of netting =334 x 0.10 = 33.4 sq m. Labour Gang-{C)
(a) Maten3ls
Bricks 20 em x 10 em x 10 em
(For 25.4, em x 12.7 em x 7.6 em)
(For 25.9 ern ;: 11.4 em x 7.6 em).
Sand (medium) ,
Cement 0.79 cu m == 23 bags
H. B. Wire netting

(b) Labour
HeadMason
Mason
Mazdoor (3 nos. as Bhisii)
Contingencies. T. & P. etc.
(c) Water charges
(e1) Profit and O\'erhead
5,000 nos.
4,100 nos.
5,000 nos.
2.37 cu m
23 bags
33.4 sq m
L. S.
I
"'2 no.
14 nos.
21 nos.
L. S.-fk (a -t-b)
,@ l%pf
@ 10% of
:. Rate per sq m = Rs, 102.57
950.00 per %0 nos
160.00 per eu m
80.00 per bag
30.00 per sq m
, 35.00 L. S.
, 50.00 Each per day
45.00" " "
25.00 "
45.93 L. S..
Total
the total =
Total =
the totel
4,750.00
;379.20
1,840.00
1,002.00
, 35.00 .:!.
25.00
630.00
525.00
45.93
9,232'.13
92.32
-9,124.45
932.45
Grand Total = 10,256.90
. ,:
" ":j
-.' I.
Amount
Rs P.
4,750.00
1448.00
1i680.00
900.00
35.00
50.00
450.00,
550.00
4Ci.32
8,908.32 '
8908
8,997.40
899.74
II
ANALYSIS OF RATE 501
30. Half brickwork for each higher storey :-- Labour cost of 3 Mazdoors (Beldars) is to be add
ed to lift the materials over and above Sl. 31. '
31. Second class Brickwork in mud mortar in superstructure, ground floor,
Consider first l Ocu m' Unit = 1 cu m
Calculation cf.Matcrials : -Bricks (metric size) =5;000 nos, Selected Clay=4.0cum; '"
Particulars Quantity Rate Amount
Rs. P. Rs. P.
(a) Materials. -
13 ricks 2nd class (metric) 5,000 nos. 950.00 per %0 nos. 4,750.00
Clay (selected loamy soil)
Scaffolding ,
4.0cu m
L. S.
15.00 per cu m
35.00 L. oS.
60.00
35.00
(b) Labour. -
HeadMason
Mason
Mazdoor (1 no. as Bhisti)
Contingencies, T. & P. etc.
1
4: nos.
8 nos.
." t 12 nos.'
-h .
... L. S. to (a + b)
50.00 Each per day', 12.50
45.00 " " ", 360.0a
25.00 " " "1 300.00
27.58 L.
= I 5545.08
(c) Water charges. - @ 1% of the total = I 55.45
Total = 5,600.53
(d) Profit and Overhead. - @ 10% of the total = 560.05
:. Rate per cu m = Rs. 616.06 Grand Total = 6,160.58
13-14. Analysis 01 Rates for Stone Masonry
32. Random Rubble Masonry in cement mortar (1 : 6) in foundation and plinth.
..... Consider first 10 cu m , Unit = 1 cu in
Calculation of Materials: - Volume of mortar per 10 ell m =4.2 eu rn, cement =4l =0.60 cu m
Sand =0:60 x 6 =3.60 ell m.
Labour Gang - (B) withadjustment.
'(a) Materials. - ,
Stone (undressed) ,
,Thorough stone or Headers
Cement 0.60 cu m = 17 bags'
Sand (medium)
(b) Labour.
H'?3.d Mason '...
Mason 1 ..., '
Mazdoor (12 nos. as Bhisti)
, Contingencies. T. & P. etc
11.7 ell m
0.8 cu m
17 bags
, 3.6 cu m
"VL no:
10 nos.
19 nos.'
L. S. 470 (a+ b)
100.00 per cu m '
115.00 " "
80.00 per bag
160.00 " "
1,170.00
,92.00
1,360.00
576.00
(c) Water Charges. - ,@ 1% or the total
(d) Profit and Overhead.
:. Rate per cu m = Rs. 463.15 Grand Total = 4,631.47
33. Random Rubble Masonry in cement mortar (1 : 6) in superstructure.
Consider first 10 cu m
Unit =1 cu m
Calculation of Materials: -Sarnc as above. Add scaffolding L. S. Rs. 45.00
Labour Gang - Increase by 1 no. mason and Mazdoor in item no. 32:
\1'"",,,----------:----

502 ESTIMATING
.
COSTING AND SPECIFICATlqt;J
t
;.'
The calcularion of mortar for Random Rubble Stolle Masonry.
"
.,
c'oilsidcr l t) ':1/ m work,
Dry lime mortar of 4.4 eu III and cement mortar of 4.2 cum per 10 eu m vollime of work will be
required. Dividing these quantities of mpnars by the.summation of proportions'und rnuhiplylng the result
.bythc of of _. .., .
Lime mortar Liru e Sand or Sudd
Proportion 1 : 2 105 ell III 3.0 ell III
I : 3 I.leu m 3.3 ell In
1 : 4 n.'> ell m 3.6 cu m
Cement mortar Cement Sllnd
Proportion 1 : 3 1.0 cu rn (30 bags) . 3.0 cu m
1 : 4 ... 0.84 cu m (24-1 bags) 3.4 eu m
1 : 5 0.7 cu III (20 hags) 3.5 cu m
1 : 6 ... 0.6 cu m (17 bags) 3.6 cu m
I
j'
!
I
I
,1
Particulars
(a) Materials.-S lone
Thorough stone or Headers
Cement
Sand (medium)
(b) Labour. - Head Mason
Mason
Mazdoor (11 nos. as Bhisti)
Contingencies. T. &P., ClC.
(c) Water charges.
. . --(d) Profit and Overhead.
Quantity
J1.7eum
0.8 ell m
0.57 eu m
=17 bags
3.40 cu m
. 1
2 no.
13 nos.
20 nos.
L. S.-fk (a + b)
Rate Amount
Rs. P. Rs. P. . :\
1,170.0.1) 100.00 per cu m
92.00 115.90 per cu m
,-".....:
1;360.00 80.00 per bag
160.00 per cu m 544.00
I
50.00 Each per day 25.00
It
"
..
I
"..:
'
45.00 I 585.00
It
25.00 I 500.00
21.38 L. S.
Total = 4.'297.38
@ 1% of the total :::; 42.97
Total :::;' .1
the towI = . 434.04
:. Rate per cu m = Rs. 477.44 Grand Total =4,774.39
35. Coursed Rubble (C. R.) stone masonry in cement mortar (1 : 6) in Superstructure.
Considerfirst 10 cu m Unit =1 ell m
Calculation of Materials: - Same ns above. Add scaffolding Rs. 40.50 L. S.
Labour Gang. - Increase by 2 nos. and 4 nos. Mazdoor in item no. 34.
...:"

