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BASIC CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

First year of Engineering ( Common to all branches)

Presented by

Prashant Adsul Assistant Professor


SKN SINHGAD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCES, LONAVALA

Course Objective
Introduction to Civil and Environmental Engineering Help understanding
Role of civil engineer, materials and construction, Maps and surveying Ecology, Energy and environmental pollution environmental problems like global warming etc.

Broadening knowledge Shaping attitude

Teaching Scheme
Theory: 3 Hours/Week Six units
Practicals: 2 Hours/Week 8 Practical Exercises

Weightage for the Syllabus


Units
UNIT I Introduction to Civil Engineering UNIT II Materials and Construction Teaching hours
Weightage

6 +6
6+6 6 6

25 %
25 % 25 % 25 %

UNIT III Uses of maps and field surveys UNIT IV Ecology and Eco System
UNIT V Planning for the Built Environment UNIT VI Energy and Environmental Pollution

As per UNIVERSITY OF PUNE w.e.f. from JUNE 2012

RULES AND REGULATIONS OF EXAMINATIONS

Theory Examination (100 Marks)


Phase
Phase I

Exam Type
Online Objective

Units
I & II

Marks
25

Duration
30 min.

Phase II Phase III

Online Objective Written

III & IV
All Six units

25 50

30 min. 120 min.

As per UNIVERSITY OF PUNE w.e.f. from JUNE 2012

RULES OF PASSING
Term work: Minimum 40% marks
Theory examination: Minimum 40% marks all together

Books
TEXT BOOKS: 1. Surveying and Levelling --- Kanetkar and Kulkarni, PVG Prakashana 2. Environmental Studies D.L.Manjunath Pearson Education. 3.Building Construction --- Bindra Arora; Dhanpat Rai publication. 4. Text book of Environmental Studies-Erach Bharucha-UGC, Universities Press.

REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Building Design and Drawing-Shah, Kale and Patki. TATA McGraw Hill. 2. Introduction to Surveying-Anderson-McGraw-Hill International Student Edition. 3. A Basic Course in Environmental Studies - S. Deswal and A. Deswal, Dhanpat Rai Publications, Delhi.

Unit 1: Introduction to Civil Engineering


a) Role of Civil Engineer in the construction of buildings, dams, expressways and infrastructure projects for 21st century. Importance of an interdisciplinary approach in engineering.

b) Basic Areas in Civil Engineering Surveying, Construction Engineering, Project Management, Transportation Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Irrigation Engineering, Structural Engineering, Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Quantity Surveying, Earthquake Engineering, Infrastructure Development, Town Planning, Remote Sensing.

Unit 1: Introduction to Civil Engineering


Branch of Engineering includes Planning Designing Construction Maintenance of structures

Role of Civil Engineer


Buildings Dams Expressways Infrastructure projects

Various Disciplines in Civil Engg.


Surveying Construction engineering Structural engineering Earthquake engineering Geotechnical and foundation engineering Quantity surveying Fluid mechanics Irrigation engineering Transportation engineering Environmental engineering Town planning Infrastructural development Project management Remote sensing

Interdisciplinary approach in Engineering


1. Architects and town planners. 2. Electrical engineers. 3. Electronic engineers. 4.Mechanical and automobile engineers. 5. Doctors and health care officers. 6. Educationalists. 7. Municipal officers. 8. Taluka and district administrators.

Why Civil Engineering?


Do you enjoy solving problems and putting your ideas into action? Are you curious about how things work and how to make them better? Are you interested in improving the environment?

Are you socially aware and interested in helping people live better?

Civil Engineering
In modern usage, civil engineering is a broad field of engineering that deals with the planning, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures, or public works, as they are related to earth, water, or civilization and their processes. Most civil engineering today deals with power plants, bridges, roads, railways, structures, water supply, irrigation, environment, sewer, flood control and traffic.

Transportation Engineering
Because the quality of a community is directly related to the quality of its transportation system, your function as a transportation engineer will be to move people, goods, and materials safely and efficiently. You will design, construct, and maintain all types of facilities, including highways, railroads, airfields and ports.

Transportation Engineering
Highway Engg. 1.Nationalhighways(NH)Width7m-15m 2.State highways(SH) Width 7m-10m 3.District highways Width 5m 8m 4. Village roads Classification based on materials: A. Earthen roads B. Water bound mecadam road (W.B.M.) C. Bituminous/ tar roads D. Cement concrete roads Railway Engg. Bridge Engg. Tunnel Engg. Harbour, Dock Engg.

Bituminous/ tar roads

Cement concrete roads

Railway

Railway

Environmental Engineering
Environmental Engineering deals with pollution control and public health engineering. Different types of pollutions are water, air, noise and other pollution. Due to large scale industrialization, population growth, rapid urbanization and several other human activities like construction, mining, transportation, environment gets polluted.

