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A Practical Summer Training Report On

Construction of class A type of school building and 9 unit staff qtrs for kendriya vidyalya at karauli.
In

CENTRAL PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT(CPWD),JAIPUR

Submitted as a Partial fulfillment of the B.Tech program In CIVIL ENGINEERING of Rajasthan Technical University,Kota

SESSION 2012-13
SUBMITTED TO :PROF.(DR.) SUDHIR KUMAR HEAD OF DEPT.CIVIL ENGINEERING B.TECH 4thyear(CIVIL) SUBMITTEDBY :PAWAN KUMAR MEENA ROLL NO.= 09EVVCE033

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

VIVEKANANDA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY(EAST), JAIPUR

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am extremely thankful to Mr. KELASH RAM MEENA(JEN) and all the staff, site managementof CENTRAL PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT(CPWD) For my great knowledgeful practical summer training at the construction site, laboratory, and testing plant site and also at office work formalities. I am greatful to Mr. KELASH RAM MEENA and other staff of CPWD as well as security guards etc. who given the guidance and extend their support during my summer training I am also thankful to all who helped me to complete my training successfully. I am thankful to respected Principal sir Mr. M. Raisinghani, Ms. LatikaDhuria (Head Training & Placement),Mr.(dr.) sudhir kumar (head civil), Mr. NarianMeghnani, Mr. Yuvraaj Singh (Head Training & Placement-CIVIL )and other faculties and staff of college for their support and guidance. I am also thankful to my mother and father who has encouraged from time to time for the same.

PREFACE

Project give an opportunity to implement the principles and knowledge practically. The experience that one gets wonderful because what one studies in books is different from what one fact in the field. A Project helps a student in getting acquainted with the manner in which his knowledge is being practically used and this is normally different from what one has learnt from books. Hence, when one switches from the process of learning to that of implementation his knowledge, he finds an abrupt change. This is exactly why project during the B.Tech. Curriculum becomes all the more important. Imagine large drives used in Site, they are really effective and helpful. Also imagine of we could control different machine and equipment at site or industry by using another device. My training included these basic and some important engineering needs in an industry. This report is detail describe of OVERVIEW OF CENTRAL PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT(CPWD)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S. No. PARTICULARS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Introduction About the Company Intro. About Project and site data materials Authority and responciblities Seafty tranning Site plan Introduction about building Test in Laboratory Reinforcement Work Conclusion

PAGE No. 5 6 7-10 11 12 13 14-17 18-31 32-35 36

INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE COMPANY

ABOUT THE PROJECT-

1. SITE DATA:PROJECT NAME PROJECT LOCATION COMPANY STRUCTRAL CONSULTANT TOTAL AREA TOTAL COST EARTHQUAKE ZONE : - 4000 SQR.FT : - 1.5 CRORES : -IV : KENDRIYA VIDHYALYA KARULI : - AT HINDON CITY KARULI (RAJ) :- CPWD, JAIPUR : - MR. KELASH RAM MEENA (J.E)

TYPE OF FOUNDATION: - RAFT FOUNDATION 60cm (16 mm steel bar provided)

CONCRETE GRADE: - .There are used READY MIX CONCRETE (RMC) .

P.C.C FOUNDATION SLAB COLUMN BEAM

:- M10 : - M30 : - M3O : - M40 : - M30

RETAINING WALL : - M25

2 .MATERIALS:STEEL REINFORCEMENT BARS:There are different types of steel reinforcement bars are used as like 12mm to 25mm different for beam and column and slab according to load bearing capacity

The steel reinforcement bars are used HYSD Fe-500 TMT of SAIL STEEL company.

CEMENT:-

Portland cement is composed of calcium silicates and aluminates and aluminoferrite It is obtained by blending predetermined proportions limestone clay and other minerals in small quantities which is pulverized and heated at high temperature around 1500 deg centigrade to produce clinker. The clinker is then ground with small quantities of gypsum to produce a fine powder called Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). When mixed with water, sand and stone, it combines slowly with the water to form a hard mass called concrete. Cement is a hygroscopic material meaning that it absorbs moisture In presence of moisture it undergoes chemical reaction termed as hydration. Therefore cement remains in good condition as long as it does not come in contact with moisture. If cement is more than three months old then it should be tested for its strength before being taken into use. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has classified OPC in three different grades The classification is mainly based on the compressive strength of cement-sand mortar cubes of face area 50 cm2 composed of 1 part of cement to 3 parts of standard sand by weight with a water-cement ratio arrived at by a specified procedure. The grades are (i) 33 grade (ii) 43 grade (iii) 53 grade The grade number indicates the minimum compressive strength of cement sand mortar in N/mm2 at 28 days, as tested by above mentioned procedure. Only Portland pozololona cement complying with the requirements of IS 1489 shall be used otherwise as mentioned in the work. The cement shall be obtained directly from the manufacturers by the owner and issued to contractor.

