Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 652

"- ""

( )

..

-
-
, ,

- 2008

681.3 (038)

73 + 81.2 -4
55

. .
55

- -
, , : 2- . . 1.
, 2008. 652 .

25 .
, , .
.
.
,
.

681.3 (038)

73 + 81.2 -4
: , ..

ISBN 5-7511-1937- 1

.., 2008

-
.
,
, , . , ,
, . , ,
:
,
.
, ,

, , - (.
. . ), . . . 1985 . Market House Books Ltd. 1990 .
, . , 4000 ,
. , , , ,
.

- , - (. , . ., . .
: . 3- .- : - , 2001; ..
: . . 3-, . . - : - , 2004.).
( .. - . :
- . -, 2006.),
.
, - ,
.

4
, 25000
, .
: ; ; .
@,
(#). . . , ,
, . , , , .
.


A
J
S

B
K
T

C
L
U

D
M
V

E
N
W

F
O
X

G
P
Y

H
Q
Z

I
R


adj (adjective)
adv (adverb)
cj (cojunction)
n (noun)
num (numeral)
pl (plural)
predic (predicative)
pref (prefix)
prp (preposition)
pron (pronoun)
refl (reflexive)
suf (suffix)
v (verb)

, , .
, .

1. . . -
( ). .: . ., 1987.
2. / . . .; . . . . .; . . . . .: , 1990.
3. / . . . . .: - , 1986.
4. . . - . .: . - , 1960.
5. . ., . ., . ., . . . .:
, 1969.
6. . ., . . - . 2- ., . . .: . ., 1987.
7. . .
. - . .: , 1989.
8. . ., . . : .
3- . : - , 2001.
9. . . : . .
3-, . . - : - , 2004.
10. . . - .
: - . -, 2006.
.

________________________________________________________________________________________

A*
a hardware programming language (AHPL) [e 'ha:dwc 'proulrm 'llw] ( )
abandon [c'bndcn] v. 1. , ; 2.
-.
abandoned [c'bndcnd] adj.
abbreviate [c'bri:vet] v.
abbreviation [c/bri:v'ecn] n. 1.
; 2. ,
abend (abnormal end) , .@
,
,
.
ability [c'blt] n. ,

able ['ebl] n. A (
10); adj. ; , .# to be able

abnormal [b'n]:mcl] n. ; ;
abnormal function [b'n]:mcl
'f7kcn] ()
abnormal termination [b'n]:mcl tc:m'necn] , . . abend.
abnormally [b'n]:mcl] adv.

abort [c'b]:t] v. ,
; -

.@
. , .
abound [c'baund] v.

about [c'baut] prep. , ; adv. , ,
.# to about .# to
be about + inf. + ; + ;
above [c'b7v] adv. ;
; prp. 1. ; 2. ; adj. .# above all
; .# as stated
above .# over and
above , ;

abrade [c'bred] v. 1. ; 2.
abrasion [c'bren] n. , ;
abridge [c'br] v. ; ; ; ; ;
abridged [c'brd] adj. ; ;
abridged multiplication [c'brd /m7ltpl'kecn]
abrupt [c'br7pt] adj. 1. ;
2.
abrupt distribution [c'br7pt ds'trbju:cn].@
abscissa [b'ssc] n. ,

absence ['bscns] n. 1. ; ; 2.

________________________________________________________________________________________

absent ['bscnt] adj. .# to be absent


absolute ['bsclu:t] adj. ;
absolute accuracy
['bsclu:t
'kjurcs]
absolute address ['bsclu:t c'dres] 1. .@
. . relative address 2. . . machine address 3.
. . physical address
absolute addressing ['bsclu:t
c'dres] . .
. absolute address 1.
absolute assembler ['bsclu:t
c'semblc] .@
, , .
absolute code ['bsclu:t koud]
,
absolute command ['bsclu:t
kc'ma:nd] .@
,
. . relative command
absolute constant ['bsclu:t
'k]nstcnt]
absolute convergence ['bsclu:t
kcn'vc:cns]
absolute coordinates ['bsclu:t
kou'dnts] .
@ ,

.
. . relative coordinates
absolute delay ['bsclu:t d'le]

absolute error (AE) ['bsclu:t
'erc] ; . . relative error
absolute expression ['bsclu:t
ks'precn] .
@
,

.
absolute inequality ['bsclu:t
/ni:'kw]lt] ()
absolute instruction ['bsclu:t
n'str7kcn] .@

absolute loader ['bsclu:t 'louc]
.@ ,
.
absolute maximum ['bsclu:t
'mksmcm]
absolute pathname ['bsclu:t
pa:nem] .@
,

. . . pathname
absolute probability ['bsclu:t
/pr]bc'blt]
absolute program(ming) ['bsc
lu:t 'proulrm()]
absolute system ['bsclu:t 'sstm]
absolute term ['bsclu:t tc:m]
.@ -

