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EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE
University of California
Berkeley
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering
and Computer Science
Robert W. Brodersen
EECS140
Fall,2002
Analog Circuit Design
More
on Op Amps
TELESCOPIC and FOLDED CASCODE
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE
MOA-1
V dd
M 3
M
4
M 9
2 § 1
I 1
2
§ 1
2 § 1
I 2
Telescopic - OP AMP
M 5
V G6
M
6
Circuit 1 (Poor Bias
M 10
2
§ 1
2
§ 1
2 § 1
Strategy)
+ -
n OUT
M
7
M8
V G8
M 11
2
§ 1
2 § 1
2 § 1
V id
V id
------
------
2
2
n1
I REF
M 1
M2
R C
10 § 1
10 § 1
n2
+
V ic
-
M 13
4 § 1
M12
2 § 1
– V dd
– V dd
+ -
 ROBERT W. BRODERSEN LECTURE 22 ROBERT W. BRODERSEN LECTURE 22 EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE
MOA-2
Circuit 1 :
Telecopic OP AMP with “BAD” Bias of cascode :
The currents are balanced so that all transistors have,
I DS
= I REF
except for M13 which has,
=
2
I DS13
I REF
Since,
I 1
=
I
2 =
I REf
then,
=
=
(all W/L’s are equal also)
V GS3
V GS4
V GS9
This also implies that,
V DS4
= V DS3
similarily,
V DS5
= V DS6
So if the input has,
=
0
V id
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 22
MOA-3
then,
= V DD
2
V
2
V
=
V
(if g
=
0 )
V OUT
To
DSAT
G6
The gate of M8 is also at,
2
V
2
V DD
To
V DSAT
due to its connection to M11, so,
=
=
V OUT
V G6
V G 8
The swing in the positive direction will be,
=
+
V T
+
V OUTMAX
,
V G6
But since,
= V G6
V OUT
this means the swing is only 1 V T in the positive direction. In the
negative direction,
=
V T
V OUTMIN --
,
V G8
but since,
= V G8
V OUT
the swing is only V T again.

ROBERT W. BRODERSEN

LECTURE 22

EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE
MOA-4
Thus the total swing is only 2V T
not too good.
In the positive direction we could use a high swing configuration
as was described for the cascoded current source.
On the low side we can use a better circuit.
Circuit 2 :
Telescopic with a cascode bias that gives a better swing in the
negative direction.
Maximum voltage in the positive direction is given by M6 going
linear when,
>
V
+
V OUTMAX
,
V DD
G S3
V DSAT 6
Negative swing is limited by M8 going linear,
=
V
A –
--
V OUTMIN,
V T8
Set V A so that M1 & M2 are at the edge of saturation
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
LECTURES ON MOS DEVICE MODELS
V
=
5V
MOA-5
dd
M
3
M4
2
§ 1
2
§ 1
d4
d3
M
5
M 6
2
§ 1
2 § 1
Telescopic - OP AMP
Circuit 2 (Better Bias)
d5
I
n OUT
b
I REF
-------
I REF
-------
2
2
d9
M7
M8
2
§ 1
I REF
2
§ 1
V
A
d1
d2
M
9
n2
n1
2 § 30
R C
M1
M 2
10 § 1
10 § 1
d12
V S
M12
M13
2 § 1
2 § 1
= –5V
V dd
V DD
 ROBERT W. BRODERSEN LECTURE 22 ROBERT W. BRODERSEN LECTURE 2 FALL,1998 EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN LECTURES ON MOS DEVICE MODELS EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN LECTURES ON MOS DEVICE MODELS
Telescopic Op Amp
MOA-6
V DD
Max swing positive :
M 3
M4
V
=
2
DV
A
V T
V D D
– (
V
+ DV)
V DD
T
V
DS2
M
5
M6
2
g
r o
m
V
2
(
V
+ DV )
DS2
V DD
T
2
DV
– V T
V DD
2
g
r o
m
M
7
M8
V
DS2
R
C
M9
V
DSAT9
M 1
M 2
Ê
W
ˆ
M 12
M13
-----
Ë
L
¯
8
V
V DD
DD
Telescopic Op Amp (Cont.)
MOA-7
V
S +
+
V DSAT9
V T 9
= V
DSAT2 for setting M2 at EOS
= –
V
V
V S
A
T8
V DSAT8
= V S
+
+
V S
V DSAT 9
V T9
V T 8
V DSAT8
=
V
for EOS
= V DSAT9
V DSAT8
DSAT2
=
+
V DSAT 2
V DSAT8
Ê
W ˆ
Ê
W ˆ
Ê
W ˆ
-----
-----
-----
= Ë
L
¯
Ë
L
¯
= Ë
L
¯
7 1
2

