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9.

74

9.11.
.
(, 0
+100 ). (, ) (F, ,
, +32 +212). :
t=5/9(tF-32), tF=9/5(tC+32).
, , , (),
+273, +373.
(0 ), -273 .
, .
, ,
, , , .


. , , .
.
. , , .
, , , , , ,
, .

..

9.

75


( 80 %). 20%
12 G (17 %). ,
(5%, )
(2%, ), .
, , .. ,
78% . , 18 G, 43 % , .
(35%) 00 G,
(40-70 %),
, 10 %.
12G (17
%, ). , ,
(5 %).
. . 1817 .,
.

, , .
.
, , , , .
1.5 (850) , , , .
850.

..

9.

76

9.11.1.

.


=

T
.
z

. , <0 =0.
( a ), ( a ) :
a 0.98 o 100 ,
a 0.66 o 100 .

a = a ,
,
=

P+a
,
P+b

a = 0.623

LE
,
ART

b = 0.623

L dE
.
c p dT

() :
dT AR dP

,
=
T
cp
P

dT
ART 1
=
dP
cp P

a .
=1000 40, 20, 0, -20, -40 a =0.32, 0.44,
0.66, 0.88, 0.98/100 , .
=500 40, 20, 0, -20, -40 a =0.26, 0.34,
0.52, 0.78, 0.95/100 , .
a .

..

9.

77

, ,
.
- > a .
< a . , <0, , ( ), =0 ().
, , , .
, ,
,
.
.
1000 . 100 . , 5-10/100 .

9.11.2.
, :
dT
= 0.
dt

.
.
, .
, .
.
,

..

9.

78

, ,
.
, .
T
T
T
T
T
+u
+v
+w
= 0, =,
t
x
y
z
z
.

, -:
dT T
T
T
T
+u
+v
+
= 0,
=
dt
t
x
y
p

( X, Y, P).
Z
1 P
P
Z
=
,
= g
,
t
g t
t
t
1
P
=

= w g , w =
t
g
w=

T
1 T
1
RT
=
=
,
=
z
g z
g
Pg

:
dT T
T
T
RT
+u
+v

= 0.
=
dt
t
x
y
g P

(9.11.1)


, ( ), , ( ):
dT
dT
dT
= ( )1 ( )a ,
dt
dt
dt

dT
) 0 .
dt a
(

T
) = 0,
x a

T
dT
T
)a = 0 , ( )a = w
= w a
y
dt
z

-:

..

9.

79

dT
T
T dz
1
) a = ( ) a = ( ) a
= a

dt
p
z dp
g
dT
RT

( )a =
a ,
dt
g
P
(

:
dT T
T
T
RT
+u
+v
( a )
=0
=
dt
t
x
y
p g

(9.11.2)


(). () ,
, , () , . =0.

9.11.3.
:
r
r
r
P
P
Tm
(9.11.3)
= k1
+ k 2 Z
,
n
n
n
k 1 =

g m
P2
, k2=
.
Tm
P1

r
P

, ,
n
r
Tm
k 2 Z
,
n
Z = ( Z Z )
r
Tm

, .
n
m Tm , Z . .
, , ,
.

..

9.

80


, .
,
, ,
.
, , .
,
.

500
H 1000
= 6 .74 lg

P1
T = a 1, 2 Tm .
P2 m

X Y:

500
x H 1000 = x ( H p 2 H p1 ) = a 1, 2

H 500 = ( H H ) = a
p1
1, 2
y 1000 y p 2

T
x m
,

T
y m

:
H p 2 H p 1

= a 1, 2

x
x

H p 2 H p 1 = a
1, 2
y
y

T
x m

(9.11.4)

T
y m

(9.11.5)

(9.11.4)

g
, (9.11.5)
l

g
(- ):
l
g

H p 2

g H p 1
g
= a 1, 2
T
x
l x
l x m
,
g H p 2 g H p 1
g
+
= a 1, 2
T
l y
l y
l y m

..