1
ANALYSIS OF RATE
503
36. Ashlar Masonry in cement mortur (1 : .6) ill superstructure ground floor.-
Consider first 10 cu m Unit = 1 cu m
Calculation of Materials: - Volume or mortar per 10 eu m == 2.5 eu m.
Cement =.-"L/ == 0.36 eu In. Sand == 0.36 oX 6 = 2.2 ell m. Labour Gang - (C) wilh adjustment.
Particulars .... Qliiii1Tity_ --'.. Rate ... AmoiTnr- .
Rs. P. Rs. P.
12.5 eu m 100.00 per cu In 1,250.00
Cement 0.36 cu m :=: 10 b:lgS
(a) 1\1a ter ials.-Stone (undressed)
= bags ::W.OO per bag 1,040.00
Sand (medium) 2.20 eu m 160.00 per eu In 416.00
Scaffolding L. S. 35.00 L. S. 35.00
'2
1
50.00 Each per clay 25.00
. Mason ...
(b) Labour. - Head Mason
25 1\(,)';. . 45.00 " "1,125.00
Mazdoor nos. as Bhisti)
1 35 :i():'. I 25.00" "" 875.00
Contingencies, T. & P. etc.
... (a +.J:'_) __"_' _". 23.83
Total = i 4,789.83
(c) Water charge. - @ 1% of the total = 4'7.90
I
A 7-'
l'-l. ... .:' '"I
To !.aI =
(d) . Profit and overhead. - @ 10% of the total = \ "483:77
:. Rate per eu m = Rs. 532.15 GrandTotul=Rs.5,321.50
Ashlar Masonry for different proportions :
Consider first 10 cu m volume of work
Cement mortar of 2.5 In per 10 cu m volume of work will be required. Dividing these quantities of
mortars by the summation of proportions and multiplying the result by the respective strength of propor
tion, can be calculated. Labour is same for different proportional.
13-15. Analysis of Rates for flooring :
37. Brick on edge floor with cement mortar (1 : 3)
Consider first 10 sq m Unit = 1 sq m
Calculation of Materials: - Same as balf brickwork from S1. 32. Wire netting is not required,
Labour Gang - (B)
(a) Materials:-Brieks 20 em x 10 em x 10 em I 5,000 nos. 950.00 per %0 nos. 1 4,750.00
Sand (medium) . 2.37 eu m 160.00 per eu m 1 379.20
Cement 0.79 cu no = 2: \ 23 bags 80.00 per bag 1,8.:10.00
!_".buur- :', I Al per day!
Mazdoor ',1 no. as \ 15 nos. : 25.()() .. 3'7:'.OCl
C0ntim:cncie:>.T.&P. cic.: ! 39.10L.S. ,:.:l.10
-- "'. l...__ __._ __ __ L .. __ __.. __ . ---J. - .
TOllll=
(el \"',lter charges @ 1ljo of the total =:
Total = I7,897.39
Cd) Profit ancl Overhead @ 10% of the tOlal I
.. Rate per sq rn = Rs, 86.87 GranclTol3I=8.6.Q.13
Note- Size of brick being 20 \.'111 X 10 cmx 10 em with mortar and so brick nat llc..'rin.g
becomes same to thatbrick on edge flooring. For brick soling the quantity or sand is same to that qu.mu
ty of mortar for 10 ell 111 of brickwork = 3.5 cu m. ..
.....-...-. -,-. "'C'Q;lI;o..:o;.-- _.' ...::.I
.,
'ESTIMATING'COSTING AND SPECIFICATION
, '.
'.1'
II
504
38. 7.5 em thick cement concrete floor 1 : 4 : 8 with overbur:nt brick chips.
Consider first 100 sq m. . Unit =1 sq m
"
. Calculation of Materials: - Volume of concrete =0.075 x 100= 7.5 cu rn: summation of proporti
. 16 75
on :::.J.:L4+8= 13. Following the same procedure.as stated-in 13-32, Cement =f(f'1r=0.92.cu-m,
Sand = 0.92 x 4 = 3.68 cu m, Brick chips= 0.92 x 8 ;: 7.36 cu m..
Particulars
.,
(a) Matcrials.-Brick chips (20 rnrn down)
Sand (coarse)
Cement 0.92 ern - 17.6 bags
I
(b) Labour. - Head Mason
Mason
Mazdoor (2 nos. as 'Bhisti)
Contingencies, T. & P. etc.
(c) Water charges.
(d) Profit and Overhead.
Quantity
... 7.36 cu m
... 3.68 cu m
...
...
27.6 bags
1
2. no.
... 10 nos.
... . 20 nos .
L. S. +0 (a + b)
.., @ l%of
... @ 10% of
:. Rate per sq m == Rs. 62.66
Amount Rate
Rs .. P.
Rs. P.
1,840.00 250.00 per cu m.
588.80
160.00 " "
2,208.00 80.00 per bag
25.00 50.00 Each per day
45.00 " " " 450.00
25.00 " " " 50C.00
28.06 L. S.
-
28.06
Total = 5,639.86
the total
;:
56.40
Total::: 5,696.2(5
the total == .569.63
Grand Total == 6,265.89
39. "Terraced flooring with brick' chips, surki and stone lime (l : 2 : 7) 7.5 em thick.
Consider first 100 sq m Unit =.1 sq m
Calculation ofMaterials: - Wet volume of concrete > 0.075 xlOO =7.5 cu m. For 10 cu m of wet
vol. required = 16 cu m. :. For7.5 cu m of wet voL, dry vol. required - 8x 7.5 == 12 cu m. Di
viding this by the summation of proportion 1i + 2 + 7 =10.5 and then multiplying the same by the ratio.
Lime x 11 = 1.7 cu m: Surki == 2 = 2.3 eu m, Brick chips x 7 = 8 eu m
Particulars Quantity Rate
Rs. P.
Amount
Rs. P.
(b)
(a) Materials.-Briek chips (20 mm down)
Surki
Lime (Slaked white)
Labour; '
Head.Mason
Mason
Mazdoor (3 nos. as Bhisti)
Contingencies T. & P., etc.
8 cum
2.3 cu m
1.7eum.
1
I
I 'L no.
::: 5 nos.
40 nos.
... li, S. -lac (3. -"- b)
i
.
250.00 per cu m
200.00 per cu m
450.00 per eu m
50.ooEaehpcr day I'
45.00" " ",
25.00" " i
22.37 L. S. I
2,000.00
460.00
765.00
25.00
225.00
1,000.00
22.37
(c) Water charges. @ 1% of
me total ::::: i
(d) Profit and Overhead. - @ lock of . the total = 454.23
.. Rate per sCI m = Rs. 49.97 Grand TOLaI = 4,996.57
A.NALYSlS OF RATE
505
40. 25 nun t hick Cement Concrete or artificial stone flooring (l : 2,: 4).
l'
I Consider first 100 sq m ' Unit =I sq m
Calculation of Materials: - Volume of concrete = 0.025 x 100= 2.5 eu m.
Summation of proportion> 1 + 2 + 4 = 7. Following the same procedure as stated in 32 of 13-5.
4
'CClllCrit:::,\5
0
1
5
,= 16.17; say-r6hiigs.
Sand:: 0.55 x 2 = 1.10 eu m, Stone chips =0.55 x 4 = 220 eu m
Analysis :
Particulars
(a)
(b)
Materials.-Stone chips (12 rom down)
Sand (coarse)
Cement
Labour. - Head Mason
Mason
Mazdoor ( 7. nos. as Bhisti)
Contingencies, T. & P., etc.
..,
...
...
...
...
...
(c) Water charges. - ...
(d) Profit and overhead. -
.'. Rate per sq
...
m
Quantity
2.20 cu m
1.10 eu III
16 bags
-i no.
8 nos.
10 nos .
L. S. +0 (a + b)
@ 1% of the
@ 10% of
= Rs. 32.13
Rate Amount
Rs. P. Rs. P.
325.00 per eu m 715.00
225.00 per cu m 247.50
80.00 per bag 1,280.00
50.00 Each day 25.00
45.00
U ,10
360.00
25.00
.. 10
250.00
14.80 L. S. 14.80
Total =
.
total = 28.92
Total = 2,921.22
the total =
292.12
Grand total =3,213.34
41. Neat Cement Punning (about 1.5 mm thick) to floor, wall, dado, window sills etc.
Consider firstiOO sq m Unit =I sq m
Calculation of Materials: - Volume for 100 sq m with a thickness of 1.5 mm
100 x 0.001':; = J.15 cu m. Increase the Vol. by 25% when dry.
=' 0.15 + 0.15 x ?60 = 0.19 cu m =-&H =5.59 sayS i bags.
Analysis:- '
440.00
125.00
I Amount
Rs. P.
Rate
Rs. P.
Quantity
51 bags. 80.00 per bag I
... \ 2"2 nOS. 50.00Each per my
Particulars
(a) Materials.-Cement
(b) Labour. - Mason
Ii
I
Mazdoor .: 1 "2 'nos. \25.00 u' , UN"I 62.50
Contingencies. T. & P. etc. "IL.S. 2%(a+b) i 3.14 L..S. i
3.14
Total =
i
I 630.64
(c) Water charges. - @ I % of the total. :: 6.31
Total = 636.95
(d) Profit and over headv> @ 10% of the total, :: 63.69
:. Rate' per sq m = Rs, 7.00 Grand total es 700.64
42. 2.5 em thick artificial stone or cement concrete (1 : 2 4) floor with neat cement
punning at top :-- Combination of item nos. 40 and 41. '
_
506
ESTI MATINe; COSTINQ AND SPECfFICATIO.N
., '.
. .",. ,
43. When the cement punning shall be .of Red Oxide cement punning, the quantity of red
oxide shall be @ 3.5 kg per bag at' cement. _..,' . - .
Mason::: 3 nos. instead of and all other PiJrticulurs\\rC the S.L. 4 L
44. 40 mmthick pf:,lOn"iffi ,hickceme-nt--<;ouHete-{l-: -2: 4) and
topJayer of 10 mm thick red oxide cement plaster (1 : 3) using 3.5 kg. of red oxide of iron
per bag of cement (each bag of 5Q kg) finished: with a floating coal of neal cement red oxide mix of same
proportion. .' \
-, Conside r first 100 sq m. Unit::: 1 sq m.
Calculation of mat eria is (i) For under-bed of30 mm thick cement concrete (l : 2 : 4).
Vol. ::: 0.030 x 100 3 cu m. Following the same procedure as in sl.32 article 13-5.
:. Cerncnt 1f6
4
x 1 ::: 0.66 cu m ::: 19.4 bags. Sand::: 0.66 x 2 ::: 1.32 cu rn,
-Storie chips::: 0.66 x4 ::: 2.64 cu m. - .
(ii) For Top layer 10 mmihick mortar (1 .' 3) :- Vol. of mortar 0.010 x 100::: 1.0 cu m; for
rough under bed increase this vol. by 20% ::: 1.0 + 0.20::: 1.2cu m (wet.) =1.2 + Y= 1.60 cu m(dry).
:. Cement =l.go =0.40 cu m ::: 11.76 bags; Sand::: 0.4 x 3 ::: 1.2 cu m. _
(iii) For floating coat t- Cement @ 2.2 kg/sq. m::: 100 x 2.2 ::: 220 kg ::: 4.40 bags.
:. Total quantity of cement for top layer 11.76 + 4.40::: 16.16 bags.
'Quantity of red oxide @ 3.5 kg per bag of cerncnt 16.16 x 3.5 ::: 57 kg;
Particulars Quantity Rate Amount
Rs .. P. Rs. P.
(a) Materials.- (i) For under bed-
Stone chips (12 mm down) 2.64 cu m -1325.00 per cu m
858.00
Sand (coarse)
1.32 eu m 225.00 per cu m 297.00
Cement 19.40 bags 80.00 per bag 1,552.00
(ii) & (iii) For LOp layer & finishing
Sand (medium) 1.2 cu m 160.00 per cu m 192.00
Cement 16.16bags 80.00 per bag 1,292.80
Red oxide . 5Tkg.
28.00 per kg. 1,596.00
(b) Labour. - Head Mason 1 no.
50.00 Each per da
y
\ 50.00
Mason (9 + 8 + 3) 20 nos. 45.00 It " " 900.00
Mazdoor (5 nos. as Bhisti)
Special Mazdoor for rub:':';i1t;
Contingencies T. & P. etc.
27nos
3 nos.
I
.. 'IL. S. T'o (a + b)
25.00 tl " " 675.00
. 35.00 It " "I 105.00
I 03 LSI C-
I .. I__
!.
Total= !,.643.H3
(c) Water charges. - @ l%of the total = 7(l.44
TOLal = -I 7,i20.27
(d) Profit and Overhead. - @ 10% of the total ::: 772.cn
:. Rate per sq m = Rs. 84.92 Grand total =8,492.30
45. Cement plastered skirting (1 : 6) finished with. a floating coat of neat cement red
oxide mix @ 3.5 kg per bag of cement. (2.2 kg of cement per sq m for floating coat). Method of
calculation is same as (iii) For cement plaster see item no. 55. Labour -combination of s1. 43 and 55.
ANALYSIS OF RATE 507
13-16. Notes on Terrazzo. Flooring :-,- This is a special type of concrete flooring in which mar
ble chips are used as coarse aggregates and laid over conventional cement concrete under layer. Terrazzo
concrete comprises a mixture of cement and marble chips of sizes from 1 mm to 4 mm nominal of select
ed colours as coarse aggregate in a proportion I : 2 or I : 3. Marble powderby-1 rd. weight of cement is
mixed with cement. The excess volume due to addition of marble powder may be considered for surface.
cutting volumcurrdsturryturbuucrirrg affCf-eaCllctiC'Mm15l6 16.5
quintals. Pigment is used with cemellt@ 3.5 kg per bag of cement (l bag 50 kg).
(a) For dark shade pigment ordinary cement is used; (bifor light shade pigment white cement is
used and (c) for medium shade pigment approximately 50% white cement and 50% ordinary cement is
used. Terrazzo work is polished three times as 1st cut. 2nd cut andfinal cut.
46. Terrazzo floor, 6 rnrn thick Terrazzo (1 : 2) over 20 mrn cement concrete (1 : 2 : 4).
Consider first 100sq m (Dark shade using ordinary cement) Unit::: 1 sq m
Calculation 0/ (i) Volume of concrete at base = 0.02 x 100::: 2 cu IT! (wet). Increase
this vol. by 20% for rough sub-base = 2 -I- 2 x = 2.4 cu m (wet) == 2.4 x 1.5 = 3Ji cu rn dry.
:. Cement =31- = 0.50 cu m; Sand =1.00 cu m; Stone chips =0.50 x 4 = 2.00 cu m.
(ii) Volume of Terrazzo =0.006 x 100 =0.6 cu m (wet) =0.6 x 1.5 =0.90 cu m (dry).
I
:. Cement =<J{Q= 0.3 cu m =9 bags, Marble chips =OJ x 2 =0.6 ell m =0.6 x 16.5 =9.90 Qtl,
I
Marble powder =j rd by weight of cement =9 '= 150 kg. =1.5 Qtl, Pigment =@ 3.5 kg per bag
of cement =9 x 3.5 =31.5 kg. . . . . .
Materials.-(i) For c. c.
Particulars Quantity Rate
Rs. P.
---,---=--:---,----::-----"""-1---,--
(a)
Stone chips (12 mm down)
Sand (coarse)
. Cement = 0.50 cu m = 15 bags
(Ii) For Terrazzo-
Marble chips (1 mm to 4 mm size)
Cement
Marble powder
Pigment @ 3 per bag
(b) Labour. - Head Mason
Mason
-- ,
*Mazdoor (4 nos. as Bhisti)
Polisher
Polishing stone (carborundum)
Oxalic acid powder
2.0 cu m
1.0 cu m
IS bags
9.90 ou
9 bags
1.50 ou.
31.5 kg
. 1 no.
20 nos.
30 nos.
98 nos.
L. S.
L.,S ..
Contingencies T. & P. etc' ... Ii.... S. (a + by
(c) \Yater rhargt:S. -
@ I 0 r the
(d) . @ I v;c uf .'
Amount
Rs. P.
325.00 per ell m 650.00
225.00 per cu m 225.00
1,200.00 80.00 per bag
130.00 per Qtl. 1,287.00
80.00 per bag 720.00
138.00 per ou. 207.00
16.50 per kg. 519.75
50.00 Each per day 50.00
45.00 . 900.00
25.00 750.00
25.00 2,450.00
90.00 90.00
90.00 90.0t;
4.5.69 L. S. 45.69
Total =! 9,184.44
=
Tot.;.1i = i 9,276.28
tile tow I = i 927.63
:. !bll <q rn'= 1()2.0J GrJlldLOtJI=IO,203.91
Extra/or providing und fixing afrlll:!f::;,": strips -10 mn; \\:.fc and 1.5 111111 thick.
Details or Ior lOO III Aluminiuu: for strips =.:: ](\() x O.O-i- = 4 sq 111 + 0.2 (for wastage)
= 4.2 sq 111 @ 4.l kg per sq 111 =17.2 For l.il-our sec 11l1tl'S or sl. 49.
*Notc tdachil1('. is usually lISl'l! I'm p\1Iishil1g. The labour charge of polishers should equalise
the hire charge of Ill;IChiI1C and the Llb\ll1l" Clbt d operatorwith helper.
, ,
508 ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFICAnON.
47. Terrazzo skirting or Dado (up to 30 cm height) top layer 6mm thick Terrazzo 1 : 2 over 12 mm ",
thick cement plaster under layer (l : 3). Slack or white colour. , ' , .
" ":!':,: , ,': , Consider first lOOsqm Unit =1 sqm
ofMaterials: -' (i) For 12 mmthick cement plaster (1 : 3), same procedure as '
=.0.47 ,
",' ", (ii) For Terrazzo :-Same as for Terrazzo flooring. " '
Analysis :....:...
1,287.00 Marble chips (1 mm to 4 rnm)
\
Particulars Quantity Rate
I
Amount
(a) Materials.-(i) For cement plaster base--
Sand (medium)
Cement
(ii) "For
...
...
1.41 cu m
14 bags
Rs. P.
160.00 per cu m
80.00 per bag
Rs. P.
225.60
1,120.00
Cement
Marble powder
Pigment @ 3.5 kg per bag
(b) Labour. - Head Mason
Mason
,Mazdoor (4 nos. as Bhisti)
Polisher
Oxalic acid ,powder
Polishing stone
Contingencies T. & P. etc.
(c) Water charges.
(-2) Profit and Overhead. -
.. : "
-,.. 9.90 QU. 130.00 ou,
... 9 bags 80.00 per bag
.., 1.50 ou. 138.00 per QU.
, .... 31.5 kg. 16.50 per kg.
. .. l no. 50.00Each per day
.. , 26 nos. 45.00"""
'" 44 nos. ' ' 25.00 '.,:" " ", "
... 98 nos. 25.00"""
... L. S. " 90.00 L. S.' '
... L. S. 90.00 L. S.
... L.S. 45.15L'S: ..
-#".. -. Total:=
'.. ;- ::..".: -."
. @ 1% of the .total. .' .'
.Toril;
-', .."
@ 10%of.: . the total
720.00
207.00
519.75
50.00
1,170.00
1,100.00
2,450.00
90.00 ,
90,00
,45.15
9,074.50
'.
, "
90.74,
9,165.24
916.52
:. Rate per sq m =Rs, 100.81 Grand total 10.081.76
- chocolate: greyor yellow marole chips 'areused instead of whlte, blnck or white and
black chips then extra cost shall be added with allowance for water charges and contractor's profit,
(2) If aluminium strips 40 mm wide and 1.6 mm thick are used in joints of Tcrraizo floor then
cost of aluminium strips and labour charge @ -A th Mason and i th Mazdoor per 10 m of Aluminium
strip shall be added along with the additions for wastage of Aluminium strip @ 5% and water charges,
pout CIC.
. .
(3) For laying terrazzo floor on staircase, treads not exceeding 30 em in width including the cost of
forming etc. extralabour charge per 100 sq. m. Mason 3 nos. and Mazdoor 6 nos. shall be added in the la
bour gang.
(4) Extra for laying terrazzo in narrow band not exceeding 75 em wide shall be added thus :
5 em band 200 m long -1 Mason and i Mazdoor. .
.. _--._--_..._..,_._----_. '
.---'---_.,

509
ANALYSIS OF RATE
48. Precast terrazzo tiles 20 mrn thick white and black marble chips' of sizes up. t06 mm
laid hi- floors, treads of steps and landings on 25 mm thick bed of lime.mortar (1.: 2)jointed with
neat cement slurry mixed wiLh pigment to match the shade of the tiles andhigh polishing,
ConsiderfirstlOO sq m. (Dark shade using ordinary cement) Unlt s I sq m..
Calculation materials : '-Terrazzo-Liles-;" lOOsq m+.-lO%,wast.age m, ,, ,
(Note: The w-stage has been allowed by the All India standard schedule of Rates).
., .
. Vol. of lime mortar = 0.025 x 100 = 2.5 cum (wct.), Increase this vol. by 20% for rough sub
base == 2.5 + 2.5 x ?go == 3.0 eu 01 (wet) = 3.0 + -1- x 3= 4.0eu 01 dry.
, :. Slaked white lime = 4:p_ = 1.33 eu 01; surki
Analysis :
Particulars
(a) Materials.'
20 mm thick terrazzo tiles
(including 10%wastage) , ..,
r Surki ... ...
white lime , ...
I"
Fement for slurry over bedding @ 4.4 kg/sq m
f 440 kg. =8.8 bags " ...
i t Cement for grouting ...
I
Pigment (dark shade) @ 3.5 kg per
1
hag of cement (for grouting) ...
I ,
l (b) Labour. - '.
I
Head Mason .. .
J
:. Mason
...
I " 'Mazdoor . ,'...
Polisher ...
i
Polishing stone (carborundum) . ':., , , ...
j
Oxalic acid powder' " .
...
I
Contingencies, ::. & P. etc.
/'
'I
I
)
(c) Water Charges.
:1
!\!I
)-
(d) Profit and Overhead.
-e 2.67 cu m.
Quantity , Rate
Rs. P.
110.00 sq 01 78.00 per sq 01
2.67 cu m 200.00
1.33 eu m 450.00 per cu 01
-
8.80 bags 80.00 per bag
8.80 bags 80.00 per bag
30.8 kg 16.50 per kg .
1 no. ' 50'.00Each per day
20 nos, 45.00"""
.. " "
' 65 nos. 25.00 nil ..
'L S'. L. S.,
..'/ :L.. S..
L.S.2 'fIo (a+b) L S. ,'
.Total=
@ 1% of the total =
, . Total =
@ 10% of the 'total =
Amount
Rs.' P.
8,580.00
534.00
598.50
704.00
704.00
508.20
-50.00
',900.00
525.00
1,625.00
90.00
90.00
74.54
14,983.24
149.83
115,133.07
1,513.31
... Rate per sq .m = Rs, 166.46 Grand total = 16.646.38
t
*(1) For medium shades 50% white cement and 50% ordinary cement shall beaceounted for
i"
grouting i.e. 4.4 bags while cement @ Rs. 250 per .bag and 4.4 bags @ Rs. 80.00 per bag.
)' (ii) For light shades 8.8 bags of white cement @ Rs. 250.00 per bag shall be calculated.
'Note (1) If terrazzo tiles arc laid in treads of steps not exceeding 30 cm in width extra labour
!
shall be added per 100 sq 01 Mason 2 nos., Mazdoor 2 nos. and' polisher &1' nos. .,'
r
(2) Floors are polished three times. After polishing each time cement grout with colouring pigment ,
c-
r.
is lapped over the floor to fill up joints etc. and left out for some days before the 2nd time polishing.
..
f
,
r.
) ,
..
r
_.. __ ._ .. _ ..._._ .'. .... .. I
ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFICATION .
. : i , ".: : ' . :.: ': -i,,,;, . ': .. "!' .."" ',.:I:; . "
1317. Analysls 'of. Rates for,' -Roof'lng. : ":. '. .' . - ......
49. 10' c'm": thick lime' ter'radng on .R: .C.
roof 'wlth 2S trim' 'gauge overburnt.'
brick ballast at first floor' (proportion 2 : 2 : 7);
. Consider first 100 sq m. . Unit =J sq m.
Catcutatton "m.ateria[s- : --...,;;' sumrnauon 'of pta-portions '::-2--,.--2 T'-?" :::"ll--------,t"--- -- - -" _.. _.- ...--".--- -
Wet volume of concrete =0.10 x 100 =10 cu m. Lime =l1 .x 2 = 2.9 cu ni. Surki = 2:9 cu m.
Brick ballast
-
- x 7 -
-
10 20 cu m

Particulars
..
(a) Mater-ials. -
::-
Overburnt brick ballast (25 mmgauge) ...
Surki ...
Lime (white slaked) ...
. Molasses (Gur) ...
(b) Labour.