ROBERT W. BRODERSEN

LECTURE 2

FALL,1998

ROBERT W. BRODERSEN

LECTURE 2

FALL,1998

EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE
MOA-8
MOA-9
This means that,
so,
–1/ 2
–1/ 2
2
V
=
V
+
V
+
+
Ê ˆ
W
I
Ê
W
ˆ
Ê
W
ˆ
A
S
DSAT2
V T 8
V DSAT 8
B
-----
=
---
-----
+
-----
Ë ¯
Ë
¯
Ë
Since this will set,
L
I
L
L
¯
S
9
8
2
V
=
if,
DS2
V DSAT2
To calculate the (W/L) 9 and I B to do this we set,
Ê
W
ˆ
Ê
W
ˆ
=
2
=
10
-----
I B
=
0.79m A
I S = 10.5mA
-----
Ë
¯
Ë
¯
L
V
=
V
V
=
V
+
+
L
8
DS, 9
A
S
DSAT2
V T 8
V DSAT 8
2
then,
since,
W
1
V
=
V
+
Ê
ˆ
DS, 9
T9
V DSAT 9
-----
ª ------
Ë
¯
L
15
V
=
(
V
)
+
+
9
DSAT9
V T 8
T9
V DSAT2
V DSAT8
Gain and R out
If we say,
V
ª
G
M
=
g
(cascoding has no effect on g
)
T 8
V T9
m1
m
then
=
[
(
g
r
)
r
]
|| [
(
g
r
)
r
]
ˆ 1/ 2
R OUT
m6
o4
o6
m8
o2
o8
Ê
Ê ˆ 2
Á
˜
ˆ 1 /2
Á ˜
2
2
1
1
I B
Ê
Á
----------------------
˜
=
I DS 2
--------------
Á
---------------
+ ---------------
˜
g
(
r
r
r
r
)
g m6
m 8
o4
o6
o2
o8
Ë
¯
1/ 2
1/2
=
g
--------------------------------------------------------------
m1
Á
k'
W
W
A nd
Ê
W
ˆ
˜
Á
Ê
ˆ
Ê
ˆ
˜
n
r
r
+
g
r
k'
-----
-----
-----
g m6
o4
o6
m8
o2
r o8
Ë
n
Ë
¯
L
¯
¯
Ë
Ë
¯
Ë
¯
L
L
8
2
9
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 22
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 22
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
LECTURES ON MOS DEVICE MODELS
DIFCAS2.SW0
CASCODED DIFF PAIR - GATE VOLTAGE SWEEP
MOA-10
MOA-11
V(VOUT)
D
96 / 10 / 05
14:40:14
Ê
2
I
ˆ
Ê
1
ˆ
Ê
1
ˆ
g
r
=
DS
-------------
---------------
---------------
m6
o4
r o6
Ë
¯
Ë
¯
Ë
¯
4.50
V
l
I
DSAT6
l DS
p
I DS
p
4.250
4.0
Ê
I
ˆ
2
Ê
1
ˆ
DS
A 2
=
-------------
-----
----------------------
1 ||
----------------------
nd
3.750
Gain
= 3.5k
Ë
V
¯
Ë
l
2
l
2
¯
V
DSAT 1
I D S
V DSAT6
p
V DSAT 8
n
3.50
O
3.250
L
4
3.0
Ê
1
ˆ
=
------------
T
--------------------------------------------------
2.750
Ë
2
2
¯
V
l
+
V
l
S
V DSAT1
DSAT6
p
DSAT8
n
2.50
2.250
L
2.0
I
To see the current dependence let,
1.750
N
1.50
g
=
g
=
m
m1
g m6
1.250
Gain = 240k
and,
1.0
750.0M
r
====
r
r
r
o
o4
o6
o2
r o8
500.0M
250.0M
I
1
0.
A
ª
g
2
r
2
~
D S
-----
~
-----
nd
m
o
2
-250.0M
I DS
I DS
-500.0M
Gain keeps increasing as we decrease the current.
-20.0M
-10.0M
VOLTS [LIN]
0.
10.0M
20.0M

