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REPORT ON SUMMER TRANING AT ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION IN RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER STATION, RAWATBHATA

SESSION-(2012-2013)

Department of Electrical Engineering


BALDEV RAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, JAIPUR

SUBMITTED TO: MOHIT KHAROL BMIT COLLEGE, JAIPUR

SUBMITTED BY: RAKESH KUMAWAT B.TECH, 4th YR. (7th SEM.), EE

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PREFACE
I Rakesh Kumawat student of fourth year of Electrical Engineering have completed practical training at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) for 30 days from 21/05/12 to 19/06/12. Being an engineering student, the training at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) has been particularly beneficial for me. I saw various procedures, processes and equipments used in production of electricity by nuclear power, which were studied in books, and thus helped me in understanding of power generation and distribution concepts of electrical power. Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, a constituent of board of Nuclear Power Corporation Of India Limited is a very large plant & is very difficult to acquire complete knowledge about it in a short span. I have tried to get acquainted with overall plant functioning and main concepts involved therein.

RAKESH KUMAWAT Electrical Engineering B.M.I.T.,JAIPUR.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am highly indebted and owe a sense of gratitude towards Mr.R.K.Sharma Training Superintendent for giving me opportunity to impart training at Nuclear Training Centre of RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER STATION under the guidance of eminent professionals. It was highly educative and interactive to take training at such a prestigious organization. My sincere gratitude and thanks to Mr. R.C. Purohit , Senior Training Officer and Training Co-ordinator, for providing me opportunity to complete my training work at NTC. I am also thankful to all those who helped me directly or indirectly through their invaluable guidance and inspiration for successful completion of this training. RAKESH KUMAWAT B.M.I.T.,JAIPUR.

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TABLE OF CHAPTER

S. NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

CHAPTER Introduction Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Nuclear Reactor Technology Indian Nuclear Power Cataloging of Nuclear Reactors Radioactive Waste Management Safety RAPPCOF Fire Section Environmental survey laboratory Future of the Industry View of different stations Conclusion

PAGE NO. 5 6 7 21 23 28 30 33 35 36 37 37 40

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INTRODUCTION
Nuclear power is any nuclear technology designed to extract usable energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear reactions. The only method in use today is through nuclear fission, though other methods might one day include nuclear fusion and radioactive decay . All reactors heat water to produce steam, which is then converted into mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity . In 2007, 14% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power. More than 150 nuclear-powered naval vessels have been built, and a few radioisotope rockets have been produced. A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb, in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an explosion. The most significant use of nuclear reactors is as an energy source for the generation of electrical power and for the power in some ships .. This is usually accomplished by methods that involve using heat from the nuclear reaction to power steam turbines.

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RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER STATION

UNIT-1&2

Fig.-1

Unit-3&4

Rawatbhata remote town in Chittorgarh district about 64 KMs, from Kota, an industrial city of Rajasthan. The land selected is in between Rana Pratap Sagar
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Dam &Gandhi Sagar Dam at the right bank of Chambal River. The water from the reservoir of the Rana Pratap Sagar Dam serves the requirements of the Nuclear Power Plants. There are four PHWR units of 100,200,220 MWe and two units of 235 MW newly constructed which feed the Northern Grid as abase load station. . For employees various colonies are constructed with all the domestic facilities.

NUCLEAR REACTOR TECHNOLOGY


Just as many conventional thermal power stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels, nuclear power plants convert the energy released from the nucleus of an atom, typically via nuclear fission. When a relatively large fissile atomic nucleus (usually uranium-235 or plutonium-239) absorbs a neutron, a fission of the atom often results. Fission splits the atom into two or more smaller nuclei with kinetic energy (known as fission products) and also releases gamma radiation and free neutrons. A portion of these neutrons may later be absorbed by other fissile atoms and create more fissions, which release more neutrons, and so on. This nuclear chain reaction can be controlled by using neutron poisons and neutron moderators to change the portion of neutrons that will go on to cause more fissions. Nuclear reactors generally have automatic and manual systems to shut the fission reaction down if unsafe conditions are detected. A cooling system removes heat from the reactor core and transports it to another area of the plant, where the thermal energy can be harnessed to produce
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electricity or to do other useful work. Typically the hot coolant will be used as a heat source for a boiler, and the pressurized steam from that boiler will power one or more steam turbine driven electrical generators. There are many different reactor designs, utilizing different fuels and coolants and incorporating different control schemes. Some of these designs have been engineered to meet a specific need. Reactors for nuclear submarines and large naval ships, for example, commonly use highly enriched uranium as a fuel. This fuel choice increases the reactor's power density and extends the usable life of the nuclear fuel load, but is more expensive and a greater risk to nuclear proliferation than some of the other nuclear fuels. A number of new designs for nuclear power generation, collectively known as the Generation IV reactors, are the subject of active research and may be used for practical power generation in the future. Many of these new designs specifically attempt to make fission reactors cleaner, safer and less of a risk to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Fusion reactors, which may be viable in the future, diminish or eliminate many of the risks associated with nuclear fission