The cement shall be delivered to the site in the thoroughly dry condition in sealed bags. The cement shall be unloaded under cover by the contractor at his cost and shall be stored in the perfectly water tight and well ventilated godown accommodating sufficient cement at any time to ensure continuity of work. The flooring of the godown shall be raised not less than 150mm from the surrounding ground. Each consignment shall be recorded by the contractor and stacked separately there in to permit easy access for inspection. The cement shall be utilized from the store in the same order in which it is received at the site. The cement temporarily stacked for day to day work near the concrete mixers adjacent to actual place of pour shall also be adequately protected with tarpaulin over a raised platform and to the satisfaction of the owner.

The cement is used of 53 grade of J.K SUPER company.

BRICKS:-

The bricks are used of first class.

ADMIXTURES:The admixture is used of SIKA COMPANY.

WATER:- Drinking water is used. Water is used which has pH 6.5 to 8.0.

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3.AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBLITIES :-

SITE ENGINEER:-

To perform all site related activities in accordance with guideline provided project manager.

SUPERVISORS:-

To supervise and carry out the entire site related construction activities as per the instruction given by the project manager and site engineer.

CLIENT:-

Client is the authority witch regular check the quality of construction and takes the samples of material which are used.

SAFETY ENGINEER:-

Which gives the instruction to all the workers and engineers from physical safety point of view.

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Safety Training
In safety training safety instructor tell us of use of safety equipment at construction site. CUSTOM HARD HATS SAFETY VESTS WORK GLOVES

FALL PROTECTION SAFETY GLASSES

SAFETY SHOES

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SITE PLAN

Some important points which are important to us:-

1. Boundary of plot.

2. Shape of size :( as square, triangular, rectangular).

3. Exterior house dimension.

4. Set back leave and front back leave.

5. Name and width of existing street.

6. Elevation of center line.

7. Elevation of corners of plot.

8. No of plots, block and name of adjusting property.

9. Direction of traveling winds and north direction.

10. Generally we take the north direction because the pole star are existing in the north direction.

11. Size and location detail of gas line underground draining water main, ventilating pipes.

12. Location of fire hydrain should be mark.

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5. INTRODUCTION ABOUT BUILDING:-

CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDING

1. According to their occupancy. 2. According to type of construction.

ACCORDING TO THEIR OCCUPANCY

According to N.B.C of India 1970, Buildings are classified as:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS. EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS. INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS. ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS. BUSINISS BUILDINGS. MERCENTILE BUILDINGS. INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS. STORAGE BUILDINGS. HAZARDEOUS BUILDINGS.

1) GROUP A: RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

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These are those buildings in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking or dining or both facilities. It is further sub divided into 5 groups viz A-1 to A-5.

2) GROUP B: EDUCTIONAL BUILDINGS

All those buildings, which are meant for education room, a Nursery schools to University for more than 8 hours per week. These buildings provide facilities like classrooms, staff cabins, laboratories, administrative blocks, library, and play fields.

3) GROUP C: INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS

These Groups include any buildings or part there of, which is used for the purposes such as medical, health, recovering health after illness, care of infant or aged persons etc. These buildings normally provide sleeping accommodation for the occupants. These buildings are further subdivided into three groups viz C-1 Hospitals and Sanitories; C-2 Custodians Institutes (example:- Homes for aged) and C-3: Panel institution (example:- Jails, Mental hospitals etc)

4) GROUP D: ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS

These include any building or part of building where group of people gather for amusements, recreations, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel & similar purposes.

Ex- Theaters, assembly halls, auditoriums, museums, restaurant, places of worship, clubs, aero drums etc. Buildings under these groups are further subdivided into three groups i.e. D-1 to D-5 in descending order of accommodation and facilities.

