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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A LOW SPECIFIC SPEED

CENTRIFUGAL FAN
A Dissertation Work Submitted to Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University
In Partial Fulfilment of the requirements of the award of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
By
K.KARTHIK 06311A0368
A.SAI CHARAN 06311A0380
D.ASHESH GOPAL NATH 06311A03B4
A.SREENU 06311A03B5

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
SREE NIDHI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Yamnampet, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad-501301.
(Accredited by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to
JNT University, Hyderabad)
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A LOW SPECIFIC SPEED
CENTRIFUGAL FAN
A Dissertation Work Submitted to Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University
In Partial Fulfilment of the requirements of the award of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
By
K.KARTHIK 06311A0368
A.SAI CHARAN 06311A0380
D.ASHESH GOPAL NATH 06311A03B4
A.SREENU 06311A03B5
Under The Guidance of
Dr.M.V.S.S.S.M.PRASAD
B.Tech(IITM), M.Tech(IITM), Ph.D(IITM)
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
SREE NIDHI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Yamnampet, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad-501301.
(Accredited by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to
JNT University, Hyderabad)
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would take immense pleasure to acknowledge with gratitude, the help & support
extended during the course of our project entitled DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A LOW
SPEED CENTRIFUGAL FAN from all people who have helped in the successful
completion of this project.
We are highly indebted to Dr. M.V.S.S.S.M.PRASAD, Professor, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, for his guidance and help at all stages of the project.
We are highly grateful to Dr. Ch.SIVA REDDY, Professor, Head of Department of Mechanical
Engineering for the facilities provided to carry out the project.
We are highly thankful to Mr. RAVINDER REDDY, Assistant professor, Department of
Mechanical Engineering for helping us in learning the software required for this project.
We express our sincere thanks to Mr. VENKAT NARAYANA, incharge of CAD/CAM
laboratory for providing us the computer systems and the required software tools.

We also thank our parents, class mates and friends for the kind support given by them at all
stages of the project.
3
ABSTRACT :
The current project is aimed to design a low specific speed centrifugal fan.
Fans belong to the family of turbo machines and they move air or gas continuously at
desired velocity by action of a rotor. Flow investigation of the fan is planned to be
carried out by using ANSYS-CFX software for different designed off design points of
operation. The performance of the fan generated from the CFD analysis at the design
point will be compared with that of the designed data assumed for calculation. This
will also be compared with the best efficiency point of operation.
For the analysis, an Auto CAD drawing and a 3-D model the fan impeller and casing are
developed for the designed fan. This is followed by the generation of Grid and aerodynamic
analysis using the available CFD solver. The work is concluded by identifying possible zones
of improvements in the design of impeller and casing and suggest suitable modifications.
4
Nomenclature, Greek letters and Subscripts:
A Area
b Impeller Width
c Absolute velocity
dP Incremental change in pressure
d Diameter
D Impeller diameter
E Energy
H Head, blade span or height
m Mass flow rate
n Speed in rpm
n
sh
Shape number
n
q
Specific speed
P Pressure
p Slip power Factor
R Gas constant
r Radius
R
c
Radius of curvature of vane
u Blade speed
W Specific work
z Number of blades
5
GREEK LETTERS:
a Nozzle blade angle w.r.t. Blade speed u
Taper angle at shroud
Impeller blade angle,relative,flow direction w.r.t. Negative of blade speed
Flow coefficient
Efficiency
Density
w Angular Velocity
Pressure coefficient , Energy coefficient
SUBSCRIPT
Far upstream or Downstream
Flow conditions with infinite number of blades or vane congruent flow
bl Blade or Impeller
b Blade or Vane
h Hydraulic
m Meridional
t Tip
u Tangential or Peripheral component
6
CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION 10
1.1 Introduction to Turbo machines
1.2 Fans Principle of operation.
1.3 Classification of fans.
2 LITERATURE SURVEY. 15
2.1 Specific work and static pressure rise
2.2 Impeller
2.2.1 Slip
2.2.2 Inlet Vane angle
2.2.3 Pre whirl
2.2.4 Impeller outlet angle
2.2.5 Impeller outlet diameter
2.2.6 Effect of Viscosity
2.2.7 Inlet passage
2.2.8 Effect of surface roughness
2.2.9 Volute casing
2.3 Effects of geometric and flow parameters of fan
2.3.1 Impeller size
2.3.2 Blade shape
2.3.3 Number of blades
2.3.4 Volute and Diffuser
2.3.5 Effect of Friction
2.4 Losses
2.4.1 Losses in the impeller
2.4.2 Leakage losses
2.4.3 Volute and diffuser losses
7
2.5 Applications
3 DESIGN OF THE LOW SPECIFIC SPEED CENTRIFUGAL FAN 30
3.1 Fan Specifications.
3.2 Calculations
3.3 Auto CAD design of the Fan Impeller.
4 EXTRACTION OF COORDINATES. 38
4.1 Method of extraction
4.2 Coordinates of the blade profile (hub side)
4.3 Coordinates of the blade profile (shroud side)
4.4 Coordinates of the hub
4.5 Coordinates of the shroud
5 CFD THEORY 42
5.1 CFD Theory
5.1.1 Continuity Equation
5.1.2 Momentum Equation
5.1.3 Energy Equation
5.2 Turbulence Modules
5.2.1 K- Epsilon module
5.3 Discretization of governing equations
5.3.1 Finite difference method
5.3.2 Finite Control volume method
5.3.3 Finite element method
6 ANSYS CFX.. 51
6.1 Introduction to ansys cfx
6.2 Ansys Cfx and the Ansys workbench Environment
6.3 CFD Pre-Processing in CFX-Pre
6.4 The ANSYS CFX Solver
6.5 Post-Processing with ANSYS CFD-Post
8
6.6 Industry solutions using ANSYS
7 METHODOLOGY. 55
7.1 Modelling and CFD analysis of centrifugal fan.
7.2 Meridional data for Hub and Shroud contour
7.3 Mesh data for 3-D impeller blades
7.4 Selection of solver parameters and convergence criteria
7.5 Blade geometry plot

8 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 71
8.1 General
8.2 Variation of flow parameters in the chosen impeller
8.3 Results
8.4 Pictorial analysis
8.5 Graphs
9 CONCLUSIONS. 92

