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-ET

- Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet

1.3.0-0, 2011

c , 20062011

1.2.3-1
0.3.3-5(MCU)/0.1.11(SYS FPGA)/ 0.7.3-3(EXP FPGA).
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-ET
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11

4
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13
14
14
14

15

6
6.1 . . . . . . . . .
6.2 . . . . . . . .
6.3 . . . . . . . . . .
6.4

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7 .
7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 RFC 2544 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 . . . . . . .
7.3.1 . . . . . . . . .
7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6 RFC 2544. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.2 () . . . .
7.6.3 RFC 2544. MPLS . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7 RFC 2544. . . . . . . .
7.7.1

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25
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35
39
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40
41
41

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7.8

7.9
7.10
7.11

7.12
7.13
7.14

7.15
7.16
7.17

7.18
7.19
7.20

7.21
7.22
7.23
7.24

7.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7.3 . . . . . . . .
7.7.4 . . . .
7.7.5 . . . . . . . . . . . .
RFC 2544. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.1 . .
7.8.2 .
7.8.3 . . .
7.8.4 . . . .
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7.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7.10.1 . MPLS . . . . . . .
(Loopback) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.1 . . . . . . . .
7.11.2 . . . . . . .
OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ET- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.14.1 - (Ping) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.14.2 (Traceroute) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.14.3 DNS (DNS lookup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.14.4 ARP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.14.5 TCP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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BERT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.17.1 BERT. MPLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.17.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7.19.1 . MPLS . . . . . . . .
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7.20.1 . . . . . . .
7.20.2 . . . . . . . . . . .
7.20.3 . . . . . . . . .
7.20.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.20.5 : . . . . . . . . . . . .
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42
43
43
44
45
45
46
47
48
49
49
55
60
61
62
64
67
70
72
72
76
78
79
81
84
85
88
93
94
96
99
101
102
102
103
103
104
104
105
107
108
111

-ET.


7.24.1 .
7.24.2
7.24.3 . . . . .
7.24.4 SFP .
7.24.5 . . . . .
7.24.6
7.25 . . . . . . . . . . .
7.26

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111
111
112
113
114
114
115
116

8
8.1 . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.1 . . . .
8.1.2 . . . . . . .
8.2 TELNET . .
8.3 WWW- . .
8.3.1 .

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119
119
119
122
127
128
129

131

B Ethernet-

135

137

151

153

155

163

164

-ET.

-ET.

1.

- Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet -ET (


, ) RFC 2544 [5],
, . ,
.
-ET :
/ (MAC), (IP)
;
,
;
RFC-25441 : Throughput ( ), Latency ( ), Frame Loss
( ), Back-to-Back ( );
;
(Loopback) , , ;

OAM;
(BERT);
.

7.2.

-ET.

-ET.

2.

2.1.

- Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet
-
- Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet
-.

-
1
1

(12 , 1,5 A)

(220 , 3-)

USB

Ethernet

-ET.

10

-ET.

11

3.

1. Ethernet -ET 51350-99.


2.
III, II
51350-99.
3. , ,
, 12.3.019.
4.
.
5.
12.1.005.
:
.
.

-ET.

12

-ET.

13

4.

1. -ET , , .
2. ,
, .
3. ,

.
4. .
5. :
110240 , 50 , ,
;
(NiMh, 4,8 4300 ).
6.
.

12 . .

-. 500 -. 6 1 .
:
( 30 ).
1 .

40 %; 50 %; . 5 .

-ET.

14


: 220 , 50 , .
1,5 A
.

4.1

4.2

4.3


1525 ;
4080 %, 25 ;
84104,7 (630800 . .);
110240 , 5060 ( ).


540 ;
90 %, 25 C;
70106,7 (537800 . .);
110240 , 5060 (
).


20010144 ;
905335 ;
0,640 ;
0,02 .

-ET.

15

5.

1.
2.1.
2. 2 (
, , ).
3. (
110240 , 50
60 ).
4. / (. 6.1).

-ET.

16

-ET.

17

6.

6.1

-ET 6.1.
Link Tx Rx Test

Link Tx Rx Test

1
4

. 6.1.
1 .
.
-ET.

18


Link :
;
.
Tx :
( ) ;
.
Rx :
( ) ;
.
Test :
;
() .


:
;
() ;
() .
2 .
6.3.
3 .
.
4 .
/ (On/Off )
/ 12 .
(Main menu)
.

-ET.

6.1

19


, ,

;
. ,
,

/
, .



; .
,
,
,
.
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, .
, , , 6.1.
6.1. ,

---

abc

---

def

---

ghi

---

jkl

---

mno

---

pqrs

---

tuv

---

wxyz

---

---

-----ET.

@ /

: ;
*

20

6.2

6.2 6.3.

. 6.2.

. 6.3.
1 6.3 .

6.2.
6.2.

A, B

RJ-45


Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet
(
10/100/1000 /)

SFP-

Ethernet

SFP-

-ET.

6.2

21

6.2. :
LAN

USB
12 V (12 )




USB

Ethernet
USB

-ET.

22

6.3

( ):
;
A (, A:100 ,
A 100 /);
: SFP- .
, A;
B;
: SFP- .
, B;
.
, (),
:
THR (throughput) .
LAT (latency) .
BTB (back-to-back) .
FRL (frame loss) .
LB1 (loopback layer 1) () .
LB2 (loopback layer 2) () .
LB3 (loopback layer 3) () .
LB4 (loopback layer 4) () .
BER (bit error rate test) .
PJ (packet jitter) .
GEN (generate) .
J+G (jitter + generate) .
PTH (pass through) .
CTR (complex traffic) / .
REM (remote) .

-ET.

6.4

6.4

23

-ET (
),
(-ET ),
(-ET
),
(-ET ).
A.

1. -ET .

. 6.4. -ET
2. -ET .

. 6.5. -ET

-ET.

24


3. -ET .

. 6.6. -ET

-ET.

25

7. .

7.1

Ethernet- ,
(SLA Service
Level Agreement) .
(QoS Quality of Service), : , ,
. RFC 2544.
Ping (-) Traceroute (). Loopback ()
, , .

7.2

RFC 2544

RFC 2544 , .
, Ethernet- , : 64,
128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280 1518 . , , ,
- Ethernet-.
-ET
RFC 2544.
1. (Throughput). , Ethernet.
-ET.

26

.
, 1 , DUT, , .

DUT2
(. 7.1 3 ). ,
DUT. ,
.
: , .

V1

V2 < V1

NUT/DUT

..
.
.

V1, V2 -

. 7.1.
2. (Latency).
, , . ,
.
DUT .
.
1

, .

.
3
/. . 7.3.
2

-ET.

7.2 RFC 2544

27

120 ( 1 2886 ).
.
Ta , .
Tb
.
(Latency) (Tb Ta). 20 (
1 30).
.
Ta

-

NUT/DUT

= Tb - Ta

Tb

. 7.2.
3. (Frame Loss Rate). ,
( ),
.
,
- .
DUT (input count)
, DUT (output count).