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NULLEAR FISSION PROCESS

A complete chain reaction of nuclear fission is as shown in fig. cause more fissions. In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium which reduces the velocity of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235. Commonly used moderators include regular (light) water (75% of the world's reactors), solid graphite (20% of reactors) and heavy water (5% of reactors). Beryllium has also been used in some experimental types, and hydrocarbons have been suggested as another possibility. Increasing or decreasing the rate of fission will also increase or decrease the energy output of the reactor.
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CALANDRIA
It is the heart of reactor and contains fuel and moderator; it is made of Austenitic Stainless Steel. It contains 306 horizontal calandria tubes made form Nickel- free- Zically-2. It also contains a special tube, which has 12 fuel bundles making a total of 3672 fuel bundles. It also has 6 openings at the top through which pass the reactivity control mechanism assemblies. In the middle it has piping connection for moderator outlet & inlet. The entire assembly is supported from calandria vault roof. Heat Generation The reactor core generates heat in a number of ways:

The kinetic energy of fission products is converted to thermal energy when these Some of the gamma rays produced during fission are absorbed by the reactor in the form of heat.

Heat produced by the radioactive decay of fission products and materials that have been activated by neutron absorption. This decay heat source will remain for some time even after the reactor is shutdown.

The heat power generated by the nuclear reaction is 1,000,000 times that of the equal mass of coal.

TURBINE
Turbine is tandem compound machine directly coupled to electrical generator. A turbine generally consists of low- pressure cylinder (double flow for 500 MW units).

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Turbine has a maximum continuous & economic rating of 229MW. Turbine is the horizontal tandem compound re-heating impulse type running at 3000RPM with special provision for the extraction of moisture. A steam turbine converts heat energy of steam into mechanical energy and drives the generator. It uses the principle that the steam when issuing from a small opening attains a high velocity. This velocity attained during expansion depends on the initial and final heat content of steam. The difference between initial & final heat content represents the heat energy converted into mechanical energy.

STEAM GENERATORS
The boiler assemblies contain 10-u shaped shell & tube heat exchangers , connected in parallel. The hot coolant inlet channel and returning cold-water channel are welded, the shell material is carbon steel & tube material is Monel. Each heat exchangers has 195 tubes approximately 42 ft. long 4.5 dia. 049 thou thick the design pressure on the heavy water side of the boiler is 1350 psig at 5700 f.

COOLING
A cooling source - often water but sometimes a liquid metal - is circulated past the reactor core to absorb the heat that it generates. The heat is carried away from the reactor and is then used to generate steam. Most reactor systems employ a cooling system that is physically separate from the water that will be boiled to produce pressurized steam for the turbines, like the pressurized water reactor. But in some reactors the water for the steam turbines is boiled directly by the reactor core, for example the boiling water reactor.

FUEL
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The use of natural uranium dioxide fuel with its it s low content of fissile material (0.72% u-235) precludes the Possibility of a reactivity accident during fuel handling or storage. Also, in the core there would no significant Increase in the reactivity, in the ever of any mishaps causing redistribution of the fuel by lattice distortion or otherwise. The thermal characteristics namely the low thermal conductivity and high specific heat oh UO2, permit almost all the heat generated in a fast power transient to be initially absorbed in the fuel. Furthermore, high melting point of UO2 permits several full power seconds of heat to be safely absorbed that contained at normal power. Most of the fission products remain bound in the UO2 matrix and may get released slowly only at temperatures considerably higher than the normal operating temperatures. Also on the account of the uranium dioxide being chemically inert to the water coolant medium, the defected fuel releases limited amount of radioactivity to the primary coolant system.