10 SUGGESTION.. 92
11 REFERENCES 93



9
1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction to Turbo machines
Turbomachines used for the compression of gases are classified under radial, axial or
mixed flow types depending on the flow through the impeller. In a radial or centrifugal
machine, the pressure increase due to the centrifugal action forms an important factor in its
operation. The energy is transferred by dynamic means from the impeller to the fluid. The
fluid because of centrifugal action is continuously thrown outwards making way for fresh
fluid to be inducted in because of the reduced local pressure. Another characteristic feature of
the centrifugal impeller is the angular momentum of the fluid flowing through the impeller is
increased by virtue of the impeller outer diameter being significantly larger than the inlet
diameter. In axial flow machines, a large mass of gas is set in motion by the rotating impeller
and is made to move forward because of the aerodynamic action of the blades. A mixed flow
machine encompasses the properties of both the above types.
Depending on the pressure rise attained, these machines are named as fans and blower or
compressors. There is however no distinct demarcation among the different types. Fans handle
gases in large volumes without appreciable density variation. Pressure ratio attainable is of the
order of 1.05. They are invariably single stage machines.
Blowers cover pressure ratios from 1.05 to about 4. They are made either as single
stage or two or three stages. No inter cooling is required.
Compressors include pressure ratios from 3 to 12 or higher. They are invariably
multistage with or without intercooling. For higher pressure ratios appreciable compression
takes place followed by a reduction in volume. The calculations are done on the basis of mass
flow in such cases.
10
The selection of a type of impeller namely axial, radial or mixed flow for a specified
pressure rise, speed and flow rate follows from shape number considerations defined by
N
shape
= n (v)/ w^0.75
The shape number is important to achieve an optimum efficiency. Radial machines have
low shape numbers ranging from 0.033 to 0.12 and are known as slow running impellers.
Axial flow types have shape numbers from 0.33 to 1.5. Mixed flow types have values in
between those of radial and axial impellers.. An idea of the shape of impeller can be obtained
from the shape number. For example, slow running impellers have long and narrow vane
channel passages and large shroud diameters. This increases the friction losses and lowers the
efficiency, high shape numbers are desirable.
The energy which is converted into pressure in the impeller is indicated by the degree of
reaction which is the ratio of specific pressure energy to the specific work of the machine.
Blowers and compressors operate with degree of reaction greater than zero, and mostly than
0.5. The reason is that the static pressure can be generated more efficiently in the impeller
than in the guide vanes as the centrifugal forces in the rotating channels of the impeller help in
the suction of the boundary layer and dead zones.
If the specified pressure rise cannot be obtained in one stage, two or more stages as
required are built in series, the individual stages being joined by what are known as return
guide passages or return channels. In such a multistage centrifugal compressor or blower, the
chief problems encountered are regarding the design of efficient guide and return channel
passages as well as carefully designed shroud and vane contours. Though compressors with
more than eight or ten stages are in existence, the number of stages is generally restricted to
two or three. The desired pressure rise is obtained by employing high rotational speeds made
possible by the steam and gas turbine drives and using high strength forged impellers with
straight radial blades and devoid of front shroud in order to minimize the stresses in the hub
and back shroud.
In blowers and fans dealing with large volumes of gas but relatively low pressure rise,
sheet metal construction is employed, with suitable hub design to take care of stresses and
guide the flow. The sheets are suitably pressed to shape and the joining is through riveting or
welding.
11
Blade loading, shroud or disc stresses and critical speed considerations impose serious
restrictions on the dimensions of the machine to lower values. However, s the pressure rise
increases with increasing peripheral speeds, minimum number of stages is preferred for a
compact blower, thus necessitating the use of high peripheral speeds limited by the strength of
the material.
1.2 FAN :
A fan can be defined as a volumetric machine, which, like a pump, moves a
quantity of air or gas from one place to another. In doing this, it overcomes
resistance to flow by supplying the fluid with the energy necessary for continued
motion. Physically essential elements of a fan are a bladed impeller (rotor) and a
housing to collect the incoming air or gas and direct its flow. Fans, Blowers or
Compressors all move air, but at different pressures. At any point in the flow of air
through the impeller, a pressure head obtains the centripetal acceleration, so that the
static pressure of the air increases from the eye to the tip of the impeller.
I
1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF FANS
Depending upon the nature of the flow through the impeller blades, fans can be
categorized as axial, centrifugal, mixed or cross flow type.
The major categories can be further categorized as given below:
Centrifugal flow fans:
a. Forward Curved
b. Radial Curved
c. Backward Curved
Axial flow fans:
a. Propeller type.
b. Tube-axial type
c. Contra rotating
d. Guide-vane type
e. Axial type
12
Mixed flow fans:
a. Axial Casing
Cross flow fans:
a. J-Casing
b. S-Casing
c. U-Casing
The above said fans have different characteristics suitable for specific applications. If the
requirement is to blow air in large volume rate capacity, but relatively low-pressure gain, axial
flow fans may be suited by contrast a fan required to blow air through filtrate system offering
a high flow resistance will have a relatively small volume flow rate capacity with high
pressure rise.
CENTRIFUGAL FLOW FANS
Air or gas enters the impeller of the fan axially through the suction chamber. This gas
flows through the flow passage between the impeller blades while impeller rotates. The action
of the impeller swings the gas from a smaller radius to a larger radius and delivers the gas at a
high pressure and velocity to the casing. Due to impeller rotation centrifugal force also
contributes to the stage pressure rise. At the exit of the impeller a spiral shaped casing known
as scroll or volute collects the flow from impeller which can further increase the static
pressure of air.
Forward Curved Centrifugal Fans
In forward curved centrifugal fans the blades are inclined in the direction of motion. This
type of fan is best suited for application requiring high volume flow at low to medium
pressure rise. This type is sometimes referred to as a Volume Blower. It can compete with
tube axial and guide vane axial fans for some duties. Its efficiency is less than axial fans.
Radial Discharge Centrifugal Fans
This type of fan is mainly suited for handling of air borne particles. In this type of fan
blades tend to be self-cleaning in moderately dirty conditions and in efficient units with
curved heel blades is thus often used for draught induction in the boilers. Because of tolerance
these fans are suitable for handling particulate matter in filtration duties.
Back-bladed Centrifugal Fans
13
In backward curved centrifugal fans, the blades at the impeller are inclined away from
the direction of motion. The static pressure rise in the rotor results from the centrifugal energy
and the diffusion of the relative flow. The stagnation pressure rise and stage work depends on
the whirl components (Cu
1
, Cu
2
) of the absolute velocity vectors C
1
and C
2
respectively.
These impellers are employed for lower pressure and lower flow rates.
AXIAL FLOW FANS
The major categorizes of the axial flow fans are sub-categorized into four types:
Propeller Fans, Tube-Axial Fans, Contra Rotating Fans and Guide-Vane Axial Fans. Most
axial fans are available with many blade angle settings that in some cases may be adjusted
when stationary, by slackening a clamping mechanism in the impeller hub. The variable pitch
facility is an advantage in sophisticated fans that can alter the impeller blade angle while the
fan is in operation. The flow coefficient of the fan is predominantly affected by the changing
of blade angles. Fans optimized to produce high flow coefficients are set with large blade
angles.
MIXED FLOW FANS
The characteristics of the mixed flow fans are different from those of axial flow fans and
those of centrifugal fans. These fans are frequently used when characteristics approximating
those of backward curved centrifugal fans are required but the installation dictates an axial
inlet and outlet configuration. One most common type is axial casing mixed-flow fan.
CROSS-FLOW FANS
In this type of fans the air enters the impeller through peripheral segment other than
through hub. These fans are used where convenience is more important than efficiency. These
fans are suitable for low-pressure rise applications. The applications of cross flow fans are
domestic fan assisted heaters, handhold hair dryers and air curtain.
14

2. LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 Specific work and Static pressure rise
In any centrifugal machine, the most important requirement is that it should
develop the required specific work with the desired static pressure rise. In other
words the specific pressure rise is directly dependent on the specific work developed
by the machine
.
The specific work is developed in the impeller only through the energy transfer to the
fluid through the vanes and is given by Euler's equation
W = U
2
C
2
U
1
C
1
W= specific work developed by the stage (N.m/Kg)
U
1
= impeller speed at start of vane
U
2
= impeller tip peripheral speed
C
1
and

C
2
are the components the absolute velocity in the tangential direction at points just before
the inlet to the impeller vane and the exit from the impeller vane respectively.
The above Equation can be rewritten as:
W = (U
2
2

U
1
2
+ C
1
2
-C
2
2
+W
0
2
-W
3
2
)/2
As the flow energy of the fluid comprises the pressure energy, the kinetic energy and that due to
the geodetic head, the energy at any section of the passage (except where energy is being
added) can be written as:
E = P/ + C
2
/Z + g.h
15
2.2 BLADE ANGLES:
Inlet vane angle
As the temperature of the air at the inlet is less. The sonic velocity is also less.
There is the danger of the velocity in this region reaching a sonic value .For
incompressible flow, the relative inlet velocity is a minimum when
1
=35. In
compressible flow, the relative inlet Mach number is a minimum when
1
is in
between 25 to 30.
Exit vane angle
There are three considerations for
2b
namely forward curved blades if
2b
<90, radial
blades when
2b
=90 and backward curved blades if the angle
2b
>90. In all the three cases

1b
, the fan speed, the inlet velocity c
m
and size are kept the same. Therefore the velocity
triangles at 1 are the same for three cases. The velocity triangles at 2 are shown in the figures
for each case. It can be seen c
2u
increases with
2b
and likewise the specific work. As
2b
increases, the blades are more cambered finally resulting in the highly cambered
impulse profile this means increase in the B
2b
results in increase in C
2u
, likewise the
specific work. The kinetic energy of the fluid at the impeller outlet becomes a smaller
percentage of the total energy as blades become more backwardly curved. Therefore, a larger
portion of the static pressure can be recovered in the impeller with backward curved vanes.
16
FIG : 2.1 Effect of Exit Vane Angle on Outlet Velocity of Impeller
IMPELLER BLADE ANGLE AT THE SUCTION END (1b)

1b
used in impeller is with in a limited range for all machines. It is the angle at inlet for pump/comp and
at exit for turbines. For radial fans and blowers, values outside this range reducing upto 20 are
found to be in use. In the case of turbines, a low
1b
would mean more flow deflection in the impeller
blade row with corresponding increase in specific work. With decreasing
1b
, the blade tangential
thickness t
1u
at exit increases. From strength considerations, trailing edge thickness cannot be
reduced to small values. Also this causes formation of eddied behind the blade trailing edge and
results in wider wakes and more losses values between 15 to 35 are used.
17
2.3VELOCITY TRIANGLES:
The three velocities that make a velocity triangle are namely
i Blade speed U
ii Absolute velocity C
iii Relative velocity W
Generally the blade speed is taken as the base of the triangle, the direction of U1 and U2 follow the
direction of rotation of impeller and W and C's direction vary depending on that and such that W=C-
U (In vectorial notation) is satisfied
FIG 2.2 : Velocity Triangle at Inlet of Impeller
18
FIG 2.3: Velocity Triangle at outlet of Impeller
In a radial machine U
2
greater than U
1
.
Angle between C 'absolute velocity' and 'relative velocity' U is and is the angle between W
and U.
The flow velocities are resolved into two components with respect to U, the component along U
is C
u
{may be C
1u
or C
2u
} and perpendicular to U i.e. along meridional plane is Cm and
similarly Wu and Wm are obtained.
To get the volume flow rate at the particular section C
m
can be multiplied by flow area at that
section hence its is called the 'flow velocity'.
If the pre whirl is 0 then C
1u
= 0, hence it is desirable to design with consideration C
1m
= C
2m
whenever possible which also helps to maintain the blade angle within considerable range.
2.4 Impeller
19
The impeller forms the major component in the whole machine where the actual
energy transfer to the fluid takes place. In an actual impeller, complete guidance to
the fluid cannot be expected due to the limited number of vanes. The vane thickness,
the viscous effects, the relative circulation, return flows and the effect due to bends
make the velocity and pressure distribution far from uniform. The actual flow
deflection is less than that obtained when the flow truly follows the vanes. The
difference between the vane angle and the actual flow angle is accounted by the
introduction of a factor called slip factor.
2.4.1 Slip
In the case of vane congruent flow, the specific work of the machine is given by
W

= U
2
C
2U -
U
1
C
IU
The peripheral components of velocity just outside the impeller are different from those
just within. This difference in specific work is due to the slip in the impeller that is the flow
does not wholly follow the impeller vanes. The energy transfer obtained in practice is less
than that calculated assuming the flow is one - dimensional and that the fluid outlet angle
equals the impeller vane angle due to the relative eddy and nonuniform velocity profile at the
impeller.
Pfleiderer defined the slip power factor p given :
W
bl
= (p+1)
W

