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Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Introduction of the topic:


In the field of human resource management, training and development is the field which is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings (Training and Development, n.d.). Training is a educational process. People can learn new information, re-learn and reinforce existing knowledge and skills, and most importantly have time to think and consider what new options can help them improve their effectiveness at work. Effective trainings convey relevant and useful information that inform participants and develop skills and behaviors that can be transferred back to the workplace. (What is Training and Development. n.d.)

Introduction of the Organization:


ACI Limited is one of the leading conglomerates in Bangladesh, established as the subsidiary of Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) in 1968. It has been incorporated as ICI Bangladesh Manufacturers Limited on January 24, 1973. The company was renamed as Advanced Chemical Industries Limited (ACI Limited) on 5 May 1992. ACI is a Public Limited Company with a total number of 19,653 shareholders. Among these, there are three foreign and fifty local institutional shareholders. The company has diversified into three major businesses. They are pharmaceuticals, consumer brands and consumer products and agro business.

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Objectives & Scope:


This project is directly dealing with one of the leading conglomerates company in Bangladesh The Advanced Chemical Industries Limited (ACI Limited) regarding a very crucial topic. This is a very well reputed and well-organized company operating throughout the country which focuses upon being the best key player in the market regarding pharmaceutical and other multi diverse items from its product lines. It has been a great opportunity for us to gain information regarding the training and development affairs of the company towards its employees through our questionnaires. We therefore gained considerable information regarding our topic and hope that this project will actually enhance our own competencies to reach at a maximum and will also motivate us to reach the highest ordinate goal. Therefore besides doing this project, we actually gained a new experience and gave the opportunity to know the company from a closer view and we also learnt about the real corporate world. Through out the project we are introduced about the actual procedure and techniques of the training and development programs that organization arranges for their employees to improve their performance. By conducting the survey we learnt something new and it also reveal some facts regarding the training procedure about that we were not familiar. So, to obtain the information regarding our topic we had build some strategies and objectives of own among all the members so that we can achieve more accurate facts. These objectives are: The main objective of this study is to know the actual procedure of training and development programs insides of the ACI Limited. The importance of training to them and which job or types of jobs needs training most.

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

To know the companys perspective regarding the investment in their employees in term of training and development programs. To learn about the steps in forming the training programs and what conditions they used. The effects of training need assessment and performance development planning in organizing training programs. How training needs are identified and how they select employees for training programs. To know what types of training programs they arrange for their employees and who conducts the programs. To identify the training and development strategy of ACI limited. It is indeed impossible for any organization without keeping the talented and creative employees who keep the organization actually competitive. In order to sustain the competitive advantage organizations have to invest in their human capital to upgrade their skill and knowledge. The only means is training and development which helps to transform an employee from its existing level to a higher one and it bring success in both ways professional and personal. So, we believe that it is every organizations HR departments responsibility to arrange and provide some training and development programs for their employees to utilize their skills and efforts properly. Thus, this has been a great opportunity for us to learn about a very crucial topic of Human Resource Management and we are thankful to our faculty and respondents from ACI Limited for their precious support.

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Methodology:
In order to conduct our research in our desired field, we conducted a survey by means of a self prepared structured and straight forward questionnaire asked these questions from the employee of an organization. For our survey we have chosen a company named ACI Limited and then communicated with its employee. The basic idea behind preparation of the questionnaires was to identify the actual procedure of training and development programs of ACI Limited and how it is important to them and what types of training program they arranges for their employees. Such issues are highlighted by some inquires and their respected findings with regard to the responses of the participants. Apart from dependency on the questionnaires for information, much other information was also obtained from sources such as the internet and books.

Sample size:
For the purpose of this research the sample size chosen was twenty. As the questions were regarding the employee training and development programs, the respondents mainly included people who were part of the managerial level and junior level positions who received number of training from their company for the being of their position.

Type of respondents:
As per the requirements of our research criteria, we have selected respondents who were mainly involved in the managerial and junior levels of the company as they are core participants of such training and development functions. Moreover, we also asked some questions regarding our topic to the management of ACI Limited who arranges training programs for their employees. The respondents were selected on a random manner, free from

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

any sort of gender biasness thus having both male and female participants. The respondents possessed varying levels of educational degrees with high levels of professional expertise.

