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According to F.H.

Sanford, Learning is a

relatively enduring change in behaviour brought about as a consequence of experience.


According to T.R. Mitchell, Learning is the

process by which new behaviour are acquired. It is generally agreed that learning involves changing in behaviours, practising new behaviours, and establishing permanency in the change.

Components of

Factors affecting

Learning Process
Drive Cue Stimuli

Learning
Motivation Mental Set

Responses
Reinforcement Retention

Nature of Learning

Extinction
Spontaneous recovery

Materials Practise Environment

Conditioning Theory
Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning states that behaviour is learned by repetitive association between stimulus and a response (S-R association). Ivan Pavlovs Experiment

Operant Conditioning It is based on the work of B.F. Skinner Operant is defined as behaviour that produces effects. Operant conditioning suggests that people emit responses that are rewarded and will not emit responses that are either not rewarded or punished.

Cognitive Learning theory


Cognition refers to an individuals ideas, thoughts,

knowledge, interpretations, and understanding about himself and his environment.


This learning is considered as the outcome of

deliberate thinking about the problem/situation both, intuitively and based upon known facts and responding in goal oriented manner.
Tolmans Experiment

Social Learning Theory


Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from

one another, via observation, imitation, and modelling.


The theory has often been called a bridge between

behaviourist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.
Most human behaviour is learned observationally

through modelling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviours are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.

Reinforcement can be defined as anything that

increases the strength of response and tends to induce repetitions of the behaviour that preceded the reinforcement.
Types of reinforcement Positive Reinforcement
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Primary and Secondary

Negative Reinforcement