Stodola assumed that the slip is due to the relative eddy and that the slip velocity is given
by:
= 1 ( (/Z)(Sin
2
/(1-
2
Cot
2
))
20
2.4 .2 Inlet Vane angle
As the temperature of the air at the inlet is less. The sonic velocity is also less.
There is the danger of the velocity in this region reaching a sonic value .For
incompressible flow, the relative inlet velocity is a minimum when
1
=35. In
compressible flow, the relative inlet Mach Number is a minimum when
1
is in
between 25 to 30.
2.4 .3 Pre Whirl
The relative inlet mach number at impeller inlet can be reduced further by
giving whirl velocity in the direction of rotation of the impeller.
However this has the other effect of reducing t he specific work of the stage.
In designing usually the fluid is assumed to enter radially so that
1
= 90. As the
fluid approaches the vans inlet it comes into contact with the rotating shaft and
impeller. This tends to cause it to rotate with the wheel. This makes larger as shown
by solid line
Effect of pre-rotation on the inlet diagram
21
2.4.4 Impeller outlet angle
The vane outlet angle has a major effect in the design and performance of the
impeller. The optimum inlet angle having been fixed- by sonic velocity criterion in
the case of a blower, the outlet angle directly controls the size, performance as well
as the specific world developed The component C2u increases with increasing
2 .
For a given specific work, the peripheral speed will come down or if the rotating
speed is also fixed, the diameter comes down. But an increase in
2
could cause
adverse effects at the vane boundary.
2.4 .5 Impeller outlet diameter
The impeller outlet diameter as a ratio of the inner diameter should not be too
large as otherwise the vane channels become long and narrow increasing the friction
losses. On the other hand, a smaller ratio makes the length of the flow traverse inside
the impeller quite small hampering the energy transfer between the impeller vanes
and the fluid for radial machines the optimum value of this ratio is about 2.
2.4 .6 Effect of viscosity
The viscosity of the flowing medium causes the boundary layer to develop along
the shroud and the vane faces in the channel resulting in a decrease of the area
available for the flow of the fluid.
Also pressure losses result because of this. Even simple friction losses are appreciable
because of the high relative velocities and the large amount of wetted flow surface.
Boundary layer effects may be appreciable because of the adverse velocity gradients
of considerable magnitude present along the channel walls. When the boundary
layer is not in equilibrium with the pressure gradient across the channel, a flow
normal to the through flow may arise which will alter the desired potential flow
pattern and cause direct losses as a result of the partial dissipation of the energy
absorbed from the through flow to create the secondary motion.
22
2.4 .7 Inlet passage
The inlet passage is meant to slowly accelerate the fluid from the entrance to the
eye with minimum losses. An inlet nozzle is usually fitted at the entrance of the inlet
nozzle design is important as otherwise it may affect the flow conditions at the
entrance to the impeller.
2.4 .8 Effect of Surface roughness
The effect of the surface roughness becomes appreciable in small impellers
where vane channels are very narrow. Varley found that in the case of a centrifugal
pump, the effect of surface roughness is to increase the specific work developed and
slightly reduce the efficiency without altering the shape of the specific work versus
discharge curve.
2.4.9 Volute Casing
This is normally employed in the single stage machines and in the last stage of
the multi-stage machines. Its main purpose is to collect the fluid emanating from
all around the periphery and discharge it into the exit flange. A spiral casing can be
used with or without a diffuser ring. The flow condition in the spiral casing is
given by the free vortex condition that is
Cu. r = constant
Another type of casing normally employed is the constant velocity volute having
a constant average velocity at all sections and the volute area increases in proportion
to the angular displacement from the torque where the velocity is zero.
23
2.5 EFFECT OF GEOMETRIC AND FLOW PARAMETERS ON
FAN PERFORMANCE
2.5 .1 Size of impeller:
The flow rate depends on impeller diameter and the width. For particular stage pressure rise the
peripheral speed and geometry of the impeller can be decided. The diameter ratio (d1/d2) of
the impeller determines the length of the blade passage. Smaller the ratio, larger is the blade
passage.
With slight acceleration of the flow from the impeller eye to the blade entry the following
relation for the blade width to diameter ratio is recommended.
b1/d2 = 0.2
Impellers with backward swept blades are narrower i.e. b
1
/d
2
<0.2
d
1

/ d
2
= 1.2()
1/3
d
1
- Impeller inlet diameter
d
2
- Impeller outlet diameter
- Flow coefficient
24
FIG : 1.1 Effect of Shape Number
2.5 .2 Blade Shape
The blade loading, local acceleration and deceleration characteristics and impeller
performance are influenced by impeller blade shape. It plays an important role. Straight or
curved sheet metal blades or aerofoil shaped blades have been used in the centrifugal fans and
blowers. Sheet metal blades are arc-shaped or of different curve and can either be welded or
riveted to the impeller disc. These are classified as backward-swept, radial and forward swept
depending on the exit angles. The optimum blade angle at inlet was found to be 35.
2.5 .3 Number of Blades
Too few blades are unable to fully impose their geometry on the flow, where as too many
of them restrict the flow passage and leads to higher losses. The number of blades in
centrifugal fan can wary from 3 to 64 depending on the application type and size. Some
empirical relations to determine the no of blades are given below.
Pfleiderer has recommended the following relation:
Z = k * (d2+d
1
)/ (d2-d
1
) sin (0.5 (
1
+
2
)) (where k varies from 6 8.5)
2.5 .4 Volutes and Diffuser
25
At the impeller exit of the fan the flow has considerable kinetic energy. This kinetic
energy can be converted into static energy by providing vaneless and vaned diffuser at the exit
of the impeller. The spiral casing as a collector of flow from the impeller or diffuser is an
essential pan of the centrifugal fan. The provision of vaned diffuser in a blower can give a
slightly higher efficiency than the blower with only a volute casing. However for majority of
the centrifugal fans and the blowers the higher cost and the size that result by employing a
diffuser outweigh its advantage. Therefore most of the single stage centrifugal fan impellers
discharge directly into volute casings. Some static pressure rise can also occur in a volute
casing. Volutes can be designed for constant pressure or constant average velocity. The cross
section of the volute passage may be square or rectangular, circular or trapezoidal .The
fabrication of the rectangular volute is from sheet metal.
2.5 .5 Effects of Friction on the Characteristics
Frictional losses within the impeller and shock losses have a considerable effect on the
characteristics of a fan. These losses are proportional to average relative entry velocity, which
is proportional to the volume flow. The effects of frictional losses are influenced by flow-
separation and back flow.
2.6 LOSSES IN CENTRIFUGAL FANS
26
Losses occur in both the stationary as well as moving parts of the centrifugal fan stage. By
accounting for the stage losses, the actual performance of a fan or blower can be predicted.
The various losses are given below:
2.6 .1 Losses in Impeller
The losses are categorized here as
a) Impeller internal losses and
b) Impeller external losses
Impeller Internal Losses
The impeller internal losses are those due to skin friction, blade loading, and blade-wake mixing
and impeller shroud clearance. Impeller skin-friction loss is defined as the loss experienced by
the fluid while flowing through the channels formed by the bounding surface of the impeller.
These losses specifically exclude the effects of the non uniform velocity distribution caused
by the work-addition process in the impeller on the blade-surface boundary-layer behavior.
Impeller External Losses
The impeller external losses are those due to disk friction, recirculation at the impeller edges, and
leakage around shrouded impellers. The disk-friction loss is that due to the shear force acting
on the impeller caused by the fluid between the rotating and stationary surfaces. The
recirculation and scrubbing loss is that due to internal recirculation at either impeller-shroud
clearance or at the impeller exit, where in the fluid loses momentum in the process of flowing
back to the impeller and therefore necessitates an increase in the amount of work required to
be supplied by the impeller.
2.6 .2 Leakage Losses
A clearance is provided between the rotating periphery of the impeller and the casing at
27
the entry. This leads to the leakage of some air and disturbance in the main flow field. Besides
this, leakage also occurs through the clearance between the fan shaft and the casing.
2.6 .3 Diffuser and Volute Losses
Losses in the diffuser or volute occur due to friction and separation .At off-design
condition there are additional losses due to incidence .The flow form the impeller or diffuser
expands to a large cross sectional area in the volute. This leads to losses due to eddy formation
.Further losses occur due to the volute passage friction and flow separation.
2.7 FAN APPLICATIONS
Some of the important applications are Steam Power stations, Ventilation systems, cooling
of electric motors; Gas based power plants, Generators and many industrial process plants.
Power Plant Auxiliaries
In Steam Power plants forced draft and induced draft fans are used to raise the pressure of
air and flue gases to overcome the draught losses in the flow passage of steam boiler. The
forced draft fan raises the pressure of the ambient air and delivers it to the boiler furnace
through air pre-heater. The induced draft fan is located between the furnace and the flue gas
chimney. Therefore these fans work in the hostile atmosphere of high temperature (150
degrees to 350 degrees centigrade) abrasive and corrosive gases. These fans are either axial or
centrifugal type and generally driven by electric motors. For pulverizing coal or fuel oil small
and large fans are used.
Cooling of Motors, Generators and Engines
In internal combustion engines and electric motors and generators considerable extent of
heat is needed to be removed. The cooling of the hot water in the radiators of an automobile
vehicle is a well-known example. The air sucked through the radiators cools the circulating
water as well as the engine. For this propeller fans are used and driven by the engine through
belt transmission drive. For cooling the electric motors, fans are generally mounted on the
extension of their shafts.
28
Air C irculation and Mine Ventilation
Fans of various ratings are used to circulate air in air conditioning systems. Besides this
fans are used to circulate air in a number of other applications as centrifugal separators,
furnaces, drying equipment and cooling of electric and optical equipment. Fans employed for
ventilation of mines and tunnels are heavy duty fans. The rating of fan is be obtained from the
number of workers in the mine and the total resistance to be overcome .Normally centrifugal
flow fans are frequently used compared to axial flow fans.
Steel Plants
In steel plant applications large and small fans are used. One or more high-pressure
blowers are also employed to supply blast furnace gases to the steam boilers. In such cases
impellers must be able to operate at high temperatures and speed. Main blast furnace blowers
are required to develop high pressures and therefore they apply many centrifugal stages.
Other applications include pneumatic transport of granular materials, centrifugal separators,
furnace and drying equipment. The miniature fans are used in much equipment for component
cooling.
3.DESIGN OF THE LOW SPECIFIC SPEED
CENTRIFUGAL FAN
29
3.1 Fan Specifications
The following are the necessary specifications required for the design of a centrifugal fan.
i. Design flow rate : 11000 cum/hr
ii. Static pressure raise : 300 mmwc
iii. Approximate total pr : 315 mmwc
iv. Static Head rise : 250mair
v. Total head rise : 262.5mair
vi. Specific work : 2575.125 m^2/s^2
vii. Volume flow rate : 3.06 m^3/s
viii. Reference density : 1.2 kg/m^3
ix. Fan input power : 11.6 KW
x. Operating speed : 980 rpm
xi. Reference pressure : 1.0132 bar (76mm.Hg)
xii. Reference temperature : 20 deg.C
3.2 Design Calculations:
From the above specifications, the dimensions and other parameters of the fan are calculated.
Specific work, W = (g H
t
) / = 2575 m
2
/s
2
Shape number, n
sh
= (N/60). ( Q / W
0.75
) = 0.0822
Specific speed, () = 2.108 n
sh
= 0.171
For design, proper selection specific shape and specific diameter ensures good efficiency. So
cordier diagram is used, the x cordinate is and y is specific diameter
30
The value is found out to be = 5.562
Impeller tip diameter (D
2
) = (/1.8652)*( (Q)/H
.25
) {selected value is 1.33 m}
Impeller tip speed (U
2
) = 68.24 m/s
Entrance coefficient = C
1m
/ (2W)=0.25 (assuming =0.20.3 for blowers and fans)
Therefore meridional velocity at inlet C
1m
= 17.94 m/s
Also C
2m
= 17.94 {assumed that pre whirl is zero}
C
0
= 16.31 m/s (C
1m
/ C
0
=1.1)
Eye diameter = 4 * ((Q / c
0
)/ ) = 0.500 m
Impeller Inlet diameter D
1
= 0.550 m ( D
e
/D
1
=1.1)
Corresponding A
1
(Q / C
1m
) = 0.1788m
2
Width b
1
= (A
1
/ D
1
) =0.1035m
31
Tip in let speed U
1
= D
1
N /60 = 28.22 m/s
From velocity triangles Tan
1
= C
1m
/U
1
=0.6357