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5) GROUP E: BUSINESS BUILDINGS

These include any building or part of building, which is used for the transaction of business, for keeping accounts, doctors & barber shop, beauty parlors etc.

6) GROUP F: MERCANTILE BUILDINGS

These groups include any building or part of buildings, which is used for shops, stores, markets for sale and display of products for wholesale or retail.

7) GROUP G: INSDUSTRIAL BUILDING

This group includes any building or part of a building or structure in which products of different kinds and properties are fabricated and assembled or processed. For example assembly plants, power plants laboratories, gas plants, refineries, dairies etc.

8) GROUP H: STORAGE BUILDING

This group includes those buildings, which are primarily used for storage of goods, wares, (not highly combustible), warehouses, cold storages, garages etc.

9) GROUP I: HAZARDOUS BUILDING

This group includes those building structures which are used for storage, handling, and manufacture or processing of materials which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and prove hazardous to health, building contents. Ex- buildings used for storage of highly flammable liquids or explosives etc. included in this groups.

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ACCORDING TO TYPE OF CONSTRUCTIONS

1) LOAD BEARING STRUCTURES

In this system the load bearing walls of stone or brick are constructed on a continuous foundation and they are designed to support the entire load including their own load. Hence in this type of structures, the beams, trusses etc are always made to rest on lode bearing walls.

2) FRAMED STRUCTURES

In this system the numbers of piers or columns are erected on their own independent foundations and they are braced together by beams and slabs. In this way the whole structure is erected and the gaps between the piers or columns are filled with partition walls. The function of partition walls is simply to support their own weight and to serve as a screen for privacy. The entire load of structure is carried out by the frame.

3) COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

This structure is combinations of load bearing structure. In this type, the order wall consists of bearing wall. Where as the frame of columns and beams consist with one end on bearing walls and other end on inner columns with thin partitions between the bearing walls.

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TESTS IN LABORATORY
Introduction of Concrete testing lab1. Compression Testing Machine(CTM) 2. Flexural Test of Concrete for Beam 3. Soundness Test of Cement(Expansion of Cement, Le Chatteres Principal) 4. Aggregate Abrasion Test 5. Workability or Slump test on Concrete 6. Air Content Test on Concrete 7. Flakielongation Test 8. Sieve analysis of coarse aggregate 9. Sieve analysis of fine aggregate 10. Sand present in aggregate

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CONCRETE TESTING LAB Experiment-1 Compression Testing Machine USE- Compressive strength test on concrete remove before 24hrs. Whenever cube is coated. NOTE:- Load in UTM=140 Kg/cm2. Size of Cube Mould=15x15x15 cm. PROCEDURE1. Remove the specimen from curing tank. 2. Place the specimen in Compression Testing Machine (CTM), Capacity3000KN. 3. Place the cube so that caste face shall not be at top or bottom. 4. In case so that cast face shall not be capped using Sulphur Capping. Sulphur Capping is for the finishing of cube layer. 5. Align the axis of specimen with center of thrust of spherically seated platen 6. Apply the load till specimen break or crack. 7. Record the max load applied. 8. Calculate compressive strength. Compressive Strength = Load/Area. Unit-N/mm2 Note- Taping bar is used for cube is 25 times and 35 times. TAPING BAR- 16mm Diameter & 700mm Long

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CONCRETE TESTING LAB Experiment-2 Flexural Test of Concrete for Beam 1. Specimen shall be 700x150x150mm concrete beam. 2. Specimen shall be cured by submerging in clean water upto time of testing. 3. Bearing surface of the supporting and loading rollers shall be wiped clean, any loose sand or other material removed from surface of specimen. 4. The specimen shall be wiped clean, any loose sand or other material removed from the surface of specimen. 5. The specimen shall then be placed in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to uppermost surface as caste in mould, along two lines spaced 200mm apart. The axis of specimen shall be carefully aligned with axis of loading device. 6. The fiber stresses increases at application 7Kg/sq./min that is at the rate of loading 4KN/min for the 150 mm specimen. 7. The load shall be increased until the specimen fails, and the maximum load applied during the test. The flexural strength of specimen shall be expressed as modulus of rupture fb. fb= Pl/bd2 P=Load (N), l=Length of specimen (mm), b=width of specimen (mm), d=depth of specimen (mm).