-ET.

28

.
:
100 (input count output count)
(input count)
, . , 90 % ,
, 80 % . , 10 % ( ), , .
100%
1

- X %
1

90%

NUT/DUT

- X %
..
..

X %, X %
1

. 7.3.
4. (Back-to-back). , .
DUT DUT. DUT, ,
, (
). DUT
, .

-ET.

7.2 RFC 2544

29


1
1
-

NUT/DUT

..
..

. 7.4.

-ET.

30

7.3

7.3.1

MAC 1

MAC 2

MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = MAC 1

MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = MAC 1

A(B)
MAC d = MAC 1 MAC s = MAC 2

2-

A(B)

DUT

MAC d = MAC 1 MAC s = MAC 2

MAC d

MAC s

. 7.5. 1

MAC 1
IP 1

MAC 2
IP 2

IP s = IP 1 IP d =IP 2

IP s = IP 1 IP d = IP 2

MAC d = MAC R MAC s = MAC 1

NUT/DUT

A(B)

MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = MAC R

IP s = IP 2 IP d =IP 1

MAC R

MAC d = MAC 1 MAC s = MAC R

3-

A(B)

router

IP s = IP 2 IP d = IP 1
MAC d = MAC R MAC s = MAC 2

MAC d
IP d

MAC s
IP s

. 7.6. 2

MAC 1
MAC 2
IP 1
IP 2

IP s = IP 1 IP d = IP 2
MAC d = MAC R MAC s = MAC 1

NUT/DUT
router

MAC R

IP s = IP 1 IP d = IP 2
MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = MAC R

. 7.7. 3

-ET.

7.3

31

MAC 1 MAC 2
IP 1
IP 2

IP s = IP 1 IP d = IP 2
MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = MAC 1

DUT

B
IP s = IP 1 IP d = IP 2
MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = MAC 1

. 7.8. 4

. 7.5 ( ) , , , , , , (switch).
(loopback).
MAC-
, .
:
MAC s MAC- ;
MAC d MAC- ;
MAC R MAC- ;
IP s IP- ;
IP d IP- .
. 7.6 , , , , , , (switch), (router).
, MAC-
IP- , c .
/ IP- (. 7.7).
. -ET ,
. 7.8.

-ET.

32

7.4

-ET 4 .
,
RFC-2544 BERT :

BERT BERT;
RFC-2544 RFC-2544;
BERT RFC-2544;
RFC-2544 BERT.

7.9 4 : A B RFC-2544,
B A BERT.

NUT
B

RFC-2544 (A B)
BERT (B A)

. 7.9.

.
.

. 7.10.
4

. .

-ET.

7.5

7.5

33

-ET :
1. BERT/RFC-2544.
2. / .
BERT/RFC-2544
,
/ (. . 7.11).
,
FPGA, 40 . 2.1
( 9xxx) 3 .
/ BERT/RFC-2544.

. 7.11.

-ET.

34

7.6

RFC 2544.

. 7.12. RFC 2544.



:
1. RFC 2544
(
( )).
, . 7.12,
.
2. (. 7.6.17.6.5, 7.7.17.7.5).
7.6.1

. 7.13.
MAC . MAC- . MAC- MAC- .
MAC . MAC- :

-ET.

7.6 RFC 2544.

35

, , MAC- MAC- ;

, MAC- .
IP . IP- .
IP . IP- .
MAC- IP:
(
) MAC-

MAC- A (B), ;

(
) IP- IP- A (B),
;

( MAC .)
ARP-. MAC MAC-,
IP- .
, (.).
7.6.2

()

. 7.14. (.)
VLAN VLAN,
VLAN-.
-ET.

36

.
:
/
(A/B)
VLAN , VLAN A(B).

. 7.15. VLAN
ID 12- VLAN,
0 4095. VLAN, .
VLAN ID , VLAN, .
VLAN ID 1, VLAN ID
VLAN ID .
, . 8 ([1]),
7.1.
7.1.

1

Background

0 (Default) Best Effort


2

Excellent Effort

Critical Applications

Video

Voice

Internetwork Control

Network Control

-ET.

7.6 RFC 2544.

37

Network Control Internetwork Control . 4 5 , ,


. 3 1 FTP-,
. 0 , .
MPLS .
/
(A/B)
:
MPLS , MPLS A(B).
Precedence , .
RFC 791 [2]. 7.2.
7.2. Precedence

Routine

Priority

Immediate

Flash

Flash Override

CRITIC/ECP

Internetwork Control

Network Control

ToS (Type of Service) ,


IP-.
7.3, RFC 1349 [4].
4- .

-ET.

38

.
7.3. ToS

1000

Minimize delay

.
,


( )

.

0100

Maximize throughput


. ,



.

0010

Maximize reliability

.
,
,

.

0001

Minimize monetary cost


. ,


.

0000

All normal

.



.

UDP src UDP- .


UDP dst UDP- .

-ET.

7.6 RFC 2544.


7.6.3

39

RFC 2544. MPLS

RFC 2544
: RFC 2544
MPLS.

. 7.16.
- ( 1 3).
.
MPLS COS .
TTL .
7.6.4

. 7.17.
. (, Loopback).

/ (. 7.9).
-ET.

40

7.6.5

. 7.18.

:
1.
RFC 2544 (
( )): 64, 128,
256, 512, 1024, 1280, 1518 . ( 64 9600
).
2. .
64 9600 .

-ET.

7.7 RFC 2544.

7.7
7.7.1

41

RFC 2544.

. 7.19.
/ .
(L1) (L1)
(
), / (
) /c (
).
, ,
(12886 ).
, % , . : 10 (
), 1 (
),
), 0,01 (
).
0,1 (
.
, % (010 %).
, .

-ET.

42
7.7.2

. 7.20.
/
.
-
.
, ,
(12886 c).
(L1) (L1).

. 7.21. (L1)
. . (
)
, . (
) , .

-ET.

7.7 RFC 2544.


7.7.3

43

. 7.22.
/ .
, ,
(12886 ).
- .
(L1) (L1) ,
. (L1)
(
), / (
) /c (
).
7.7.4

. 7.23.
/ .
-
.
-ET.

44

, ,
(22886 ).
(L1) (L1) (. . 7.21).
7.7.5

. 7.24.
,
5 .
, ,
.
RFC 2544, 7000 (2000
, 5000 ), 2000 .

100 10000 ,
100 10000 .
5

-ET.

7.8 RFC 2544.

7.8
7.8.1

45

RFC 2544.
.

. 7.25. :
: ( ), ( %),
(
/ L2, / L3, / L4
/c).

. 7.26. :

() :
1. Y . .

-ET.

46

.
2. Y .

X , .
/c .
7.8.2

. 7.27. :
( )

( %),
.

. 7.28. :
, ( ).
-ET.

7.8 RFC 2544.


7.8.3

47

. 7.29. :
( ) ( %) ( %,
/ L2, / L3, / L4).