Data collection method:


For our survey we have collected two types of data. One is primary data and the other is secondary data. We have collected the primary data from the company that we have chosen for our research. For our survey we selected ACI Limited company. This companys employee provided us the primary data for our survey. We have used different types of resources to collect our secondary data. We have used many articles, books, newspaper, magazines and internet resources. The primary source of data collection was the questionnaire itself which has been prepared by us. The population of our survey is the companys employees and then asked them the selected questions to determine the result. Then we select our sample size and mean for the calculation. For our research we have used convenience sampling. In convenience sampling the selected sample is convenient and stable. It is one of the cost effective way for collecting data. These types of data are more reliable than other sources. For our survey we have selected twenty samples from our selected company ACI Limited by using questionnaire form. The survey questionnaires were designed in a way that all the elements that it includes are related with the population of our survey. All the sample variables in our questionnaire are closely related with our population. At the bottom of our questionnaire form we view the intension of our survey to know about the topic and purpose of the survey. In our survey form we avoided that information which can create any problem or disclose any fact. Then we asked some questions to the employees like:

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

For how long have you been working for this company? Have you gone through a training program in our organization? If yes then please do specify the name or the purpose of the training. What type of training is mostly offered by the management? Which is the mostly used training method by the organization? Do your organization have training program for those employee who face trouble to fit into organization culture? Carry out a SWOT analysis of your training environment. In order to get some more information we also designed a questionnaire for the management level also who organizes the training programs and asked some questions like: What is organisation's training Mission Statement Why training is needed? And which job or types of jobs need training most? What are Training &Development objectives? Do your company have training and development strategy aligned with business level strategy? What steps would you take to identify the right training requirements? Or how do you identify who needs training?

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Limitation:
The primary limitation of the report was posed by the time constraint factor. The limitation of the report is that our time is limited. We have to submit this report in this semester. Therefore, we will not be able to cover many things. At the same time, it is very difficult to get appointment from the company officials, as they are very busy. In preparation of this entire report and all the associated tasks with it, we encountered several limitations which created hindrance in the pace of our progress from time to time. Some notable complications that were visible were: The questionnaire survey proved to be a bit troublesome as many members of the management did not adequate time to spare for providing us with all the required information. There were instances where the management provided information that were to some extent biased so as to create a positive thought about the companys operations. Biasness of the answers as we actually cannot expect all the employees to speak and tick the TRUTH. Some employees were not co operative. Lack of sufficient privileges. Time constraint was a major factor as it was limited.

Another fact that came to light was regarding the size of our sample size. That is, if we could manage to gain access to a larger sample size it would have provided us the scope for gaining

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

more accurate information. This analysis had been also left incomplete in a sense as many employees could not spare sufficient time for interview sessions and sincere answers were often missing due to concealed reasons. Hence, the concluding judgments from the research tend to vary from actual perceptions at many instances.

Literature review
In the field of Human Resource Management, training and development is the field which is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including human resource development, and learning and development (Harrison, 2005, p. 5).

Harrison (2005) observed that the name was endlessly debated by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000 (p. 5). "Employee Development" was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or "associates" to be comfortable with. "Human Resource Development" was rejected by academics, who objected to the idea that people were "resources" an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual. Eventually, the CIPD settled upon "Learning and Development", although that was itself not free from problems, "learning" being an over general and ambiguous name. Moreover, the field is still widely known by the other names (Harrison, 2005, p. 5).

Training and development (T&D) encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development. Garavan, Costine, and Heraty, of the Irish Institute of Training and Development, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

interrelated, activities (Montana & Charnov, 2000; Costine & Heraty, 1995). They are

Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds.

Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs.

Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate.

The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources, and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers are specialists in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others (Torrington et al., 2004, p. 363). Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Talent, knowledge, and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior, peer, or customer (Harrison, 2005, p.
5).