1
= 32.44
Vane contraction factor = 1.1 (assuming)
C
1mb
= 19.75
Tan
1
= C
1mb
/U
1
= 19.75
Final
1
=25.30 = 25
D
2
/D
1
= 2.42
C
2u
= 37.73
Hydraulic efficiency from graph = 81.7%
Hydraulic efficiency assumed
hyd
= 81 %
W
bl
= (W /
hyd
) = 3179.2
C
2ubl
= (W
bl
/
U2
) = 46.58
Slip pow.Factor p (assumed to be) = 0.35
W
bl
=W
bl
/ (1+ p)= 4291.9
C
2ubl
=W
bl
/U
2
= 62.89
A
1
*(A
2
/A
1
) =0.1788 (since A
1
/A
2
=1)
b
2=
A
2
/(.D
2
)= 0.0428 {b
2
selected =0.043}
Vane C F
2
= 1.0
C
2mb
=17.94
tan
2b
= 3.349 (tan
2b
=c
2m
/(U
2
-C
2ubl
))

2b
= 73.37 {
2b
selected = 73.0}
32
First Trial :
Z = 12.7 {Z = k (r
2
+r
1
)/(r
2
-r
1
)*sin(
1b
+
2b
)/2}
Z selected = 13
A
2
/A
1
mean = 1.71
A
2
= 0.3056
b
2
= 0.073 {b
2
(selected) = 0.073}
Vane C.F
2
= 1.0 (Assumed)
C
2m
= 10.5
C
2mb
=10.5
tan
2b
=1.959

2b
= 62.96

2b
selected = 63.0
Second Trial :
Z = 11.7
Z (selected) =12
Vane thickness=4.0
B
f1
= 0.066
C
f2
=1.013
C
2mb
= 10.635
Estimation of slip factor (Pfleiderer)
' = 1.333 { '=k(1+
2b
/60) where k =0.65}
P= 0.268 {P= 2*'/z*(1/(1-(r
1
/r
2
)
2
)}
1 / (1+P) = 0.788
33
W
bl
= 4031 (w
bl
/sig-pfl)
C
2ubl
= 59.06 (w
bl
/U
2
)
tan
2b
= 1.1582{c
2mb
/(u
2
-c
2ubl
)}

2b
= 49.2

2b
(selected) = 50
Third Trial:-
Z = 10.3 {z selected = 10}
Vane thickness=4.0
B
f1
= 0.104
V
cf1
= 1.116
B
f2
= 0.012
C
f2
= 1.013
C
2mb
= 10.63
Estimation of slip factor (Pfleiderer)
' = 1.192
P = 0.287
Radius of curvature Rc = 1.0285 m
Xc =0.7878m {x
c
= (r
c
2
+r
1
2
-2r
c
r
1
cos
1b
)}
Shroud Taper = tan()=0.0794 {tan=(b
1
-b
2
)/(r
2
-r
1
)}
Taper angle () = 4.54
3.3 AUTO CAD DESIGN OF THE FAN IMPELLER:-
34
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer technology for the design of
objects, real or virtual. CAD often involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting
of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD often must convey also symbolic
information such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to
application-specific conventions.
CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional space; or curves,
surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional objects. It is an important industrial art extensively
used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries,
industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more. CAD is also widely used to
produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals.
CAD has become an especially important technology within the scope of computer-aided
technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly shortened
design cycle. CAD enables designers to lay out and develop work on screen, print it out and
save it for future editing, saving time on their drawings.
AutoCAD software is used to design a two-dimensional model of the impeller fan and it is
also used in extraction of co-ordinates. The process is explained in detailed steps with the
assist of figures below


Fig 4.1 Fan Auto CAD design 1.
1) Taking intersection of axes as the centre and radius draw 2 circles of radius 275 mm and 665 mm.
These form the inner diameter and outer diameter of the impeller. (Figure 1)
2) Draw another circle taking radius as 788 mm, and then draw of radius 1028mm and centre as the
intersection point of the x axis and the inner diameter. (Figure 1)
35
3) Two intersection points are obtained on either side of the horizontal axes. Depending on the direction
of the blades one of the points is chosen. Since we went for clockwise direction we choose the left
hand side point. (Figure 1)
4) From this point another circle of radius r
c
= 1028mm is drawn. (Figure 2)
5) This circle passes through the inner and outer diameter circles and the arc contained by these two
circles forms the blade. (Figure 2)


Fig 4.2 Fan Auto CAD design 2 Fig 4.3 Fan Auto CAD design 3


6) The enclosed arc is the median of the blade and it is shown in figure 3.
7) Taking 2mm off set on either side of the blade median curve, two identical curves are drawn. The top
curve is the pressure side and the bottom curve is the suction side. (Figure 4)