ROBERT W. BRODERSEN

LECTURE 22

ROBERT W. BRODERSEN

LECTURE 2

FALL,1998

EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
LECTURES ON MOS DEVICE MODELS
CASCODED DIFF PAIR - GATE VOLTAGE SWEEP
(W/L) 9 = 1/30
DIFCAS2.SW0
MOA-12
V(VOUT)
D
96 / 10 / 05
15:50:49
4.250
4.0
3.750
M4 Linear
3.50
3.250
M6 Linear
3.0
2.750
V
2.50
O
2.250
L
2.0
T
S
1.750
1.50
L
1.250
I
1.0
N
750.0M
500.0M
M8 Linear
250.0M
M2
Linear
0.
-250.0M
-400.0U
-200.0U
0 .
200.0U
400.0U
-547.94U
513.699U
VOLTS [LIN]

EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN

LECTURES ON MOS DEVICE MODELS

*****
diff pair - gate voltage sweep
*****
*
.model nch nmos level = 1 tox = 170 vto = 0.7 kp = 90.0e-6 lambda = 0.01
+ gamma = 0.5 phi = 0.6 capop = 0 cgso=5.e-10 cgdo=5.e-10 cgbo=4.e-10 cj=1e-4
.model pch pmos level = 1 tox = 170 vto = -0.7 kp = 30.0e-6 lambda = 0.01
+ gamma = 0.5 phi = 0.6 capop = 0 cgso=3.e-11 cgdo=3.e-11 cgbo=4.e-10 cj=6e-4
.option nopage post=2
nomod
*name drain gate source bulk model
m1
d1
vi1 vs
m2
d2
vi2 vs
vs nch l=1u
vs nch l=1u
w=10u
w=10u
m3
d3
d3 vdd
vdd pch
l=1u
w=2u
m4
d4 d3 vdd
vdd pch
l=1u
w=2u
m5
d5
d5 d3
vdd pch
l=1u
w= 2u
m6
vout d5 d4 vdd pch
l=1u
w=2u
m7
d5
d9 d1
vdd- nch l=1u
w=2u
m8 vout d9 d2 vdd- nch l=30u w=2u
m12 d12 d12 vdd- vdd- nch l=1u
w=2u
m13 vs d12 vdd- vdd- nch
l=1u
w=2u
rref
0
d12
180k
r9
d9
vdd
5x
MOA-13
vic
vic
0
0
vid1
vi1
vic
0.0
evid2
vic
vi2
vi1
vic
1
*other half of the vid input
vdd
vdd
0
5.0
vdd-
vdd- 0
-5.0
.dc vid1 -.02 .02 .00001
*sweep the input voltage
*.dc vid1 -5
5
.1
*sweep the input voltage
*.print dc v(out)
*.print dc i(m1)
*
* i is the ids of m1
* von=1v9
vdsat=1x9 gds=1x8
*.print dc 1v9(m1) 1v10(m1) 1x7(m1)
* plots gm=1x7 gmbs=1x9 gds=1x8
.op
.tf v(vout,0) vid1
*initial operating point
*.measure tot_power avg power
*makes it do thepower calculation
.end
 ROBERT W. BRODERSEN LECTURE 2 FALL,1998 ROBERT W. BRODERSEN LECTURE 2 FALL,1998 EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN LECTURES ON FREQUENCY RESPONSE
MOA-14
Folded Cascode
Circuit 3 :
V dd
V dd
M 3
M 4
M 14
M13
M5
M
6
M1
M 2
R ref
n1
n2
n OUT
I REF
-------
I REF
-------
M7
2
2
M 11
M
8
M12
M
10
M 9
V dd
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 22
FOLDED CASCODE - VID AND VIC SWEEPS
FOLD.SW0
MOA-15
V(VOUT)
D
96 / 10 / 05
17:37:00
4.50
4.0
3.50
3.0
2.50
2.0
1.50
V
1.0
O
500.0M
L
T
0.
S
-500.0M
-1.0
L
-1.50
I
-2.0
N
-2.50
-3.0
-3.50
-4.0
-4.50
-5.0
VOLTS [LIN]
-3.0M
-2.0M
-1.0M
0 .
1.0M
2.0M
3.0M