. 7.30. :
( %) ( %).

-ET.

48
7.8.4

.
.

. 7.31. :
, . , ,
, ,
, .

() ,
,
, .

. 7.32. :
, ,
.
, .
-ET.

7.9

7.9

49

6
, ( , ..) ,
(. . 7.33).

Tx = 500 Mbps

Tx = 500 Mbps

NUT
Rx = 100 Mbps

-ET

Rx = 100 Mbps

-ET

. 7.33.
-
.

, ,
, .
2 -ET:
, ,
, .
.
, :
1. RFC 2544: , , .
2. BERT.
3. .
7.9.1

(
6

. .

-ET.

50

BERT RFC 2544


).
. 7.34 A. B .

1

MAC R1 = 00:21:91:8D:10:70

...

MAC RN = 00:21:91:08:00:02
N

-ET
MAC 1 = 00:21:CE:08:0E:C9
IP 1 = 172.16.2.106

-ET
MAC 2 = 00:21:CE:08:0E:CA
IP 2 = 172.16.3.143

. 7.34.
:
MAC 1 MAC- A ;
IP 1 IP- ;
MAC R1 MAC- , ;
MAC RN MAC- , ;
MAC 2 MAC- A ;
IP 2 IP- .

:
1. , : -ET.

ETAT.
2. -ET -ET
, . 7.34.
3.
-ET. . :
A
IP- (IP 1) IP- (IP 2):
-ET.

7.9

51

IP- ( DHCP );
IP- DHCP,
():
DHCP
, IP-
1-2 .
4. (. . 7.35). :
A

. IP IP 2

. 7.35.
5. -ET.
(. . 7.36).
:
MAC . MAC 1
MAC . MAC R1
IP . IP 1
IP . IP 2
: MAC- ARP-: MAC .
.

-ET.

52

. 7.36.
6. 7.10 .
-ET.

().
: :
. ...
.
,
.
,
.
, (. 7.5).
, - .
. BERT 1-
BERT .
: .
:
1. , : -ET.
-ET.

7.9

53


ETAT.
2. -ET -ET
, . 7.34.
3.
-ET. . :
A
IP- (IP 1) IP- (IP 2):
IP- ( DHCP );
IP- DHCP,
():
DHCP
, IP-
1-2 .
4. (. . 7.37). :

A
. IP IP 1

. 7.37.
5. -ET.
(. . 7.38).
:
MAC . MAC 2
MAC . MAC RN
IP . IP 2
-ET.

54

.
IP . IP 1

. 7.38.
6. 7.10 .
-ET.

().
: , . 52.

-ET.

7.10

7.10

55

7
10 .
, , .

. 7.39.
: (
, ).

. 7.40. :

(),
.
:
;
(L2) ;
7

. .

-ET.

56

.
, ;
, .

()

, .

. 7.41. ()
, .

(./.) (. 7.21).

: .

. 7.42. :
Cur .
Min .
Avg .
Max .
-ET.

7.10


: .

57

. 7.43. :

(Tx) (Rx) .
.

. 7.44.
(110 ).
(12886 ).
.

-ET.

58

. 7.45.
.

(, Loopback).
/ (. 7.9).
.

. 7.46.

.
7.6.1 7.6.2.

-ET.

7.10

59

. 7.47.

64 9600 .
(L2) (L2).

. 7.48. (L2)
(L2) (
/ (

) / (

).

-ET.

),

60
7.10.1

.
. MPLS

: MPLS.

. 7.49.
- ( 1 3),
.
.
MPLS COS .
TTL .

-ET.

7.11 (Loopback)

7.11

61

(Loopback)

RFC 2544,
Loopback. Loopback
.
OSI.
(L1) , .
(L2) , MAC-
; (
) MAC-. .
: (L2) (L3)
MAC Dst MAC Src,
M (OAMPDU) ARP-, , .
(L3) , IP- ;
( )
IP-. .
: MPLS ,
.
(L4) ( ), ,
- IP-, TCP/UDP
.
: MPLS ,
.

-ET.

62

. 7.50.
(A B), Loopback.
,
:

;
1 ;
2 (MAC);
3 (IP);
4 (TCP/UDP).

ET- ET-.
OAM OAM.
7.11.1

. 7.51. 2
MAC / , MAC .
-ET.

7.11 (Loopback)

63

MAC -:
MAC- ;
Source MAC Address (MAC-
), . . 7.53;
Destination MAC Address (MAC ), . . 7.52;
Source MAC Address Destination MAC
Address, . . 7.54.
MAC-, Source MAC Address Ethernet-.
MAC-, Destination MAC Address Ethernet-.
VLAN VLAN-:
VLAN- ;
ID VLAN ID ( VLAN);
VLAN priority ( );
ID+ VLAN ID VLAN priority.
ID ,
VLAN ID Ethernet-.
,
VLAN priority Ethernet-.

MAC d = MAC 1

MAC s = MAC 2

A(B)
MAC d = Dst MAC

MAC s = MAC 1

Dst MAC - MAC- , .

. 7.52. .

-ET.

64

MAC d = MAC 1

MAC s = MAC 2

A(B)
MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = Src MAC

Src MAC - MAC- , .

. 7.53. .

MAC d = MAC 1 MAC s = MAC 2

A(B)
MAC d = Dst MAC MAC s = Src MAC

Dst MAC - MAC- , .


Src MAC - MAC- , .

. 7.54.
7.11.2

. 7.55. 3
IP IP-:
IP- ;
Source IP address (IP- ), . . 7.56;
-ET.

7.11 (Loopback)

65

Destination IP address (IP- ), . . 7.57;


Source IP address Destination IP address,
. . 7.58.
IP-, Source IP address Ethernet-.
IP-,
Destination IP address Ethernet-.
ToS:
Type of Service ( )
Precedence () ;
ToS Type of Service;
Prec Precedence;
ToS+Prec Type of Service Precedence.
ToS ,
Type of Service Ethernet-.
Precedence ,
Precedence Ethernet-.

IP s = IP 2

IP d = IP 1

IP s = Src IP

IP d = IP 1

A(B)

Src IP - IP- , .

. 7.56. .

IP s = IP 2

IP d = IP 1

IP s = IP 2

IP d = Dst IP

A(B)

Dst IP - IP- , .

. 7.57. .
-ET.

66

IP s = IP 2

IP d = IP 1

A(B)
IP s = Src IP

IP d = Dst IP

Src IP - IP- , .
Dst IP - IP- , .

. 7.58.

-ET.

7.12 OAM

7.12

67

OAM

Ethernet. IEEE 802.3ah[8] ( Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) OAM Ethernet OAM
).
OAM (Operations, Administration, and Maintenance ,
)
, OSI.
Ethernet-
OAMPDU.
OAM
.
-ET OAM
:
1. -ET
8 , .
-ET

. 7.59.
2. OAM .
:
3. OAM (. . 7.60).
4. , .
5. OAM.
6. Send any.
8

. 7.59 -ET .