Talent development, part of human resource development, is the process of changing an organization, its employees, its stakeholders, and groups of people within it, using planned and unplanned learning, in order to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage for the organization. Rothwell and Kazanas (2004) notes that the name may well be a term in search

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

of a meaning, like so much in management, and suggests that it be thought of as selective attention paid to the top 10% of employees, either by potential or performance (p. 4).

While talent development is reserved for the top management it is becoming increasingly clear that career development is necessary for the retention of any employee, no matter what their level in the company. Research has shown that some type of career path is necessary for job satisfaction and hence job retention. Perhaps organizations need to include this area in their overview of employee satisfaction.

The term talent development is becoming increasingly popular in several organizations, as companies are now moving from the traditional term training and development. Talent development encompasses a variety of components such as training, career development, career management, and organizational development, and training and development. It is expected that during the 21st century more companies will begin to use more integrated terms such as talent development. Washington Group International (2007), in their paper "The Nuclear Renaissance, A Life Cycle Perspective" defined two logical laws of talent development. First law of talent development is "the beginnings of any technology-rich business are all characterized by a shortage of large numbers of technically trained people needed to support ultimate growth" and the second law of talent development is "the resources will come when the business becomes attractive to the best-and brightest who adapt skills to become part of an exciting opportunity".

Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: "training and development". There are also additional services available online for those who wish to receive training above and beyond that which is offered by their employers. Some examples of these services include career counseling, skill assessment, and supportive

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

services (Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development, n.d.). One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job. On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work. Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations, implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas (Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development, n.d.). A more recent development in job training is the On the Job Training Plan or OJT Plan. A proper OJT plan should include an overview of the subjects to be covered, the number of hours the training is expected to take, an estimated completion date, and a method by which the training will be evaluated (United States Department of the Interior, n.d.).

Wexley and Baldwin (1986) criticized the traditional training and development for its lack of accountability. The lack of accountability and rigorous evaluation may be attributable in part to an unfounded belief that training and development is good for the employees and the organization; so let there be training budget and training programmed. This target-based (e.g., a specific number of employees to be trained during a given year) or budget-driven (influenced by the availability of time, energy, and resources) training and development efforts will ultimately lead to the result that training is only a paid perquisite or free time for the employees devoid of daily stressors and distractions of the workplace on the one hand, and a wasteful expenditure for the management on the other. Sackett and Mullen, (1993) suggested a broader perspective on a variety of aspects of training process. The purpose of

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

evaluation is to help organizations make decision about future training activities, and provide tools needed to assess the type of evaluation possible in a given situation, to conduct the most informative evaluation possible given the constraints of the situation, and to communicate to organizational decision makers both the strengths and the limitations of whatever evaluation data is obtained. Lewis and Thornhill (1994) examined the relationship between training evaluation, organizational objectives, and organizational culture. Explicit recognition of organizational objectives linked to an integrated approach to training evaluation will certainly improve the effectiveness of evaluation. The absence of or ineffective practice of training evaluation within so many organizational are directly related to the nature of organizational culture.

Kraiger et. al (1993) Proposed cognitive, skill-based and affective learning outcomes (relevant to training) and recommended potential evaluation measures. They integrated theory and research from a number of diverse disciplines and have provided a multidimensional perspective to learning outcomes and advanced the theory of training evaluation by providing a conceptually based scheme of learning constructs, measurement foci, and measurement techniques.

Yadapadithaya (2001) studied the current practices of evaluating training and development programmes in the Indian corporate sector on the basis of data collected from written questionnaires mailed to 252 respondent companies 127 private, 99 public, and 26 multinational corporations (MNCs). The major findings of his study include the following:

High pressure for increased quality, innovation, and productivity acts as a major driving force for the Indian corporate training and development program.

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Most of the key result areas of training and development function are related to the measurement and evaluation of training effectiveness.

Nearly 86 per cent of the private sector, 81 per cent of the public sector, and all the MNCs evaluate the effectiveness of training in one way or the other.

The major purpose of evaluation is to determine the effectiveness of the various components of a training and development program.

Organizations rely mostly on the participants reactions to monitor the effectiveness of training.