________________________________________________________________________________________

, .
absolute value (abs) ['bsclu:t
'vlju:] ;
absolute vector ['bsclu:t 'vekc]
.@ ,
.
. relative vector
absolute zero ['bsclu:t 'zcrou]

absolutely ['bsclu:tl] adv.
absorb [cb's]:b] v. 1. ,
; ; 2. (, )
absorption [cb's]:pcn] n.
abstract ['bstrkt] n. ;
, ; v.
, ;
adj. . . . logical
abstract date type ['bstrkt
det tap] .@ ,
,
, .
abstract machine ['bstrkt mc'i:n] .@ , .
abstract mathematics ['bstrkt
/m'mtks]
abstract model ['bstrkt 'm]dl]
.@
; ,

, (
)
abstract semantic network ['bstrkt s'mntk netwc:k]

abstraction ['bstrkcn] n. .@

.
abundant [c'b7ndcnt] adj. 1.
, ; 2.
academic [/kc'demk] adj. 1.
; ; ;
2. ; ; 2.

accelerate ['k/selc'ret] v. (), ()


accelerating ['k,selc'ret] adj.

acceleration ['k/selc'recn] n.
1. ; 2. ; 3.
acceleration of convergence
['k,selc'recn ov kcn'vc:cns] ,
acceleration stage ['k/selc'recn ste]
acceleration time ['k/selc'recn
tam]
accelerative ['k/selc'retv] adj.

accelerator
['k/selc'retc] n.
;
accent ['kscnt] n. ,
accentuate [k'scntjuet] v. ,
accept [ck'sept] n. 1. (
); 2. (
); v. 1. ; 2. -

________________________________________________________________________________________

; .# generally
accepted .# to gain
acceptance
acceptable [ck'septcbl] adj.
acceptable failure rate (AFR)
[ck'septcbl 'feljc ret]

acceptable quality level (AQL)
[ck'septcbl 'kw]lt 'levl]

acceptable
reliability
level
(ARL) [ck'septcbl r/lac'blt 'levl]

acceptance [ck'septcns] n. ; ; (,
)
acceptance sampling [ck'septcns 'sa:mpl]
acceptance testing [ck'septcns
'test]
acceptor [ck'septc] n. 1. ; 2.
access ['kses] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
; 4. , .@ ,
,
,
,
. v.
access address ['kses c'dres]
,
access arm ['kses a:m]
.@ , -

.
access control ['kses kcn'troul]
, .@ , ,
.
access cycle ['kses 'sakl]
. @ .
access delay ['kses d'le]
access isolation mechanism
(AIM) ['kses 'asclecn 'mekcnzcm]

access matrix ['kses 'metrks]
. . authorization matrix
access method ['kses 'mecd]
.@ 1.
,


. .
2. ,
access mode ['kses moud] .@
,
.
, , , .
access path ['kses pa:]
.@ , -

10

________________________________________________________________________________________


.
access restriction ['kses rs'trc n]
access right ['kses rat]

access scan ['kses skn]


.@
.
access speed ['kses spi:d]
access time ['kses tam]
.@

.
access vector ['kses 'vektc] .@ ,
()
.
access-control mechanism ['kses/kcn'troul 'mekcnzcm]

accessibility n. ['kses] ,
accessible [k'sesbl] adj. ,
accessible region [k'sesbl 'ri:cn]
access-oriented method ['kses
']:rctd 'mecd] , .@
,
.
accessory ['kses] n. 1. ; 2. ; adj. ,

accidental variance [/ks'dentl


'vcrcns]
accidentel
[/ks'dentl]
adj.
1. ; 2.
accidentel error [/ks'dentl 'erc]

accommodate [c'k]mcdet] v. 1.
; 2. ; 3.

accompany [c'k7mpcn] v. 1.
, ; 2.
accomplish [c'k]mpl] v. 1. , ; 2.
accord [c'k]:d] n. ; ; v. 1. ; ; 2. (); (with).# in accord with
-..# of one's
own accord .# to accord
attention
accordance [c'k]:dcns] n. ; .# in accordance
with -.; -.
accordant [c'k]:dnct] adj. 1. ; ; 2.
accordant connection [c'k]:dnct
kc'nekcn]
according [c'k]:d] prp. 1. , (to); ;
(to).# according as ; ;

accordingly [c'k]:dl] adv. 1.
; 2.
account [c'kaunt] n. 1. .@ ,

.

11

________________________________________________________________________________________

. . user account; 2. ; ; 3. ; ; ; v. (for);


(for); -. (for).#
of no account .# on
account of -, .# on
(his, her) account - (, ).#
on no account .# on
one's own account ;
.# on this account
.# to come into account .# to leave (put) out of account
, .# to take account of
.# to take into account

accountable file [c'kauntebl fal]
.@ ,
.
accounting [c'kaunt] n.
.@
( ,
, , )
.