36
Fig 4.4 Fan Auto CAD design 4
8) After obtaining one blade mirroring is used, where the numbers of blades are specified as 10 and
angle as 360.
9) To generate the side view the taper is considered and the following figure is generated
4. EXTRACTION OF COORDINATES
4.1 Method of Extraction
The coordinates of blade, hub and shroud are extracted from the 2-d diagram of fan impeller.
Coordinates are used in generating a 3D figure in turbo grid.
A series of coordinates are absorbed from a 2D cad diagram,
37
i. The CAD diagram is first simplified to represent one blade passing through one of the axis.
ii. Further more the area between the inner radius and outer radius are divided at a series of equal
intervals.
iii. For example a series of concentric circles are drawn considering the center of the impeller as
shown in the fig.
iv. These lines intersect the blade profile at both pressure and suction side and also intersecting
the axis as shown.
v. Considering the geometrical x axis as y axis an geometrical y axis as x axis, using the crock
screw thumb rule the meridional geometrical x axis represents z axis.
vi. Now, considering the intersection point on the blade profile the perpendicular distance from x
and y as shown in fig., the x and y coordinates are absorbed.
vii. For the similar point the circle passing through the intersection also passes through the
geometrical X axis as seen in fig., a perpendicular is drawn to the meridional diagram.
viii. From the meridional diagram, as defined earlier the geometrical x axis is the z axis, from this
the perpendicular intersection the meridional diagram at both hub and shroud the "z-hub" and "z-
shroud" coordinates are extracted, as the representation uses the crock screw thumb rule the values of
z is considered negative.
ix. And for the leading edge a series of concentric circles with a difference of "2mm" are drawn
and coordinates are generated for the x, y, z-hub, z-shroud.
x. As the value of z is generated for both hub and shroud, by varying the values of z,
profile.curve coordinates are generated as a set for hub using the z-hub coordinates, and a set for the
z-shroud.
4.2 COORDINATES OF THE BLADE PROFILE (HUB SIDE)
38
R X Y Z
275 275 0 0
275.9 275.899 -0.1864 0
276.689 276.689 0 0
277.6588 277.6571 0.9718 0
305 300.2754 53.4761 0
345 323.6533 119.0809 0
385 341.0639 178.6069 0
425 353.9198 235.2993 0
465 363.2347 290.3198 0
505 369.43 344.3058 0
545 372.7376 397.6074 0
585 373.1085 450.4228 0
625 371.1548 502.8609 0
665 366.3716 554.9747 0
665 362.0027 557.8342 0
625 366.9361 505.9475 0
585 369.2318 453.7542 0
545 368.8591 401.2081 0
505 365.7523 348.21 0
465 359.6106 294.5772 0
425 350.7593 239.9852 0
385 338.2689 183.8454 0
345 321.3768 125.1295 0
305 298.8742 60.8211 0
277.6588 277.4731 10.1544 0
276.689 276.5684 8.1688 0
275.9 275.8225 6.5400 0
275 275 0 0
39
4.3COORDINATES OF THE BLADE PROFILE( SHROUD SIDE)
40
R X Y Z
275 275 0 104.000
275.9 275.899 -0.1864 103.859
276.689 276.689 0 103.736
277.6588 277.6571 0.9718 103.584
305 300.2754 53.4761 99.308
345 323.6533 119.0809 93.051
385 341.0639 178.6069 86.795
425 353.9198 235.2993 80.538
465 363.2347 290.3198 74.282
505 369.43 344.3058 68.026
545 372.7376 397.6074 61.769
585 373.1085 450.4228 55.513
625 371.1548 502.8609 49.256
665 366.3716 554.9747 43.000
665 362.0027 557.8342 43.000
625 366.9361 505.9475 49.256
585 369.2318 453.7542 55.513
545 368.8591 401.2081 61.769
505 365.7523 348.21 68.026
465 359.6106 294.5772 74.282
425 350.7593 239.9852 80.538
385 338.2689 183.8454 86.795
345 321.3768 125.1295 93.051
305 298.8742 60.8211 99.308
277.6588 277.4731 10.1544 103.584
276.689 276.5684 8.1688 103.736
275.9 275.8225 6.5400 103.859
275 275 0 104.000
41
4.4 COORDINATES OF HUB CURVE AND SHROUD CURVE
I In generating the hub.curve and shroud.curve file from the meridional view, a series of
horizontal lines intersection both hub and shroud lines are drawn, and the coordinates for
these intersection points are considered as shown in fig.
Hub curve
42
Shroud curve
5. CFD THEORY
5. CFD THEORY:
CFD is playing a strong role as a design tool as well research tool. In CFD, the fundamental
equations of fluid mechanics are based on the following universal laws of conservation:
1. Conservation of mass
2. Conservation of momentum
3. Conservation of energy.
X Y Z
0 0 -195
40 0 -155
80 0 -115
120 0 -75
160 0 -35
195 0 0
275 0 0
345 0 0
665 0 0
X Y Z
249.9640 0 -129.6601
250.4691 0 -124.6601
252.0511 0 -119.6601
254.964 0 -114.6601
259.964 0 -109.6601
271.0792 0 -104.9638
665 0 -43
43
5.1.1 Continuity Equation:
Physical principle: Mass is conserved.
Net mass flow out Time rate of
of control volume = decrease of mass
through surface S inside control volume
Partial differential equation form of the continuity equation in differentiable conservative form
can be expressed as
Where,
Density
x, y, z Cartesian Coordinates
u, v, w velocity vectors in x, y, z directions.
44
Fundamental physical principles
Governing equations of fluid flow
Mass is conserved Continuity equation
Newtons second law Momentum equation
Energy equation
Energy conserved
L.H.S Net mass flow out of the control Volume
R.H.S Time Rate of Decrease of mass inside the control volume
The basic continuity equation of fluid flow is as follows:
Where, = Fluid density
= the rate of increase of density in the control volume.
The first term in this equation represents the rate of increase of density in the control volume and
the second term represents the rate of mass flux passing out of the control surface, which
surrounds the control volume. This equation is based on Eulerian approach. In this approach, a
fixed control volume is defined and the changes in the fluid are recorded as the fluid passes
through the control volume. In the alternative Lagrangian approach, an observer moving with
the fluid element records the changes in the properties of the fluid element. Eulerian approach
is more commonly used in fluid mechanics. For a Cartesian coordinate system, where u, v, w
represent the x, y, z components of the velocity vector, the continuity equation becomes
/ t + / x ( u) + / y ( v) + / z ( w) =0
5.1.2 Momentum Equation:
Here, Physical principle: F = ma (Newton's second law)
Newton's Second Law applied to a fluid passing through an infinitesimal, small, moving fluid
element. Only the forces in the x direction are considered and the momentum is conserved in
this direction and thus the X component of the momentum equation is derived.
45
Forces on a fluid element can be classified in a tree diagram as:
Based on the above classification of forces the momentum equation in differentiable
conservative form can be expressed as
in X direction
in Y direction
in Z direction
Where, V stands for the velocity vector of the fluid.
L.H.S represents the Substantial derivative of the product of mass and acceleration
R.H.S represents the summation of Pressure force, Normal and shear force, body force
t
represents rate of increase of momentum per unit volume.
V
represents the rate of momentum lost by convection
through the control volume surface.
f
represents the body force per unit volume.
46
5.1.3 Energy Equation:
Physical principle: Energy is conserved.
The physical principle stated above is nothing more than the first law of thermodynamics.
When applied to a fluid passing through an infinitesimal fixed control volume yields the
energy equation i.e. increase in energy in the system is equal to the heat added to the system
plus the work done on the system.`
For a fluid element it can be represented as:
Energy in different conservation form is expressed as:
Where,
e internal energy
V^2/2 Kinetic Energy
K Coefficient of thermal conductivity
47
L.H.S the rate of Change of energy inside a fluid element
First four terms in the R.H.S corresponds to the Net Flux of heat into the element
Rest of the Terms in the R.H.S corresponds to the Rate of Work Done on the Fluid Element Due
to Surface and Body Forces.
In terms of enthalpy, the final form of Energy equation is

+ + q
t
Q
Dt
Dp
Dt
Dh
.
Where is known as dissipation function.
5.2. Turbulence Models:
Special attention needs to be paid to accurate modeling of turbulence. The purpose of a
turbulence model is to provide numerical values for the Reynolds stresses at each point in the
flow. The objective is to represent the Reynolds stresses as realistically as possible, while
maintaining a low level of complexity. The turbulence model chosen should be best suited to
the particular flow problem. A wide range of models is available and type of model that is
chosen must be done so with care. It is understood that these models are not used when
modeling laminar flows.
The final result of the flow, turbulence, reaction, heat transfer, and multiphase calculations
will be a detailed map of the local liquid velocities, temperatures, chemical reactant
concentrations, reaction rates, and volume fractions of the various phases. These outcomes
can be analyzed in detail using graphical visualization, calculation of overall parameters and
integral volume or surface averages, and comparison with experimental or plant data. This
analysis phase is referred to as post processing. Because of improvements in computer power
and enhanced graphics software, it is now much easier for CFD analysts to create animations
of their data. These often help in understanding complex flow phenomena that are sometimes
difficult to see from static plots.
5.2.1. K-Epsilon Model:
Boussinesq suggested that the apparent turbulent shearing stresses might be related to the
rate of mean strain through an apparent scalar turbulent or "eddy" viscosity. For the general
Reynolds stress tensor the Boussinesq assumption gives

,
_

,
_

k
x
u
x
u
x
u
u u
k
k
T ij
i
j
j
i
T j i

3
2
' '
Where
T
is the turbulent viscosity, k is the kinetic energy of turbulence given by,
48
2
' '
j i
u u
k
By analogy with kinetic theory, by which molecular (laminar) viscosity for gases be evaluated
with reasonable accuracy, we might expect that the turbulent viscosity can be modeled as:
l
T T

Where v
T
and l are characteristic velocity and length scale of turbulence respectively. The
problem is to find suitable means of evaluating them.
Algebraic turbulence models invariably utilize boussinesq assumption. One of the most
successful of this type of model was suggested by Prandtl and is known as "mixing length
hypothesis".
y
u
l
T

2

Where l a mixing length can be thought of as a transverse distance over which particles
maintain their original momentum, some what on the order of a mean free path for the
collision or mixing of globules of fluid. The product l * u/y can be interpreted as the
characteristic velocity of turbulence, VT. In the above equation, u is the component of
velocity in the primary flow direction, and y is the coordinate transverse to the primary flow
direction.
There are other models, which use one partial differential equation for the transport of
turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) from which velocity scales are obtained. The length scale is
prescribed by an algebraic formulation. The most common turbulence model generally used is
the two-equation turbulence model or k- model. There are so many variants of this model. In
these models the length scale is also obtained from solving a partial differential equation.
The most commonly used variable for obtaining the length scale is dissipation rate of
turbulent kinetic energy denoted by E. Generally the turbulent kinetic energy is expressed as
turbulent intensity as defined below.
( )
2 2 2
' ' '
2 / 1 w u k + +
, k= (Actual K.E in flow mean K.E in flow)

/
3
1
2
2 / 1
' ' '
2 2 2
k C
w u
U
T

,
_

+ +

The transport PDE used in standard k-f model are as follows


49
( )

1
1
]
1

,
_

+
1
1
]
1

j
i
i j
i
j
j
i
T
j
k T
j
x
u
k
x
u
x
u
x
k
x Dt
k D
3
2
Pr //
5. 3. Discretization of Governing Equations:
The above governing partial differential equations are continuous functions of x, y, z. In the
finite difference approach, the continuous problem domain "discretized", so that the
dependent variables are considered to exist only at discrete points.
Equilibrium problems usually result in a system of algebraic equations that must be solved
simultaneously throughout the domain in conjunction with specified boundary values. These
are mathematically known as elliptic problems. Marching problems result in algebraic
equations that usually solved one at a time. These are known as parabolic or hyperbolic
problems.
Three methods are generally used for discretization,
1. Finite difference method.
2. Finite control volume method.
3. Finite element method.
5.3.1 Finite Difference Method:
In terms of the flow-field variables, partial differential equations are totally replaced by a system
of algebraic equations, which can be solved for the values of the flow-field variables at the
discrete points only. In this sense partial differential equations have been discretized. This
method of discretization is called Finite difference method. Most common finite-difference
representations of derivatives are based on Taylors series expansion.
) (
, 1 ,
x O
x
u u
j i j i
+