9.

v g1 v g 2 = a 1, 2 l x Tm
.

u u = a g T
g2
1, 2
g1
l y m

81

(9.11.6)

(9.11.7)

a 1, 2

g
T = v T,
l x m

a 1, 2

g
T = u T ,
l y m

v g 2 = v g1 + v T
.

u g 2 = u g1 + u T

VT ( u T , v T ), VT , u T v T : Vg 2 = Vg1 + VT .
, .. VT = Vg 2 Vg1 , .. (. 9.18):

VT

V1

V2

. 9.18.

, ,
, .
, VT
, Vg .

( ) , .. .
,
, .

..

9.

82

( 700 500). 500


( OT1000
).


, .
(. 9.19).

V2
VT

( )

V1

H500
V1
VT
V2

B
( )

H500

( )

. 9.19.

2 (, H 500 )
(, H 500
1000 ).

, , . H 500 ,
( V2 ).
VT H 500
1000 ,
, .
VT ,
( V1 ), 1000 ,.
.
(.. )
.
..

9.

83

, :

( ). . H 500
1000 H 500 .
.
(.. )
.

( ). . H 500
1000

H 500 .
, :

(
), H 500
1000 H 500
( ), H 500
1000 H 500 .
, -, , -, , .
, ( ).

VT = 6.74 lg

P1 g Tm
,
P2 l

, P1 P2 VT

Tm
.

H 500
1000 , 2. VT
( Vg ).
,
..

9.

84

H P12
Tm
,
= a 1, 2
,

2
H 2 H 1 H P1
Tm =
,
=
a 1, 2
a 1, 2

H P12 g H P12
g
VT = a 1, 2
.
=
l
n
l n
,
500
( VT ) 1000
=

500
g H 1000
.
l n

, , , , 1 /=1.

9.11.4.

:
(

T
T
T
T
) = ( ) ( u
+v
) .
t
t
x
y

.
, ,
. , .
:
(

T
T
T
) = ( u
+v
).
t
x
y

, u v u g v g :
(

g H T g H T
T
) = (
),
+
t
l y x l x y
(

g
T
) = ( H, T )
t
l

(. 9.20):
(

g H T
T
T
,
) =
= Vg
t
l n x
x

..

(9.11.8)

9.

T
x
sin =
,
T

85

T T
sin ,
=
x

T
T
) = Vg
sin ,
t

, .. (
).

S(x)
T

T
x

. 9.20.

T
T
) >0 , ( ) <0 .
t
t

T
>0 Vg>0

H
>0),
n

sin .

T
>0 sin >0, .. 0 90

..

9.

86

T
<0 sin <0, .. 0 -90

(. . 20).
=90 sin =0.
=90 sin =0 ( ).
, .

,
.

, . , . .
, ,
. ( )
, .

9.11.5.
, , , , ,
(. 9.21, 9.22).

..

9.

87

a)

b)

. 9.21. ()
(b) 15 2001. (http://ddb.kishou.go.jp/grads.html)

(
) , . , ( 88.3 ),
.
, (-67.8 ), , , - ,
-50 , 77.8 .

(66.1 ). 62.8 .

..

9.

. 9.22. 3 2004.
(http://ddb.kishou.go.jp/grads.html)

..

88

9.

89

, .
20
83 ..,
45-50 ..
, , , , (75 N), (62N)
(56N) (. 9.11.1).

9.11.1.

43

-13.1

18.5

5.0

43

8.4

23.9

15.7

43

6.3

22.6

13.9

75

-12.4

4.7

-7.0

48

2.3

18.3

10.0

56

-10.2

18.1

3.8

62

-43.2

18.7

-10.3

26-28 ,
. , 80 .
, , 30 .. . ,
28 , 32 .

.
.

..

9.

90

80 ..
0. +10 , , . .
. +20 60
.., , ( 18.7
, 38 ).
,
35 , ,
.
. , 25
.. , 40
, () 35 , ( ) 32 . ,
56 , ,
, . ( )
(53 ..) 39 , , 57 .
.
35 , 26 . 40 .
,
27 .
, ,
. ,
. 55
, , . .

..