(i) For laying-s-


Head Mason
. ..
...
Mason ...
Mazdoor (3 nos. as Bhisti)
.}"
:
'"
(ii) For beating lime concrete-s- .
Mason '. ...
. Mazdoor (3 nos. as Bhisti): ...
.Mazdoor (female 6 hours a day)
'"
Contingencies, T. & P., etc. ...
....
. , '.'
(c) Water charges.

..
-,
. !.... , .... "r"
" :.,;:.'
(d) Profit and Overhead..:.- ' .
..
'"
. . , .
..
. . -' ... . ,...,. :. Rate per sq m
10.2 cu m
2.9 cu m ,
2.9 cu m
L. S.
1
"2 no.
1 no.
20 nos.
10 nos.
'22 nos .
65
lnos.
L. S. ?% (a +b)
@ l%of
@ 10% of .
=Rs. 83.40
Rate
Rs. P.
250.00 per cu m
200.00 per cu rn
450.00 per cu m
35.00 L. S.
50.00 Eachper day'
. 'I"
45.00 .-" "
25.00 " " "
.'
..
45':00 " "
.on,' . I ..
25.00 "
II", 10
20.00
."
. :, ..
Il. Il
37.35
:" .
;:': c Total.:;:: ':.
the total
=
Amount
Rs. P.
2,550.00
580.00
1,350.00
35.00
"25.00
A5.00
500.00
450.00
550.00
'1300.00
37.35
7,421.93
'75.07.':
.Total = . "1,582.42:
the total

s:

. ... case is'not specified consider 10 cu m.volume quanti
tY,o[materialiand labourate same as above. "':'.' : ', l' . .\;'>7\::" ':c',
.sq. Tile ('1': 2). pointing the 'mortar'
(1 : ,', ..... . - ;' .. ;'!:'" ",,:;,;.";,'::, .':...
:-:i \:/; .;-.;" .<.- sq m. . ..... Uilit =1 sq m.
(a) Mater'lals>- Ranigunj.Tiles ,-\.I1r,.:: : 124 nos. , . 1350.00 434.00,.
"'- White lime (slaked) . , .' CJ;.:ii cu m : . cu III . 22.5C
Surki . . "'1 0.10 cu rn : 200.00" . . 20.00
Cement 0.14 cu m =4.2 bags ::: 'I . qo' 228bacgusm 80.00 per bag 336.00:'.. '.
Sand (medium) I 160.00 per cu m 44.80
(b) Labour. - "Tile Mason ::: I 1- nos. 145.00 Each per day
Mazdoor (Beldar) ... : 2 'los. 125.00 "" 50.00 Il
ContingenciesT.& P.CiC. ...iLS. -;F,o a+b 4.65 L. S. 4.65
Total = 934.45
(c) Water Charges. _. @ 1%of the total = 9.34
Total = 943.79
(d) Profit and Overhead. - @ 10% of the total - 94.38
:. Rate per sq rn = Rs. 10.38
Grand total =1,038.17
_.__._---_.. ... -
--
511
ANALYSIS OF RATE
.
.:: I
I
51. Mangalore Tile roofing including Teak battens of size 3 em x 2 em @ :tI.Oem
..;
in lime mortar (1 : 2). '. . ,,;: , ....
.. i
. I
Consider first 10sq m. Unit::.:: 1sq m.
-. Calculation ofmaterials 11!1.,P!!!J__ m. == 150 nos. Ridge Tilefor 10m long = 10 nos;
Considering sloped area 10m long x Srn wide for each em"
c/c . 1 ::.:: 13.5 say 14 nos.
:. For two slope 2 x 14 =28 nos. of 10 m long each. Quantity = 28x 10.0 x 0.03 x 0.02::.:: 0.17 cu m.
Particulars
(a) Materials.- Mangalore tiles
Mangalore ridge tiles
Teak rafter 3 em x 2 em
Battens nails
Surki
White lime (slaked)
(b) Labour. - Carpenter
Tile layer
Mazdoor (Beldar)
Contingencies T. & P. etc.
(c) Water charges.
(a)
.J'"'
(0)
(e)
r: (d)
G. I. bolts
G. 1. screws
r uts ",
.. '
Limpet washers
Labour.
Carpenter
Blacksmith
Mazdoor (BcIlklr)
Sundries. T. & P.
Water charges. -
Profit and Ovcrhead.v-,
I Quantity
... 150 nos.
... . 10 nos.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
L. S. 7% (a+b)
@ l%of
(d)
Profit and overhead. -
@ 10% of
., Rate per sq m =
.
52. Corruagated GalvanizedTron .. (C. G__ .1.) 0.63
(exciuding the cost of purlins and rafters).
0.17 ell m
2.5 kg.
0.08 GU m
0.04 cu m
1
2" no.
1
2" no.
3 nos.
1 '
7.76
.,' Consider first 10 sq m. - .;. -J/nit = 1 sq m:
Materials. - . _ .'. ,/.",: r .
C. G. 1. sheets (with ..cn:tend)a'p' _.
sq m
and 2 corrugation sid. -'--
... : ,::.::O.:r,Qtl.
.'"
mm thick (i.e. 24 B. sheet. Roofing
-
... 0.7 kg.
.. , 1.0 kg.
a . 1.4 kg
... 5 doz.
...
l
no.
... no.
2'
... 2 nos .
... L. S.
... @ 1% of
... @ 10% of
per sq m = 81.54
Rate
Rs. P.
250.00 per % nos.
3.50 Each
14.00 per cu m
26.00 per kg.
200.00 per cu m
450.00 per cu m
45.00 Each per day
43.00 " " "
.. ..
25.00 "
3.48 L. S.
Total =
the total
.. =
Tota1=
"
.,: ,
the totai.
=
Amount
Rs. P.
375.00
35.00
55.50
65.00
16.00
18.00
22.50 .
21.50
87.50
3.48
.698.48
6.98
705.46
70.55
: Grand lotal == 776. 10
,
",' :"; \ : " ',.
.c. .:
610.00"pei--QH.
54.00 per kg .
. " :
54.00 "
48.1)0
...-
"
3.60 per doz .
....
45.00 Each per day
..
40.00
" "
.. ..
25.00 "
15.00 L. S.
Total =
the total =
Total =
the total .

37.80
54.00
f)7.20
18.00
45.00
20.00
50.00
15.00
734.00
7.34
741.34
Grand total =815.47
74.13
512
ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFICATION
'!
OJ
13-14. Analysis of Rates for Plastering :-.
53. 12 111m thick cement plastering 1 : 6 on new brickwork
.Consider first 100 sq m. .' Unit == 1 sq m.
., . ,_ Method first-the volume ofmortar- (wet)-frqmthe thickness "and- sur
face area. Increase this amount by 20% for filling the depressions. joints. wastage etc. Calculate then the
volume of mortar when dry by increasing -j rd volume. (For richer proportions such as 1 : 2 or 1 : 3 the
total dry volume of mortar should be 3% less than the quantity calculated by the above procedure due to
more care against wastage and lesser amount of void from the lesser volume of sand.)
In this case, volume of rnortar 0.012 x 100;:: 1.2 cu m. Increase by 20% for filling the depres
sions etc. == 1.2 + 1.2 x 1- = 1.44 cu m (wet) == 1.44 +i x 1.44 == 1.92 cu m (dry). Summation of prop.
= 6 + 1 = 7.. .
:. Cement =T =0.274 cum; Sand 0.274 x 6 =1.64 cu m
Labour Gang-(B) .
Particulars
I
I
Quantity
(a)
(b)
Materials.
-
Cement
Sand (medium)
Scaffolding
Labour.'
Head Mason
Mason
Mazdoor (1 no as Bhisti)
Contingencies. T. & P. etc.
. .
-
'OO
'"
oo.
...
.oo
...
0.274'cu m
",; 8.2 bags
1.64 cu m
L. S.
1
"1 no.
10 nos.
15 nos.
L s. -fk (a +b)
. ...
(c) Water charges. - @ l%of
(d) Profit and Overhead. -,
:. Rate per sq m
@ 10% of
=Rs, 19.97
Rate Amount
Rs. P. Rs. P.
80.00 per bag 656.00
160.00 per Cll m 262.40
20.00 L. S. 20.00
50.00 Each per day 25.00
45.00
II
" " 450.00
25.00 " "
II
"375.00
7.49
II II ..
8.94
Total = 1,797.34
the total
=
17.97
Total;:: 1815.31
'the total' == I 18L53
Grand total = 1.996.84
54. Materials required ror cement plastering with different" proportions per 100 sq m
Proportion Cement Sand
(a) For 12 mm thick plastering 1 : 3 0.47 cu m = 14.1 bags 1.41 cu m
oo. 1 : 4 0.38 cu m =11.4
" 1.52
1 : 5 0.32 cu m 9.6 " 1.60
==
(b) For 20 mm thickplastering 1 : 2 1.00 cu m 30 " 2.00
==
1 : 3 0.80 cu m 20 " 2AO
==
1 : 4 0.64 cu m =19.2
" 2.56
Labour for any one of the above plastering work per 100 sq m is same as that of 12 mm thick cement
plastering (1 : 6).
<,
-.1
ANALYSIS OF, RATE ,
513
. \
55. 6 mm thick cement plaster (l : 3) to R. C. Ceiling.
Consider first 100 sq m. .. . Unit =I sq m.
-,
Calculation of Materials :- Same procedure as staled in 51. no. 55.
Labour Gang .- (B)
-- _. .. " .... . . . -- .... . .
-
Particulars
-I
I
(a) Muter iats.i-Ccmcnt ...
1
!
Sand (medium) ...
Scaffolding , ..
(b) Labour. - HeadMason ...
" .1
;
Mason ...
Mazdoor (1. no. as Bhisti) .. ,

-
... _.. .. ,-.- ._.
Quantity
0.24 cu In ,
=7.2 bags
0.72 .
L. S.
I
"2 no.
10 nos.
12 nos.
Contingencies, T. & P. etc. ... L s. -f;o(a -i:
(c) Water charges. - ... @ 1% of.
(d) Profit and Overhead.
- ... @ 10% of
:. Rate per sq m == Rs. 16.65
56. Rule Pointing in cement mortar (1 : 3) on brickwork on walls.
Considerfirst 100 sq m.,_ Unit =I sq.m.
Caiculation ofMaterials :- An empirical quantity of 0.63 eu m (dry) mortar should be considered
ioo sq m [or Rule and Tuck pointing. In case of Rush pointing, take 75% of the above quantity.
Here, cement = 0.16 cu m; sand = 0.16 x 3 = 0,4,8, cu m... ,
Labour -"-' (B)
(a) Materials.-Cement
..... !
. :.',
'.;'. ,J.
Sand (medium);.. " .
, , . ,J
Scaffolding '"
(b) Labour. - HeadMason
Mason'
"
0.1'6 cu in'
=: 4.8 bags
cu m
L.S.
1
"2 no.
10 nos.
- -- ... ...-..
Rate
Rs. P.
80.00 per bag
160.00 per cu m
25.00 L. S.
50.00 Each per day
.. ..
45.00
"
25.00
" " "
. ..._-" .. _.
Amount
Rs. P.
576.00
115.20
25.00
25.00
450.00
f300.00
7.46L. S,
I
7.46
Total = 1,498.66
the total = 14.98
Total = 1,513.64
the total
- =
151.36
Grand total = 1;665.00
.
384.00
160.00pr cu m
80.00 pe(bag
76.80
15.00t:.'S. 15.00
50.00 Each per day i 25.00
45.00"' :.. '" I
450.00
2).00' ;." ",' I' Mazdoor (1 no, as Bhisti) ... \ . 10 nos.. -'; ! , 250.00
Contingencies. T. & P., etc. ... LS. (3.+b) I 5.93 L.S. 5.93
I ' I
I
I Total =. I 1.191.75
(c) \Vater charl-:es. - @ 1% of the total = 11.92
Total = 1,203.65
(d) Profit and Overhead. @ 10% of the total
=
120.36
:. per sq m = Rs. 13.24 Grand total =1,324.01
Note :- For pointing work on floor, requirement of materials and labour will be 25% less than that on
walls. For flush pointing labour charge shall be 10% less than that of Rule pointing.
'------
514
i, " "
ESTIMATIN6 COSTlNqAND SPECIFICATION
'. . t .
1315. Analysis of Rates for f'lnlshlng. (,'
$7. White washing.2 coats on of primer to new plaster.
Considerfirst 100 sq m.
' "
Amount'
f-"Rs"."P.'
..
54.00
3.20
7.00
57.00
50.00
0.86
Unit =1 sq m.
.
Rate Quantity
Particulars
"
I
.... _.
, " .... ... ,- ", .....
"P:
, , I
1.80 per kg
Gum I 0.16 leg
(a) Materials.c-Stone Lime (unslakcd) ... 30.0 kg
20.00 per kg
Blue pigment Colour ... L. S.: 7.00L. S.
38.00 Each per day (b) Labour.
-
Painter ... I nos.
.. .. '
2 nos. '25.00
Contingencies. ladders. etc. ... LS. -o(a+b)
Mazdoor (BeldarS) ..,
0.86 L. S.
Total = 172.06
(c) Water charges.
...
... @ 1% of the total
:;::
1.72
Total = 173.78
17.38
:. Rate per sq m = Rs. 1.91 Grand total =1.91.16
(d) Profit including Overhead.- ... @ 10% of the total =
58. Colour washing two coats over a coat of white wash to new plaster.
, Consider first 100 sq m. Unit = 1 sq m.
Calculation of Materials :- Ali particulars are same as that of white-washing. only add 2.5 kg of
paint in material column. Labour Gang same as white washing.
59. Distempering two coats with dry distemper to interior walls' or ceiling with a coat
of primer.'
. , Consider first 100 sq m: Unit = 1 sq m.
(1) Primer coat with distemper primer
8 litres 50.00 per litre' , , 400.00 ,(a) Materials..-Distemper
L'.l.' C' .. , Brushes, putty. sandpaper 20.00
(bj-Labourv > Painter ' 57.00 2 2 nos. 38:CiO Each' per day
2 2"
1
nos.,
25.00 ',' 62.50 Mazdoor ,
2.70 L.S. %" '2.70 L. S. etc.
(2) Top coats.
..
.; .
(a)
(b)
Materials.-Dry distemper
Brushes, putty, 'Sandpaper '
Labour. - Painter
Mazdoor
Contingencies, ladders etc.
(c) Water, charges. -
(d) Profit and Overhead. -
... 1 10 kg.
I L. '5.
... \1 6 nos. ,
... 3 nos.
... L S. (a + b)
@ I % of the
@ 10% of
24.00 per kg ,240.00
9.00 L<L 9.00
I
38.00 Each per day 228.00
25.00 75.00
5.47 L. S. 5,47
TOLaI = 1,099.67
total = 11.00
Total = i.n0.67
the total ;: 111.07
.: Rate per sq m = Rs. 12.22 Grand total =1,221.74
60. Distempering two coats with oil bound distemper with a coat of primer. Same pro
and same labour as in (67). Only the quantity of distemper for Top coat shall be 15 kg.
515
ANALYSIS OF RATE
'I
(a)
(b)
Particulars
Materials.-Slakcd stone lime
Labour.
-
Mason
Mazdoor
Sundries, ladder, T. & P.
...
...
...
'"
(c)
(d)
Water charges;
-
Profit and Overhead. -
.', Rate per sq
...
...
m
.Quantity
. '-'. . - ..
8 kg
1 no.
2 nos.
LS,
@ l%of
.@ 10% of
= Rs. 13.82
Rate Amount
.- ... _. . _.- .
-Rs-.- -p;-
-, .
----R-s. -P.
14.40 1.80 per kg.
45.00 45.00 Each per day
25.00
" "
It
50.00
15.00 L. S. 15.00
Total:: 124.40
the total 1.24
==
125.64 Total =
12.56 the total
==
Grand total == 138.20
62. Single _coat of white-washing over old white-washed surface.
Consider first 100 sq m.
Particulars
(a)
Materials.-Stone lime unslakcd ...
Gum ...
Blue colour ...
(b) Labour, - Painter ...
Mazdoor(helper)
Contingencies, ladder etc.
..
-
Quantity
10kg
L. S.
L. S.
3
.
4" no.
L S. '+-f'o (a +b)
(c) Water charges. ... @ 1% of the
(d)
Profit and Overhead. -
... @ 10% of
. .... Rate .per m = Rs. 0.99
Unit 1 sq m.
Rate
Rs.
1;80 kg.
3.50 L. S..
5.50 L. S.
38.00 Each perday
It It
25.00 "
15.00 L. S.
Total =
lotal
=
Total =
the total
=
Amount
Rs. P.
18.00
3.50
5.50
28.50
I
18.75
15.00
89.25
0.89
90.14
9.01
Grand total =99.15
63. Decorative Water proofing cement coating on plastered surface (may be snow cem
Blucccm, Super-cern, Duro-cern two coats. Similar compound may' be prepared by mixing white cement
with coloured powder pigrnent.) ..
Consider first 100 sq m. Unit =1 sq m.
a) Materuus.e-Snowccm (Duro-cent) Ier ,.
1st coat .
30 kg
I
.2nd coat 20 kg
50 kg 19.50 per kg . I 975.00
(b). Labour. Painter 5 nos .. 38.00 Each per day I 190.00
Mazdoor (Helper)
i 5 nos. 175.00. " . " ": 125.00
Contingencies, ladder. T. & P. etc.
l1. s. -Jr." (a + b) I 15.00 - "": 15.00
I ....
Total 1,305.00 :0=.
(c) Water charges. -
@ 1% of the total == 13.05
Total == 1.318.05
(d) Profit and Overhead. @ 10% of the to1.411 = 131.80
.. Rate per. sq III == Rs. 14.50 Grand total == 1,449.85
516
. .:. .
ESTIMATINQCOSTINGAND SPEQf1CATION ';.
.' ,:;,.,.} ".
Wall painting ..(twoor morejaoats) with; plastic emuislon paint of brand and
manufacture' on new work to give an uniform shade: .
'. Consider first 100 sq m. Unit =1 sq m.
Calculation ofMaterials :- procedure as stated in Sl. no. 58. .
" ..<Izabour Gang-----(B) - .. "
Particulars
\
(a) Materials. -Plastic emulsion paint Materials for
filling in holes and cracks (putty etc.) ...
(b) Labour. - Painter (classI) . ...
Mazdoor (Helper) ...
. Brushes, Sandpaper etc.
Sundries
."
(c) Waterrcharges. - ...
(d) Profit and Overhead,
-
-
...
.
. - ..
Quantity
12 Litre
L. S.
5.5 nos.
5.5 nos.
L. S.
L S. -kro (a + b)
@ l%of
.@ 10% of
:. Rate per sq m = Rs. 16.07
65.' Pr imer coat with ready mixed primer on steel WOrk.
Consider first 100 sq m.
Materials
Primer (Rs. 50.00 per litre) 5.5 Iitres,
Sundries, brushes, sand paper. Rs. 20.00 L.S.
"66. Primer coat with ready. mixed primer on Wood
. . Consider first 100 sq m.
'.: Primer (Rs. 45.00 per litre) 7.5 litres
Putty L.S. Rs. 8.00
. Sundries, brushes; sand papcr.. L.S. Rs. 20.00 ..
..... _.. - .. - _._
Rate
Rs. P.
87.00 litre
17.00 L. S.
38.00 Each per day
.,
25.00 " "
24.00 L. S.
L.S.
Total =
the total
==
Total =
the total . .
Amount
Rs. P:
1,044.00
17.00
209.00
137.50
24.00
15.00
1,446.50
14.46
1,460.96
146.09
Painter - 2 '2 nos.
.Mazdoor (helper) - 2t nos.
work.
Unit =1 sq m.
Painter =2 nos.. .
..
Mazdoor (helper)- 2t nos.
-..
Grand total =1,607.05
Unit = 1 sq m.
, i
Labour
. 1 .
., two coats (excluding primer coat) -wlth ready mixed paint for new wood
an even surface'::;'... ':. :. ;!:'.' , '.' :..
. ,
.. . Consider first 100 sqm. :..
Unit =J sq m.
I
,i
(a) Materials.-Paint (Enamel, I.C.I.) 121itres 87.00 litre. I
. Putty, sandpaper etc..'
. .
. ..
I '
20.00 L. S. .
. . .... ,-.
20.00
, i
(b) Labour, - Painter (class 1) 5 2" nos. 38.00 Each Per day 209.00
Mazdoor (helper)
I
... S j nos. 25.00 " 137.50
. Contingencies T. & P. etc. . .. L S. ,,"0 (a +b) L. S. 20.00
I ------=:=---=---;---::--:-::-:;--::-:::
(c) Water charges. - @ l%of
1.430.50
14.31
=
T013I=
I
I the total
, .. \
1,444.81 I TOt:.\I=
(d ) Profit and Overhead. @ 10%of ... 144.48
==
I
: the tot ,II
:. Rate per sq m = Rs. 15.89 Grand LOL31 = 1,5S').29
68. Painting two coats (excluding primer coat) on Wood work or Steel work. Unit = I sq III
For 100 sq m.. paint =7.5 litres, Painter =3.5 nos. Mazdoor (helper) = 3.5 nos.