.
accounting device [c'kaunt d'vas] 1. , ; 2.
accounting file [c'kaunt fal]
, .@
.

accounting information [c'kaunt nfc'mccn] ,


accounting machine [c'kaunt
mc'i:n] 1. ; 2.

accounting system [c'kaunt
'sstm] () ,
accumulate v. [c/kju:mjulet] , ,
()
accumulated operating time
[c'kju:mjuletd ']pcreit tam] 1.
; 2.

accumulating factor [c'kju:mjulet 'fktc]

accumulation [c'kju:mjulecn] n.

accumulation cycle [c'kju:mjulecn 'sakl]
accumulative carry [c'kju:mjuletv 'kr] ,
accumulator (ACC, acc) [c'kju:mjuletc] n. ; .@ ,
.
,
; .

.
accumulator register [c'kju=:mjuletc restc] ; -

12

________________________________________________________________________________________

. . accumulator
accuracy ['kjurcs] n. 1. ; ; 2. .# to (within) the accuracy of

accuracy class ['kjurcs kla:s]

accuracy of recording ['kjurcs ]v r'k]:d]
accuracy table ['kjurcs 'tebl]

accurate ['kjurt] adj. 1. -

, ; 2. ,

accurately ['kjurtl] adv. ;


achieve [c'i:v] v.
acknowledge [ck'n]l] v. , . .
. acknowledgement
acknowledged
connectionless
operation [ck'n]ld kc'nekcnles
/]pc'recn]
.@
,


.

(, )

. . connectionless operation, connection - oriented operation
acknowledgement (ACK) [ck'n]lment] n. , . @ ,

. ASCII 6. . NAK
acknowledgement
[ck'n]lment] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. .@ , , . ,
. ,

.
ACL (Association for Computer Linguistics) ()
ACM (Association for Computer Machinery). .@
, ,

acoustic coupler [c'ku:stk 'k7plc]
. . .
acoustic modem
acoustic delay line [c'ku:stk
d'le lan]
acoustic modem [c'ku:stk moudcm] .@ ,
.
acoustic storage [c'ku:stk 'st]:r]
()

13

________________________________________________________________________________________

acoustic(al) [c'ku:stk] adj.


acquaint [c'kwent] v. .# to get acquainted with , .# to have
acquaintance with
acquire [c'kwac] v. 1. ; 2.
acquisition [/kw'zcn] n.
act [kt] n. 1. ; ; 2. , ; 3. , ;
v. 1. , (on,
upon); 2. ,
action ['kcn] n. 1. ;
2. ; 3. .# to
bring (call) into action (play) ,
action power ['kcn 'pauc]
activate ['kt'vet] v. ; ; ,
activation ['kt'vecn] n. , ; ,
activation frame ['kt'vecn
frem] .@ , (
)

, .
activation record ['kt'vecn r'k]:d] . . activation frame
activator ['kt'vetc] n. ,
active ['ktv] adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3. .@

active bandpass (ABP) ['ktv


'ndpa:s]
active component ['ktv kcm'pouncnt] , ,
active element ['ktv 'elmcnt]

active file ['ktv 'fal]
.@ , -
active job ['ktv ']b]
. . active task
active region ['ktv 'ri:cn]
active star ['ktv sta:]
.@ ,

. . passive star
active task ['ktv ta:sk] .@ , . . . task
state
active value ['ktv 'vlju:] .@ ,
, .
activity [k'tvt] n. 1. , . . transaction 2.
.@ , . 3. . 4. ; ; 5. ,
actual ['ktjucl] adj. , ; ;
;

14

________________________________________________________________________________________

actual address ['ktjucl c'dres]


1. . . effective address 2. .
. absolute address
actual argument ['ktjucl 'a:ljumcnt] . .
actual parameter
actual decimal point ['ktjucl
'desmcl p]nt] , . @ ,
. . assumed
decimal point
actual derived date item ['ktjucl d'ravt det 'atcm]
.@
, ,

. . virtual derived date item.
. . actual result date item, actual source date item
actual instruction ['ktjucl n'str7kcn]
actual machine language ['ktjucl mc'i:n 'llw]
actual parameter ['ktjucl pc'rmtc] .@
,
,
actual result date item ['ktjucl
r'z7lt det 'atcm]
.@
,
-

actual source date item ['ktjucl


s]:s det atcm] .@ , .
actual storage ['ktjucl 'st]:r]
. . physical storage
actuating transfer function
(ATF) ['ktjuet 'trnsfc 'f7kcn]

actuator ['ktjuetc] n.
,
actuator graph ['ktjuetc lrf]
()
acute [c'kju:t] adj. 1. ,
; 2. ,
acyclic [c'saklik] adj. ; ; ;
acyclic graph [c'saklik lrf]
.@

ad hoc query [d h]k 'kwcr]

adapt [c'dpt] v. 1. (to, for); 2. refr.
adaptable [c'dp'tebl] adj.
adaptation [/dp'tecn] n. 1.
, ; 2.
adapter [c'dptc] n. ,
. . device
adapter
adaptive [c'dptv] adj.