An overwhelming majority of the organizations use questionnaires as an instrument to gather relevant data for evaluation.

In most of the cases, evaluation was done immediately after the training. Majority of the private and public sector organizations use one-shot program design and more than half of the MNCs also use single group, pre-test and post-test design for evaluating the effectiveness of training and development program.

Absence of transfer of learning from the place of training to the workplace has been a major perceived deficiency of the corporate training and development system.

Indian corporate sector is currently facing the challenge of designing and developing more valid, reliable and operational measures to evaluate the effectiveness of training and development.

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Introduction of the topic:


In the field of human resource management, training and development is the field which is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings (Training and Development, n.d.). Training is an educational process. People can learn new information, re-learn and reinforce existing knowledge and skills, and most importantly have time to think and consider what new options can help them improve their effectiveness at work. Effective trainings convey relevant and useful information that inform participants and develop skills and behaviors that can be transferred back to the workplace (What is Training and Development, n.d.). Training and development is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format (Training and development, 2007).

TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT

Traditional Approach Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.

The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results (Training and development, 2007).

Introduction of the Organization:


ACI Limited is one of the leading conglomerates in Bangladesh, established as the subsidiary of Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) in 1968. It has been incorporated as ICI Bangladesh Manufacturers Limited on January 24, 1973. The company was renamed as Advanced Chemical Industries Limited (ACI Limited) on 5 May 1992. ACI is a Public Limited Company with a total number of 19,653 shareholders. Among these, there are three foreign and fifty local institutional shareholders. The company has diversified into three major businesses. They are pharmaceuticals, consumer brands and consumer products and agro business. The company has a large list of international associates and partners with various trade and business agreements. ( ACI Limited,n.d.) ACI's mission is to achieve business excellence through quality by understanding, accepting, meeting and exceeding customer expectations. ACI follows International Standards on Quality Management System to ensure consistent quality of products and services to achieve customer satisfaction. ACI also meets all national regulatory requirements relating to its current businesses and ensures that current Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) as recommended by World Health Organization is followed properly. ACI has been accepted as a Founding Member of the Community of Global Growth Companies by the World Economic Forum which is the most prestigious business networking organization.

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

ACIs vision is to: Endeavor to attain a position of leadership in each category of its businesses. Attain a high level of productivity in all its operations through effective and efficient use of resources, adoption of appropriate technology and alignment with core competencies. Develop its employees by encouraging empowerment and rewarding innovation. Promote an environment for learning and personal growth of its employees. Provide products and services of high and consistent quality, ensuring value for money to its customers. Encourage and assist in the qualitative improvement of the services of its suppliers and distributors. Establish harmonious relationship with the community and promote greater environmental responsibility within its sphere of influence.( ACI Limited,n.d.)

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

SWOT ANALYSIS:
Strengths:
They have well established brand image and diversified products & businesses. They are well thought of by buyers. They have well-conceived functional area strategies (production, marketing, finance). ACI has very friendly environment. They have access to economies of scale. They have advanced technology. They have innovation capabilities and proven & capable management. Trainer and trainee both are very cautious to do their best. They have separate training department which takes care each and every training program very sincerely. They have high skilled trainers and excellent accommodation for the trainees. ACI also offers job related in house training which helps the employees to implement their learning in the job. They also have excellent environment and training materials facilities.

Weaknesses:
ACI has weak market image for few products. They have lack of in-house experienced trainers. They also have lack of trainers of sufficient on-field experience. They have lack of

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

training for new entrants in the organization. In ACI, internal trainer mostly trains. They also need external trainer to bring some variations. The employees are not motivated to do a training program. The trainings take place in holidays. They need to come to office at Fridays and Saturdays which demotivate them. The trainings are helpful for other purposes rather than their scheduled job. As the training programs are long time, they feel boring and they do not pay full attention which leads to ineffective learning. After an employee finishes training, the company does not issue any certificate. They do not have any case studies training.