Environmental engineering deals with technologies & facilities which are engaged in reducing pollution.
Environmental engineering includes design, construction and maintenance of water treatment plant, waste water treatment plant, water distribution network and sewerage system, it also deals with solid waste management in towns and cities. Public health engineering includes water treatment, water distribution network, & solid waste management.

Environmental Engineering
Environmental engineers translate physical, chemical, and biological processes into systems to remove pollutants from water, reduce non-hazardous solid waste volumes, eliminate contaminants from the air, and develop groundwater supplies. In this field, you might be called upon to resolve problems of providing safe drinking water, cleaning up sites contaminated with hazardous materials, cleaning up and preventing air pollution, treating wastewater, and managing solid wastes.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
Water Supply Engineering: Quantity& quality of water Collection & conveyance Water treatment processes & design Distribution system

Sanitary Engineering: Quantity Design / treatment Disposal


Environmental Pollution: Air, noise. ( Sources, causes, effects.etc.)

Geotechnical Engineering
Almost all of the facilities that make up our infrastructure are in, on, or with earth materials, and geotechnical engineering is the discipline that deals with applications of technology to solve these problems. Examples of facilities in the earth are tunnels, deep foundations, and pipelines. Highway pavements and many buildings are supported on the earth.

Geotechnical Engineering
Geotechnical engineering is that field of civil engineering which deals with soil investigation and design of proper foundations of structures. Soil investigation includes collection and testing of soil samples.

Geotechnical engineering includes measurement of soil parameters and safe bearing capacity.
It also includes construction and design of simple foundations, pile foundations, well foundations, caissons, coffer dams, construction of foundation of dams, construction of tunnels, sub base of road, earthen dams, earth related constructions. Sound knowledge of geology and geotechnical engineering is necessary for construction of earth related structures.

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
helpful in following problems: Properties of soil and strength characteristics (B.C., permeability, shearetc.) Foundation design and construction Pavement design Design of underground and earth retaining structures Design of embankments and excavations Design of earth dams

Earth Dams
They are trapezoidal in shape Earth dams are constructed where the foundation or the underlying material or rocks are weak to support the masonry dam or where the suitable competent rocks are at greater depth. Earthen dams are relatively smaller in height and broad at the base They are mainly built with clay, sand and gravel, hence they are also known as Earth fill dam or Rock fill dam

Earth Dams
Earth Dams, also called earthen, rolled-earth or simply earth-fill dams, are constructed of well compacted earth. A homogeneous rolled-earth dam is entirely constructed of one type of material. Earth dams can be constructed from materials found on-site or nearby, earth dams can be very cost-effective in regions where the cost of producing or bringing in concrete would be prohibitive.

Arch Dam

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
IS 456: Structural engg. Is a branch of civil engg. which deals with the planning, designing of structural members of the building such as columns, beams, slab, footings. 1.Finalizing the framework and tentative sizes of beams, columns ..etc. 2.Estimating loads on structure. 3.Analyzing the structure for shear, moments, axial loads, deflectionsetc. 4.Designing the structural members using results from 3. 5.Preparing the detailed structural drawings for the work at site. 6.Checking the work done by the contractor on site when the work is in progress

Structural Engineering
As a structural engineer, you will face the challenge of analyzing and designing structures to ensure that they safely perform their purpose. They must support their own weight and resist dynamic environmental loads such as hurricanes, earthquakes and floods. Stadiums, arenas, skyscrapers, offshore oil structures, space platforms, amusement parks, bridges, office buildings, and homes are a few of the many types of projects in which structural engineers are involved.

Structural Engineering
This Branch of civil engineering deals with structural analysis and design of structures.

Structural analysis is done to calculate stresses in structural components, on the basis of loads, acting on structures.
Sections of structural elements like beams, columns, slabs, etc. are designed. Structural analysis requires much calculation, hence advanced computing softwares are used to carry out structural analysis and design. It includes design of reinforced cement concrete ( RCC) and steel structures. Design of Multistoried buildings, towers, retaining walls, water tanks, bridges requires skills and knowledge of structural engineering.

Water Resource Engineering


means measurements, utilization and development of water resources for agriculture, municipal and power generation purpose. It mainly includes irrigation engineering, design of hydraulic structures like dams, canals, etc. Water resource engineering deals with planning designing and developing water resources by constructing several hydraulic structures like dams, barrages, hydropower stations, canal and pipe networks etc. It also includes watershed planning, water harvesting techniques, soil conservation and soil reclamation. Hydrology is also a part of water resource engineering. Hydrology includes study of sources of water, measurement of rainfall, study of rainfall, runoff, flood control.