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CONCRETE TESTING LAB Experiment-3 Soundness test of Cement (Expansion of cement) Initial reading Final reading

(Specific Gravity of Cement)Le-Chatelier flask-Standard Le-Chatelier flask conforming to IS 4301, shall be used. Analytical balance-Electronic balance of accuracy ( 0.1g) shall be used. Procedure1. Kerosene, free of water having a specific gravity not less than 0.731 shall be used in specific gravity determination. 2. The flask shall be filled with kerosene to a point on the stem between the 0 and 1-ml mark. 3. Inside the flask above the level of the liquid shall be dried. 4. First reading shall be recorded. 5. A weighted quantity of cement (about 65g for Portland cement) shall then be introduced in small amount at the same temp. as the liquid. 6. Care shall be taken to avoid splashing and has been introduced, the stopper has been introduced.

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7. The stopper shall be placed in the flask and the flask rolled in inclined position or gently whirled in the horizontal circle, so as to free the cement from air until no further air bubbles rise to surface of the liquid. 8. If proper amount of cement has been added the level of liquid will be in its final position at some point of upper series of graduations. 9. The final reading shall be taken. 10.The flask shall be kept in constant temperature room for sufficient interval before making either of the reading so as to avoid variation greater than 0.2C in temperature of the liquid in the flask. 11.The difference between the first and final reading represent the volume of liquid displace by the mass of cement used in test. The Specific Gravity shall be calculated asMass of cement in (gms) = -------------------------------Displaced volume in cm3

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CONCRETE TESTING LAB Experiment-4 Workability/Slump test on cement

1. Collect the sample onnon absorbent metal plate or tray and mix it thoroughly. 2. Clean the internal surface of cone slump. 3. Fix the cone firmly to its base plate with help of clamping screw and place it at horizontal surface. 4. Fill the mould with concrete sample in four layers each layer approximately cone height. 5. Compact each layer with 25 strokes by tamping rod. 6. Release the clamping screw and lift the cone slowly and carefully in vertical direction from the concrete. 7. Place the cone inverted at the side of concrete. 8. Measure the difference of height between top of cone top of plastic concrete. 9. Record the value as slump of concrete in mm.

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CONCRETE TESTING LAB Experiment-5 Air Content test on Concrete

1. Collect the sample on nonabsorbent metal plate and mix it thoroughly. 2. Fill the container in three equal layers and compact each layer with 25 strokes by tamping rod. 3. Close main air valve of air receive of top LID open both the pet clocks of top LID. 4. Place LID on container and close the four toggle clamp. 5. Pour water into funnel until water comes out of petcock. 6. Close both the petcock and air bleeder valve. 7. Gently pump air into receiver until gauge needle comes in line marked on gauge.

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8. Top gauge gently and open main air valve. 9. Allow the needle to come to rest and take the reading. 10.Report this reading is present of air entered in concrete.

CONCRETE TESTING LAB Experiment-6 Aggregate Abrasion Test

The test sample shall consist of clean aggregate which has been dried in an oven at 105C to 110C to substantially constant weight and shall confirm to one of the grading shown.

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Table: 1- Grading of test sample Sieve Size (Square Hole) Weight in gm. Of Test Sample for Grade B 2500 2500 C 2500 2500 D 5000 E 2500* 2500* 5000* F 5000* 5000 G 5000 5000* -

Passing Retained on 80 63 63 50 50 40 40 25 25 20 20 12.5 12.5 10 10 6.3 6.3 4.75 4.75 2.36

A 1250 1250 1250 1250 -

Table: 2- No. of Abrasive Charges Grading A B C D E F G No. of Spheres 12 11 8 6 12 12 12 Wt. of Charges gms. 500025 458425 333020 250015 500025 500025 500025

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For grading A,B,C,D the machine shall be rotated for 500 revolution. For grading E,F,G it revolve 100 revolutions. After completion test the machine shall be discharge and sample passes through 1.10 mm sieve. The finger portion shall than be sieved on a 1.70mm IS sieve sample. The ratio of the weight of fine formed the total sample weight is expressed in % for each test. Aggregate Abrasion Value = (B/A)*100 B = Weight fraction 1.7mm IS Sieve. A = Weight of oven dried sample.