-ET.

68

.
7. . .
(LB up). 8.
(L2) (
MAC-).

(LB down).

. 7.60. OAM
OAM.
OAM:
;

,
Ethernet OAM ;
; ,
Ethernet OAM ;
OAM .
. :
Fault ,
;
Send local OAMPDU
;
Passive wait OAMPDU , ;
-ET.

7.12 OAM

69

Send loc/rem OAMPDU ,


;
Send loc/rem ok OAMPDU ,
;
Send any 9 .
,
.

. 7.61.
MAC MAC- .
Vendor OUI , MAC-.
OAM .
Unidirectional .
Rem. loopback .
Link events .
Var. retrieval ,
.
LB status .
9 , Remote loopback ( ).
Send loc/rem ok.

-ET.

70

7.13

ET-

ET-
(L2), (L3) (L4) - -ET
-ETL.
-ET/-ETL

NUT

.
.
.
-ET/-ETL

. 7.62.
-ET / - ETL, , .

. 7.63. ET-
:
-ET.

7.13 ET-

71

1. .
2. ,
(A/B/). , :
A B (. .
IP-, ,
), A;
A B ,
, ,
;
A, B , A.
3. IP- IP- .
4.
().
IP-, MAC- (. . 7.64).
.

. 7.64. ET-
:
/ ;
;
;
.
: UDP.
32 792. 32 793.
-ET.

72

7.14

TCP/IP

, , , , . TCP/IP ,
, ,
,
.
7.14.1

- (Ping)

- .

. IP-
ICMP- .
:
1.
, :

A(B)

NUT

. 7.65. 1
:
(. . 7.66). .

-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP

73

A
B

NUT

. 7.66. 2
2. - (. . 7.67).
().

. 7.67. -
:
() .
() .
() .
(./.) .
3. -.

-ET.

74

. 7.68. -
,
(A/B/).
, :
A B (. .
IP-, ,
), - A;
A B , -
, ,
;
A, B , - A.
IP IP- , .
ICMP- .
( 0 9999).
,
().
,
- ( ).

( ).
4.
(). ,
,
( ):

ICMP-;
IP- , -;
;
.
-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP

75

7.69.

. 7.69. -
(. . 7.70).
, ,
,
, ,
( ) . ,
- .

. 7.70. -

-ET.

76

7.14.2

(Traceroute)

10
TCP/IP.
,
,
. ,
.
:
1. ,
. 7.65.
2. (. . 7.71).

. 7.71.
3. .

. 7.72.
10

. .

-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP

77

,
(A/B/).
, :
A B (. .
IP-, ,
), A;
A B ,
, ,
;
A, B , A.
IP IP- .
. , .
.
,
( , ).
4.
(). ,
,
( ):
;
IP- ;
.

, .
. 7.73

. 7.73.

-ET.

78

7.14.3

DNS (DNS lookup)

DNS (Domain Name System ) , , ,


IP-. DNS lookup ( )11
NS-.
:
1. ,
. 7.65.
2. DNS (. . 7.74).
3. .
4. .
(). IP 5.
IP- .
IP- , IP IP- (0.0.0.0).
. 7.74.

. 7.74. DNS
.
, IP- .
IP IP- ,
.
11

. .

-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP
7.14.4

79

ARP-

ARP ARP-, , IP- MAC . (. . 7.76).


:
1. ,
. 7.65 . 7.66.
2. ARP (. . 7.75).

. 7.75. ARP
:
() .
(B/A) IP- MAC-
B(A).
3.
(A B).
4. ARP-
IP- MAC- .
. 7.76.

-ET.

80

. 7.76. ARP
- ,
.
5.
().

-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP
7.14.5

81

TCP-

TCP-12 TCP-
,
. TELNET.
:
1. ,
. 7.65.
2. ( TCP-
)):
(
;
IP- ;
( 7.4).

. 7.77. TCP-
.
IP- .
.
,
HTTP GET-.
().
3. TCP-,
(. . 7.78)
, -.
.
7.5.
12

. .

-ET.

82

.
7.4. TCP/IP

()
21 (FTP)

22 (SSH)
23 (TELNET)
25 (SMTP)


, -
-

80 (HTTP(WWW))
161 (SNMP)

. 7.78.

7.5.

protocol not supported

cant assign requested address


network is down

network is unreachable
network dropped connection
on reset
software caused connection
abort

connection reset by peer

-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP

83
7.5. ()

connection timed out

connection refused

host is down

no route to host

- HTTP. HTTP GET-13 . , HTTP- .


:
1. (. . 7.77)
.
2. .
3. TCP
(HTTPGET). . 7.79.

. 7.79. HTTP GET-


13

-ET.

84

7.15


. , A(B) B(A), . 7.80.

NUT

NUT

. 7.80.
. .
.
A B ,
.
,
.

. 7.81.

-ET.

7.16

7.16

85

-ET
,
.
:
1. (. .7.82).
2. / / RJ-4514 .
3.
(), ,
, .

(A)
(B) .
:
1. .
2. A(B) ,
B(A).
3.
().
4. , . A B, , 7.6.

. 7.82.
14 RJ-45. SFP- .

-ET.

86

.
:

;
. ;
;
.. ;
.

. .
. .
. :
<+> ( );
<> (
).
. (MDI/MDI-X); ,
. .

-ET.

7.16

87
7.6.

15

10/100

1000

1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8

.
A
MDI
MDI

MDI-X
MDI-X

MDI-X
MDI-X

MDI
MDI

MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI


-
.
B
MDI
MDI

MDI-X
MDI-X

MDI
MDI

MDI-X
MDI-X

MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X

15 A B ( /) .

-ET.

88

7.17

BERT

BERT (Bit Error Rate Test) , bit error rate (


), . . .
Ethernet-, .
, .
TDM- , (Ethernet)
, TDM-.
OSI.
(IFG Interframe Gap).
A (B) B (A) (. . 7.93)
(. . 7.94).

.
IFG

. 7.83.
Ethernet-,
,
, OSI (,
(switch)).
. 7.95, 7.96, 7.97.
MAC

. 7.84.
IP-,
Ethernet-. , ,
(, , (router)). . 7.95, 7.96, 7.97.

-ET.

7.17 BERT

89

MACIP

. 7.85.
Ethernet-,
IP- UDP-, .
. 7.95, 7.96, 7.97.
MAC-

IP-

UDP-

. 7.86.

. 7.87. BERT
ET , .
RT , .
BITs .
EBITs .
BER .
LSS ,
.
%LSS ,
, ,
( ).
LOS , .
%LOS , ,
, ( ).
-ET.

90

.
BERT.
: LSS , BER. :
(, 2e15, 2e23);
, , BER (
0,01).


(./.) , ), (
),
(
(
) (
) .
7.21.

. 7.88. BERT
OSI,
:

1
2
3
4

;
;
;
.

. .
-ET.