IRRIGATION ENGINEERING

IRRIGATION ENGINEERING
Irrigation may be defined as the process artificially supplying water to soil for raising crops.

It is the engineering of controlling and harnessing the various natural sources of water , by the construction of dams and reservoirs, canals and headwork and finally distributing water to the agricultural fields.

IRRIGATION ENGINEERING
Necessity: less rainfall, non uniform rainfall, commercial crops with additional water, controlled water supply.
Scope: Storage, Diversion or lifting of Water Conveyance of water to the agricultural fields Application of water to agricultural fields Drainage and relieving water logging Development of water power

Watershed
A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place

TOWN PLANNING

Town Planning
Town planning means planned & controlled growth of town by dividing town in to different land use zones and regulating building construction to provide better environment for the people of the town. In the town planning areas of town are divided into residential, commercial, recreational and industrial zones, which is called zoning.

Floor space index, and other byelaws are fixed to guide and regulate the building construction.

For towns and cities master plan for town planning schemes are prepared to accommodate future growth of town in better way.
Planning of very large area covering several towns and villages is known as regional planning.

TOWN PLANNING
The term town planning is used to indicate the arrangement of various components or units of a town in such a way that the town as such attains the significance of a living organism. It also includes ways and means to be adopted for the improvement of the existing towns or for the extension of towns. Objects: beauty, convenience, environment and health. Principles: green belt, housing, public buildings, recreation centers, road systems, transport facilities, zoning.

TOWN PLANNING

Remote Sensing

Remote Sensing
What is remote sensing?
Remote sensing refers to the activities of recording/observing/perceiving (sensing) objects or events at far away (remote) places. The electromagnetic radiation is normally used as an information carrier in remote sensing. The output of a remote sensing system is usually an image representing the scene being observed.

Remote sensing usually refers to the technology of acquiring information about the earth's surface (land and ocean) and atmosphere using sensors onboard airborne (aircraft, balloons) or spaceborne (satellites, space shuttles) platforms.

Remote Sensing

The sun (A) emits electromagnetic energy (B) to plants (C). A portion of the electromagnetic energy is transmitted through the leaves. The sensor on the satellite detects the reflected energy (D). The data is then transmitted to the ground station (E). The data is analysed (F) and displayed on field maps (G).

Applications of Remote Sensing


Agriculture Forest cover Air pollution Water Climate

Remote Sensing

Applications of Remote Sensing


Site investigations and regional planning Terrain mapping and analysis Town planning and development Transportations network analysis Landslide Studies

MODIS Snowcover (April 8th, 2000)

Surveying & Leveling


DEFINITION : Surveying is the science of map making It is the art of determining the relative positions of distinctive features on the earths surface.

It is done by measurement of distances, directions and elevations.

Applications:
Water supply and irrigation schemes Rail , Roads and transmission lines Mines, bridges and buildings

Surveying & Leveling


Surveying includes measurements of distances and angles in horizontal and vertical planes, while leveling is the measurement of heights in vertical plane.

Chain, compass, level and theodolite are the instruments used for surveying.
Surveying fixes the relative positions of different points on the basis of surface of earth. It also includes measurements of areas and volumes. Basic aim of surveying is to prepare a map of the area to some scale. Surveying is carried out to fix the alignment of road, railway and canal. It is also useful in selecting the site for the construction of structures.

Modern surveying instruments like Electronic total station and Geographical Positioning System(GPS) are the modern electronic digital instruments for survey works. Remote sensing and Geographical Information system(GIS) are adopted for surveying and planning of many civil engineering projects.

Electronic Total Station


A total station is an electronic/optical instrument used in modern surveying. The total station is an electronic theodolite (transit) integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to read slope distances from the instrument to a particular point.

Quantity Surveying
Deals with measurement of quantities of various items of construction like materials, man power etc to find out probable cost of construction. Estimating Costing

Purpose of Estimating
To give a reasonably accurate idea of the cost To calculate probable cost of construction
An estimate is necessary to give the owner a reasonably accurate idea of the cost to help him decide whether the work can be undertaken as proposed or needs to be curtailed or abandoned, depending upon the availability of funds. For government works proper sanction has to be obtained for allocating the required amount. Works are often let out on a lump sum basis, in which case the Estimator must be in a position to know exactly how much expenditure he is going to incur on them

1. Estimating Materials 2. Estimating Labor 3. Estimating Plant 4. Estimating Time

Types of Construction Estimates


1. Approximate estimates 2. Detailed estimates 1. Approximate Estimates An approximate estimate is an approximate or rough estimate prepared to obtain an approximate cost in a short time. For certain purposes the use of such methods is justified. 2. Detailed Estimate A detailed estimate of the cost of a project is prepared by determining the quantities and costs of every thing that a contractor is required to provide and do for the satisfactory completion of the work. It is the best and most reliable form of estimate. A detailed estimate may be prepared in the following two ways