CONCRETE TESTING LAB Experiment-7

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Flakieness of Aggregate Test

1. Take aggregate sample, so that minimum no. of 200 pieces of each fraction is available. 2. 40 mm down aggregate-50Kg. 20 mm down aggregate-20Kg. 3. Sieve the sample on IS sieve 40, 31.5, 25, 20, 16, 12.5, 10, 6.3 mm. 4. Calculate % retain on each sieve. 5. Count aggregate retain on each sieve as (Ni). 6. Gauge each fraction for thickness on the standard metal thickness gauge. 7. Aggregate passing the gauge for each fraction shall be separately counted (N1i).

Calculate Flakiness index (F.I.) = ( N1i / Ni)*C3i (%)

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CONCRETE TESTING LAB Experiment-8 Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregate 1. Prepare sample using sample divider for different of aggregate as per table belowMax. Size of Aggregate(mm) 40 20 10 Min. Wt. of Sample(Kg.) 50 25 6 Min. Wt. of Sieve Analysis(Kg.) 20 12 3

2. Make the sample dry by heating at 100 to 110C. 3. Take the weight of sample and sieve it successfully on following sieve50mm, 40mm, 20mm, 10mm, and 4.75mm. 4. Shake each sieve separately until not more than a trace passes but not less than 2 min. 5. Take weight of material retained on each sieve. 6. Calculate % retained, and cumulative % retained on each sieve. 7. Calculate corresponding % passing. %retained = (Wt. of retained on sieve/Total Wt. of sample)*100

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CONCRETE TESTING LAB Experiment-9 Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate 1. Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate Max. Size of aggregate(mm) 10 4.75 Following using Sieve4.75mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600micron, 300micron, 150micron. 2. Make the sample dry by heating at 100 to 110C. 3. Take the weight of sample and sieve it successfully on following sieve50mm, 40mm, 20mm, 10mm, and 4.75mm. 4. Shake each sieve separately until not more than a trace passes but not less than 2 min. 5. Take weight of material retained on each sieve. 6. Calculate % retained, and cumulative % retained on each sieve. 7. Calculate corresponding % passing. %retained = (Wt. of retained on sieve/Total Wt. of sample)*100 Min. Wt. of Sample(Kg) 6 3 Min. Wt. of Sieve Analysis(Kg) 3 1

NOTE: - Sieve shaker with 20 & 45 cm. frame.

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Reinforcement Work

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Material- HYSD bar and TMT bar Fe 500 to IS 1786. In Fe 500 steel elongation not more than 14.5% ultimate tensile strength of bar 15% more than actual 0.2% proof stress/yield stress. Storage-Reinforcement steel shall not keep direct contact with ground; it is kept on timber sleepers or concrete pedestal. Bending of Reinforcement-The reinforcement bar shall be cold bent at appropriate radius of minimum 6D using Bar Bending Machine with proper mandrill. Load shall be applied gradually on bar. Lying of Reinforcement- The bars are placed as according to reinforcement diagram. Chair/ Spacer made up of reinforcement steel bar shall be provided to keep the bars in position. The radius of bent is less than 6 times the diameter for HYSD TMT bars. Reinforcement shall be tied with each other 16 gauge where the spacing of re-bars is greater than 300mm both ways. If spacing of the bars is less than 300mm, only alternate joint shall be tied both ways. Spacing- R* 36 mm bar is used for reinforcement of grade Fe 500in construction of Reactor Building.

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Q. Why we use Fe 500 bar, not use Fe 415 bar in construction of Reactor Building? Ans. Because the strength of Fe500 is more than Fe 415 bar.

Types of Bars used in construction of Reactor Building:S.No.


1.

Name of Bar
Straight Bar

Diameter of Bar
8mm

Shape of Bar

Type of Bar
TMT Fe 500

2.

Straight Bar

10mm

TMT Fe 500

3.

Straight Bar

18mm

TMT Fe 500

4.

Straight Bar

20mm

TMT Fe 500

5.

Straight Bar

32mm

TMT Fe 500

6.

Straight Bar

36mm

TMT Fe 500

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7.

Chair Bar

36mm

TMT Fe 500

8.

Lap Bar

36mm

TMT Fe 500

9.

Radial Bar

32mm

TMT Fe 500

Bending of Bars-

Stirrup and Links used in bars-

Tying of Reinforcement-

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CONCLUSION
On concluding the training report , I would like to say that I got a good overview of central public works department (cpwd). I learn about the practical knowledge at site. I learnt about many instrument at the site. I think this training will come good in future use. Apart from my area of project I also got an idea that How to do work at construction site, which is important in my future.

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