The use of 12 short length fuel bundles per channels in a PHWR, rather than full- length elements covering the whole length of the core, subdivides the escapable radioactive facility in PHWR has also the singular advantage of allowing the defected fuel to be replaced by fresh fuel at any time. The thin zircoloy-2/4 cladding used in fuel elements is designed to collapse under coolant pressure on to the pellets. This feature permits high pelletclad gap conductance resulting in lower fuel temperature and consequently lower fission gas release from the UO2 matrix into pellet- clad gap.

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FUEL DESIGN
Fuel assemblies in the reactor are short length (half meter long) fuel bundles. Twelve of such bundles are located in each fuel channel. The basic fuel material is in the form of natural uranium dioxide a pellet, sheathed & sealed

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in thin Zircaloy tubes. Welding them to end plates to form fuel bundles assembles these tubes.

FUEL HANDLING
On power fuelling is a feature of all PHWRs, which have very low excess reactivity. In this type of reactor, refueling to compensate for fuel depletion& for over all flux shaping to give optimum power distribution is carried out with help of 2 fueling machines, which work in conjunction with each other on the opposite ends of a channel. One of the machines is used to fuel the channel while the other one accepts the fuel bundles. In addition, the fueling machines facilitate removal of failed fuel bundles. Each fueling machine is mounted on a bridge & column assembly. Various mechanisms provided along tri-directional movement (X, Y&Z Direction) of fueling machine head and make it mechanisms have been provided which enables clamping of fueling machine head to the end fitting, opening & closing of the respective seal plugs, shield plugs & perform various fuelling operations i.e. receiving new fuel in the magazine from fuel transfer system, sending spent fuel From magazine to shuttle transfer station, from shuttle transfer station to inspection bay & from inspection bay to Spent fuel storage bay.

MODERATOR SYSTEM
The heavy water moderator is circulated through the calandria by aid of a low temperature & low- pressure moderator system. This system circulates the moderator through two heat exchanges, which remove heat dissipated by
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high- energy neutrons during the process of moderation. The cooled moderator is returned to the calandria via. Moderator inlet nozzles. The high chemical purity and low radioactivity level of the moderators are maintained through moderator purification system. The purification systems consists of stainless steel ion exchange hoppers, eight numbers in 220MW contains nuclear grade, mixed ion- exchange Resin (80% anion &20% cat ion resins). The purification is also utilized for removable of chemical shim, boron to affect start- up of reactor helium is used as a cover- gas over the heavy water in calandria. The concentration deuterium in this cover gas is control led by circulating it using a sealed blower and passing through the recombination containing catalyst alumina- coated with 0.3% palladium.

Primary Heat Transport (PHT) System

Primary Heat Transport (PHT) System The system, which circulates pressurized coolant through the fuel channels to remove the heat generated in fuel, referred as Primary Heat Transport System. The major components of this system are the reactor fuel channels, feeders, two inlet headers, two reactor outlet headers, four pumps &

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interconnecting pipe & valves. The headers steam generators & pumps are located above the reactor and are arranged in two symmetrical banks at either end of the reactor. The headers are connected to fuel channels through individual feeder pipes. Figure 6 depicts schematically the relative layout of major equipment in one bank of the PHT system. The coolant circulation is mentioned at all times during reactor operation, shutdown& maintenance.

REACTIVITY CONTROL
The power output of the reactor is controlled by controlling how many neutrons are able to create more fissions. Control rods that are made of a nuclear poison are used to absorb neutrons. Absorbing more neutrons in a control rod means that there are fewer neutrons available to cause fission, so pushing the control rod deeper into the reactor will reduce its power output, and extracting the control rod will increase it. In some reactors, the coolant also acts as a neutron moderator. A moderator increases the power of the reactor by causing the fast neutrons that are released from fission to lose energy and become thermal neutrons. Thermal neutrons are more likely than fast neutrons to cause fission, so more neutron moderation means more power output from the reactors. If the coolant is a moderator, then temperature changes can affect the density of the coolant/moderator and therefore change power output. A higher temperature coolant would be less dense, and therefore a less effective moderator. In other reactors the coolant acts as a poison by absorbing neutrons in the same way that the control rods do. In these reactors power output can be increased by heating the coolant, which makes it a less dense poison. Nuclear reactors generally have automatic and manual systems to insert large amounts of poison

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(boron) into the reactor to shut the fission reaction down if unsafe conditions are detected.

ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION


The energy released in the fission process generates heat, some of which can be converted into usable energy. A common method of harnessing this thermal energy is to use it to boil water to produce pressurized steam which will then drive a steam turbine that generates electricity.