Types of Construction Estimates


Types of estimate Approximate estimate Plinth area rate estimate Cubic rate estimate Detailed estimate Revised estimate Repair and maintenance estimate

Valuation
To determine present value of an existing property such as building, land, industry etc. NEED for VALUATION 1. Buying and selling 2. Taxation 3. Rent fixation 4. Security for land mortgage 5. Insurance 6. Purchase for investment

Valuation
Factors considered for valuation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Location Demand Present condition Life Unforeseen circumstances (wars, earthquakes etc.)

Types of Values
Scrap Value
Value of dismantled materials of a property. Its about 10 % of its total construction cost.

Salvage value
Value at the end of utility period

Market Value
Value in open market

Book value
Value or amount mentioned in the account book at the time of purchase and can be obtained on deduction done by depreciation

Difference between Estimation and Costing


Estimation
Done before the construction
Gives approximate cost of property Includes finding quantities, rate analysis and cost of construction from working drawings

Costing
Done after construction
Value of already constructed property It includes of finding the quantities and present value of the property

Helps the owner to raise the money required for the construction work being planned by him

Helps for reselling of property, fixing rent for taking loan against property

Applications of Quantity Surveying


To find probable as well as detailed cost of work before construction

To find quantities of various items like beams, columns, slab etc. To find quantities of various materials like cement, sand, steel, bricks etc.

Role of Civil Engineers


Civil engineers main role is in surveying, planning, designing, estimation and execution of structures like buildings, roads, bridges, railways, ports, airports, dams, canals, water and waste water treatment plants, water distribution network and sewerage system. To use scientific and engineering principles for solutions of different engineering problems To solve different engineering problems with the help of field experience, laboratory techniques, mathematical models, using computer and information technology. To implement management techniques for better management of man, material, machines and money.

Role of Civil Engineers


To carry out planning of building as per its functional needs, as suggested by clients or user, the building may be residential building, public building, or industrial building. He has to plan the building as per the byelaws. To carry out soil investigations for the design of foundation of structures. To carry out design of structures as per the principles of structural analysis and design. He should also ensure that the design is safe, durable, and economical. To prepare the estimates to know the probable cost of completion of work.

To invite tenders & to select contractors for the works.


To carry out valuation of land or building for the purpose of finding its sale or purchase price or taxation.

Civil engineers has to work for the general welfare of people.

Roll of Civil Engineering


Broadly be classified in three categories. Before construction During construction After Construction

Before Construction
Feasibility study Surveying Site investigation Planning Design and drawing Estimating Planning & Scheduling

Before Construction
In the beginning technical feasibility, environmental impact assessment and economical viability of the project are studied. Surveying includes preparing site plan, contour map and measurement of field dimensions and levels. Soil investigation includes collecting data regarding soil and bearing capacity of soil. Soil investigations is done for the purpose of foundation design. On the basis of the data collected planning, designing, are carried out and drawings are prepared. Estimates are prepared to know the probable cost of completion of work and detailed planning and scheduling are prepared to carry out different activities in time without any delay.

During Construction
Dealing with clients Consulting engineer and contractors

Execution and supervision


Quality control Costing

During Construction
Owner, engineer and contractor are the three constituents of a construction team in engineering profession, hence continuous liaison among themselves is a very essential for the speedy progress of the work. Execution of work is actual construction carried out on the site with materials and equipments, by the skilled and unskilled work force, under the technical guidance and supervision of engineer in charge. During the construction engineer has to supervise the work carried out as per the specifications for quality control. Costing is the accounts procedure of arriving at the actual cost of construction.

After Construction
Maintenance and repairs After the construction regular maintenance of structures is to be carried out Valuation Valuation is carried out for the purpose of sale, purchase and many others purposes.

Construction Project Management


Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals

Project Management
Five Ms of project management
1. Material 2. Money 3. Manpower 4. Machines 5. Management

What is a Project ???


Temporary Specific Objective Start and End Date Delivers something new and unique Consumes resources

Big Project

Small Project

6 Basic Steps

Step 1: Define the End Goal And Objectives

Step 2: Define the Work

Step 3: Create the Schedule

Step 4: Monitor the Progress

Step 5: Communicate

Step 6: Close it Out

People involved in Project Management


Owner Civil Engineer Architect Contractor

Project Management Tools


Bar charts/ Gantt Charts CPM PERT

Bar Chart

CPM Network

Automation in Construction