15

________________________________________________________________________________________

adaptive channel allocation


[c'dptv 'nl 'lckecn] .@ .
adaptive control system [c'dptv kcn'troul 'sstm] ()
adaptive
delta
modulation
(ADM) [c'dptv 'deltc /m]djulecn]
-
adaptive dialog(ue) [c'dptv
dac'l]l(juc)] .@
,

.
adaptive differential pulse-code
modulation (ADPCM) [c'dptv /dfc'rencl p7ls/koud /m]djulecn] -
adaptive logic circuit (ALC)
[c'dptv 'l]k 'sc:kt] ,

adaptive predictive coding
(APC) [c'dptv pr'dktv 'koud]

adaptive process [c'dptv 'prouses] .@
,

, . . ,


.
adaptive pulse-code modulation
(APCM) [c'dptv p7ls/koud /m]djulecn] -
adaptive quadrature [c'dptv
kw]'drctc]
adaptive routing [c'dptv raut] . .
fixed routing
add ['d] v. 1. , , , ;
;
add gate ['d 'let]

add output ['d 'autput]


,
add time [d 'tam]
add(ing) circuit ['d() 'sc:kt]
,
,
add(ing) device ['d() d'vas]

addend [c'dend] n. .@
, ;
,
+. . augent
addend digit [c'dend 'dt] 1.
; 2.

addend in gate [c'dend n 'let]

addend register [c'dend 'restc]

addend-partial product register
[c'dend'pa:cl 'pr]dckt 'restc]

16

________________________________________________________________________________________

addendum [c'dendcm] n. ,
adder ['dc] n. , ,

adder gate ['dc 'let]

adder output bus (AOB) ['dc


'autput b7s]
adder with stored (addition) table ['dc w st]:d (cd'cn) tebl]

add-in [d'n] ,
add-in memory [d'n 'memcr]

adding ['d] n.
adding element ['d 'elmcnt]

adding machine ['d mc'i:n]
,
adding-storage register ['d
'st]:r 'restc]
addition [cd'cn] n. 1. , ; 2. .# in
addition (to) ; ;
, .# in addition
to the fact that ,
addition operator [cd'cn ']pcretc] , .@ ,
.
addition record [cd'cn r'k]:d]
.@
, , .
additional bit [cd'cnl bt]

additional character [cd'cnl


'krktc] ,
additional symbol [cd'cnl 'smbcl]
additional variable [cd'cnl
'vcrcbl] 1. ; 2.
additive ['dtv] adj.
additive measure ['dtv 'mec]

additive process ['dtv 'prouses]
additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) ['dtv 'wat lauzjcn n]z]

add-on [d']n] .@
,
.
addr . address
address [c'dres] n. 1. .@ 1.
, , , , ,
; 2. , ; 3. , . v.
address alignment [c'dres c'lainmcnt] .@
:

, ;
,
.

17

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
.
address arithmetic [c'dres c'rmctk] . .
. address computation
address bit [c'dres bt]
address bus [c'dres b7s]
, .@ , .
:
, , ,

.
address calculation sorting [c'dres 'klkjulecn 's]:t]
.@ ,

.
address code [c'dres koud]

address computation [c'dres /kcmpju:'tecn] ()


address computation [c'dres
kcm'pjutccn] .@ ,
. , , , .
address counter [c'dres 'kauntc]
,

address decoder [c'dres 'di:'koudc]


address field [c'dres fi:ld]
.@
, .
address format [c'dres 'f]:mt]


address generation [c'dres 'encrecn]
address mark [c'dres ma:k] , .@
, .
address modification [c'dres
/m]df'kecn] ,

address register [c'dres 'restc]



address relocation [c'dres r'lou'kecn] . . relocation
address schemes [c'dres ski:ms]
.@ ,
,




. ,
, , .
address space [c'dres 'spes] .@
, .
.