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 22
FALL,1998
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
LECTURES ON FREQUENCY RESPONSE
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
LECTURES ON FREQUENCY RESPONSE
MOA-16
Folded Cascode (Cont.)
MOA-17
Upper and lower cascodes could be biased for high swing thus
max swing could be within 2V DSAT of each rail.
R
D8
M 8
R UP
GM
=
gm
R DOWN
--------------------------
+
R UP
R DOWN
R
DOWN
M10
*****
folded cascode - vid and vic sweeps
There is some current splitting at the point of the folding.
However when calculating GM the output (drain of M8) is grounded
so R UP is about 1/g m with R DOWN being r o .
*****
*
*
+
.model nch nmos level = 1 tox = 170 vto = 0.7 kp = 90.0e-6 lambda = 0.01
gamma = 0.5 phi = 0.6 capop = 0 cgso= 5.e-10 cgdo=5.e-10 cgbo=4.e-10 cj=1e-4
.model pch pmos level = 1 tox = 170 vto = -0.7 kp = 30.0e-6 lambda = 0.01
+ gamma = 0.5 phi = 0.6 capop = 0 cgso= 3.e-11 cgdo=3.e-11 cgbo=4.e-10 cj=6e-4
.option nopage post=2
nomod
*name drain gate source bulk model
m1
d1 vi1
m2 d2 vi2
vs vs pch l=1u w=10u
vs vs pch l=1u w=10u
m3
d3 d3
vdd
vdd pch
l=1u
w=2u
m4
d4 d3
vdd
vdd pch
l=1u
w=2u
m5
d5 d5
d3 vdd
pch
l=1u
w=2u
m6
vout d5 d4 vdd pch
l=1u
w=2u
m7
d5
d11 d1 vdd-
nch
l=1u
w=2u
m8 vout d11 d2 vdd- nch l=1u w=2u
m9 d1 d12 vdd-
vdd- nch
l=1u w=2u
m10
d2 d12 vdd- vdd- nch l=1u w=2u
m11
d11 d11 d12
vdd- nch l=1u w=2u
m12
d12 d12 vdd- vdd- nch l=1u
w=2u
m13
d14 vdd vdd
pch
l=1u
w=2u
m14
vs
d14 d14 vdd
vdd pch l=1u
w=2u
rref
d11
d14
270k
vic
vic
0
0
vid1
vi1
vic
0.0
evid2
vic
vi2
vi1
vic
1
*other half of the vid input
vdd
vdd
0
5.0
vdd-
vdd- 0
-5.0
.dc vid1 -20m 20m .01m
*.dc vid1 -.2 .2 10m
*sweep the input voltage
*sweep the input voltage
*.print dc v(out)
*.print dc i(m1)
*
*.print dc 1v9(m1) 1v10(m1) 1x7(m1)
.op
.tf v(vout,0) vid1
*.measure tot_power avg power
* i is the ids of m1
* von=1v9 vdsat= 1x9 gds=1x8
* plots gm=1x7 gmbs=1x9 gds=1x8
*initial operating point
*makes it do the power calculation
.end
 ROBERT W. BRODERSEN LECTURE 22 FALL,1998 ROBERT W. BRODERSEN LECTURE 22 FALL,1998 EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN LECTURES ON FREQUENCY RESPONSE EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN LECTURES ON MOS DEVICE MODELS
Folded Cascode (Cont.)
MOA-18
There is a loss in R out as well since M10 must sink DC current
from both M2 and M8, thus reducing its r o
CASCODE
FOLDED
CASCODE
A n
336K
125K
same currents,
same device size
from examples
2,446KW
1,486KW