. "
ANALYSIS OF RATE
517
13-16; Analysis of Rate for Water Supply and Sanitary Installations.
69.' Suppl)'ing. and fitting, fixing 12 mrn diameter G. 1. pipes with G.!. fittings' and
'.
M.S .. clamps including cuuing holes in walls and mending good the same complete for internal work.
Considerfirst Ion r m.. ":: r_ ..
Particulars Quantity
------------------.----f----
(a) Materials.
12 rnrn diu. G. I. pipcsuncdium) lOOrm
Fitting and wastage 5% of
pipe cost
While lead. oil, hemp L. S.
Cement. sand, grit (for mending wall) L. S.
(b) La bour.
Filler 3 1105.
I' .
Assistant [ittcr 4 nos.
1 .
. Mazdoor (Bcldar)
6 nos.
(c) Water charges. @ l%of
(d) Profit and Overhead.
I
Rate
I

29.00 pCI' I'm
I
I
,
i
i 20.00 L. S.
2(1.00 L. S.
Amount
Rs. P.
2,900.00
145.00
20.00
20.00
150.00
130.00
150.00
0"
:. Rate per rm = Rs. 39.60 Grand total > 3,960.71
70. Supplying and filting, fixing 20 mm dia. G. 1. pipes with G.I. fittings and M. S.
clamp's including cutting holes in-walls and mending good the samecomplete for internal work.
. Consider first 100 r m. " .
Same procedure as (69). For labour Gang increase the strength of Assistant fitters by 1-1 nos. cost
of 20 mm dia. pipe @ Rs. 32.00 per r m. .
71. Supplying, ITHing 'and' laying 25mm dia. 'G: I.' 'pipes with G; 1. fittings' complete in
cluding trenching andrefilling etc. [or external work. .
. ".
Consider first 100 r m. .' ..'
Unit = j sq m.
(b)
(a)
W nitc lead, oil. hcmpctc.
Labour. -
Materials.
25 mm dia. G.I. pipes (medium I. T. C.)
For fitting and wastage
1001' m
2%of
pipe cost
L. S.
'1
. i
:: ';
38.00 per r rn
76.00
20.00
3,800.0{)
Filter I 1 no. 50.00
Mazdoor (Bcldcrs)
2 nos. 50.00
For trenching an refilling etc.
Mazdoor (Bcldcrs) 6 nos.
(c) Water charges. @ l%of' the total
:
'1 '
'
(d) Profit and Overhead. - @ 10% of the
.. Rate per I'm ::; Rs. 46.06 Grand Total =4,606...21
... ..
518
ESTIMATING\ COSTING AND SPECIF:ICATION
o Il : .
n. L-aying, fitting, fixing din. C. L pipes, provlding wit:h tighton joint
tc.sting of the joint and trench cuttipg for the I?ipe laing up to a depth of mvcrt 90 and refill
ing.jiressing etc. complete. ... .: ,Umt,=l'err m.
(Length of each pipe is 4.0 m and suppliedfrom departmental 'storewithin 10 km). CC?nsider{irst (l
lenglAoj-20 r.m.of pipe.. aJengJILQflQ-f._I;P. .
5 :. ..
(a) l\lu ter ials. - ...
Carriage of materials weighing approx, '
450 kg within 10 km distance .
For 5 nos. joints tighton-
Rubber gasket 100 mm dia
(b) Labour. - .
*For trench and refilling etc.
Section 90 cm x 60 ern
For pipe laying and jointing-
Filler .
Assistant Filler
Mazdoor (Bcldar)
(c) Water charges.
(d) Profit and Overhead.
, ;
L. S.
4 nos.
21.50 cu m
1
"2 no.
1 no.
1nm:
@I%of
@ 10% of
:
50.00 L. S.
7.50 Each
7.00 per cu m
50.00 Each per day
45.00 Each per day
2500 " ""
Total. =
the total .
Total =
the total _
..
20.00
30.00
150.50
25.00
45.00
75.00
375.50
2.- .1.li..
379.25
.)7.
1
) ,;
:. Rate per r m = Rs, 41.68 Grand total", 4,1 "1. j is
*y01. for trenching =0.90 x. 0.60 x 20,=.. 10.80 cu m
Vol, for refilling =10.8 - Tt/
4
x 0.1
2
. x 20= 10.70 cu m
. Total = 21.50 cu m
73. Laying, and 150. .. tlghton joint pipes providing with
rubber gasket including testing of the joint and trench CUlling. depth of invert 75 em and refilling.
dressing. etc.. complete. (Length of each pipe is 4.00 m supplied from 'departmental store).
Consider first a length of20 r.m of pipe;line. Unit = 1 r m.
I ioi 20 . 5
No. 0 joints = 4' = nos.
(a) Mater iuls.' - .
. .",.-.
Carriage of materials
weighingapprox. 660 kg within 10 km distance
. ,. ... ... '..
. "5'6:06: L.S. 50.00
.For 5 nos. joints- .... _.. . '. ...._. '."_. -"
Rubber gasket 150 mm dia 4 nos. 18.00 Each 72.00''
Sundries; T. & P. etc. L. S. 20.00 L. S. 20.00
(b) Labour. -
*Fnr. Trenching and refilling etc.
Section 75 cm x 60cm" 17.65 cu m 7.50-.:u m 132':.-8
For pipe laying and jointing-i-
Filler - 1 nos. 50.00 each per day 50.00
Assistant filler 1 nos. 45.00 per day 45.00
Mazdoor (Bcldar) 4 nos. 25.00 each per day 100.00
Total = i 469.38
(c) Water charges. - @ 1o/cof the total = I 4.69
Towl = r. 474.07
(d) Profit and Overhead. - @ 10% - I 47.41
:.Rate per r m = Rs. 26.07 Grand total = 521.48
"Vol. for trenching = 0.75 x 0.60 x 20 = 9.00 cu m
Vol. for refilling = 9.00 - Tt/
4
x (0.15)2 x 20::: 8.65 cu m
Total = 17.65 cu m
ANALYSIS OF'RATE
519
74. Supplying, laying and jointing 100 rnm dla. glazed stoneware' pipes with cement
mortarjl; .1:. (costs of concrete for embedding the pipe and earthw.ork are to be calculated as per design
. i
and drawing). . . ". . . ' .
. Considerfirst 15 r m. Unit = per r.m.
Number of joints with --- -._-- .-:--.....
..
Particulars
. Quantity Rate Amount
Rs. P. Rs. P.
(a) Materials. -
100 mm dia. S. W. pipes 60 em long each ... 25 nos . 19.80 per piece 495.00
Allowance for breakage ... 5% the cost
of materials -
24.75
Cement for 25 joints (0.022 cu m) .. , :;:; 0.66 bags 80.00 per bag 52.80
Sand (coarse) ... 0.022 Cll In 225.00 per eu m 4.95
Spun-yam or plain gasket@ 0.1 kg per joint ... 2.5 kg. 9.00 per kg I 22.50
Sundries, T. & P. etc. ... L. S. 15.00 L. S. . 15.00
(b) Labour. -
Mason ... 1 no. 45.00 Each per day 45.00
Mazdoor(Bcldar) . .., 2 nos. 25.00 Each per day 50.00
Total:;:; 710.00
(c) . Water charges. - . ... @ 1% of the total
=
7.10
Total = 717.10
(d) Profit including overhead. -
'"
@ 10% of the total
=
71.71
:. Rate per rm = Rs. 52.59 Grand total :;:; 588.81
75. Supplying, laying and jointing 150 mm dia. glazed stoneware pipes with cement
'mortar 1 : 1 (costs of concrete for embedding the pipe and earthwork are to be calculated as per design
and drawing).
Considerfirsli5 rm.
Number of joints with length of each piece is 60:cm = -d.to =25 nos.
Unit =per r m.
Particulars . Quantity Rate
."
Amount
.
i : .Rs. P. ns. P.
(a) Materials.
-
r:
:;
,
ISO mm dia, S. W. pipes 60 ern long each
Allowance for breakage. ;"
,.
...
."
25 nos.
. 5% of the
materials
24.50
-
..
I
I
612.50
30.63
Cement for 25 joints (0.034 cu 111) ..,
I
;:::; 1.02 bags 80.00 pel bag 81.60
Sand (coarse)
" ,
.... O.034-cu rr. :::.OC"IA-r c.; III
!
7;GS'
Spun-yam or plain gasket@ 0.18 kg per
,
joint =25x 0.18
Sundries, T. & P. etc
...
...
\
.4.5 kg
L. S.
9.00 per kg
15.00 L. S.
!
40.50
15.00
(b) Labour.
Mason
-
.
... 1 I
..
I
1 1 nos.
!
45.00 Each per day i 67.50
Mazdoor Bcldar)
." j
2"2 nos. 25.00 Each per day 62.50
Total = 917.88
(c) Water chargcs. - .
... @ 1% of the total =
9.18
Total = 927.06
(d) Profit and overhead. - ... @ 10% of the total
:;:;
92.71
.. Rate p cr r rn = Rs. 67.98 Grand total == 1,01.9.77
-_.. ..;';."'.: .. -. _... . ..-......
fj
.:1 .
520 ESTlMA COSTING;AND SPEC\FICAnON "
; , . ..
75(.1\). Supplying fitting rlXing Indian typewbite glazed. earthenware C. pan .
100 mm dia; H. C. L (Heavy Cast Iron) trap, 15litres I. flushing cistern with G/L unions andG. Lchain
and pull, telescope flush pipe with fittinga and clamps, 25 mmdia, G, I. overflow pipe with-specials and
mosquito-proof coupling complete including cutting floors and and mending good the same and
painting thecistem ,with fittings, '-'''' __._. _",. " __ _:.., _
(Low-level plastic cisterns are also in use, this cost less than C. 1. high-level cisterns as mentiond
avove.Pressed steel cisterns are also in use.) .
Particulars
(a) Materials
45 cm white glazed earthenware W. C.
pan
100 mm H. C. 1. P-trap
15 litres C. 1.flushing cistern with
fi ttings and G. 1. chain etc..
1. brackets
32 mm telescope flush pipe with
G. 1. (G.!. pipe)
. .
32 mmholder bat clamp
mx:n ilia. G. 1.ovrflow pipe
with specials
....... . ,
25 mm mosqulto-proof coupling
White lead, red lead and gasket
Cement, sand and grit
Painting to cistern etc.
Sundries, T. & P. etc.
(b) Labour-
Fitter (plumbing Mistri)
Mason
Mazdoor (Beldar)
(c) Profit including overhead
...
'"
...
...
...
'"
...
..
...
:: ;...
.s .
...
...
...
...
...
...
.
.. ..... '.'
. ,
1'rio.
;.:
';" .
1 no.
.'
.'. '.,
L. S.:
, '
'1
...
rice"
. L.S..
Rate
Rs. P.
120.00 Each
60.00
350.00 Each
25.00
t .
, ,
25:00 Each
..
'. :<"
. .: ,7.00 Each
.'.
".j 15.ooL. S.
..:-',; .: :,' {!!,. ".:"
" ..
.. 8.00
:,;.: ;..: .::.: .....
8.00LS.."_
Unit =Each set
Quantity
1 no.
1 no.
1 no.
1 pair
.'
,
..
"
,
i
.:
'":
..
...
L.S.:
.; j ,
;: .
-.
L. S.
L. S.
1 no.
1
2"
no.
1 no.
8.00
...
12.oo'L. S..
50.00 .:2ach per day .
'.'.
45.00 Each per day
30.00 Each per day
Total
==
@ 10%
=
Grand Total =
Amount
Rs. P.
120.00
60.00
350.00
25.00
..
25.00
..'
7.00
'. ,
15.00
.
.8.00'
. .'
' . .'
8.00

.