18

________________________________________________________________________________________


.
address table sorting [c'dres
'tebl 's]:t]
.@ ,

.
addressability [c'dres'cblt] n.
.@
.
addressable location [c'dres'ebl
lou'kecn] .@
,
.
addressable point [c'dres'ebl
p]nt] .@ , .
addressable register [c'dres'ebl
'restc]
addressed memory [c'drest memcr] .@ ,
. 2n, n .
,

.
addressed storage [c'drest 'st]:r]
addressee [c'dresi:] n. ,
(
)
addressing (address) mapping
[c'dres (c'dres) 'mp] .@
-


, .
addressing [c'dres] n. 1. .@ 1. . 2. . 2. . . addressing mode
addressing circuit [c'dres 'sc:kt]
addressing format [c'dres 'f]:mt] 1. ; 2.
addressing system [c'dres 'sstm] , ; ,
addressing unit [c'dres 'ju:nt]

(, , , ,
, , )
address-relative [c'dres'relctv]
.@ ,

.
add-subtract control unit [d/scb'trkt kcn'troul 'ju:nt]
add-subtract time [d/scb'trkt
tam] -
adequacy ['dkws] n. .@ ; ,
.
: .
adequate ['dkwt] adj. 1. ; ; 2. -

19

________________________________________________________________________________________

; ; 3.
adequate accuracy ['dkwt
'kjurcs] ()

adhere [cd'hc] v. 1. ;
; 2. . (to)
adherence [cd'hcrcns] n. 1.
; ; 2. , ; 3.
( ..).# adherence to specification

adhesion [cd'hi:cn] n. 1. ; ; 2.
( ..); 3.

adjacency [c'escns] n. ; (
); ;
adjacency list [c'escns lst]
( ).@ .
adjacency matrix [c'escns
'metrks] .@
, : mi j = 1
,
,
i j. . incidence matrix
adjacent [c'escnt] adj. ,
adjoin [c']t] v.
adjust [c'7st] v. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
adjustable [c'7stcbl] adj. ; ;
adjustable array [c'7stcbl
c're]

adjustable component [c'7stcbl kcm'pouncnt]


,
adjustable delay [c'7stcbl d'le]
adjustment [c'7stmcnt] n. 1.
; 2. ;
; 3. , ,
,
administer [cd'mnstc] v. 1. ; (); 2. ,
; ..
admissible [cd'mscbl] adj. ; ;
admissible mark
[cd'mscbl
ma:k]
admissible pair [cd'mscbl pc]

admission [cd'mcn] n.. 1. , ; 2. (); 3.
admit [cd'mt] v. 1. ,
; 2. ; 3. (of)
admittance [cd'mtcns] n.
admittedly [cd'mtdl] adv. 1.
; 2.
(); 3. ,
admix [cd'mks] v.
admixture [cd'mksc] v. 1.
; 2.
adopt [c'd]pt] v. 1. ;
2.
adoption [c'd]pcn] n.
ADP equipment ['kwpmcnt]

advance [cd'va:ns] v. 1. ; 2. ; ; 3. ; ;
4. ; n. 1. ; 2.

20

________________________________________________________________________________________

; ; ; 3. , .# in advance ; .# in advance of .#
to be far in advance

advanced [cd'va:nst] adj. ; ; ;


advancement [cd'va:nsmcnt] n.
1. ; 2.
advantage [cd'va:nt] n. .# to advantage ;
, .# to full advantage .# to the best advantage .# to be of
advantage ;
.# to gain (get, have) an
(the) advantage over (of) ,
.# to
gain advantage .# to
take advantage of ,

advantageous
[/dvcn'tecs]
adj. ; ; .# it is advantageous
advent ['dvcnt] n. ,

adverse ['dvc:s] adj. ;

advice [cd'vz] v. 1. ;
; 2. ,
advocate ['dvcket] v. ,
affair [c'fc] n. 1. ; 2. pl.
,
affect [c'fekt] v. 1. , ; 2. ,
affected [c'fektd] p.p. 1. , ; 2. -

.# as affected
()
affinity [c'fnt] n. ,
;
affirm [c'fc:m] v. 1. ;
2.
afford [c'f]:d] v. 1. , ; 2. ( can)
AFIPS (American Federation of
Information Processing Societies)

.@
, ACM, IEEE Computer Society.
IFIP.
aforementioned [c'f]:mencnd]
adj.
after ['a:ftcr] prp. 1. , ;
2. , ; 3. ; 4.
; cj. .# after all
.# after a while
.# after the fasion
; , ;
.# after the manner ; , ;
.# shortly after
( ).# well after

afterglow ['a:ftcrllou] n.
after-look journal ['a:ftcr'lu:k
'c:nl] .@ , . . . before-look
journal
again [c'len] adv. 1. ,
; 2. , ; 3.
.# again and again
; .# as
much again , .# once again ; .#