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REACTOR
The reactor is used to convert nuclear energy into heat. While a reactor could be one in which heat is produced by fusion or radioactive decay.

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INDIAN NUCLEAR POWER


The Headquarters of Indian Nuclear Power Projects are located at Mumbai known as the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) which covers all the aspects of R&D and power production. It is at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre where all the research works regarding the new technologies and nuclear science. Other than the power production plants there are various other institutions that come under DAE like, Nuclear Fuel Compels (NFC) at Hyderabad, Mines at Jadugura, and Centre for Advance Technology, Indore etc. The first nuclear power plant was constructed at Tarapur in 1969. It was a Boiling Water Reactor. The purpose of this reactor was to give the ground for development of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). The two units setup on turnkey basis by G.E., America is still working successfully.

The list of proposed sites for (PHWR) in India-

KAPP3&4 RAPP7&8 Jetpur(Maharastra)

740X2 740X2 740X2

The list of various Nuclear Power Plants in India is as follows:-

Station

Rated Capacity (MW)

Year of Criticality

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TAPS-1&2 RAPS-1 RAPS-2 RAPS-3 RAPS-4 RAPS-5 RAPS-6 MAPS-1 MAPS-2 NAPS-1 NAPS-2 KAPP-1 KAPP-2 KAIGA-1 KAIGA-2 KAIGA-3 KAIGA-4 TAPS-3 TAPP-4 MADRAS Kk project 1 Kk project 2

2 x 160 100 200 235 235 235 235 220 220 220 220 220 220 235 235 235 235 540 540 500 1000 1000

1969 1972 (S/D) 1980 1999 2000 Project under construction Project under construction 1983 1985 1989 1991 1992 1993 1996 1996 Project under construction Project under construction 2006 2005 F/B reactor Project under construction Light water reactor under construction Light water reactor under construction

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CATALOGING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS


CLASSIFICATION OF REACTOR ON BASIS OF NEUTRON ENERGY: Each fission process produces 2.5 new neutrons and, at least one of these must produce a further fission for a chain reaction to be maintained. So for every 100 neutrons, produced in one neutron generation, at least 40 must cause further fissions so as to produce 40 x 2.5 or 100 neutrons in the next generation. Now the neutrons produced at fission are fast neutrons with an average energy of 2 MeV. If the fissions occur in natural uranium fuel, 99.3% of the nuclei are U238 is solitary responsible for the fission with neutrons having energies greater than 1.2 MeV, therefore only half the fission neutrons can cause U-238 fissions. So out of the 100 neutrons produced at fission, only 50 can cause U-238 fissions. The inelastic scattering cross-section of U-238 is 10 times greater than the fission cross-section at these neutron energies. So, out of these 50 neutrons 5 will be able to cause fission and remaining 45 will be scattered and lose so much energy that they can no longer cause U-238 fission. The fast fission cross section in U-235 is only 1.44 barns and U-235 fast fissions can be ignored with so little U-235 in natural uranium. Therefore, out of the 100 fast neutrons produced at fission only 5 will cause further fissions and produce 5 x 2.5 new neutrons. Thus even if leakage and radioactive capture are ignored the chain reaction can not be maintained by fast neutrons in natural uranium. One of two alternatives is available which lead to a power reactor classification as follows:

FAST BREEDER REACTORS


The U-235 content of the fuel can be increased, i.e., the fuel is highly enriched in U-235 with a substantial decrease in U-238. The U-235 fast fissions are thus, considerably increased in a fast reactor. Some reduction in neutron energy does
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occur due to inelastic collisions of neutrons with nuclei of the fuel and structural material but most of the fissions are caused by neutrons of energies greater than 0.1Mev.The mass of U-235 required for the reactor to be critical varies with a mount of U-235 enrichment. In all cases the critical mass of fissile material required increases rapidly below 15% to 20% U-235 enrichment. To avoid large fuel inventories a fast reactor, would require fuel containing at least 20% U-235 by volume. Incidentally the critical mass of U-235 in a fast reactor is considerably greater than in a thermal reactor with the same fuel composition.