R OUT
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 22
FALL,1998
High Swing Folded Cascode
MOA-19
V dd
V dd
M
3
M 14
M
4
M 13
W
§ L
=
1 § 2
W § L =
1 § 2
M
5
M
6
M 1
M 2
R ref
n1
n2
n OUT
M8
M 7
W
§ L
=
1 § 4
W § L
=
1 § 2
W § L
=
1 § 2
M 11
M15
M9
M 12
M 10
M16
– V dd
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 2
FALL,1998
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE
High Swing Folded Cascode
Circuit 4 :
MOA-20
DV
=
V
=
V dd
DSAT4
V DSAT 3
=
DV
V DSAT , 4
V dd
2 DV
=
V
=
DSAT 9
V DSAT10
– V
T – DV
V D D
M 14
M3
M4
M13
I REF
I REF
V D D – DV
W
§ L =
1 § 2
-------
W § L
=
1 § 2
2
M5
M6
I REF
M1
M 2
R ref
n1
n2
– V
– 2 DV
n OUT
V D D
T
I REF
-------
2
M8
M7
W
§ L =
1 § 4
W § L =
1 § 2
W § L =
1 § 2
M 11
M
15
+ V
T + 2
2 DV
–V D D
– V D D
+
2 DV
+ 2V
T + 3
2 DV
V D D
M 9
M12
M10
M 16
I REF
– V D D
+
2 DV
+
V T
=
2 DV
V DSAT,
10
– V dd
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
LECTURES ON MOS DEVICE MODELS
HIGH SWING FOLDED CASCODE - VID AND VIC SWEEPS
MOA-21
FOLD2.SW0
FOLD.SW0
96 / 10 / 06
11:39:37
V(VOUT)
D
V(VOUT)
High Swing Improvement
-2.0M
-1.0M
0. 1.0M
2.0M
VOLTS [LIN]
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 22
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 2
FALL,1998
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE
EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN
LECTURES ON FREQUENCY RESPONSE
MOA-22
MOA-23
High Swing Folded Cascode (Cont.)
Circuit 4 :
+
R D
r o8
R
=
------------------------------------------------
OUP,
M15-M16 perform level shift to bias M9 and M10 at the edge
of linear.
M7 and M8 have 1/2 sized W/L because the current is Iref/2.
The connection to M5 from M14 sets the M3 at the edge of
linear operation.
The W/L’s are 1 unless otherwise shown. This is smaller than you
would want to use, but this was done to show the ratioing that is
required to place the output in high swing.
The Gain and Rout calculations are the same as for circuit 3 and are
carried out as described by DP-21 to DP-23.
1
+
( 1 + c)
r
o8
g m8
R
D Æ
0
1
1
R
=
----------------------------------------
ª ----------------------------
OUP,
1
(1 + c )
g m8
-----
+
(1 + c )
g m8
r
o8
2
R
ª
g
r
c
=
0
D
m
o
g
r
r
R
ª
m6
o4
o6
--------------------------
ª
r o
OUP,
r
o8
g m 8
+
g
r
r o8
m6
o4
r o6
R
=
------------------------------------------------
OUP,
1
+
( 1 + c)
r
o8
g m8
r o
R
ª
---
OUTS,
8
3
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 22
ROBERT W. BRODERSEN
LECTURE 22
FALL,1998