.1
12.00
.' .
50.00
22.50
30.00
758.50
75.85
:. Rate of each pan = Rs. 834.35

.. , -i:i1 .
834.35
__
ANALYSIS OF RATE
7 Supplying fitting, fixing 60 cm x 45 em x 25 em PorceJaiitw8sh basin with C. I. b rackets painted
white, a: pair of 12 mm brass pillar taps, 32 mm brass plug withbrass chain, and 32 mmbrass waste pipe
complete including cutting walls ana mending good the same. ; , .. '
Note: The basins are type.,.F'Q[dcG.cUGy_pedestaltype .. "
may be used but this cost about Its. 60 more than bracket type.
Unit =Each set
Particulars Quantity
Rate
Rs. P.
Amount
Rs. P.
(a) Materials
60 cm x 45 cm x25 cm Porcelain basin, I no. 310.00 Each 310.00
C. 1.bracket 1 pair 30.00 per pair 30.00
12 mm brass pillar tap
2 nos. 65.00 Each 130.00
32 mm dia. rubber plug with brass chain
1 no. 15.00
It
15.00
32 mm dia. brass waste
1 no. 20.00
u
20.00
. 32 mm dia, lead pipe em long I no. 45.00
It
45.00
White lead, redlead andgasket .
. . '" ; "J.!.": . ... . .
L. S 15.ooL. 15.00
Cement.sand and grit
L.S.
.. 12.00.L. S.
'" .
12.00
Painting brackets '
L. S.
"' ".-
...,
6.00L. S., 6.00
Sundries, T & P. etc.
L.S. 12.00L. S. 12.00
Fitter (plumbing
Mason
Mazdoor (Beldar)
(c) Profit including overhead-
I
1
. J. uu.
'"
1
T no.
I no.
@ 10%
50.00 Each per day
45.00
It
..
30.00
Total =
=
Grand Total
=
'50.GO
22.50
30.00
697.50
69.75.
767.25
:. Rate of each basin =Rs, 767.25
',':::;:..-.- , -,--"'"
,
----------
522
1
ESTIMATING, d)STING, AND VALUATION
. . !
13-17. ANALYSIS OF RATE WORKS).:; ..
6
. Earthwork in excavation fro;,p borrow pltsand dep9slting the 'soil in of 23
[ncludlng rough dressing within lead of m and lift. of 90 .
. C04siderfirst JOsq 1JZ ' . Unit =1 cu m;

25.00 Each per day 37.50
2Inos.
1
2
1
nos.
25.00 Each per day I 5.00
3" no.
25.00 Each per day 5.00
Total = f-9 2.50
(b) Water charges. - @ 1%of the amount = 0.93
Total = . 93.43
(c) Profit and overhead. @ 10%of the total ' = 9.34
:. Rate per cu m = Rs. 10.28 Grand total = 102.77
Note.- (a) For each additional lead 30 m beyond the initial lead add the labour cost of Mazdoors for
carrying the earth. (b) For each additional lift beyond the initial 90 em lift add the labour cost of 1 Maz
door. (c) In case of mooram or gravelly soil increase the number of Mazdoors for excavation by 50%.
.13-18. Average output of a steam roller (working 8 hours in a day) .
. (a) On Embankment 370 sq m (4,000 sft)
(b). On stone boulder 90 sq m 0,000 sft)
(c) On stone ballast for Macadam .. 20 cu m (700 eft)
(d) On brick ballast for Macadam . 28 cu m 0,000 eft) .
(e) On Laterite ballast for Macadam 34 cu m (1,200 eft)
Hire charge of a roller (8 to 10 tons) excluding the wages of driver, cleaner, and nightguard may be
taken as Rs. 200.00 per day. But including wages of such attendant staff Rs. 250 may be considered per
day. Cost of fuel is to be taken separately. Hire charge ofTar Boiler@ 30.00 pefday. ..
77. Laying over burnt Brick ballast or Jharna metal true to Camber including consolida
tion with power roller carrying the metal from road side within a lead of 150 rm.thick
ness 75 mm to 100. (compacted).
Consider irst 10 cu m Unit = 1 r m.
(a)
(i)
(ii)
(ii i)
(iv)
(v)
Labour. - Mozdoor for
Spreading and carrying
Hand packing and rectifying defects
Watering and blinding
Shouldcrir-g at edge
Rolling.c-Hirc charge of a roller @ 28 cu m
per day including pay of its attendant staff
Diesel for road roller @ 18 litrcs per day
I 25.60 perday .
i 300.00 per dJY
i 6.00 per litre
I
.102: nos.
I
32: nos.
7 nos .
. 3-1 nos.
24
trd day
o liircs
612.5u
100.00
36.00
Contingencies (including lighting ctc.): I L. S. ! 20.00 L. S. 20.00
TOlJ.I = 768.50
( b ) Water charges. - @ 1% of the total = 7.6R
Total = 776.18
(c) Profit and overhead. @ 10% of the total = 77.62
:. Rate per rrn = Rs.85.38 Grand towl= 853.80
Note :- In case or stone metal increase the number of Mazdoor by one for spreading, add Further one
Mazdoor for hand packing. Hire charge of roller becomes 1(by @ 20 cu m per day.
......
523 ANALYSIS OF RATE
13-19. Short notes on Bituminous road surfacing. - The main types of bituminous road surfac
ing arc as follows :
'ta) Surface Dressing. (b) Penetration or Grouting method and (c) Premix.
(a) Surface Dressingi-- 'Thismethodconsistsof theapplicationof lhihIilrilof15itiimen on a
cleaned mecadam road face and then binding this film with stone chippings. Surface dressing may be ap
plied in one or two coats according to the surface condition. For two coats surface dressing larger sized
chipping should be used for binding the first layer.
(b) Penetration or Grouting :- In this method metal is spread first on the road surface to the speci
fied thickness and profile lightly rolled in such a way that the interstices between the stones are fairly
open. Bitumen is then applied on the road and allowed to penetrate between the stones through the inter
ctices; in this way the dry chipping are coated with bitumen and bound together. The grouted surface is
then rolled to specified compaction. '
When the bitumen is allowed to penetrate to the full depth of the stone layer it is called Full
Grout; when it penetrates to only half the depth or less, it is known as Semi Grout. .
78. Surface dressing or Bituminous painting -one coat.
Consider first 100 sq m Unit =1 sq m.
Particulars Quantity Rate Amount
(a) Ma terials. -
Rs. P. Rs. P.
(i) Stone chips 12 mm standard size @ 1.52 cu m
.,-,
per 100 sq rn '" 1.52eu m 325.00 per eu m 494.00
(ii) Bitumen (Transported up to work site)
__ @ 194 kg per 100 sq m + 2 i % wastage
199 kg
= 0.199T per tonne .- 796.00
(b): Labour ., Mazdoor(Beldar)
(i) .For brushing off road surface -. . Nos.
(ii) For heating and sprayings Bitumen -. .
(iii), For spreading chippings . 2Nos.--
(c) Plant-Hire of one tar Boiler including sprayer
9Nos. _.,',
25.00 per day
@ 600 sq m per day .
-0
I th day
.
_25.oo_per day
(d) RolHng.-Hire of Roller @ 600 sq m per day
! including auendant staff ... -i th day 300.0:0 per day
te) Fuel.e-l-irewoou lorhciliing-Bitumen-@- 4 quintals
pcrlonne of Bitumen . 79 kg 1.50 per kg
Diesel for roller@ 18 litrcs of per day ..
3 litres .
4.20 per litre
Contingencies (including lighting
arrangement) etc. L. S. 20.00 L. S.
Total =
(f) Water charges. - @ l%of the total =
Total =
(g) Profit and overhead. - @ 10% of the total =
" Rate per sq m = Rs. 19.10 Grand Total =1.910.67
--<
. j... ; l
524 ESTlMATlNP COSTING AND SPEqFICATlON
. . . '.
.

79. Surface dressing. or IHtumin,Jus .sebmd .. . .' 1
.

Considerfirst 1OOsqm
ihtit = per sqm..
Rate Amount
Quantity Particulars
- .... -._- "- - - ._ ..
------ -----. ----_.._-._-----
.- ----R-s.- P.-_ ., .. __ ...._- --_ .. P..
(a) Materials.
(i) Stone chips 12 mm
@ 1 cu m per % sq m. ...
(ii) Bitumen @ 120 kg. % sq m + 2 -i % wastage
(b) Labours- Mazdoor (Belder)
(i)' For brushing off road surface . .
(ii) For heating and spraying of Bitumen
(iii) For spreading stone chips
(c) Hire of one tat Boiler including
sprayer @ 800 sq m per day ...
(d) Rolling. - Hire of power Roller @ 800 sq m ..
per day including attendant staff ...
(e) Fuel.-"::fi!e wood for heating Bitumen .
. . @ 4 quintals per ton of Bitumen ..
Dieselfor roller @ 18 litresper day .
Contingencies, etc. . ..
1 cu m
0.12 tonne
2 ?'fos.
11 Nos.
1'"'l Nos.
5 Nos.
-k th day
. 1 .
. -g th day
0.48 Ql1
61itres
L. s.
325.00 per cu m \ 325.00
4,000.00 per tone I
480.00
125.00 25.00 each
3.13 25.00 per day
37.50 300.00 per day
120.00 per ou 57.60
4.20 per litre I 25.20
15.00 L. S. I 15.00
Total = ! 1,068.43
(f) total @ i% ofthe Water charges. - . 10.68
(g) Profit and Overhead. -
,
"., . @ (0%_:

107.94

Rate' per sq m = Rs, 11.87 Grand Totale 1,187.05
80. Providing seal coat with paving bitumen stonecliips 'to -mm nominal size.
(Materials per 100 sq m shall be bitumen 150 kg and stone chips' 1.0S eu .m),
Consider first 100 sq m
(a) Materials. - ..... ,.
'Bitumen S-90 @ 150 k/100 sq m
Stone chips @ 1.05 cu m/100 sq m
.
"' .... !-:
0.15 T
1.05cu:m
(b) Labour. .;... For cleaning, 'brcshing.. heating .
and spraying
I
I 4--f nos..
(c) Plant. 00' Hire charges of Roller and Tar boiicr
including attendant staff @ 900 sq m per day
I th day
(d) Fuel. - Steam coal for heating
I
.:.-:.:::..: ,:;' . ";Unit in.
I
3,5OO'perton
m
. !
I'
I
I
525.00
. 341.25
25.00' each 112.50
325.00 per day 36.11
@ 2q per tonne of bitumen 1 0.3 cu. .I 40.00 per Qtl. 12.00
Diesel for roller @ 18 litres per day
I: per litre __1.
(ej
Sundries, T. and P. etc.
I TOUlI = ! 1,045.26
(f) Profit and Overhead. - @ 10% of i the total = i. 104.53
.. Rate per sq m = Rs. 11.49 Grand Total =l ,149.79
' ..
ANALYSIS OF RATE
525
81. 25 mm thick premix chipping carpet or premix Bituminous Road surfacing
Considerfirst 100 sq m Unit =per sq m.
Particulars Quantity 'Rate
Amount
- "'--'-- .. - ..
Rs. P.
Rs. P.
(a) Materials.
For tack coa
-
L-Bitumen (shelmac or shclspra)
I
I
I
7S kg
@ 73 kg per 100 sq m + 2-1 % wastage ::: 0.075 T
For pcrmixcarpel
(i) Stone chips 12 mm standard @ 3 cu m per
100 sq m .
3 cum
(ii) Bitumen (shelmac or shclspra) @ 64 kg
per cu m of stone + 2-! % wastage 0.197 tonus
Sand (coarse) for flushing @ 0.75 cu In
per 100 sq m
,.. I 0.75 eu m
(b) Labour. - Mazdoor (Beldar)
(i) For brushing off the old surface
(ii)For heating and applying lack coat
(iii) For heating mixing and spreading
.. . (iv) For flusing sand
4 nos.
2 nos.
9 nos.
1 nos.
. ..
I
I
16 nos.
(c) Plant. - Hire of one tar Boiler including spreader I
@ 560sq m per day ..' -... . .. I day'
r ) (d) Rolling. - Hire of roller including attendant !.. .:.,':
staff @ 560sq rn per day .,. :
I
th day
i' '. " I
(e) fuel. Fire wood for heating Bitumen @ 4 quin.l
i . ;
per ton of Bitumen '" I 0.3 quintal
"
i .
I
i
Diesel for roller @ per day .. , I 31ilrcs
Suudrics (including lighting and brushes)
I
L. S. .15.00
(f) Water charges. - ::: ! @l%
;-.:::..,..----f------+-----
I ' Total =
(gJ llrofit and Over head. -
...
i
!
_, gatl' per r m ::: Rs....... Grand Total :::
.__. .. _ .. _ ...... _-:.o:.l
il
III
l
526 ESTIMATING COSTING AND SPECIFlCATION
13-20. ANALYSIS OF RATE FOR CARRIAGE OF MATERIALS
influencing the cost of transport :- Materials' are usually carried to the departmen
tal store or to the works site either by animal transport such a by Bullock carts or by mechanical transport
such-as by trucks. The cost of transporting materials.depends.upon.several ..... ,
grammaticallity below.
Cost of Transport
I
(
I
(7) The lead of
loading Of the vehicle. ' the vehicle.
(1) Cost of ownership , (3) 'Inc and I (5) The keoo of
materials per trip.
r- I I
(2) For mechanical (4) Labour cost for (6) Number of (8) Fot mechanical transport
transport the rate loading, unloading trips in a day allowance for movement of the
_ of fuel consumption and delay per trip. (8 hours). the truck from parking place
to duty spot and back.
Before going further, let us explain the different factors in short.
(1) Cost of Ownership :-This includes the cost of hire charges of the vehicle for a working peri
od (8 hours) in a day including the cost of driver. For animal transport Bullock Cart charges ofRs. 100.00
may be considered fair and in the case of mechanical transport hire charge of a truck (diesel) of Rs. 400.00
may be considered reasonable for 8 hours in day.
(2) For mechanical transport the rate of fuel consumption and its cost : - The rate of
diesel oil consumption may be assumed at 1 litre per 5 k.m. and the rate of mobil oil consumption at a rate of
1 litre per 140 k.m.
II
(3) The capacity and loading of vehicle :- The capacity of a vehicle varies for different class
of materials. A chart has therefore been given below showing the carrying capacity of different materials by
different transport. In some cases a diesel truck may carrymore quantity of materials at their own risk but
such volumes can not be taken into consideration in the analysis of rate.
Sl.
No.
Materials to be carried
"
Capacity per trip
1.
..
Bricks
(a) Modular or tradltional 9" x 4 -i, "x 3"
;.
' '
...
, By bullock ':,' ,
- , -..... 1
call
400 nos.
By diesel truck
(8 tonnes capacity)
2,000 nos. '
'L.
I
('0)Traditional 10" x 5" x 3"
Sana, Lime. SUfKi, Mooram.etc. Earth, B...Ilast,
300 nos. 1.800 nos.
Building rubbish, Boulders etc. 9.0cu m 42cum
3. Cement, stoneblocks, steel or other heavy materials
\
1.5tonnes 8.0 tonnes
4. Timber ... ... .., ... 1.4 cu m 3.5 cu m
5. S. W. pipe (a) 100 mm dia, ... ... 75r m 350r m
6.
" " (b) 150 mm dia,
Tar, Bitumen etc.
... ... 45rm
1
It tonncs
180rm
5 tonnes
(4) Labour cost for loading unloading and delay per trip :- The labour COSLfor loading
and unloading a load will depend on several considerations such as the weight of the load, the size of the load,
the ease of taking hold of the load and the kind of material. Beside these the cost also depends on the skill of
the workman, his rate of work eLC There is no special rule whereby the best combination of the above
I
I
Ii , I
I
, I
t
I
-,
I
I
I
I
i
I
,
\
i
, I
!
\
"
i
!
! r
,
t
--
I
'r
!
/
I
"
-
I -
,