The highly enriched fuel, absence of moderator results in a small core. Therefore, fast reactors have high power density cores. The average power density in a (FBR) is 500 MW/m3 compared with 100 MW/ m3 for a (PWR). It is therefore essential that a heat transport fluid with good thermal properties be used. The choice is also limited to a non-moderating fluid & liquid metals seem to satisfy both requirements. The capture cross-sections of most elements for fast neutrons are small & since there is a relatively large mass of U-235 in the reactor, the macroscopic capture cross-sections of structural material and fission products are small compared with the macroscopic fission cross-section of the U235.Consequently there is more flexibility in the choice of materials and stainless steel can be used instead of aluminum or zirconium. Fission product poisoning is not significant as that temperature coefficient of reactivity is low; the excess reactivity required in a fast reactor is small.

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THERMAL REACTORS
Since a chain reaction can not be maintained with fast neutrons without considerable enrichment, the alternative is to reduce the neutron energy until the fission cross-section of U-235 is sufficiently increased. If the neutrons are reduced to thermal energies, the U-235 fission cross-section is 580 barns whereas the radioactive capture cross-section is 106 barns. Thus, even allowing for the low percentage of U-235 in natural uranium, the thermal neutron fission cross-section in natural uranium is 4.2 barns whereas the radioactive capture cross-section is 3.5 barns. Thus, for every 77 neutrons captured in natural uranium about 40 will cause fission and produce 40 x 2.5 or 100 new neutrons. For 77 neutrons out of every 100 to be captured, fewer than 23 neutrons can be lost by escape or radioactive reaction could be sustained. In thermal reactors the fission neutrons are thermalized by slowing them down in a moderator. Most of the power reactors in existence are thermal reactors.

TYPES OF THERMAL REACTORS:


Previously, reactors were classified on the basis of neutron energy and the various advantages and disadvantages of fast and thermal systems were enumerated. It was mentioned that most of the reactor systems, at present in operation, are thermal reactors. Thermal reactors will now be classified further on the basis of core structure, the moderator used and the heat transport system used. Some reference will be made to the advantages and disadvantages of each type, but some of these considerations will be discussed later when moderator and heat transport system properties are discussed.

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TYPES OF HETROGENEOUS REACTORS:


Classification of heterogeneous reactors may be based on the type of moderator used or on the heat transport system employed. The basic requirements & properties of moderators & heat transport systems will be discussed at length later. It is sufficient, for the moment to list the moderators and heat transport fluids in general use. The moderator may be: Light water Heavy water Graphite Organic liquids The heat transport system may be: Pressurized light water Pressurized heavy water Boiling light water Boiling heavy water Gases such as CO2 or helium Liquid metals Steam or fog Organic liquids

HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTORS


These have much lower neutron capture cross section than both light water and graphite. The principal advantage of using heavy water as a moderator is,
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therefore, the neutron economy that can be achieved with it. The thermal utilization factor is increased because of lower neutron capture in the moderator. Neutron economy is so much improved that not only can natural uranium fuel be used, but that this fuel can be used in oxide/carbide form. Thus, there is no longer need of enrichment plant. In addition oxide or carbide fuel improve the fuel integrity & the fuel in less susceptible to distortion.

GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS


With a graphite moderator, a liquid or a gas must be used as the coolant. Although there are water cooled graphite-moderated reactors, e.g., the Soviet Unions RBMK series of power stations, of which Chernobyl is one, only gas cooled reactors will be referred to here. Whilst the United States and Canada pioneered, respectively, the light and heavy water moderated designs, France and United Kingdom undertook the early development of the graphite moderated reactor, selecting carbon dioxide as the coolant because of its relative chemical inertness and low neutron activation. France abandoned this approach in favor of an extensive PWR programme. The UK continued to be heavily committed to gas cooled reactors in the form, initially, of magnox and subsequently the advanced gas cooled reactor.

PRESSURIZED HEAVY WATER REACTOR (PHWR):


PHWRs have established over the years a record for dependability, with load factors in excess of 90% over extended periods. In the PHWR, the heavy water moderator is contained in a large stainless steel tank (calandria) through which runs several hundred horizontal zircaloy calandria tubes. The D 2O moderator is maintained at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of about 70C. Concentric with the calandria tube, but separated by a carbon dioxide filled annulus which minimizes heat transfer from fuel to the moderator, is the zircaloy pressure tube containing the natural UO2 fuel assemblies and the heavy

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water coolant at a pressure of about 80 kg/cm and a temperature of about 300C. The term pressurized refers to the pressurized D2O coolant which flows in opposite directions in adjacent tubes and passes its heat to the secondary coolant via the steam generators. System pressure is maintained by a pressurizing one of the legs of a steam generator.