7.17 BERT

91

. .
(L2) (L2) ), / (
) / (
).
(
.
:
,
( . ,
. );
, , .
.
.

. 7.89.
.

(, Loopback).
/ (. 7.9).
(. 7.6.1).
, ,
ITU-T O.150 [7].

-ET.

92

.
7.7.


2e9-1

2e11-1

2e15-1

2e20-1

2e23-1
2e29-1
2e31-1

(.)
( 14,4 /).
( 64 /
64N /, N ).
(
1544, 2048, 6312,
8448, 32 064 44 736 /).
(
71 /).
(
34 368 139 264
/).
(
( 139 264 /c)).

-ET.

7.17 BERT
7.17.1

93

BERT. MPLS

MPLS:
BERT MPLS.

. 7.90. MPLS
.
.
MPLS.

. 7.91.
- ( 1 3),
.
.
MPLS COS .
TTL .

-ET.

94

. 7.92.
- .
1, 2, 3 .
7.17.2

()
A(B)
A(B)

. 7.93. ( 1)

A(B)

. 7.94. ( 2)

-ET.

7.17 BERT

95

Ethernet-
A(B)

switch/
router

TDM-

. 7.95. / ( 1)


A(B)

Ethernet-
switch/
router

. 7.96. / ( 2)


A(B)

TDM-

-
. 7.97. / ( 3)

-ET.

96

7.18

Ethernet- . RFC 4689 [6],


,
. , , .
16 .

. 7.98. .
ET , .
RT , .
PKTs .
OOOPs , ,
.
%OOOPs , , ,
.
INOPs , , . %INOPs ,
, ,
.
< ms %PKTs ( ), .
>= ms %PKTs ( ), .
. .
16

. .

-ET.

7.18

97


()
, ,
. .
.
, . 7.102 . 7.103, (. 7.19).

()
, .

. 7.99. ()

() , .

. 7.100. .
:
, ( ), . . -ET.

98

, .
;
, .
(./.)

, (
), (
),
(
) (
)
.
.
7.21.

. 7.101. .
, .
, .
.
.

-ET.

7.19

7.19

99

.
(. . 7.102),
(. . 7.103),
, . . 7.104.
.

A(B)

NUT

. 7.102. . 1

B(A)

NUT
A(B)

. 7.103. . 2

-ET.

100

A(B)

NUT

A(B)

. 7.104. . 3

. 7.105.
/ .
, .
, .
(L2) (L2) (
), / (
) / (
).
:
,
( . ,
. );
, , .
( 64 9600 ).
.
ET , .
RT , .
-ET.

7.19
7.19.1

101

. MPLS

:
MPLS.

. 7.106.
- ( 1 3),
.
.
MPLS COS .
TTL .

-ET.

102

7.20

() -

, , (A, B).

7.20.1

. 7.107.
Rx .
Tx .
Rx .
Tx .
Rx /
.

-ET.

7.20
7.20.2

. 7.108.
Broadcast .
Multicast .
Unicast .
Pause .
Rx .
Tx .
7.20.3

. 7.109.
( ).
Rx .
Tx .

-ET.

103

104
7.20.4

. 7.110.
. 2 (Rx) (Tx)
.
. 3 (Rx) (Tx)
.
7.20.5

. 7.111. :
CRC , .
Runt 64
.
Jabber 1518
, .

-ET.

7.21

7.21

105

), ( (
) (
(

), (

) .

:
. , //
- (-).

. 7.112.

.

. 7.113.
:
, ;
-ET.

106


;
;
;

().

:
;

().
:
, ;

().

().

-ET.

7.22

7.22

107

. 7.114.
(A, B LAN) .
DHCP IP- , , IP- IP- , DNS,
DHCP .
IP- IP- .
, IP-,
, ,
.
IP- .
DNS IP- , DNS.
MPLS /
A B ( LAN MPLS ).
MPLS (
) .
: IP- IP- , DNS,
.

-ET.

108

7.23

. 7.115.
.
/ ( ).
. , ( 10/100/1000 /c).
.
.
. auto-negotiation (),
.
( , 10/100/1000 /) . .
, ,
.
MAC MAC- (A, B LAN), 17 .
VLAN VLAN (. . 7.15).
MPLS MPLS. A (MPLS. B).
: SFP-
1 /.
17
() MAC- MAC- , .

-ET.

7.23

109

. 7.116. MPLS. A
.
.
MPLS,
.

. 7.117.
LSR IP- , , .
/
, .
IP IP- .
.
.

-ET.

110

. 7.118.
- ( 1 3),
.
.
MPLS COS .
TTL .

. 7.119.
- .
1, 2, 3 .

-ET.

7.24

7.24

7.24.1

111

. 7.120. .
. .
.
.
.
/ .
LCD . : , 20 , 40 , 60 ;
.

: , 1, 5, 10 .
7.24.2

. 7.121.

-ET.

112

.
.
.
/
(. 7.26).
7.24.3

. 7.122.
MCU MCU.
SYS FPGA system FPGA.
EXP FPGA expansion FPGA.
BOOT .
FILES .
HW .
S/N .
MAC A MAC A.
MAC B MAC B.
MAC LAN MAC LAN.
()

.

-ET.

7.24

113

. 7.123.
.

.
7.24.4

SFP

. 7.124. SFP-
, SFP-. ( A)
( B).

-ET.

114
7.24.5

. 7.125.
: ( C), (), (), / (), , (c).
7.24.6

-ET, . ,
,
ats (. C).
7.8.

ETIP

TCP/IP (,
, DNS)

ETWEB

HTTP- ( ETIP)

ETJT


TELNET
WWW-

ETRC
ETMM

ETMPLS

MPLS

ETAT

ET2P


-ET.

7.25

7.25

115

-ET .

. 7.126.
:
,
RFC 2544, BERT, , ,
, .
.
IP-: -, , TCP-.
,
().

C.

-ET.

116

7.26


-ET. ,
USB TELNET.
:

/ ;
/ ;
;
;
/ ;
.


/ :
<> <> <> <>
, 2- B
:

. 7.127.
USB- TELNET . /
log on/off.

-ET.

7.26

117

. 7.128.

() -

.
()
.
.

-ET.

118

-ET.

119

8.

-ET () USB 1.1/2.0 LAN.


USB-
Virtual COM Port.
! .

FTDI Chip:
(http://www.ftdichip.com/Drivers/VCP.htm).

8.1


Windows 95/98/XP/2000/2003 HyperTerminal,
.
X-modem.
8.1.1

1. , .
2. -ET USB-
, .
3. HyperTerminal .
( ).
.

-ET.

120

. 8.1.
, COM- -ET, (
).

. 8.2.

-ET.

8.1

121

, .

. 8.3. COM-
.

. 8.4.
OK HyperTerminal -ET. AT, OK.

-ET.

122

. 8.5.

, , C.
8.1.2


! ()
, .