+
Forward difference
50
j i
x
u
,

,
_

=
) (
1 , ,
x O
x
u u
j i j i
+


Backward difference
O ( x) = truncation error due to neglected terms in series.
These are called first-order difference equations. So the partial difference equations have re-
placed by finite difference representation & finally converted into algebraic equations. It is
perhaps the simplest method to apply on uniform meshes, but it requires a high degree of reg-
ularity of the mesh. This scheme was once popular.
5.3.2 Finite Volume Method:
The governing equations of fluid dynamics have been mathematically expressed in differential
form when numerical scheme applied to these differential equations, the computational
domain is subdivided into grid points, and the finite difference equations are solved at each
point. An alternate approach is integral form of the governing equations. In this approach, the
physical domain is sub divided into small volumes for 3D case and small areas for 2-D and
the dependent variables are evaluated either at the centers of volumes or corners of the
volumes. The conservation principles are applied to a fixed region in space known as control
volume. This integral form of the conservation statement is usually well known from first
principles, or it can in most cases, be developed from the PDE form of the conservation law.
Consider unsteady 2-D heat conduction. The appropriate form of the conservation statement for
the control volume can be represented mathematically,
0 . +


nds q dR
t
T
c
S R

The first term in the above equation is an integral over the control volume, represents the time
rate of increase in the energy stored in the volume. The second term, an integral over the
surface of the volume, represents the net rate at which energy is conducted out through the
surface of the volume. This is the integral or control-volume form of conservation law. The
integral approach includes the Finite volume method and Finite element method. The FVM
method has an obvious advantage over a FDM. If the physical domain is highly irregular and
complicated since arbitrary volumes can be utilized to subdivide the physical domain. Also
since the integral equations are solved directly in the physical domain, no co-ordinate
transformations required. Another advantage of FVM is that mass, momentum and energy are
automatically conserved
51
\
6. ANSYS CFX
6.1 Introduction to ANSYS CFX
ANSYS CFX is a high-performance, general purpose CFD program that has been applied
to solve wide-ranging fluid flow problems for over 20 years. At the heart of ANSYS CFX is
its advanced solver technology, the key to achieving reliable and accurate solutions quickly
and robustly. The modern, highly parallelized solver is the foundation for an abundant choice
of physical models to capture virtually any type of phenomena related to fluid flow: laminar to
turbulent (including transition), incompressible to fully compressible, subsonic to trans- and
52
supersonic, isothermal or with heat transfer by convection and/or radiation, non-reacting to
combusting, stationary and/or rotating devices, single fluids and mixtures of fluids in one or
more phases (incl. free surfaces), and much, much more. The solver and its many physical
models are wrapped in a modern, intuitive, and flexible GUI and user environment, with
extensive capabilities for customization and automation using session files, scripting, and a
powerful expression language.
6.2 ANSYS CFX and the ANSYS Workbench Environment
ANSYS CFX software is fully integrated into the ANSYS Workbench environment, the
framework for the full suite of engineering simulation solutions from ANSYS. Its adaptive
architecture enables users to easily set up anything from standard fluid flow analyses to
complex interacting systems with simple drag-and-drop operations. Users can easily assess
performance at multiple design points or compare several alternative designs. Within the
ANSYS Workbench environment, applications from multiple simulation disciplines can
access tools common to all, such as geometry and meshing tools.
Geometry: ANSYS DesignModeler software is specifically designed for the creation and
preparation of geometry for simulation. Its easy-to-use, fully parametric environment with
direct, bidirectional links to all leading CAD packages acts as the geometry portal for all
ANSYS products to provide a consistent geometry source for all engineering simulations.
Meshing: Providing accurate CFD results requires superior meshing technology. ANSYS
Meshing provides a multitude of meshing technologies in a single application to allow users
to select the best option on a part-by-part basis. ANSYS ICEM CFD meshing tools also are
available and include unlimited mesh editing capabilities as well as structured hexahedral
meshing.
6.3 CFD Pre-Processing in CFX-Pre
The ANSYS CFX physics pre-processor is a modern and intuitive interface for the setup
of CFD analyses. In addition to a general mode of operation, predefined wizards are available
to guide users through the setup of common fluid flow simulations. A powerful expression
language gives users the ability to customize their problem definition in numerous ways, such
as with complex boundary conditions, proprietary material models or additional transport
equations. The adaptive architecture of CFX-Pre even allows users to create their own custom
53
GUI panels to standardize input for selected applications, and thereby ensure adherence to
established best practices.
6.4 The ANSYS CFX Solver
At the heart of ANSYS CFX software is its advanced solver technology using coupled
algebraic multigrid, the key to achieving reliable and accurate solutions quickly and robustly.
Its engineered scalability ensures a linear increase in CPU time with problem size and parallel
performance that is second to none. Users can follow convergence progress and dynamically
monitor numerical and physical solution quantities. Solver parameters, boundary conditions
and other parameters can be adjusted on the fly, without stopping the solver. The ANSYS
CFX solver uses second order numerics by default, ensuring users always get the most
accurate predictions possible. All simulations, whether for rotating machinery, multiphase
flows, combustion or any other physical model benefit enormously from the coupled solver
technology in ANSYS CFX software to achieve robust and scalable flow solutions.
6.5 Post-Processing with ANSYS CFD-Post
Complete and powerful post-processing capabilities for ANSYS CFX results are provided
with ANSYS CFD-Post for both graphical and quantitative analysis. Together with full
scripting and automation, including report generation, CFD-Post ensures users get the most
out of their CFD simulations.
6.6 Industry solutions using CFX
1. Vortex structures in a four-stroke engine just after injection of fuel and intake valve
opening.
54

2. Nucleate boiling downstream of spacers in a fuel rod bundle assembly.

3. Prediction of heat transfer distribution in a shell and tube heat
Exchanger.
55

4. Prediction of wetness dispersion under non-equilibrium conditions for quanti-
fication of thermo-dynamic performance in a low- pressure steam turbine.

7.METHODOLOGY
56
7.1Modelling and CFD Analysis of Centrifugal Fan Stage
Problem Solving Approach in CFD
The basic steps involved in solving any CFD problem are as follows:
Identification of flow domain.
Geometry construction or Component Modelling.
Grid generation.
Specification of boundary conditions and initial conditions.
Selection of solver parameters and convergence criteria.
Results and post processing.
The Centrifugal Fan Stage is modelled and analysis is carried out by following above steps.
Identification of Flow Domain:-
Before constructing grid, it is required to understand the exact flow domain properly. The
flow domain in the case of Centrifugal fan consists of Impeller, where Impeller is a rotating
component and others are stationary. It is therefore required that before going ahead with 3D
modelling and grid generation, the common interfaces should be clearly defined. The software
that is used is decided later based on nature and complexity of the geometry. For axis-
symmetry bladed geometry, the data for hub, shroud and blade profiles are obtained from 2D
drawing and subsequently grids are generated using Turbo-Grid software..
The boundary wall is the region where no slip condition exists and the velocity gradually
increases and reaches to mainstream velocities. That means, velocity gradient exists there and
that region close to the boundary wall should have fine grids.
3D CAD MODELLING:-
3D Geometrical Model of Impeller:-
The blade of the present Impeller is of 3D type and the modelling of Impeller blade is rather
complex compared to 2D curved blades. 3D blade involves thickness and twist distribution as
the blade extends between hub and shroud surfaces.
The geometrical design of blade profile is extracted from blade co-ordinates of line
elements, camber surface and distribution of thickness on the camber surface. The basic
design data is given in the form x, y, z co-ordinates of line elements. Line elements are located
along the radial positions of the blade, and some of the line elements are located upstream of
the blade leading edge, and like-wise also extends downstream of the trailing edge. The
57
sample data for line elements are given in the, this data is arranged in order to obtain hub and
shroud blade profiles. This process requires programming file in TURBOGRID, which can
transfer large amount line data instantly.
CUTTING THE TRAILING AND DRIVING SURFACES
Hub.curve
X Y Z
0 0 -195
40 0 -155
80 0 -115
120 0 -75
160 0 -35
195 0 0
275 0 0
345 0 0
665 0 0
Shroud.curve
X Y Z
249.9640 0 -129.6601
250.4691 0 -124.6601
252.0511 0 -119.6601
254.964 0 -114.6601
259.964 0 -109.6601
271.0792 0 -104.9638
665 0 -43

7.2MERIDIONAL DATA FOR HUB & SHROUD CONTOURS
By using the above data we get the meridional view of the hub and shroud contours of
the impeller as shown
The hub curve runs upstream to downstream and must extend of the blade leading edge.
The hub data file contains the hub curve data points in Cartesian form and downstream of the
blade trailing edge. The profile points are listed, line-by-line, in order from upstream to
downstream. These data points are used to place the nodes on the hub surface, which is
defined as the surface of revolution of a curve joined by these points.
Shroud Data File
The shroud data file contains the shroud curve data points in Cartesian or cylindrical form the
shroud curve runs upstream to downstream and must extend upstream of the blade leading
58