21

________________________________________________________________________________________

over and over again , .# time and again


against [c'lenst] prp. 1. ;
2. , , , , ; 3.
; , ; 4.
; 5. .# as against
.# to be against ;
age [e] n. 1. ; 2.
; ; v. 1. ; 2.
agency ['ecns] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4.
, .# through
(by) the agency
agent ['ecnt] n. 1. ;
2. ; 3. ,
aggravate ['lrcvet] v. ;
aggregate ['lrlt] n. 1. .@ , (, ) . 2.
; 3. . .
date aggregate v. , . adj
aggregate of simple events ['lrlt ]v 'smpl 'i:vents]

aggregate type ['lrlt tap]
aggregated date ['lrltd deit]
.@ , : ,
aggregation ['lrlcn] n. 1.
.@ ,
.
. generalization; 2. -

.@ 1. . 2.
.
agitate ['tet] v. 1. ; 2.
ago [c'lou] adv. .# as
long ago as , .# long ago
.# not long ago .# a
while ago
agree [c'lri:] v. 1. ;
2. , ; 3. ,
agreement [c'lri:mcnt] n. 1. ; 2. , ; 3.
; 4. ,
ahead [c'hed] adv. ; .# ahead of time (schedule)
aid [ed] v. ; ; n. 1. ; 2.
()
aim [em] n. , ; v.
1. ,
(at); 2. .# to be
aimed at ,

aiming [em] n. ; ;
aiming symbol [em 'smbcl]
.@
,
, .
air [c] n. ; ;
agj. ; ; v.
,
air floating head [c 'flout hed]

22

________________________________________________________________________________________

air gap [c lp] 1.


; 2. ()
AKO (A Kind Of)
.@ ()
. . . semantic network
alarm [c'la:m] n. 1. ; 2.

alarm circuit [c'la:m 'sc:kt]



alert [c'lc:t] n. ; adj.
alert condition [c'lc:t kcn'dcn]

algebra ['lbrc] n.
algebra module ['lbrc 'm]dju:l]
algebra of classes ['lbrc ]v
kla:ss]
algebra of logic ['lbrc ]v
'l]k]
algebra system ['lbrc 'sstm]
.@ , , .
algebraic ['l'brek] adj.
algebraic adder [l'brek
'dc]
algebraic equation [l'brek
'kwecn]
algebraic semantics [l'brek
s'mntks] .@ ,

, .
algebraic sing [l'brek s]

algebraic specification [l'brek /spesfi'kecn]
.@ , :
, .
algebraic structure [l'brek
'str7ktc].@ ,
, .
algebraic symbol manipulation
language [l'brek 'smbcl mc/npju'lecn 'llw] .@ ,

,
.
algorithm ['ll]/rcm] n. 1. ; 2. ,
algorithm convergence ['ll]/rcm kcn'vc:cns]
algorithm validation ['ll]/rcm /vl'decn] ,

algorithmic ['ll]rmk] adj.

algorithmic description ['ll]rmk ds'krpcn]

23

________________________________________________________________________________________

algorithmic diagram ['ll]rmk 'daclrm]

algorithmic process ['ll]rmk 'prouses]


algorithmic(al) language ['ll]rmk(cl) 'llw]
alias ['els] n. .@
, ,
aliasing ['els] n. 1. .@ ,
. 2. ,
.
alien ['elcn] adj. ;

align [c'lain] v. 1. -

; 2.
alignment [c'lainmcnt] n. 1.
, ; 2.
; 3.
alignment chart [c'lainmcnt
a:t]

alignment procedure [c'lain-mcnt prou'si:c]


()
all []:l] adj. , , , .#
after all .# all along
; .# all
at once .# all but ;
; , .# (all) in
all ; .# all of which
.# all over , ; , .# all the better .# all the more .# all the same ;
.# all the worse .# all
through .# all

too often .# at all , .# at all events .# first of all .# for all that
.# in all ; .# not at
all ,
all steps control []:l steps kcn'troul]
allege [c'le] v. 1.
-.; 2. ( ).# alleged to be due to

allegedly [c'ledl] adv. ;

allied ['lcked] adj. 1. ; 2. , ; 3.

alloc ['lck] . 1. allocation; 2.


allocator
allocate ['lcket] v. (), (),
(to)
allocation ['lckecn] n. 1. (); 2.
()
allocation map ['lckecn mp]
.@ ,
.
allocation problem ['lckecn
'pr]blcm]
(. )
allocation routine ['lckecn
ru:'ti:n] .@
, .
allocation scheme ['lckecn
ski:m]
allocator ['lcketc] n. 1. (); 2.
,