.'
I
-.
i
"
' ..
527
ANALYSIS OF RATE
considerations can always be determined by one computation. However, selecting a labour gang of the right
number of men those who will be along with the truck will work efficiently and economically, The number
of labourers, Mazdoor (Beldar) in such a gang may be taken as 6 nos.per truck. '.
The time required for and unloadingwil] varyon dilfcrcntjobs, diffcrent materials and different
. III ethods 0 f loading, A period hour is lo-be allowed, Ior.loading and,.u.nJo_adiogjO_C;lJ:_b_Jdp.bY..anirna1
transport and I hour by mechanical transport according to the recommendations of Ccrural Public Works De
partmcnt.
(5) The speed of the vehicle :-This depends on the lead of materials. If the lead be lesser the
speed will belower. At the beginning the estimator is generally inclined to estimate the average truck spec'!..
at too. high a value. For a lead of I km theaverage speed is to be consideredas 10km per hour and for each ad
ditional lead of I km over the initial lead an increase of i km may be allowed according to the practice of
CP.W.D. For a Bullock cart the speed may be assumed 4 km.
(6) Number of trips in a working day (8 hours) :- Number of trips in a working day de
pends upon the speed which itself dependsupon the truck, the road, trafficand the driver.
The nwnber of trips in a workingday of 8 hours may be given by :
N 2L 8 3 This is applicablefor any type of transport.
S+ 4
where, L =The lead in kilometre, S =The speed in kilometreper hour, i hour is the time allowed for
loading per trip. .
(7) The lead ofma tt:r.ials- The shorter the lead of materials, the greater is the carrying cost and
vice versa. The time and cost for loading and unloading are same per trip of a vehicle. Now if the lead be
shorter the above rate will be higher in comparison to rate for longer distances. For a short distance a mechan
ical transport cannot speed up fully in comparison to the rate for longer distances.
(8) Allowance for movement of truck from parking place to duty spot and back :
A distance of 6 km may be allowedfor movement of truck fromparking placeto duty spot and back.
13-21. How is the Analysis of rate for carriage of materials individually prepared ?
Analysis of rate of a material for the quantity per unit of rate can be worked out based on the capacity
of the cartper trip and the number of trips required to carry the quantity of materials. The total cost for the
number of trips at the rate to the specified lead is to be calculated. Then an amount of 10% to the total cost is
to be added for contractor's profit to show the cite per unit of the material. Overhead charges may be excluded,
considering that no hand tools or operating machinery becomes necessary for carriage of the materials.
Example : Analysis of rate for carrrlage.. of Sand, Lime, Moorum , Earth,
Ballast, Boulders, Building for a of .km= . 2x5 3 2.46. (This has been shown
in.the above table.) '.. '."T
Ac!opt;ng a !raI. rate for hiring charge of Bullock.cart @Rs.1OO.OO per day.cost per,trip = Rs. 40.65
Volume ofmaterials to be carried = J cum. Carrying capacity per trip. = 0.9cum. . .
Number of trips required e =1.11. me cost hasbeen shown in the tableas below.
Amount

Unit c'+: Quantity Rate . Number
. of trips Rs. P.
i
i
rate per trip
Rs. P.
Sand, Lime, Mooruiu, Earth. . !
I
45.17 40.65 0.9 eu m 1.11 Ballast, Boulders etc.
I
cum
4.52 . of the total Profil @1O%
! I
Total = 49.69
:. The carrying rate of I cu mof anyone of the above mentioned material by bullockcart for a leadof 5 km =
Rs,49.69,
.
528 ESTIMATrNG,(COSTING,:$PECIFICA'I'ION AND VALUAnON
I' "{ f
, i ..
Example: 1,000 nos. of brick to be transported at a distance of 8 kID from the site of manufacture
either in a cart or diesel truck, By rate analysis find out which one will be cheaper with following data:
Cart chargee Rs.125 per day (8 hours) with carrying capacity of 300 nos. of bricks: hire charge of'diesel
truck = Rs. 600 per day (8 hours) with a carrying capacity ofl,8oo nos. of bricks, cost of diesel =Rs. 5.31
... -pcr-Jitre = Rs;28;01-per Htre-;-Mazdoor-@--Rs.-35.00 = 20 km per hour. The
rate should be analysed according to the standard practice of the Central Public Wm-ks-Department:-
- S
Case .; L By Cart: Number of trips per day N
2L 3
S
-l-
'4
Where, .L = The lead inkrn == 8; \'
S = The speed per hour == 4 km
.2 = hour is allowed for loading and unloading
8 2 6 C .. Rs.125 Rs 5208


2 x .8 3 == .4 .. ., per tnp = 2.46 == . 1::: .
-4-+4 .
Adding 10% profit, .', Cost pee trip = Rs. 52.08 + Rs.5.21 = Rs.57.29
For 300 nos of bricks carrying cost = Rs, 57.29
For 1,000 nos of bricks carrying cost 57;09 x 1,000 = Rs, 190.10
. 3
Case - 2. By deisel truck: Number of trips per day N = 2L 8
- + 1 t
. Where, L == The lead in kID = 8:
S
S == The Av. speed per hour ::: 20 km
1 -== hour is allowed for loading and unloading
.. N = 8 =4.44
2x8
.. .<:._....
Total Km done per day == 2 NL+ 6 (6-kmis from perkiilg place tt? <lU.ty spot)..
t
. == 2 X4.44 x 8 + 6" : = 77:04 km:" .. .',.
_. .. . . - .... .," ''7704:'''. - '. . .,.: C.I ;.:.:.. - .
(a) _?iesel oil one litre persian =.. 500 ._.-::7=.J5.4lJJtx;e.s::! -._" ..
:. ";15Alx"S.31 = Rs.81.83
(b) oll consumed @ one litre per 140 kID .==' O:SS-litres
:. Cost of mobil oil @ Rs. 28.01 == 0.55 x 28.01 ...._. = Rs. 15.41
(c) Labour charge for E. M3idoo(@ Rs. 35.00 eacn perday := R.;.210 ..
(d) Hire charge of diesel Truck per day .__._.. == Rs.6.00
Total == Rs. 907.24
I .
:. Cost per trrp == - ==Rs.204.33
Adding 10% profu cost per trip == 204.33 + 20.43 = Rs.224.76
For 1,800 nos. of bricks carrying cost == Rs.224.76
For 1,000 nos. of bricks carrying Cost = 22:.76 x 1.000 == Rs. 124.27
. I, 00 .
The carrying COSl in a diesel Truck is cheaper by Rs 190.10 - Rs. 124.27 =Rs. 65.23 per 1,000 nos. of
bricks. .
CHAPTER 6
. ESTIMATING OF QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS
The analysis of rates dealt in the previous chapter (Chapter II) give the quantities of materials
and labour required for different items of works for their respective units. Knowing the analysis per
. unit, the materials and labour required for a whole buildingor a work, can be calculated. A few
problems are solved in the following pages as illustrations. First detailed estimate of the work will
be prepared and the quantities of differeru items of work calculated. t hen from these quantuies the
details of materials may be calculated.
Materials statements-This is a statement of materials or a list of materials required far a
particular work. The estimate may be accompanied with a statement of materials required for the
completion of the work. Generally, each estimate is accompanied with a statement of main
materials or important materials which may be arranged in advance during the execution of work.
Materials statement is also known Appreciation of Materials,
Example I.-Calculate the materials for J 00 metres length of a jail wall whose cross-section is
given in Fig. 12.1. .
The wall is of l-class brickwork in cement sand mortar I : 6 finished with 12 mm thick plastering
both side above G. L. with cement sand mortar 1: 6. Foundation concrete is of cement, sand l-class
brick ballast of I : 4 : 8 proportion.
JAIL WALL
r':
90 em
t - ~ - -
-J.
J
;" .. ', 150cm
l-._..
II.
.
.
,
210 em SO em
:..- 90 em --ti
Fig. 12-1
First by dct uilccl cstinuuc met hod the quant it ics ofdifferent items of work ha Ie been tekca out
and t licn wit h the hell' oralli/lysis. the nuucriuls worked out.
- -
----
548
3
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Details of Measurement and Calculation OfQuantities (Ex. 1)
---_.
Height
No.
Remark. .
Depth
TotaL Breadth.
or Length
Quantity
m
Quantity
m m
..
._
-
0.30 . 27.00
cu m
27.00 100.00 0.90
100.00 0.60 0.20 12.00

Outer sloping
consideredlas ;
solid rectangles. (i-'
100.00 0.50. 2.30 115.00
100.00 0.40 1.50 60.00
100.00 0.30 0.90 27.00
Total 214.00
.,
eu m

- 100.00 4.50 450.00
I
- 100.00 4.70 Ht.=4.5+.1 + 470.00

.1=4.70 rn
. : ..
100.00 0.30 - 30.00
Total 950.00
i. sq m
Quantities of different items of work :--'
l . Cement concrete I: 4 : 8
2. Ist class Brickwork in cement sand mortar I : 6'
3. 12 mm Cement sand plaster J : 6
Item Particulars of
.No. Items of work
-+.----------._
Cement
concrete 1:4:8
in foundation
21st class
Brickwork in
cement sand
mortar I: 6
Footing
50 em wall
above footing
40 em wall
30 em wall
12mm Cement
'sand plaster
l : 6
Inner side
Outer side
I
: Top
;
i
I
!
i
I
: .
27 ell m
214 cu m
950 sq m
Note: End (aces ofthe wall ha ve not been taken into account as the same JliIS been considered as
part of a wall.
. ~
... ,. ----....._--_ ...... --_._. .._ - - -_._.... ' ...
--..::;..:;,;----
Item Particulars of items of work and Requirement of Material
----
No. and basis of materials per unit Brick l-class Brick ballast Sand
I-class
I Cement concrete 1:4:8-27 cu m - 24.84 cu m 1"2,42 cu m
@ 0.92 ell rn ballast}
0.46 cu rn sand, percu m
0.115 cu m cement
(3.45 bags) .
2 Brickwork in cement sand
mortar 1:6-214 cu rn 107000 nos. - 57.78 ell m
@ 500 nos. bricks, }
0.27.cu m sand, per cu m
0.045 cu m cement,
(1.35 bags)
3 12 mm Cement sand plaster 1:6
950 sq m - - .17.10 cu m
@ 0.30 ell rn (9 bags} .
cement . ;per %sq rn!
1.80 cu msand . "
Total 107000 nos. 24.84 cu m .. 87.30 ell m
,
I
.'
I
,-
, -
CALCULATION OF MATERIALS
Calculation of MaterIAls (Ex. 1)
The requirement of materials. are as given below : .
. 1, Bxcks I-class
2. Brick Ballast l-class 40 mm gauge
3. Sand (Local)
549
10,7000I}os.
24.84 cu m
87.30 cu m
Cement
3.105 cu rn
-
9.63 cu rn
2.85 cu m
15.585
xcu
m
r15.585x30
\ bags
=467.55 bags
4. Cement 467.55 bags (233.78 quintals)
Example 2-Estimate the quantitiesof brick, brick ballast, lime, surkhi, sand, stone ballast and
cemFnt required in the constructionof the two-roomed building of Example 5 given in pages 93-95.
(Figs. 3-5 and 3-6). .
Note-From the detailed estimate and Abstract of Estimate in pages 96-/09 the quantities of
different items of works involving the above mentioned materials are taken and the requirement of
materials are calculated os given in the next page 550-552..
. .~
. r
550
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
Bricks'
work' and basis of
Particulars of items of
l-class
materials per unit
2
1. Lime concrete in foun
74 cu m
Per cu m- .1
1.00 eu m Brick ballast
40 mm gauge >
0.16 cu m White lime
slaked
0.32 cu m Surkhi
2.. I-Class Brickwork in
foundation and plinth
in 1:6 cement mortar
-22.32 cu m 11160
Per cu m- ....\,
500 nos. Bricks
0.045 cu m Cement '>
0.27 cu m Sand' (localj'
3. I-elass brickwork in )
superstructure with 1:2
lime mortar
3Q.1O cu m 15050
nos.
Bricks }
0; 12 cu m lime slaked
0.24 cu m Surkhi
4. R.B. work, in linte1s
1.788 cu m 805
Per cu m
nos. Bricks
0.12 cu m Cement
}
0.36 eu m Sand
(coarse)
5. 2 em D.P.C. 1:2
cement sand mortar
10.52 sq m
Per (Jfo sq m
7(
40 mm 20 mm 20 mm
Brick. brick Stone
ballast ballast ballast
3 4 5
10.74
cu m
nos.
._L
Cement
.6
1.004
cu m
0.214
I(,;u'ffi
I
I
!
0.095
eu m
Sand
coarse
7
Sand
Local
fine
8
6.03
cu m
0.64 i --
J -
I
'i..l,m I'. ,,,
I
r
I
I
0.J9
eu m
White
lime
White
lime
slaked unsla
ked
10 9
1.72
eu m
3.61
cu m
I
.I. .. _L

.'....':.c'
Surkhi
.:.
; .....