edge and downstream of the blade trailing edge the points are listed, line by line in free format
style in order from upstream to downstream. These data points are used to place the nodes on
the shroud surface, which is defined as the surface of revolution of a curve joined by these
points.
Example: Considering XZ Plane with Z as Axis of Rotation
Fig: Hub Curve and Shroud Curve Profile curve Data File:
The profile data file contains the blade profile curves in Cartesian or cylindrical form.
The profile points are listed, line-by-line, in a closed loop surrounding the blade. The blade
profiles should lie on a surface of revolution to facilitate transformation to m-prime, theta
conformal space.
A minimum of two blade profiles are required, one which lies exactly on the hub surface
and one which lies exactly on the shroud surface. The profiles must be listed in the file in
order from hub to shroud. Multi bladed geometries are handled by placing multiple blade
profile definitions in the same profile.
Profile. Curve:
59
# Profile 1
X Y Z
275 0 0
275.899 -0.1864 0
276.689 0 0
277.6571 0.9718 0
300.2754 53.4761 0
323.6533 119.0809 0
341.0639 178.6069 0
353.9198 235.2993 0
363.2347 290.3198 0
369.43 344.3058 0
372.7376 397.6074 0
373.1085 450.4228 0
371.1548 502.8609 0
366.3716 554.9747 0
362.0027 557.8342 0
366.9361 505.9475 0
369.2318 453.7542 0
368.8591 401.2081 0
365.7523 348.21 0
359.6106 294.5772 0
350.7593 239.9852 0
338.2689 183.8454 0
321.3768 125.1295 0
298.8742 60.8211 0
277.4731 10.1544 0
276.5684 8.1688 0
275.8225 6.5400 0
275 0 0
#Profile 2
X Y Z
275 0 104.000
60
275.899 -0.1864 103.859
276.689 0 103.736
277.6571 0.9718 103.584
300.2754 53.4761 99.308
323.6533 119.0809 93.051
341.0639 178.6069 86.795
353.9198 235.2993 80.538
363.2347 290.3198 74.282
369.43 344.3058 68.026
372.7376 397.6074 61.769
373.1085 450.4228 55.513
371.1548 502.8609 49.256
366.3716 554.9747 43.000
362.0027 557.8342 43.000
366.9361 505.9475 49.256
369.2318 453.7542 55.513
368.8591 401.2081 61.769
365.7523 348.21 68.026
359.6106 294.5772 74.282
350.7593 239.9852 80.538
338.2689 183.8454 86.795
321.3768 125.1295 93.051
298.8742 60.8211 99.308
277.4731 10.1544 103.584
276.5684 8.1688 103.736
275.8225 6.5400 103.859
275 0 104.000
The first step is to check whether the blade profile data obtained from solid model is
intersecting hub and shroud curves or not. We use CFX-Turbogrid intersect option for this
purpose. Using this option, we have to see that blade profile must lie on the surface of
revolution of hub and shroud as shown in fig Turbo grid intersecting capability can convert an
existing set of blade profiles that does not necessarily lie on the surface of revolution into one
that can be used in a CFX-Turbogrid template.
Next step is generating grid. Among the various templates available in turbogrid, Multi
Block Grid template as shown in fig is used. By the way of adjusting control points in fig a
good quality hexahedral grid can be generated. Flip topology is used to correct negative grid
volume due to left-handed system. The mesh command creates mesh grid but also calculates
and displays the minimum and maximum skew angle in the grid and the node at which it
occurs. The View command in the GUI window can be used to see the different views of the
grid like Cartesian view, Meridional view and blade-to-blade view as shown in the figure.
61

Setting the topology for the mesh grid
Adjusting the control points at the Leading Edge & Trailing Edge
62


3-D view of impeller without shroud surface
63
3D View of Impeller with hub Surfaces
The mesh generated by adjusting the control points as shown in Fig and
correspondingly Circumferential view of 3d Impeller surfaces & Periodical
arrangement of blades through out the circumference are shown in Figs
VIEWS FOR 3D IMPELLER BLADE MESH
The following parameters were considered to check the quality of the grids:
Skew angle: It is defined as the internal angle of the octahedron. Ideally, all the angles
should be equal to 90 degrees to get a perfect orthogonal grid. However, for practical
purposes, the grid is considered to be of high quality if the minimum skew angle is
not lower than 15 degrees and the maximum skew angle is not greater than 165
degrees.
Grid volume: Negative volume meant overlapping of adjacent grids, which would lead
to errors in solver. Care was taken to ensure that there was no negative volume in the
grids.
65
Aspect ratio: It is defined as the ratio of the longest side to the shortest side. Its
minimum value is 1. For good quality grid creation, the maximum aspect ratio
should be less than 200.
The mesh is generated for the 3D Impeller with the total number of nodes, maximum
and minimum skew angle and aspect ratio obtained from TURBOGRID are given in
Table 4.3.
7.3MESH DATA FOR 3D IMPELLER BLADES
S.No Component Number of
Nodes
Number of
Elements
Minimum
Skew Angle
Maximum
Skew Angle
1 3DIMPELLER 19380 16352 18 163
Specification of boundary conditions and initial conditions: - This part of
simulation is done in CFX-Pre processing .The files with the extensions: . grd,
.gci, .bcf of 3DImpeller are copied into a new folder separately and these grid
files are read into pre-processing model of CFX-11 software.
PHYSICS DEFINITION:
Physics definition involves defining the physical parameters such as pressure,
temperature, mass flow, etc. and other boundary conditions relevant for the problem.
Pre-processing involves the following steps. The software used was CFX PRE 11.
I. Importing the mesh assembly and region definition: The mesh file (.grd) file
was imported separately for the 3DImpeller. The grid file (with extension .grd) is the
file necessary to generate the grid.
The .gcf file contains the topographical details of the file, while the boundary
conditions file (.bci) specifies the inlet, exit, periodic and the blade regions for each
assembly.
II. Defining the domain and boundaries: The 3DImpeller regions like inlet, outlet,
and blade are defined. The hub, shroud and the blades of both assemblies were
treated as walls. The interface between the periodic1 and periodic2 is defined as
rotational periodicity. The boundary conditions were applied at inlet and outlet.
III. Initial conditions: - The initial condition for the pressure field should be the
average of the highest value of pressure specified on any of the Outlet boundaries
and the lowest value of pressure specified on any of the Inlet boundaries. This
reduces the likelihood of spurious inflow at Outlets, or outflow at Inlets, during the
66
course of the solution. A sensible initial guess for the temperature field is an average
of the boundary condition temperatures.
In the pre processing the following fluid domains and boundary conditions are
specified.
1. Simulation : Steady State
2. Domains : Fluid
R1 : Impeller (Rotating)
3. Boundary Conditions:
Inlet : Impeller inlet
Outlet : Impeller exit
Inlet Relative Pressure : 1.0132 bar
Wall : smooth
Mass flow : 3.672 kg/s
4. Fluid Properties:
Working Fluid : air at 25C
Density : 1.2 kg/m
3
67
5. Rotation Axis : Z
6. Turbulence Model:
Turbulence Model : k-Epsilon
Heat transfer Model : None
7. Interface:
Type : Fluid -Fluid
Interface models : Rotational periodicity
8.Write Solver File:
After specifying all conditions write definition file using write solver file
command.
7.4 Selection of solver parameters and convergence criteria:
The flow governing equations are solved in CFX-Solver. The CFX-Solver Manager is
a graphical user interface used to set attributes for a CFD calculation, Control the CFX-
Solver interactively and to View information about the emerging solution.
The solver solves the mass, momentum and energy equations and calculates
pressure, velocity, enthalpy etc in the flow domain in each control volumes. The
inlet relative pressure and reference pressure plays a vital role to avoid round-off
errors. Reference pressure is the absolute pressure datum from which all other
pressure values are taken. It is a property of the entire simulation. So all domains
must use the same reference pressure value. The reference pressure will affect the
value of every other pressure set in simulation. It is used to avoid problems with
round-off errors which can occur when the dynamic pressure change in a fluid, that
drives the flow are small compared to the absolute pressure level. The relative
pressure specification set is measured relative to the reference pressure value. The
solver parameters are
1. Basic Settings: Steady State Simulations Advection Scheme is carried out using a
Numerical Advection Correction Scheme (Specify Blend). This selection allows setting a
Blend Factor between 0.0 and 1.0 for the advection scheme. A value of 0.0 is equivalent to
using the First Order Advection Scheme and is the most robust option. A value of 1.0 uses
Second Order differencing for the advection terms; this is not the same as the High Resolu-
tion advection scheme. This setting is more accurate but less robust. Values between 0.0 and
68
1.0 blend First and Second Order differencing, with increased accuracy and reduced robust-
ness as you approach 1.0. At the higher values overshoots and undershoots can appear, at
lower values excessive diffusivity can occur. It is therefore recommended to use a value of
0.75 for good accuracy of CFD results.
2. Timescale Control for a steady state simulation: The selection of an appropriate time
step size is essential in order to obtain good convergence rates for simulation. In general
there are two situations in which we use a physical time step:
to provide sufficient relaxation of the equation non-linearitys so that a con-
verged steady state solution is obtained, or,
To evolve the solution through time in order to provide transient information
about a time dependent simulation.
Physical Time step
This option allows a fixed time step size to be used for the selected equations over the
entire flow domain. For advection-dominated flows, the physical time step size
should be some fraction of a length scale divided by a velocity scale. A good
approximation is the Dynamical Time for the flow. This is the time taken for a point
in the flow to make its way through the fluid domain. For many simulations a
reasonable estimate is easy to make based on the length of the fluid domain and the
mean velocity,
3. Max. No. Iterations are the maximum number of iterations the CFX-Solver will run.
4. Residual Type is set to either RMS or MAX and a residual target is specified for the
convergence. The residual is a measure of the local imbalance of each conservative control
volume equation. It is the most important measure of convergence as it relates directly to
whether the equations have been solved. We can either select MAX (maximum) or RMS
(root mean square) normalized values of the equation residuals as your check for conver-
gence. The CFX-Solver will terminate the run when the equation residuals calculated using
the method specified is below the Residual Target value.
For the present simulation Solver Parameters are specified as follows:
Advection scheme :Specified Blend Factor (0.75)
Time Scale Control :Physical Time Scale (0.0003 sec)
Maximum Iterations : 200
Residual Convergence criteria : RMS
69
Residual Convergence Target : 1E-3
5. Run the solver monitor.
The solver is allowed to run till the required convergence is obtained.


7.5 Blade Geometry Plot

Isometric 3-D view of blade, hub & shroud
70

Meridional view
Blade mesh plot

Mesh element at 50% span
POST PROCESSING:-
CFX-Post is a flexible state-of-the-art post-processor. It is designed to allow easy
visualization qualitative and quantitative post-processing of the results of CFD
simulations.
71
Once the solution is converged, the solver writes all the data related to grid,
boundary conditions and flow parameters are stored in the result file. It is a binary
file, which can be opened by loading result file in CFX-Post, and the results are
analyzed. The performance of compressor stage is studied by using suitable macros.
The various plots are drawn and listed in results. Using the function calculator
option parameters like Mass flow rate, Velocity, Pressure, Enthalpy, Entropy etc can
be calculated. Plots are also available for various parameters like Velocity, Pressure
and Mach number etc, which show the variation of parameters through out the
domain. The efficiency, torque and power are obtained using softwares macro.
The similar type of stage analysis is carried out for different mass flows i.e.
70%,80%,90%,110%,120%,130%etc.