24

________________________________________________________________________________________

all-or-none data []:l']:'noun 'detc] ,


allotment [c'l]tmcnt] n. .@ (, ). . .
allocation
allow ['lau] v. 1. ; 2.
; 3. , , -.
(for).# to allow for ; () -..#
to allow for the fact ,

allowance ['laucns] n. ,
.# to make allowance for
,
alloy [c'l]] v. 1. ;
2. ()
alloy ['l]] n. 1. ; 2.
all-round ['l]:'raund] adj. , ,
allude [c'lud] v. 1. ;
(to);
(to)
almost [']:lmoust] adj.
alone [c'loun] predic. ; adv.
.# let alone
along [c'l]] prp. .# all
along ; .# along the lines ;
; .# along
with ,
alongside [c'l]'sad] adv. .# alongside with
alpha character ['lfc 'krktc]
,
alpha test ['lfc 'test]

alpha(nu)meric reader ['lfc(nju)'merc 'ri:dc] -



alphabet ['lfcbt] n.
alphabet indicator ['lfcbt 'ndketc]
alphabetic
code
['lfcbetk
koud] ,

alphabetic printer ['lfcbetk


'prntc]
alphabetic string ['lfcbetk
str] 1. .@
,
. 2.
alphabetic word ['lfcbetk
wc:d]
alphabetic(al)
['lfcbetk(cl)]
adj. ,
alpha-node ['lfc'noud] , . .
. and/or tree
alphanumeric ['lfcnju'merc]
adj. -; .@

.
alphanumeric character ['lfcnju'merc 'krktc] - ;
alphanumeric code ['lfcnju'merc koud] -
alphanumeric display ['lfcnju'merc ds'ple] .
. vector-mode display
alphanumeric field ['lfcnju'merc fi:ld] - ,
alphanumeric indicator ['lfcnju'merc 'ndketc] -

25

________________________________________________________________________________________

alphanumeric keyboard ['lfcnju'merc ki:'b]:d] -


alphanumeric terminal ['lfcnju'merc 'tc:mnl]
already []:l'red] adv.
also [']:lsou] adv. 1. , ;
2. ,
alt (alter) .@ ,
,
.
alter [']:ltc] v. ();
alteration [/]ltc'recn] n. 1. , ; ,
; 2. ;
alteration switch [/]ltc'recn
sw] -

altering error [']:ltcr 'erc] ,


alternate [']:ltc:nt] adj. ();
alternate [']:ltcnet] v. ()
alternate mark inversion (AMI)
[']:ltc:net ma:k 'n'vc:cn] ,
alternate mode [']:ltc:net moud]
.@
,
. . free-running mode

alternate(ing) series [']ltc:net() 'scri:z]


alternately [']:ltc:ntl] adv.
alternating [']ltc:net] adj. ,
alternative [']ltc:netv] n. 1. .@ ,
; ,
, ..
- . . 2. ; 3. ( ); adj. ;
alternative block [']ltc:netv
bl]k] 1. ; 2.

alternatively [']ltc:netvl] adv.
1. ; 2. , ; ; 3. .# alternatively to ;
alternator [']:ltcnetc] n.
although []:l'ou] cj. 1. ; 2.

altitude ['lttju:d] n.
altogether [/]:ltc'gec] adv. 1.
, ; 2. ; 3. ,

alumin(i)m [/lju'mn(j)cm] n.

ambient (amb) [m'bc] n. () ; ()


; adj.
ambiguity [m'bljut] 1. , ; 2.
ambiguity error [m'bljut
'erc]

26

________________________________________________________________________________________

ambiguous [m'bljucs] adj. 1.


; 2. ,
ambiguous definition [m'bljucs def'ncn] . . . multiple definition
ambiguous grammar [m'bljucs 'lrmc] .@
-
,

.
ambiguous reference [m'bljucs 'refrcns] .@
.
ambiguous solution [m'bljucs
sc'lu: cn]
ambipolar [mb'poulc] adj. ,
ambition [m'bcn] n. 1. , ; 2. pl.
ambitious [m'bcs] adj. ;
amenable [c'mi:ncbl] adj. ; ; .# to be amenable
-.
amend [c'mend] v. 1. ;
; 2. ()
amendment [c'mendmcnt] n. 1.
, ; 2.
()
amendment record [c'mendmcnt
'rek]:d]
amenments file [c'mendmcnts
fal] . . change
file
ammeter ['mtc] n.
among (amongst) [c'm7] prp.
, .# among other things
;

amount [c'maunt] v. ,
, -. (to);
n. 1. , , ;
2.
ampere ['mpc] n.
ampersand ['mpcsnd] n. &
ample ['mpl] adj. 1. ;
; 2. ;
amplification ['mpl/fkecn] n.

amplifier (AM) ['mpl/fac] n.

amplifier channel ['mpl/fac


'nl] ,

amplify ['mplfa] v.
amplitude (AM) ['mpltju:d]

amplitude modulation (AM)


['mpltju:d /m]djulecn]
amplitude shift keying (ASK)
['mpltju:d ft ki:]
amplitude-frequency characteristic (AFC) ['mpltju:d'fri:kwcns
/krktc'rstk] -

amplitude-phase control (APC)


['mpltju:d'fez kcn'troul] -
amplitude-phase shift keying
(APK) ['mpltju:d'fez ft ki:]
analog adder ['ncl]l 'dc]

analog adder ['ncl]l] n. 1.
, ; 2. ; adj.