-ET , .
BOOT ( ).
, .
8.1.2.1


0.0.1

1. :

b3et-2ndbootldr_0.0.10.bin;
b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin;
b3et-mcu_0.X.Y-Z.bin;
b3et-sys_0.A.B-C.bin.
-ET.

8.1

123

2. .
3. USB.
4. AT. OK.
5. .
, .
.
6. 1 MCU.
7.
MCU b3et-2ndbootldr_0.0.10.bin.
8. Xmodem. .
HyperTerminal
.
9. :
Secondary bootloader 0.0.10
Upgrade via XMODEM: FS image
10.
b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
11. Xmodem. .
HyperTerminal
.
12. .
.
13. 2 system FPGA. 2
12 ,
HyperTerminal
boot>2. 2 system FPGA.
14.
b3et-sys_0.A.B-C.bin.
15. Xmodem. .
HyperTerminal
.
16. .
.
17. 1 MCU. 1
12 ,
-ET.

124

HyperTerminal
boot>1. 1 system FPGA.
18.
b3et-mcu_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
19. Xmodem. .
HyperTerminal
.

FS Image: Reconfiguring.... 1 .
, .
8.1.2.2


0.0.7

0.0.7
MCU, FPGA (system FPGA)
(FS Image).
MCU :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

b3et-mcu_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
.
USB.
AT. OK.
.
, .
1 MCU.

MCU b3et-mcu_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
Xmodem. .

1 . .
MCU
system FPGA FS Image,
.
.

-ET.

8.1

125

FPGA (system FPGA) :


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

b3et-sys_0.A.B-C.bin.
.
USB.
AT. OK.
.
, .
2 system FPGA.

MCU b3et-sys_0.A.B-C.bin.
Xmodem. .

1 . .
(FS Image) :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
.
USB.
AT. OK.
.
, .
4 FS image.

MCU b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
Xmodem. .

5 .
.
8.1.2.3


0.0.10


.
1. b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
2. .
-ET.

126

3. USB.
4. AT. OK.
5. .
, .
6. 4 FS image.
7.
MCU b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
8. Xmodem. .
, 3-4 . , HyperTerminal:
Reflashing...done
Upgrade expansion FPGA #1...
Erasing epcs...done.
Reflashing...done
Upgrade expansion FPGA #2...
Erasing epcs...done.
Reflashing...done
Upgrade system FPGA...
Erasing epcs...done.
Reflashing...done
OK

-ET.

8.2 TELNET

8.2

127

TELNET

TELNET (Telecommunication Network) .


, . , C, ,
.
TELNET 1 .
-ET TELNET
A(B) LAN,
telnet IP-_.
( ) admin.
1

. .

-ET.

128

8.3

WWW-

2
-.
:
1. A(B) LAN .
2. - IP-
.
:
1. (. . 8.6):
(comma);
(semicolon).
2. Download report.
.csv.

. 8.6. RFC 2544


2

. .

-ET.

8.3 WWW-
8.3.1

:
1. A(B) LAN .
2. - :
http://IP-__A(B)/sshot.

. 8.7.

-ET.

129

130

-ET.

131

A.

. A.1. -ET

. A.2. -ET

. A.3. -ET

-ET.

132

. A.4. RFC-2544 (-ET


RFC-2544)

. A.5. (-ET )

-ET.

133

. A.6. BERT (-ET


BERT)

. A.7. (-ET )

-ET.

134

. A.8. (-ET )

-ET.

135

B. Ethernet-

Destination MAC Address


Source MAC Address
Length/Type
DATA
Pad
Frame Check Sequence
. B.1. Ethernet-
Destination MAC Address MAC- .
6 , , .
Source MAC Address MAC- .
6 , .
Length/Type /. 16-
:
, , 1500, Length ()
;
, , 1536,
Type () .
Data , 46 42 ( ,
VLAN-) 1500 .
Pad Padding ( ).
46 ,
64 .
Frame Check Sequence .
4 , .
-ET.

136

Ethernet-
Destination MAC Address
Source MAC Address
Tag Protocol Identifier
Tag Control Information

Priority

CFI

VLAN ID

Length/Type
DATA
Pad
Frame Check Sequence

. B.2. Ethernet-, VLAN-


Tag Protocol Identifier . 16 ,
802.1Q [1].
Tag Control Information .
TCI .
Priority User (VLAN) Priority. , ( ([1])).
CFI Canonical Format Indicator ( ). ,
Ethernet.
VLAN ID VLAN Identifier (VID). 12-
VLAN, 802.1Q [1]. VLAN, .

-ET.

137

C.

C.1. ( )

AT

ATR

ATM


, N
(N = 1 .. 10)

ATMN
ATMA

ATMI

ATI

ATH


( ) , ats ( )
, ()

ATS
ATC

C.2. (TELNET)

,
RFC 2544

show rfc2544 header src udp

UDP-

show rfc2544 header src mac

MAC-

show rfc2544 header src ip

IP-

show rfc2544 header dst udp

UDP-

show rfc2544 header dst mac

MAC-

show rfc2544 header dst ip

IP-

show rfc2544 header precedence

show rfc2544 header tos

show rfc2544 topology port tx

show rfc2544 topology port rx

show rfc2544 throughput duration


show rfc2544 throughput enabled

-ET.

138


C.2. (TELNET) ()

show rfc2544 throughput maxrate


show rfc2544 throughput threshold
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show

rfc2544
rfc2544
rfc2544
rfc2544
rfc2544
rfc2544
rfc2544
rfc2544

frames
frames
frames
frames
frames
frames
frames
frames

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

, ( RFC 2544)

show rfc2544 latency enabled


show rfc2544 latency count
show rfc2544 latency duration
show rfc2544 frameloss enabled
show rfc2544 frameloss duration



,

,

show rfc2544 back2back enabled

show rfc2544 back2back count

show rfc2544 back2back duration


rfc2544 start

RFC 2544

rfc2544 stop

RFC 2544

rfc2544 results

RFC 2544

show ctraf nstreams

show ctraf stream

show ctraf topology port tx

show ctraf topology port rx

show ctraf duration

show ctraf header src mac

MAC-

show ctraf header src ip

IP-

show ctraf header src udp

UDP-

show ctraf header dst mac

MAC-

show ctraf header dst ip

IP-

show ctraf header dst udp

UDP-

show ctraf header precedence

show ctraf header tos

show ctraf rate

-ET.

139
C.2. (TELNET) ()
show ctraf frame

ctraf start

ctraf stop

ctraf results


BERT

show bert header src mac

MAC-

show bert header src ip

IP-

show bert header src udp

UDP-

show bert header dst mac

MAC-

show bert header dst ip

IP-

show bert header dst udp

UDP-

show bert header precedence

show bert header tos

show bert topology port tx

show bert topology port rx

show bert level

OSI,

show bert pattern

show bert user-pattern

show bert frame

show bert rate

, /

show bert duration

bert start

BERT

bert stop

BERT

bert results

show jitter port

BERT

,

show jitter threshold

show jitter duration

jitter start

jitter stop

jitter results

show txgen header src mac

MAC-

show txgen header src ip

IP-

show txgen header src udp

UDP-

show txgen header dst mac

MAC-

show txgen header dst ip

IP-

show txgen header dst udp

UDP-

show txgen header precedence

-ET.