Opportunity:
ACI is capturing new national and international market. They are expanding product line to meet broader range of customer needs. They have ability to move to better strategic group. They have complacency among rival firms and they have also faster market growth. If an experienced trainer is hired, they can train up a successful team in future. Training programs add value to performance which will help them in the future to do a particular task. Training program help them to gain more knowledge they have opportunity to learn professionalism. They have excellent opportunity to learn new techniques which will help them to do job duties more efficiently.

Threats:
ACI has well established competitors. There are rising sales of competitor products. They have slower market growth for some products. They have growing competitive pressures.

Increased inflation of the economy is a threat for them. They have growing bargaining power of customers or suppliers. Changing needs & tastes of buyers is also a threat for the company.

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

After receiving a valuable training, if an employee moves to the competitors company will be a great threat for the company as it is a very big loss for that company. Job switching possibilities can increase as everyone seeks better opportunity to play big role.

Pestle:

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Porters five forces:

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Data analysis:
Question number: 1 For how long you been working for this company?
Table: 1. Years respondents working in ACI Limited.

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

How long you have been working in ACI LIMITED

Less than 1 year

From 1-5 years

From 5- 10

More then 10 years

DISCRIPTION & ANALYSIS: The graph presents the graphical the number of working years in ACI LIMITED of the respondents of the survey. Seventy- five percentages of the respondents, i.e. fifteen out of twenty respondents have been working in ACI for one to five years. Twenty percentage of the respondent are working for five to ten years. And rest five percentage are working in ACI for less than a year.

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Question number: 2 Have you gone through any training program in your organization? If yes, then name the training program or the purpose of the training.
Figure: 2. Provide training program for employee by ACI

Received Training from Organization


20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Yes No

DISCRIPTION & ANALYSIS: The graph presents the number of employee of ACI among our respondents received formal training from ACI. From the graph it can be said that most of the employee of ACI do receive formal t5raining from the management for enhancing individual as well as work force as a whole performance.

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Figure: 3. Type of training provided by ACI.


20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Name of the Training

Each and every employee of ACI does receive certain type of training. But there is training named Magic charting synergy which is must for every one. When any employee get recruited and selected in ACI this is the very first training he/she gets. And then depending on the work responsibilities and duties the individual get training from the organization. Like two respondents out of twenty were from HR department and this two respondents did attended training for Relationship Management. Employee who faces trouble doing work with Microsoft Office

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Question number: 3. What are the tools used to train employee of ACI?
Figure: 4. Tools use to deliver training program.
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Discussion Lectures Computer based Training Case Studies Business On the job Games training.

Tools use to deliver training.

As in the answer of the previous question it has been mentioned that every employee receive a training name Magic charting synergy that enables them to perform better day to day work in the organization and such training are provided using IT. The management have set the instruction and as well as how to learn from the training for everyone. Employees go through such instruction and learn from those information and instruction manual. And the second most used tool is the one the job training. And in few cases they provides training program through lectures and discussions. They also added tools depend on the type f training as well as the number of trainee need the training.

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Finding problem & solution:

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

Conclusion:
An Employee Training and Development is essential to the ongoing success of every organization. Although technology and the internet have enabled global collaboration and competition, people are the organizations competitive advantage. Employee training and development enables employees to develop skills and competencies necessary to enhance bottom-line results for their organization. Strong team needs individuals who are dedicated to giving their best at work. Highly self-motivated, committed, ambitious employees give the most to their company and get the most from their work. But if you are lacking employee motivation in the work place the effects can be dramatic. Low team morale, lack of initiative, lack of energy, mistakes and high staff turnover are just some of the clues that motivation is an issue. These issues are motivation related but training and an impact on it. If ACI provide proper training and able to change the view of the employee then it will help the management to get the optimal level of performance. People are the key resource in any organization. Everyone in every organization no m a t t e r what the product, service or their position has to achieve results with a n d through the efforts of other people. The main premise is that in order to work effectively

Course: 480, Section: 1, Term Paper: 1, Group: 5

one need to develop insight into what motivates individuals and teams to maximize their performance. Armed with this fresh perspective, you can then manage your interaction w i t h o t h e r s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y w o r k w i t h a s e n s e o f c o m m i t m e n t r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y complying with the minimum needed to get by.