!
II
3.44
eu m
\
7.22
'0,," i
cu m
. . i
I,
,
I
I
'.' i
\
,
1
i
i
, t
";.
'L--_--'--__ ,
(Contd.)
551
CALCULATION OF MATERIALS
(Ex. 2 Contd.)
II
,./
i
. \
, '
.-: '.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
6. R'C'Crworkl :1!-1- :-3 -
. .... - - .._, ... ----_... . - .. --_. _... ................ '---_._-
incolumns--0.19cu m - - - 0.16 0.053 0.08 - - -
-
cum cum cum
Per cu m
0.84 cu mstone
I
aggregate 20mm >
0.42 cu m Sand(coarse)
0,28 cu m Cement
7, R.C.C. work. 1:2:4 in
slab-8.329 cu m - - - 7.33 1.832 3.66 .
- -
-
cu m cu m cum
Per cu m
"
0.88 cu m stone
aggregate
20 mm
')
0.44 cu m Sandcoarse
-
0.22 ell m Cement
.)
8. 10 em Lime concrete in
roofterracing-53.60sq
m =5.36 ell m
Percu m ,1
1.00 cu m Brick. ballast
25 mm .. >
0.18 cu m Lime (slaked) I
0.36 cu m Surkhi '.
- - 5.36
cum
-
-
- - ,0.97
cum,
- 1.93
cum
9. 12 mm plastering 1:1:6
cement, lime and sand.:
285.60 sq m
--,
- - - - 0.857
cum
- 5:14
cum
0.86
cum
- -
Per%sq ffi
0.30 cu m Cement
'>
0.30 eu m Lime (slaked)
1.80 eli m Sand(local)'
- .. ,
, .
10. 20 mm thick cement
plaster 1:3 in steps
cement f1oated-4.59 sq m -
- - -"'. 0.036
cu m
0.107
cu m
- - - -
P,,%sqm }
0.78 cu m Cement
including finishing
2.34 cu mSand (coarse}
II. 2.5 em c.e. 1:2:4 floor
. '
.,
over 7.5 em lime
concrete =50.00 sq m
(For basis of calculation
see next page
3.75
cu m
- 1.20
cum
0.400
cum
0.60
cu m
-
0.60
cu m
- 1.20
eu m
552
ESTIMATING AND COSTING
I
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO 1'1
For 2.5em C.C. 1:2:4
"Per%sqm
_..
- 2.40 cu m Stone
aggregate 20 mm
1.20 cu m Sand (coarse) >
0.80cu m Cement
including cement
finishing
.,.J
,
. _ ..
- -"'-' . .. ...__ ._ - _.. .. - ... _- .... _... . . - ._..... - .
For 7.5 em L.C. per %
sq m .'
1.5cu m Brick ballast }
40mm
1.20 cu m Limeslaked .
2.40cu m.Surkhi
12. White washing and
colour washing 3 coats
203.64+ 171.58=375.22 sq
m - - - - - - - 112.6
Per% sq m for 3 coats- }
30 kg White lime
unslaked
k6
112.6 13.79 Total 270.15 14.49 5.36 8.69 4.492 6.28 11.l7 7:76
nos. cu m cum cu m cum cum cum cum kg cu m
Abstract of Materials
(1) I-classbricks
(il) 40 mm Brick ballast l-class
(m) 25 mm Brick ballast l-class
(iv) 20 mm Stone aggregate
(v) Cement
(VI) Sand coarse
(viI) Sand local fine
White lime slaked
(ix) White lime unslaked
(x) Surkhi
(Ex. 2 Contd.)
..
r- .'

r.
..
.t
27015 nos.
. ..-:. .
14.49 cu m
. . ..
5.36 cu m
8.69 cu m
4.492 cu m
=134.76 bags=67.38 q
6.28 cu m
11.17 cu m
7.76 ell m
112.6 kg
13.79 cu m
I
Example 3-Estimate the quantities of materials required for a R.C.C. roofslab 12em thick with
1% reinforcement for a room having internal dimensions of 4.50x3.50m.
Estimate the cost of construction of the roof slab with suitable rates of materials and taking
labour rate of laying including centeringand shuttering, etc., as Rs. 80.00 per cu m of R.C.C. work.
Quantity of R.C.C. work-Bearing on wall 15 cm=4.80x3.80X.12=2.189 eu m.
553 CALCULATION OF MATERIALS
.Meterials
, Stone agzrezate 20 mm-@ 0.88 eu m per eu m of R.C.C.=2.189x.88=1.926 eu m.
Sand eoarse-@ 0.44 eu m per eu m of R.C.C=2.189x.44==0.963.eu m.
Cement__@ 0.22 eu m per eu m of R.C.C.=2.189x.22=0,482 eu m =0.482x30 bags==14.5 bags.
... . -,' _.- - ,..__ " ._----_ _-._-_ -_ _--_. "'.- -' ..- .
. 1 .
Steel = @ 1% of R.CC. -2.189x _ eu m = 0.02189x78.5 q=1.718 q.
Cost- 100. .
Stone aggregate 20 mm 1.926 eu m @ Rs. 315.00 per eu m == Rs. 606.69
Sand coarse 0.963 eu m @ Rs. 150.00 oer eu m == Rs. 144.45
Cement 14.5 bags @ Rs. 65.00 per bag == Rs. 942.50
Steel 1.718 q @ Rs. 650.00 per q = Rs.ll16.70
TotaJ cost of materiaJs ;; Rs. 2810.34
Labour for concreting, bending and binding of steel, centering
and shuttering for 2.189 cu m R.CC. work @ Rs. 80.00
per eu m = Rs. 175.12
Total cost of material and labour =Rs. 2985.46
Add 5% Contingencies Rs. =149.27
Grand Total Rs: =3134.73
Example 4.-Estimate the quantities of materials required fora R.B. slab roof over a verandah
2.50 metre wide and 12 metre long. The slab willbe14em thick consisting of one layer of brickdie
over one layer of standard brick, laid in 1 : 3 cement and coarsesand mortar with 0.3 per cent
reinforcement. . .
. Quantity of R.B. work-(Beadng on wall 15cm)=12.30x2.80XO.l4==4.822 cu m.
Area of R.B. slab=1230x2.80=34.44 sq m. '
(1). Bricks standard size withJ em mortar joint
, No. per sq m == 1sq m = 10000 == =40 nos. including wastage.
19 +- 3 x 9 + 3 n x 12
100 100 ,
No. of standard bricks @ 40 nos. per sq m = 34.44 x 40=1378
(n) Brick tile with 1 em mortar joint-s
,Isq m . 10000
No. per sq m == == ... " .. ' .== 50 nos.
, 19 + 1 9 + 1 20 x 10
. __,x __
,
:,.,....
100 100
No. of brick tile @ 50 nos. per sqm.s 34.44 x SO = 1772e. .: . '
(iiI) Cement @ 0.12 cu m per cu m of R.B. work -4.822X.12:::Q:579 cu m == 0.579x30
. ...' =17.37=17..5 bags,
(i0 Sand coarse @,O.:'o..:u i\li..-f R.'ri; ffi;" '.
(0 Steel @ 0.8% of R.B. work == 4.822 x .8 cu m > .3858 x 78:5 q' ==0.0385& x 78.5 == 3.03 q
Abstract of Materlals- . 100 100 .
1. Bricks standard size (Metric) 1378 nos.
2. Brick tiles (Metric) . 1722 nos.
3. Cement 17Yz bags
4. Sand coarse 1.74 cu m
5. Steel . 3.03 q
Example 5-Work out of bricks, coarse aggregate and, steel
required for the aqueduct whose drawings are gwen m page 430(Flg. 9-7). .
:-
;/ .. "'
EST!:MATING COStiNG
! i
. I
,: A
.'
Prom the detailed estimate ofthpAqueduct in page; 4;1432. the quantities ofdifferent items
ot' work are obtained and the are calcula(ed as follows :_
.
... _
Abstract of Materials
1. Brick I-class .
2. Brick Il-class
3. 40 mm Brick ballast
4. 20 mm Stone ballast
Particulars of items of work
Br.cks Bricks 40mm 20 min Cement .Sand Sand
and basis of materials
l-class ll-class brick . Stone
coarse (local)
per unit
,
ballast ballast
1. Cement concrete 1:4:8
,
with brick ballast
i
-
- 1.78 - 0.222
- 0.89
cu m cum cu m
0.92 ell m brick ballast 40mn .
0.46 cu m Sand (local)
0.115 cu m Cement
2. l-class brickwork in 1:4'
cement mortar
I
9.74 cu m }
4870
- -
- 0.58 2.34 -
Per cu m- .
nos.
cum eu .,.,
500nos. Bricks I-class .
0.06 cu m Cement
0.24 cu m Sand
3. R;C.C. work 1:2:4
5.48 cu m I - -
- 4.82 1.20 2.41 -
Percu m-
cum cu m cu m
0.88 cu m Stone ballast
20 mm >.
0.44 cu m Sand (coarse) I
0.22 cu m Cement
0.785 q steel @ 1%
4. Cement pointing ..
1:2-43.14 sq m } - -
- 0.086
- 0.17 -
Per % sq m _ .
cum
cum
0.20 cu m Cement
0.40 cu m Sand (local)
S. Brick pitching 8.86 cu m
-
4430 -
- - -
Per cu m }
nos.
500 nos. Brick straight
Over burnt .
. .
- .
. , -
Total 4870 4430 1.78 4.82 2.088 4.75 1.06
nos. nos. - cum eu m cu m cum cu m
-.
= 2.09
I
x30
=63
bags
4870 nos.
4430 nos.
1.18 cu m
4.82 ell m
5. Cement
6. Sand coarse
7. Sand (local) fine
8. Steel
. :::f;\:t
... ":
Steel
-
-
4.302
q
-
4.302
q
63 bags
4.75 cu
1.06cu m
4.302 q
CALCULATION OF MATERIALS
555
Example 6-Estimate the quantity of materials required for the construction of a 3 metre span
culvert as per drawings in Figs 8.8 and 8.9 given in pages.384-385 .
, i
. ' The quantities ofdifferent itcms.ofworkheve qeen calculated under dctsiled estimate in pages
/
385-388. and (rom those quantities of work, the reqil1remeiJ{offiiiifefials-Ei.ttnJalculated below:
Calculation of Materials (Ex. 6)
I;
Particulars of items of work and basis
of materials
I. Lime concrete in foundation-31.61 cu m
1.00 cu m Brick ballast 40 mm}
0.16 cu m Lime slaked'
0.32 cu m .Surkhi'
2. I-class Brickwork in 1:4 cement mortar
82.03 cu m
\ ! 500 nos. Bricks l-class
" :
I
0.06 cu m Cement,
}
.!
, i
,
0.24 cu m Sand
I
.' I
3. I-Class Brickwork in I : 3 cement
!
mortar in arch - 30.78 eu m
, ) !
500 nos. Bricks I-class
, i
0.075 Cll m Cement 1.
) I
!
0.225 cu m Sand ')
~
4. Brick on edge floor in I : 3 cement
I
-, t
I , mortar-30.30 sq J(J.
I
For Brick floor I : 3
I r ,
1
5000. nos. l-class brick
0.75 cu m Cement
'" .
", ::'''1
2.25 eu m Sand
}
, "
I r '\
For cement pointing I : 2-:
0.2 cu m Cement ~
0.4 eu m Sand .
".J
'<, .
5. Cement pointingl : 2-170,:'M sqm
0.2 cu m Cement .. o} per % sq m
0.4 cu m sand
, 0
....
j
~ !,
.__..
Brick
I-class
40mm
Brick
ballast
Cement Sand Lime
slaked
Surkhi
- 31.6r - - 5.06 10.12
cum cu m cu m
per cu m
,'
per cu m
41015
nos.
- 4.922
GU m
19.69
cu m
- -
~ - -_.
15390 - 2.310 6.93
"
- -
nos. cu m cum
1515
nos.
- 0.227
curn
0.6.8
cum;
-
'
per %sq.m
, .
- ~ . ' ..: ..
per %sq m. -
-
-,
-
0.061
cum
'0.340,
cum
o.u
cum'
,0:68"
.;" ........
cu.rn
-
-
-
Tota'[ .57920
nos.
31.61
cum
7.860
cum
=235.8
bags
28.10
eu in,
5.06
eu m
10.12
cum
Abstract of Materials
\. l-class brick
57920 nos. 4. Sand 28.10 cu m
2. Brick ballast I-class 40 mm
3\.61 cu m 5. Lime slaked 5.06 cu m
3. Cement '
7.60 cu m 6. Surkhi 10.12 cu m
~ 235.8 bags,
556
ESTIMATlNG AND COSTING .' .!!.
Example 7-Estimate the quantity of materials-stone aggregate, sand and cement required
for cement concreting one kilometre length of a 3.70 metres wide road, the thickness of concrete
being 10 em.
. _. _.. Estlmateihe
laying and curing including shuttering as Rs. 30.00 per cu m of c.c,
(Aligarh o.S.Q. - 1962, Punjab Technical Board Q.-1964 Modified)
Quantity of I : 2 : 4 c.c. work-v-f Ot) m x 3.70 m x 0.10 m = 370 cu m.
Materials-
Stone aggregate @ .88 cu m per cu m of C.C.=370
X.88=325.6cu
m.
Sand coarse @ .44 cu m per cu m of C.C.=370X.44=162.8 cu m.'
Cement @ .22 cu In per cu m of C.C.=370x.22=81.4 cu m = 81.4 x30 =2442 bags.
Cost-
Stone aggregate 40 m 325.6 ClI m@ Rs. 190.00 per cu m Rs. 61864.00.
Sand coarse 162.8 cu m @ Rs. 150.00 per cu m Rs. 24420.00
Cement 2422 bags @ Rs. 65.00 bag
Rs. 157430.00
Labour 370 cum @ Rs, 30.00 per cu m
Rs.1 I 100.00
Total Rs.254814.00
Add 5% for Contingencies and Workcharged Establishment Rs. 12740.70
Grand Total Rs.267554.70
Example 8-Estimate the quantities of materials required for I km length of e.e. Trackway
with 75 em wide and8 em thick e.c. I: 2: 4 tracks, 150em centre to centre over 16em thick and 95
ern wide rammed brick ballast. The space in between theC.C. tracks is to_befille'd with 8 em thick
rammed brick ballast.
Calculate the cost of the whole job from the following data :
Cement at site-Rs. 1300.00per tonne, coarse sand (at site)-Rs. 150.00per cu m, stone ballast
40 mm (atsite)-Rs. 190.00 per cu m, brick ballast 50 mm(at site)-Rs. 130.00percu m. Labour for
concreting, mixing.Laying, curing, etc., of tracks-Rs. 180.00 per % sq m of track surface, labour
for laying and consolidation of brick ballast-i-Rs. 9.00 per cu m.
(Roorkee O.s.Q:-1948 Modified)
(For type cross-section sec Fig. 7-24, page 365)
Quantities of cement concrete I: 2 : 4 in tracks=2x1000x.75
x.08=120
cu m.
. Quantities of brick ballast )0 nun ern compacted (0"16 em in 'two Iayersj-i- .
(.1) Under c.c. tracks=2 x 1000 x .95 x .24 = 456 cum.} ::: 5,46 cu m
(11) In between tracks > 1000 x .75 x .12 = 90 cu m
Track surface area > 2 x 1000 x .75 = 1500 sq m.
Materials-
Stone aggregate 40 mm @ .88 cu m per cu m of e.c. =120x.88:;=105.6 cu m.
Sand coarse @ .44 cu m per cu m of c.c. 120 x .44 = 52.8 cu m.
Cernent@ .22cu m percu mofC.C. = 120x .22= 26.4cu m > 26.4 x 30:::792 bags> 39.6 tonne.
Brick ballast over burnt 50 mm = 546 cu m.
.....;;;0;.
557
II
CALCU LAnON OF MATERIALS
,t
-,
.: I
Cost-
Stone aggregate 40 mm 105.6 cu m @ Rs. 190.00 per cu m == .105.6 x 190.00 =Rs. 20064.00
Sand coarse 52.8 cu m @ Rs. 150.00 per cum = 52.8 x 150.00 =Rs. 7920.00
Cement J9.6toli"ne -@Rs. =Rs. 51480.00-. '
Brick ballast over burnt
50 mm 546 cu m @ Rs, 130.00 per cu m ' =546 x 130.00 =Rs. 70980.00
Labour for concreting 1500 sq m @ Rs. 180.00 per %sq m = i500 x 180 Rs.2700.00
=
100
Labour for laying and
consolidation of brick
ballast 546 cu m @ Rs. 9.00 per cu m =546 x 9.00 = Rs. 4914.00
Total 158058.00
Add 5% for Contingencies and Workcharged Establishment 79'02.90
Grand Total 165960.90
TRANSPORT AND CARRIAGE OF MATERIALS
Materials are carried to the site of works either by bullock carts or by trucks. When the
distance is short the bullock cart's are used and for long distance trucks are used.
Trucks.....The trucks may be of different capacity as 3 tanners, 5 tonners, 8 tonners (see page'-
477) etc. The cost of transporting materials depends upon the following factors':- '
, (1) Cost of owing or hire charges of the vehicle, (iI) Loading capacity of the vehicle, (ill) Speed
of the vehicle, (i0 Lead or distance of transport, (lo}Number oftrips per dayof8 hours
Labour cost for loading and unloading, (viI) The consumption offuel Petrol or Diesel oil, Mobil .
oil, and their cost, (viiI) Distance of parking place ofthe vehicle. The speed for truck is less for.short
lead and gradually increases for greater distance lead. For a lead of 1 km average speed is usually
taken-as 10 km per hour and for each additional lead of 1 km an increaseof speed of Ih km/hr, is
allowed. For parking usually 6 km is allowed. The number oftrips(N) working day is
calculated by the formula-N= 8 , where L=lead (distance) in km, Ssspeed in km per
2L+ .2
S 4
hour and hour time is allowed for loading and unloading. '
Knowing the number oftrips, the total distance run both'ways in kmisequal to 2 NL -'-6. The
consumption of fuel, etc., many be taken as-Petrol or Diesel oil 3 km per litre, Mobil oil 100 km
TL. quantity offuel consurr-ptior- .?.nn the offuel may be calculated atthe local rates.
. Then the total cost and the quantity of materials that can be transported day may be
calculated and hence the rate of transport per unit of materials.mav be determined, The trucks may
be' owned by the department or engaged on hire (Rs. 6001- to Rs. '700/- per dayi.or the ";,',,'fl.;, of
transport may be given on contract per unit rate of materials. "
Bullock Cart-Bullock cart can carry a load of 3/4 to I tonne depending on the type of
materials and the natureof road (seepage 477). The average speed-of a bullock can may be: taken as
3.S km per hour and 3/4 hour may be allowed for loading and unloading. 8 hours
per day knowing the distance, the number of trips per day may be calculated directly or by applying
the formula. The quantity of materials that can be transported per day and hence the number of
558
TING ANP COSTING
i
. . \ ,
dayf work may be determined. Assuming suitable rate of bullock cart including driver per day
(Rs, 1001- to Rs.1501- per day), the totalcost.of transport and rate of transport per unit of the
materials may be calculated. Bullock cart may be engaged on daily wages basis or the transport
wotk-maybe given on-contract per ---- -- ...-.-!- . ----- -- .
Example I-Calculate the cost ofcarriage of 50,()OO bricks by bullock carts, from a distance of
7 krn on kutcha road. The cart can make two trips p'er day and can carry250 bricks per trip. The
wages of bullock cart may be taken as Rs. 50.00 per day including driver.
; :11
.,.
No. of trips required = = 200.
250
No. of days work at two trips per day = 200. = 100.
2
Cost of transport @ Rs. 50.00 per day> 100 x 50.00 = Rs. 5000.00.
Example 2-Calculate the cost oftransport of 1500 cu m of stone ballastfroma distance of 20
km by truck can carry 3 cu m per trip. Tile kilometreage 'rate of carriageinclusive o_f loading and
unloading being-
Ist km Rs. 5.50 per cu m/ km
2nd and 3rd km
1.00 per cu
4th and 5th km RS,O.80 per cu m/krq
6th to 10thkm Rs. 0.6() per cu m/kII1
l lth to 20th km . Rs. 0.40 per ell m/ km,
No. of-trips _1500= 500 nos.
3
Cost of trip of 3 cu m
1st km @ 5.50/cu mlkm . =.5.50 x 3 x 1 =-Rs. 16.50
2nd and 3rd Ian @ I.OO/cu m/km. .. = .1.CO )( 3 x 2 =Rs. 6.00
4th and 5th km @0.30/cu m Ikm
=0.80 x 3 x 2 = Rs. 4.80
. 6th to 10th km @ 0.60/cu m/km
= 0.60 x 3 x 5::: Rs. 9.00
. I I th to 20th krn @ oAo,iCti mlkm
= 0.40 x 3' x jQ 12.00
Total Rs. 48.30
per trip of 3 eu m
Cost of transport = Rs. 48.30 x 500 trips = Rs. 24150.00
Example 3-Find the cost of carrying 20,000 bricks. to a distance of8 km in aeart at Rs. 50.00
a day, when a cart can carry 200 bricks in a trip, the speed of the cart being 30 metres in a minute.
Assume a workingday of9 hours, and time taken in loading and unloading 200 bricks (a cart
as 20 minutes. .
pi ...
559
I.
,
'.
"'\
I
I
I
: ,
CALCULATION OF MATERIALS
(i) How many carts are needed if the above transport is to be done in 5 days?
No; of trips required > 20,000 ::: 100"
200
" _ .
.... _,---- - _.
. d i . b h (8
x2x
lOOO)
T irne require In one trip ot ways > _ mins. ::: 534 mins. = 8 hrs. 54 min.
30 '
Adding 20 min for loading and unloading, time per trip = 9 hrs. 14 min., say 9 hrs.
That is the cart can make one trip per day.
Therefore, the cost of transport @ Rs. 50.00 per day > Rs. 50,00 x 100::: Rs. 5000.00.
(ii) If the work of transport is to be completed in 5 days, the no. oftrips per day = 100 ::: 20.
5
Therefore, 20 carts are needed to work daily for 5 days.
If the working day is [or 8 hours working then [or 9 hours 14minutes working a day propor
tionate overtime charge may be allowed. The amount due [or 1ltour la min overtime working is
equal to Rs. 50 x 114 =Rs. 7.70. Therefore, the cost per trip = Rs.50.00 + Rs. 7.70= Rs. 57.70and
8 ,60 "
hence the total cost will be equal to Rs. 57.70xlO0 = Rs. 5770.00.
Example 4-Calculate the cost of transportation by trucks for Kankarsoling and inter coat
for a new road 16 km long, width of metalling is 3.7 metres. '," ,
Assume the quarry to be in lkm. of the section, carrying capacity of truck in 3' cu m and
transport charge including loading and unloading being :- ":':.- ,.. ,:'
1st km Rs. k.=ll'
2nd km and 3rd km Rs. 0.75/cu m/ km
4th and 5th km Rs. 0.60/cu mjkm
6th to 10th krn Rs. 0.45/cu mj krn
II th to 20th km Rs. O.30/cu mj km
The rate of stacking by the road side is Rs. Loo/cu m.
Quantity of kankar for I km for two coats-
Soling coat (12 em thick loose tayer)> I x I000x3. 7x 1.2=444 cu m.
Inter coatI l Z em thick loose layer) :::lxIOOOx3.7
XI.2=444
Cli m.
Total 888 cu m.
888 cu m of kankar is to be transported to each km and stacked in two rows.
Quarry, being against 1 km, the distance of transport will be 1 km form Ist km, 2 krn [or
znd krn, 3 km [or 3rd km , .. '... , , ... " .. 16 km for 16th kID. of the road.
ESTlMATING AND COSTING
560
The cost of transport including the cost of.stacking'for different kilometres are calculated
below:-
Km
Kml
Km2
Km3
Km4
Km5
Km 6
Km7
Km8
Km9
Km 10
Km 11
Km 12
Km 13
Km 14
Km 15
Km 16
_I
-
Rate of transport
Cost 'of Transpcrt for _
Cost of
Total cost
---
stackliii@--- -radiaiiS-porT .
per eu m 888 eu m
Re. LOO/eu m
and stacking
Rs.4.50 888 x 4.50 = Rs. 3996.00
888xLOO
Rs.4884.00
=Rs.888.00
Rs. 4.50+0.75=Rs. 5.25 888 x 5.25 = Rs. 4662.00
888x 1.00
Rs.5550.00
=Rs.888.00
Rs. 5.25+0.75=Rs. 6.00 888 x 6.00 = Rs. 5328.00 Rs.888.00
Rs.62.16.00
Rs. 6.00+0.60=Rs. 6.60 888 x 6.60 = Rs. 5860.80 Rs.888.00
Rs.6748.80
Rs. 6.60+0.60=Rs. 7.20 888 x 7.20 == Rs. 6393.60 Rs.888.00 Rs. n81.00
Rs. 7.20+0,45==Rs. 7.65 888 x 7.65 = Rs. 6793.20 Rs.888.00 Rs. 7681.20
Rs. 7.65+0,45=Rs. 8.10 888 x 8.10 = Rs. 7192.80 Rs.888.00 Rs.8080.80
Rs. 8.10+0,45==Rs. 8:55 888.x 8.55 == Rs. 7592,40 Rs,888.00 Rs: 8480.40
.Rs. 8.55+0,45==Rs. 9.00
. 888 x
9.00 = Rs. 7992.00 Rs.888.00 Rs.8880.00
Rs. 9.00+0,45=Rs. 9.45 888 x 9,45 == Rs. 8391.60 Rs.888.00 Rs.92(9.60
Rs. 9,45+0.30==Rs. 9.75 888 x 9.75 == Rs. 8658.00 Rs, 888.00 . Rs.
Rs. 9.75+0.30==Rs. 10.05 888 x 10.05 <Rs. 8924.40 Rs.888.00 Rs.9812.40
Rs. 1O.05+0.30=Rs. 10.35 888 x 10.35 = Rs. 9190.80 Rs.888.00 Rs. 10075.80
,
Rs. 1O.35+0.30=Rs. 10.65 888 x 10.65 = Rs. 9457.20 Rs.888.00 Rs. 10345.20
Rs. 1O.65+0.30=Rs. 10.95 888. x 10.95 == Rs. 9723.60 Rs.888.00 Rs. 10611.60
Rs. 10.95+0..30==Rs. 1l.25 888 x 11.25 = Rs. 9990.00 Rs.888.00 Rs. 10878.00
Total Rs. 120164,40 Rs, 14208.00 Rs. 134372.40
The total cost of transport and stacking = Rs. 134372.40.:;;f
:":-;)
Alternate Approximate Method. - The cost may also be calculated approximately as
follows :
kilometreaze rdi 1-r16
2
Average l ometreage (distance) of transport = := krn.
....._.._-_.. -..- ..-- ..