140


C.2. (TELNET) ()

show txgen header tos


show txgen port

show txgen frame

show txgen duration

show txgen rate

, / %

txgen start

txgen stop

txgen results

show network a dhcp

DHCP A

show network a ip

IP-

show network a subnet

show network b dhcp

DHCP B

show network b ip

IP- B

show network b subnet

show network gateway


show network dns

IP-
IP- ,
DNS

show gbe a speed

show gbe a state

A (/)

show gbe b speed

show gbe b state

B (/)
TCP/IP

ping

results save N
results load N
results show
results show N
results show all
results info

log < off | on >


log show

-
/
N (N = 1 .. 10)
, N

, N

-ET.

141
C.2. (TELNET) ()
show version

exit

reboot

help

configure

username

password

show options

show time

show date

-ET.

142


C.3. (TELNET).

RFC 2544

rfc2544 header src udp <int>

UDP-

rfc2544 header src mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

rfc2544 header src ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

rfc2544 header dst udp <int>


rfc2544 header dst mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

rfc2544 header dst ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-

rfc2544 header vlan count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

VLAN

VLAN

rfc2544 header vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > id <int>


rfc2544 header vlan < 1 | 2 | 3> priority <int>
rfc2544 header mpls tx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

rfc2544 header mpls tx [1-3] label <int>

rfc2544 header mpls tx [1-3] cos <int>


rfc2544 header mpls tx [1-3] ttl <int>
rfc2544 header precedence <int>
rfc2544 header tos text

rfc2544 topology tx < a | b | remote >

rfc2544 topology rx < a | b | remote>


IP-



/






/

rfc2544 topology ip <i.i.i.i>


rfc2544 throughput duration <int>
rfc2544 throughput enabled < no | yes >
rfc2544 throughput maxrate
rfc2544 throughput threshold <int>
rfc2544 throughput resolution < 10 | 1 | 0.1 | 0.01 >
rfc2544 frames [1-8] enable <on|off>
rfc2544 frames [1-8] size < XXXX >

-ET.

143
C.3. (TELNET) ()
/
rfc2544 latency count <int>


rfc2544 latency duration <int>

rfc2544 latency rates src <throughput | manually>
(throughput , manually )

rfc2544 latency rates [1-8] < XXXX > <%|kbps|mbps>

/ rfc2544 frameloss enabled < no | yes >


rfc2544 frameloss duration <int>

rfc2544 frameloss steps < XX >


rfc2544 frameloss rates start < XX > <%|kbps|mbps>


rfc2544 frameloss rates stop < XX > <%|kbps|mbps>

/ rfc2544 back2back enabled < no | yes >

rfc2544 back2back count <int>


rfc2544 back2back duration <int>

(throughput rfc2544 back2back rates src <throughput | manually>
, manually )

rfc2544 back2back rates [1-8] < XXXX > <%|kbps|mbps>

rfc2544 advanced wait <int>

rfc2544 advanced learn <int>


rfc2544 latency enabled < no | yes >

ctraf header mpls tx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

ctraf header mpls tx [1-3] label <int>

ctraf header mpls tx [1-3] cos <int>


ctraf header mpls tx [1-3] ttl <int>
ctraf nstreams <int>

ctraf stream <int>

-ET.

144


C.3. (TELNET) ()

ctraf topology tx < a | b | remote >

ctraf topology rx < a | b | remote >


IP-

ctraf topology ip <i.i.i.i>


ctraf duration <int>
ctraf header src mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

ctraf header src ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

ctraf header src udp <int>


ctraf header dst mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

ctraf header dst ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-


( )

(/, /c %)

ctraf header dst udp <int>


ctraf header precedence <int>
ctraf header tos text
ctraf rate <int>
ctraf rate <int> <unit>
ctraf frame <int>


BERT

bert header mpls tx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

bert header mpls tx [1-3] label <int>

bert header mpls tx [1-3] cos <int>


bert header mpls tx [1-3] ttl <int>
bert header mpls rx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

bert header mpls rx [1-3] label <int>

bert header src mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

bert header src ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

bert header src udp <int>


bert header dst mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

bert header dst ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

bert header dst udp <int>


bert header precedence <int>

-ET.

145
C.3. (TELNET) ()
bert header tos text

bert topology tx < a | b | remote >

bert topology rx < a | b | remote >


IP-
bert topology ip <i.i.i.i>

OSI, bert level < 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 >




bert pattern < user | crtp | 2e11-1 | 2e15-1 | 2e20-1 | 2e23-1
| 2e29-1 | 2e31-1 >

bert user-pattern hex

bert frame <int>

bert rate

bert duration <hh.mm.ss>

jitter port < a | b >


jitter threshold <int>
jitter duration <hh.mm.ss>

txgen header mpls tx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

txgen header mpls tx [1-3] label <int>

txgen header mpls tx [1-3] cos <int>


txgen header mpls tx [1-3] ttl <int>
txgen header src mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

txgen header src ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

txgen header src udp <int>


txgen header dst mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

txgen header dst ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-


,

txgen header dst udp <int>


txgen header precedence <int>
txgen header tos text
txgen port < a | b >

-ET.

146


C.3. (TELNET) ()

txgen frame <int>

txgen duration <hh.mm.ss>

txgen rate

/
,
MAC- loopback < a | b > mac swap < off | on >


MAC-
loopback < a | b > mac replace < off | source | destination
( | | |
| src+dst >
)
MAC-, Source MAC
loopback < a | b > mac src <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>
Address Ethernet-
MAC-, loopback < a | b > mac dst <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>
Destination
MAC Address Ethernet-
loopback < a | b > vlan replace < off | id | priority | id+pr VLAN-
>
( | id | | id+)

loopback < a | b > vlan id <int>
VLAN
loopback < a | b > vlan priority <int>

IP-
loopback < a | b > ip replace < off | source | destination
( | | |
| src+dst >
)
IP-, loopback < a | b > ip src <i.i.i.i>
Source IP
Address Ethernet-
IP-,
loopback < a | b > ip dst <i.i.i.i>
Destination IP
Address Ethernet-
loopback < a | b > tos replace < off | tos | precedence |
ToS
tos+prec >
,
loopback < a | b > tos flags <bin>
Type of Service
Ethernet-
,
loopback < a | b > tos precedence <int>
Precedence
Ethernet-
loopback < a | b > layer < off | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 >

1
settings apply reboot.

-ET.