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT


Operation of a nuclear facility like nuclear power station inevitably leads to the production of low level radioactive wastes which are collected segregated to select best processing method, and conditioned for either interim site storage or for disposal. The design of facilities is such that the average public exposure from radioactive materials at the exclusion boundary is a small fraction of the recommended AERB limits.

SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM :


Solid radioactive waste in segregated into three general categories based on contact dose. Category -1 Waste: Largely originates Protective clothing . Contaminated metal parts and miscellaneous items.As it can contain no radioactivity. This waste will be collected in unshielded standard drums.

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Category-II & III Waste. : Filter cartridges and ion exchanges resins Typically this waste has an unshielded radiation field greater than 1 R/hr. on contact. These require additional shielding and greater precautions than for category-I during transportation, handling and storage operation.

LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:


The Liquid Radioactive Waste Management System provides for collection, storage, sampling and necessary treatment and dispersal of any liquid waste produced by the station. The system is designed to control the release of radioactivity in the liquid effluent streams so that radiations dose to members of the public is with in those stipulated by the regulatory board. This system handles radioactive wastes that are carried in liquid streams from the laundry active floor drains, decontamination center and chemical laboratories.

GAS RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:


An extensive ventilation system collects potentially active exhaust air from such areas as the Reactor Building, the storage area, the decontamination center and the heavy water management area. The active and potentially active exhaust air and gases are all routed to a gaseous effluent exhaust duct. This exhaust flow is monitored for noble gases, tritium, iodine and active particulate before being released. Facilities for filtration are provided. Signals from the iodine, wide range beta-gamma and particulate monitors are recorded in the control center. Tritium monitoring is carried out by laboratory analysis.

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SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
We mean that the measures adopted as a whole in industry to reduce accidents to bare minimum. Factors responsible for Safety: Plant layout Design of machinery Safety Gadgets and equipments Protective aids Safety culture & Respect for Safety Attitude of the management/ employer - Caution Boards Display of Good practices about Safety Safety meetings, Open discussion and other measures Safety Manual Enforcement Unsafe Act & Unsafe conditions

Causes of Accidents: Hazards are the risks and perils or dangers that injuries. "HAZARDS DO NOT CAUSE ACCIDENTS, PEOPLE DO" contribute to accidents and

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Kinds of Hazards: Fire Heat Material Handling Floors Ladders Tools Machinery Walking and Working surfaces Process Chemicals Electricity Unsafe Act Unsafe Condition

RADIATION SAFETY
Radiation in Nuclear reactor is produced in following ways : Directly in fission reaction By decay of fission products

Following types of radiations are encountered: Alpha radiation Beta radiation Gamma radiation Neutron radiation

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Out of the above types of radiations Alpha radiation is

practically zero,

whereas Beta and Gamma radiation fields may be present almost everywhere inside the reactor building and in negligible amount even outside the reactor

building. Neutron radiations are mainly present inside the reactor vault. It is worth noting that the secondary side of the plant i.e. feed water and steam

cycle etc. are completely separate from the nuclear systems and are therefore not supposed to be and neither they are to carry any sort of radioactive

particle and therefore free of contamination and radiation. It is also wroth noting that all radiations are emitted from the nucleus of every radioactive nuclide which will always have a tendency to become stable by emitting radiations through disintegration.

The following reaction Neutron.

shows the emissions of Alpha, Beta, Gamma and

238 92U

2He4 92U234 +

(alpha)

It has very low penetrating power and can be stopped by simple paper.

3 1H

2He3 (18 KeV) +beta

It also does not have good penetrating power and in human skin it can penetrate up to about half mm. It can be very easily shielded

235 92U

+ 0n1 92U236 Xe + Kr + 0n1 + gamma + Heat

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Following methodologies are used to control the exposure to the radiation and therefore resistive of the radiation dose.

(1) Administrative Control (2) Zoning Technique (3) Design Control (4) Operation Control (5) Maintenance and House keeping

Exposure to any kind of radiation can be controlled by an individual by following methods: (1) Distance (2) Shielding (3) Decay (Time to Decay)

RAPPCOF (COBALT FACILITY)


Here, recovery of COABALT-60 SLUGS/PELLETS from the IRRADIATED ABSORBER RODS received from different Nuclear Power Plants.