/ [
CALCULATION OF MATERIALS.
561

I
,II
II

j
A
t
_J
,
.j
.-- !

-
i
,
,
!
i
I
.. j
.,
I
'.'
I
r 'I
-, "1
/"i

. ,
-,../ i
I
-:'-1
.-' I
, 1
..;
.\
.., .. \

' .
'-,
,-.
I
,. ,
" ,
, -"-
8
= 2x5 3 = Taking the charge of a bullock cartas Rs. 50.00 .per
-'-+
It may be noted that the cost calculated by this method differ from the first method. Ifthe rate
oftransport per km would have been uniform althrough then there would not have been any
difference. .
The first method should be used as it gives the correct cost and the cost for every km, the cost of
transport, the cost of stacking, etc., separately which are advantageous during execution of work.
Example 5-Calculate the cost per trip for carriage of materials by bullock cart for a .lead of 5'
km. Take the speed of bullock cart as 4 krri per hour. .
. . a
(i) Number of trips per working dayof 8 hours, N = (See page 559)
2 L + 3
S "4
Cost of transport per trip of 3 cu m for 8Y:z km
1st krn @ Rs. 4.50/cu rnj krn
2nd and 3rd km @ Rs. 0.75/cu rn/ km
4th and 5th km @ Rs. 0.60/cu rnj krn
6th @ Rs, 0.45/ eu in/ km" .
= 4.50
x3xl
=Rs. 13.50
= 0.75x3x2 =Rs. 4.50
=0.60x3x2 =Rs. 3.60
==
Total =Rs. 24.98
Total quantity of kankar for 16 km forboth soling and inter coat=2x 1000x3.7
xO.12x
16x888
= 14208 cu rn. Total number of trips at 3 Cll m per trip = 14208/3 = 4736.
Total cost of transport=Rs. 24.98xNo. of trip=Rs. 24.98x4736=Rs. 118305.30.
Total cost nf stacking=Rs. 1.00xI4208=Rs. 14208.00.
Therefore, the total cost of transport and stacking= Rs. 118305.30+RSt 14208.00 =
Rs. 132513.30.
.
-e,
:1
or
.'
."
Cost per trip =
4' 4
Rs.50.00
. =
2.46
Rs. 20.30.
r'",
'-- -;
r
,
!
"
I
'---'
I
i
'- ,
!
,
,. ;.."
(iI) As the bullock cart cannot make a whole number .rf trip during 8 hours, the working hours
may be increased and higher charges may be paid. Taking 9% hours as working hours per day.
9% .
the number of trips. N = .. = 3.Taking charaes of bullock cart as Rs. 58.00 per 9
3
,1,; hours
2xS+.2 . ....
4 4
Rs.58.00
working day. Cost per trip =" = Rs. 19.33.
3
The cost per trip has been calculated by two assumptions, the second one is more practicable.
Example 6-Calculate the rate per unit (per cu m) for carriage of materials-Sand, surkhi,
Iime, ballast, etc., by bullock cart for a lead of 6 km. Average speed of bullock cart is 4 km per hour.
'., I
Number of trip per 8 hours working day, N
2L
8 8
= ---::
+ 32
x6+-l
2.13.
S 4 4 4
,--"
....... .-1
: .
. .. -'--"
ESTlM{\TlNG AND COST1NG
562
'.
, ,
;..: .:.. i . Rs.50.00
Taking charges of a bullock cart as Rs. per of hours working. Cost per tnp "1 \2: 13 .
=R&.2.3..50, , .._ .___._ .
Taking loading capacity per bullock cart as 0.8 cu m, number of trips required per unit of
.1 cu m =. 0.
1
8 =1.25 no. Therefore, cost. of carriage per unit of 1cu m = Rs. 23.50 x 1.25 = Rs. 29.40.
Adding' 10% contractor's profit the rate' per cu m = Rs. 29.40 + 2.Y4 = Rs. 32.84. .
Example 7.-Calculate the rate per unit (I cu m) for carriage of materials-e-Saud, surkni, lime,
grit,ballast, kankar, etc., by track for a lead of 15 km. .
Take loading capacity of truck as 3.5 cu m of material.
Speed of truck-Speed of truck for first I km lead=1O km per hour. For subsequent lead of
14 km at Y2 km per hour for each additional lead of I km = 7 km per hour. Therefore, average speed
for a lead of IS km = 17 km per hour. Thus, speed S = 17, and lead L=15. .
Number ofTrips per day of(8 hours working day), N =
Totslkm done per day (both ways allowing 6 km for parking) =
=101.4 km.
Petro/.-'-Petrol consumption for 101.4 km at 3 km per litres- 101.4{3=33.81itre. Cost of Petrol
33.8 litres @ Rs. 7.50 per litre=Rs. 7.50x33.8";Rs. 253.50.
Mobi/ oil-Mobil oil consumption for 101.4 km at 100 km per litre= 101.4/100 =1.01litre. Cost
of Mobil oil 1.01 litre at Rs. 20.00 per litre = 20.02.
Labour-Cost of labour for loaumg and unloading materials 6 Mazdoor (Beldar) @ Rs. 18.00
each per day=Rs. 108.00.
Hiresge of Truck-Hire charge of Truck including driver and cleaner-i-Rs. 350.00 per day of8
. "':'"
hours.
Total Cost-Adding Total Cost-Rs. 253.50+ Rs. 20.02 + Rs. 108.00 + Rs. 350.00 =Rs. 731.52.
Adding 10% contractor's profit. Total Cost=Rs. 731.52+Rs.73.15 = Rs. 804.67.
Total Cost Rs. 804.67
Cost per trip'" -- . ,- = -- .-.-.- .. "" ?53.(ltl,
Number of Trips 3.18
Rate per cu m-e-Loading capacity of {ruck is 3.5 cu m of materials.
Cost per trip Rs. 253.04
Therefore cost oi carriage per CLl ill = = = Rs. 72.30 per eu m.
Carrying capacity 3.5 eu m
--_..... __ .. _-'--- .. _
.._._._-_... __._._._-- -.,-- ..- -_ .. ---.....