147
C.3. (TELNET) ()

passthrough < off | on >

/
DHCP A

2
network a dhcp < off | on >
network a ip <i.i.i.i>
network a subnet <i.i.i.i>
network a gateway <i.i.i.i>
network a dns <i.i.i.i>
network b dhcp < off | on >
network b ip <i.i.i.i>
network b subnet <i.i.i.i>
network b gateway <i.i.i.i>
network b dns <i.i.i.i>
lan dhcp < off | on >

IP- A

A
IP- A
IP- ,
DNS, A
/

DHCP B
IP- B

B
IP- B
IP- ,
DNS, B
/

DHCP LAN

lan ip <i.i.i.i>

IP- LAN

lan subnet <i.i.i.i>
LAN
IP- lan gateway <i.i.i.i>
LAN
/ network mpls < off | on >



gbe a speed < automatic | 10 | 100 | 1000 >
A
gbe a state <off|on>

/ A

gbe a mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC- A

B

gbe b speed < automatic | 10 | 100 | 1000 >


gbe b state <off|on>

/ B

gbe b mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC- B

lan mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC- LAN

2
settings apply reboot.

-ET.

148


C.3. (TELNET) ()

lan vlan count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

VLAN
12- VLAN

lan vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > id < int >


lan vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > priority < int >
gbe < a | b > vlan count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >
gbe < a | b > vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > id < int >
gbe < a | b > vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > priority < int >
gbe <a | b > mpls tx lsr <i.i.i.i>
gbe <a | b > mpls tx rule < off | on >

VLAN
12- VLAN

IP-
,

/

gbe <a | b > mpls tx subnet <i.i.i.i>

IP-

gbe <a | b > mpls tx mask <i.i.i.i>

gbe <a | b > mpls tx stack count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

gbe <a | b > mpls tx stack [1-3] label <int>

gbe <a | b > mpls tx stack [1-3] cos <int>


gbe <a | b > mpls tx stack [1-3] ttl <int>
gbe <a | b > mpls rx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >
gbe <a | b > mpls rx [1-3] label <int>

profile rename [n] [name]


profile save [n]
profile lock [n]
profile unlock [n]
profile load [n]
profile delete [n]

profile list



n

n

n
n
n

index, name,
data, status, index , ,
name , data , status ( )

-ET.

149
C.3. (TELNET) ()
profile show [n]

exit

help

time HH:MM:SS

date DD-MM-YYYY

-ET.

150

-ET.

151

D.

D.1. -ET

, 320240

(25 )

USB-

12


1,5 A
NiMH 4,8
4300

5 A
Gigabit Ethernet

210/100/1000Base-T SFP


USB, LAN 10/100 Ethernet
20010144

0,640

D.2. -ET
: Throughput ( ),

Frame Loss ( ), Back-to-Back ( RFC 2544
), Latency ().
: 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280 1518
, .
Ping (-), Traceroute (), DNS lookup
IP-
( ), TCP-.
(PHY), (MAC) (loopback) (IP) VLAN .
, ,

.

-ET.

152
D.2. -ET ()
BERT

bit error rate (


).
, . .
, .
, TELNET, WWW-.
, ,
.
, .

, .

-ET.

153

E.

E.1.

-

,



12

- -
, , ,

-ET.

154

-ET.

155

F.

10Base-T
10 / Ethernet
.
100Base-T (100Base-TX)
100 / Ethernet
.
1000Base-T
1000 / (1 /)
Ethernet .
Back-to-back
. , ,
.
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol ( ).
, IP- (
) MAC- ( )
TCP/IP. RFC 826 [3].
Auto-negotiation
. , .
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (
).

, Ethernet.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ( ). , IP- ,
-ET.

156

TCP/IP.
DNS
Domain Name System ( ). ( ),
IP-. DNS TCP/IP.
DUT
Device Under Test. .
EIR
Excess Information Rate. .
Ethernet
.
IEEE 802.3.
Frame loss rate
. , ,
-
.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol ( ). , .
Full-duplex
. ,
.
Gateway
. ,
, .
Half-duplex
. , , , .
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol ( ). ,
TCP/IP. ,
-ET.

157
.
IEEE 802.1Q
, Ethernet,
VLAN .
IP
Internet Protocol ( Internet).
TCP/IP, , .
IP address
Internet Protocol address. () , TCP/IP. 32- .
Jabber-
1518 , .
Jumbo-
1518 . ,
, , , .
LAN
Local Area Network ( ). , (, Ethernet). ( 10 /
/) .
LD
Latency Deviation. .
LoT
Latency over Time. .
MAC address
Media Access Control address. ,
.
Ethernet 48- MAC-.

-ET.

158

MDI
Medium Dependent Interface (,
). Ethernet-, .
MDI-X
Medium Dependent Interface with Crossover (,
). Ethernet-
RJ-45, .
MPLS
Multi-Protocol Label Switching (
). IP-, .
NUT
Network Under Test. .
OAM
Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (, ). .
OSI
Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model ( ). (ISO) .
,
.
RJ
Registered Jack. , .
RJ-45
Registered Jack,
Ethernet .
Runt-
64 .

-ET.

159
SFP
Small Form-factor Pluggable. , .

, .
SLA
Service Level Agreement. , .
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol ( ). , TCP/IP
.
TDM
Time Division Multiplexing (
). ,
; .
Throughput
. , , ,
DUT, ,
.
ToS
Type of Service ( ).
IP-. ,
, .
Traceroute
, TCP/IP, ICMP.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol ( ).
IP,
.

-ET.

160

VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network ( ). , ,
.
VLAN ID
VLAN Identifier (VID). 12- VLAN,
802.1Q [1]. VLAN, .
VLAN Priority
, . ([1]).


.


, .

Data Link layer. ,
.
, .

, MAC- . ,
, .. . MAC- ,
.

, . .
OSI.

, . , , .
-ET.

161


Network layer. .
,
, ,
.

Transport layer.
. ,
,
.

Physical layer.
. .

,
, .

-ET.

162

-ET.

163

[1] IEEE Std 802.1Q, IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area
networks Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks.
[2] RFC 791, Postel, J., Internet Protocol, DARPA, September 1981.
[3] RFC 826, Plummer, D., Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol or
converting network protocol addresses to 48.bit Ethernet address for
transmission on Ethernet hardware, November 1982.
[4] RFC 1349, Almquist, P., Type of Service in the Internet Protocol Suite,
July 1992.
[5] RFC 2544, Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnect
Devices, S. Bradner and J. McQuaid, March 1999.
[6] RFC 4689, Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer Traffic Control
Mechanisms, S. Poretsky, October 2006.
[7] ITU-T O.150 (05/96), General requirements for instrumentation for
perfomance measurements on digital transmission equipment.
[8] IEEE 802.3ah, Ethernet in the First Mile Task Force.

-ET.

164

, 103
, 103
, 104
Ethernet-, 135
, 30

BERT, 88
DNS lookup, 78
Loopback, 61
Ping, 72

, 27

, 14
, 14

Traceroute, 76
, 96
, 26
, 11
RFC 2544, 25

, 61
, 62
, 64

, 111

back-to-back, 43
latency, 42
throughput, 41
, 43
, 28
, 25

, 46
, 48
, 45
, 47
, 105

, 102
, 104
-ET.

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