27Co59 +0n1 27Co60 +

Thermal 0n1 activation X-section: 37 Barns Sp. Activity of Carrier free Co60 : 1128 Ci/g Half Life: 5.27 year

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Radiations: :0.31 MeV max. : 1.17 MeV 100% : 1.33 MeV 100%

: :

Thermal Energy/1000 Ci : 4 cal/s Radiation field at 1 mtr from 1 Ci : 1.35 R/hr

SLUGS/PELLETS:
The facility is designed to handle about 1 Mega Curies of Co-60. In order to meet the demand of high and medium specific activity Co-60 and also for the fabrication of sources of various sizes and shapes, cobalt is irradiated in the form of nickel coated pellets of 1 mm dia x1 mm ht for production of high specific activity Co-60 (> 100 Ci/g) and in the form of aluminum clad slugs 6 mm dia x 25 mm ht for the production of specific activity between 30-100 Ci/g.

Recovery of Co-60 from Cobalt Adjusters:

The cobalt adjusters are brought to RAPPCOF from power stations in a special shielding flask. For complete recovery of cobalt activity, the following operations are carried out in a sequence: 1. Discharging of adjuster into pool 2. Dismantling of adjuster in pool 3. Transportation of sub-assemblies from pool to Recovery Cell 4. Cell door operation
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5. Recovery of slugs/pellet capsules from sub-assemblies 6. Recovery of pellets 7. Preparation of transport pencils for slugs 8. Preparation of pellet capsules for transportation 9. Measurement of activity 10. Loading of cobalt in transport flask 11. Transportation of cobalt shielding flask

S. N O .

CLASS OF FIRE

SOURCE OF FIRE

BEST EXTINGUISER

FIRE SECTION
RAPS have one common fire section from unit 1-6. It is located at 3&4 unit area .For fire production mainly three things are required 1)fuel for burning 2) oxygen to support fire and 3) the third one is temperature. For fire extinguishing we remove any one out of these three things.

CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A B C D E

wood, paper, ordinary combustibles Oil,paints,grease,dasoline,disel,petrol Fire in gaseous substances(H2) Fire in chemicals, metals Electrical fire

Soda, acid, water Foam, co2 Co2 gas Co2, dry chemical Co2, dry chemical

FIRE DETECTORSa.) smoke detectors b.) temperature detectors

ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY LABORATORY


(1)OBJECTIVES OF E.S.L. LAB AT RAWATBHATAMeasurements of concentration of radio nuclides in various environmental matrices collected from the environment of rawatbhata nuclear site. ATMOSPHERIC Air tritium Rain water Sulphide Air particulate TERRESTRIAL Soil Grass Cereals Pulses Milk
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AQUATIC Water Silt Sedim Fish Weed

Measurement of internal contamination due to gamma emitting radio nuclides by whole body counting of RAPS radiation workers.

Measurement of direct radiation exposure using environmental thermo luminescent dosimeters. Computation of radiation does to the public and demonstrate compliance with applicable regulatory limits

FUTURE OF INDUSTRY:
The nuclear power programme in India up to year 2020 is based on installation of a series of MWe & 500MWe pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) UNITS. 1000MWe light water reactors (LWR) coming two 5 year plans. The total installed capacity of nuclear generation would increase UNITS & fast breeder reactors (FBR) units. NPCIL plans to contribute about 10% of the total additional needs of power of about 10000MWe per year i.e. 1000 MWe per year .

VIEW OF DIFFERENT STATIONS RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER STATION-1&2

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RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER STATION-3&4

RAJASTHAN ATOMIC POWER PROJECT-5&6


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CONCLUSION
The practical training at R.A.P.S. has proved to be quite faithful. It proved an opportunity for encounter with such huge components like 220MW generators, turbines, transformers and switchyards etc. The way various units are linked and the way working of whole plant is controlled make the students realize that engineering is not just learning the structure description and working of various machines, but the greater part is of planning, proper management. It also provides an opportunity to learn technology used at proper place and time can save a lot of labor for example almost all the controls are computerized because in running condition no any person can enter in the reactor building. But there are few factors that require special mention. Training is not carried out into its tree spirit. It is recommended that there should be some practical work specially meant for students where the presence of authorities should be ensured. There should be strict monitoring of the performance of students and system of grading be improved on the basis of the work done. However training has proved to be quite faithful. It has allowed as an opportunity to get an exposure of the practical implementation to theoretical fundamental. Prepared by : RAKESH KUMAWAT B.Tech (Electrical Engineering) B.M.I.T.

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