72
8.RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION
8.1GENERAL
The simulated investigation on the impeller of a centrifugal fan are presented and
interpreted in this chapter. Data extraction and interpretation form a very important
part of CFD analysis to show conformity of simulated data with the experimental
results
The chosen centrifugal fan has an impeller diameter of 900 mm and an exit width of 83
mm.
The simulation is conducted on the impeller of a fan at various speeds. The various
speeds that were considered are Design Speed of 1450 RPM, 980 RPM and 2900
RPM rpm. Flow is analysed for different flow rates. The flow rates considered are
75,85, 90, 100, 110, 120,130.
The different parameters chosen for comparison are:
1) Velocity magnitude
2) Pressure ratio
3) Total and static pressure
4) Head coefficient
5) Shaft power
6) Overall efficiency
The above mentioned parameters are plotted with respect to radius, mass flow rate and
speed. The following plots are generated from the present CFD analysis for better
understanding of the following phenomenon to centrifugal fan:
1) Vector Plots
73
2) Path Lines
3) Contour Plots
8.2VARIATION OF FLOW PARAMETERS IN THE CHOSEN
IMPELLER
With respect to flow rate and speed
8.2.1Variation of velocity magnitude with flow rate and effect of speed
For a speed of 1450 RPM rpm it is clear that the velocity increases upto the design
flow and after that it slightly falls. Similarly in the case of higher speeds, for various
flow rates the velocity magnitudes are given in the table. The other values of higher
flow rates can be observed from the figure. It is also observed that the absolute
velocity is higher for higher speeds i.e. as speed increases, absolute velocity
increases.
8.2.2Variation of relative velocity with mass flow rate
For a given speed, absolute flow and is found to increase with flow rate. This is
evident for the increase of relative velocity from 32 to 75 for 1450 RPM
Relative velocity is the tangent inverse of the ratio of radial velocity and tangential
velocity. It can be seen form the figure that the tangential and radial velocity is
increasing with flow rate. The reason to justify this increase of relative velocity is
the greater increase of tangential velocity than radial velocity.
Since for higher speeds it results in higher velocity, absolute relative velocity
increases for various flow rates.
74
8.2.3Variation of Static Pressure and Total Pressure with flow rate and
effect of Speed
Static Pressure: It is found that static pressure decreases with flow rate and static
pressure ratio is found to increase with speed for respective mass flow rates. Static
pressure values are tabulated in the table. Variation of static pressure ratio is also found
to be similar to static pressure variation.
Total Pressure: It is found that the total pressure decrease with flow rate. Total
pressure ratio is found to increase with speed for respective mass flow. The total
pressure values are tabulated in the table. Variation of total pressure ratio is also found
to be similar to total pressure variation
8.2.4Variation of static pressure along the pressure and suction side of the
impeller vane
It is clear that static pressure increases up to a certain radius, but reduces there after on
the pressure side of the blade. This behaviour is because the blade extends only upto
a particular radius.
75
8.3RESULTS
8.3.1Values obtained from CFX for 980 rpm
8.3.2Values obtained from CFX for 1450 rpm
% flow
%
flow
per
pas-
sage,
cu.m Flow coeff
exit total
pressure
(pa)
Pr
rise(pa)
pre .stat-
ic head coeff Cu2 total efficiency
flow angle al-
pha
70 0.25 0.009 104924 3606.67 103609 0.1638 -45.4287 97.8786 75.1928
80 0.29 0.0103 104795 3476.97 103540 0.1579 -43.7344 98.1630 72.5490
90 0.33 0.0116 104673 3355.63 103464 0.1524 -42.2680 98.2193 69.8385
100 0.36 0.0129 104558 3240.39 103380 0.1471 -40.9320 98.0767 67.1102
110 0.40 0.0142 104428 3114.03 103295 0.1414 -39.5281 97.6966 64.3117
120 0.44 0.0155 104295 2978.13 103160 0.1352 -38.1747 96.8224 61.4162
130 0.47 0.0167 104138 2821.91 103011 0.1281 -36.7975 95.2642 58.4596
76
8.3.3Values obtained from CFX for 2000 rpm
% flow
%
flow
per
pas-
sage,
cu.m Flow coeff
exit total
pressure
(pa)
Pr
rise(pa)
pre .stat-
ic head coeff Cu2
total efficien-
cy
flow angle al-
pha
70 0.25 0.0061 109831 8513.37 106513 0.1766 -71.51 96.42 63.94
80 0.29 0.007 109512 8195.59 106385 0.1700 -68.13 97.17 57.76
90 0.33 0.0078 109475 8159.74 106435 0.1692 -69.86 97.41 77.44
100 0.36 0.0087 109286 7971.2 106364 0.1653 -67.93 97.82 75.82
110 0.40 0.0096 109092 7777.36 106273 0.1613 -66.12 98.11 74.05
120 0.44 0.0104 108905 7589.8 106167 0.1574 -64.51 98.25 72.26
130 0.47 0.0113 108727 7412.34 106056 0.1537 -63.05 98.30 70.44
77
8.4 GRAPHS AND PICTORIAL ANALYSIS OF CFD
CONTOURS:
The form of representation of area under the action of a particular force, which are
shown in the form of colors representing a significant value. The following are a few
% flow
%
flow
per
pas-
sage,
cu.m Flow coeff
exit total
pressure
(pa)
Pr
rise(pa)
pre .stat-
ic head coeff Cu2
total efficien-
cy
flow angle al-
pha
70 0.25 .0044 118556 17240.2 111481 0.188 -106.23 93.78 37.64
80 0.29 .005 118163 16846.7 111397 .0.183 -103.5 94.9 37.04
90 0.33 .0057 117753 16437.4 111285 0.179 -100.4 95.88 64.70
100 0.36 0.0063 117372 16057.0 111149 0.175 -97.5 96.7 63.53
110 0.40 0.0069 116913 15600 110958 0.17 -94 97.21 56.53
120 0.44 0.0076 116860 15547 111042 0.169 -96.6 97.33 74.57
130 0.47 0.0082 116889 15378 111002 0.167 -95.2 97.62 76.82
78
contour plots representing pressure, velocity and relative velocity at various speeds
of 980, 1450 and 2000 RPM and for various flow rates.

PRESSURE
Total pressure:-

Total pressure for 980 RPM at 70% flow Total pressure at 980 RPM at 100% flow

Total pressure for 980 RPM at 130% flow
79
Relative pressure:-

Rel. pressure for 980 RPM at 70% flow Rel. pressure at 980 RPM at 100% flow


Rel. pressure for 980 RPM at 130% flow
80
Static pressure:-

Ps for 980 RPM at 70% flow Ps for 980 RPM at 100% flow

Ps for 980 RPM at 130% flow
81

Pt at 980 RPM at 100% flow Pt at 1450 RPM at 100% flow


Pt at 2000 RPM at 100% flow

82
VELOCITY
Velocity vectors at 50% span:-

Velocity at 980 RPM at 70% flow Velocity at 980 RPM at 100% flow

Velocity at 980 RPM at 130% flow

83
Velocity at 1450 RPM at 100% flow Velocity at 2000 RPM at 100% flow

MERIDONIAL PLOTS

Contour plot of Pt at 980 RPM at 70% Contour plot of Pt at 980 RPM at 100%


Contour plot of Pt at 980 RPM at 130
84
STREAM LINE PLOT

Vel. stream at 980 RPM at 70% flow Vel. stream at 980 RPM at 100% flow

Vel. stream at 980 RPM at 130% flow

Vel. stream at 1450 RPM at 100% flow Vel. stream at 2000 RPM at 100% flow

85
BLADE LOADING
At 1450 RPM and 70% flow :-
At 1450 RPM and 100% flow :-
At 1450 RPM and 130% flow :-
86
At 980 RPM and 70% flow :-
At 980 RPM and 100% flow :-
87
At 980 RPM and 130% flow :-
At 2000 RPM and 70% flow :-
88
At 2000 RPM and 100% flow :-
At 2000 RPM and 130% flow :-
89
8.5 GRAPHS
PRESSURE RISE VS MASS FLOW
90
TOTAL PRESSURE VS MASS FLOW RATE
91
HEAD COEFFICIENT VS MASS FLOW RATE
92
TOTAL EFFICIENCY VS MASS FLOW
93
SHAFT POWER VS MASS FLOW (AT 980 RPM)
FLOW COEFFICIENT VS HEAD COEFFICIENT
94
9.CONCLUSIONS
A low specific speed centrifugal fan was designed for the given flow and head
conditions. The fan impeller was modelled using ANSYS Turbo Grid and was
analysed using CFX package.
The fan performance was evaluated and studied for different flow
conditions covering design and off-design points of operation and also for different
speeds.
The performance is seen to be following the normal trend for a low specific speed
fan and the flow and head curve shifts upwards with increasing speed.
The impeller efficiency seen to be maximum at the design point and decreasing
at off-design conditions. The efficiency is found to be above 90%, this is because the
windage losses, frictional losses have not been accounted.
The different contour and vector plots as well as the blade loading curve are
included for typical cases of design and off-design conditions.
The pressure rise is seen to increase uniformly along the impeller passage.
10.SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
This work may be extended by varying the number of impeller blades and also
by including the volute casing to get the total fan performance.
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11.REFERENCES
a) Prithvi Raj & Gopala Krishnan Treatise on Turbo Machine

b) Wolfgang Scheer Introduction to Turbo Machinery

c) Balje, O.D. A Contribution to the problem of
Designing Radial Turbo Machines

d) Pfleiderer Die kreisel pumpen
e) Wikipedia.org
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