27

________________________________________________________________________________________

analog calculation ['ncl]l


'klkjulecn]
analog calculator ['ncl]l 'klkjuletc]
, ()
analog channel ['ncl]l 'nl]
, ()

analog circuit ['ncl]l 'sc:kt]
,
, -
analog computation ['ncl]l
/kcmpju:'tecn] 1. ; 2.
pl.
analog computer ['ncl]l kcm'pju:tc]
,
analog device ['ncl]l d'vas] 1.
; 2.
analog divider ['ncl]l d'vadc]

analog ground (ANGND) ['ncl]l lraund]
analog machine ['ncl]l mc'i:n]

analog memory ['ncl]l 'memcr]


analog multiplier ['ncl]l 'm7ltplac] 1. ,
; 2.
analog quantity ['ncl]l 'kw]ntt]
analog variable ['ncl]l 'vcrcbl]

analog(ue) data ['ncl]l(juc)


'detc] ()

analog(ue) method ['ncl]l(juc)


'me-cd]
analog(ue) multiplier ['ncl]l(juc) 'm7ltplac] ,
analog(ue)-to-digital
(A-D)
['ncl]l(juc)'tu:'dtl] -
analog-digital (AD) converter
['ncl]l 'dtl kcn'vc:tc]
analog-digital computer ['ncl]l 'dtl kcm'pju:tc] -
analog-operational unit ['ncl]l
/]pc'recnl 'ju:nt]
analogous [c'nlcgcs] adj. ;
analogous circuit [c'nlclcs
'sc:kt] , , -
analog-to-binary (AB) converter ['ncl]l'tu:'bancr kcn'vc:tc]

analog-to-digital
converter
(ADC) ['ncl]l'tu:'dtl kcn'vc:tc]
- .
. digital-to-analog converter
analogy [c'nlc] n. ;
.# by analogy with .# on the analogy of .# to give analogy to

analyse (analyze) [c'nlaz] v.
;
analyser (analyzer) [c'nlazc]
n.

28

________________________________________________________________________________________

analyses [c'nlcsi:z] n. analysis


analysis [c'nlcss] n. .@
1. (,
, .
.). 2. ( ). 3.
, 1. ;
, ,

.# in the last
analysis
analyst [nc'lst] n. .@
.
analytic invariant [nc'ltk n'vcrcnt]
analytic manifold [nc'ltk
'm-nfould]
analytic(al) method [nc'ltk(cl) 'mecd]
analytical [nc'ltkcl] adj. , .@
.
. numerical
analytically [nc'ltkcl] adv.

analyzer ['nclazc] n. .@ ,
.
ancestor ['nsstc] n. .@
,
ancestral [n'sestrcl] adj. ,
ancestry ['nsstr] n. 1. ;
2.

ancient ['ecnt] adj. 1. ;


; 2.
ancillary [n'slcr] n.
ancillary control processor
(ACP) [n'slcr kcn'troul 'prousesc]

and [nd] cj. , .# and so on


.# and so forth
AND , ,
and/or [nd ]:] cj.

anew [c'nju:] adv. 1. ; 2.

angle ['ll] n. 1. ; 2.

angle of lag ['ll ]v ll]


;
angle-of-incidence effect ['ll]v 'nsdcns 'fekt]
angular ['ljulc] adj.
angular acceleration ['ljulc
'k,selc'recn]
angular coordinate(s) ['ljulc
kou']:dnt(s)]
animal ['nmcl] n.
animation [n'mecn] n.
anisotropic ['nasc'tr]pk] adj.

anisotropy ['na's]trcp] n.
anneal [c'ni:l] n. , ; v. ,
annex [c'neks] v. .
n. 1. ; ; 2.
annex memory [c'neks 'memcr]
, .@

29

________________________________________________________________________________________

-
.
annotation [/nou'tecn] n. 1.
.@ , . 2.
annual ['njucl] adj. ; ; n. ().# per annual
annular [c'n7lc] adj.
annunciation [c/n7ns'ecn] n.
,
anode ['noud] n.
anomalous [c'n]mclcs] adj. ,
anomaly [c'n]mcl] n.
another [c'n7c] adj. ;

answer ['a:nsc] n. , ; v. 1. ; 2. ;
answerback ['a:nscbk] n.
( )
antecedent [nt's:dcnt] n. 1.
, , .@
()
. . consequent; 2. .@ , .
antecedent interpretation [nt'si:dcnt n'tc:prtccn]
, . .
belief-invoked interpretation
anti- [n't] pref. -, antialiasing [n'tels] n.
.@ , ,
.
anticipate [n'tspet] v. 1.
; 2. ; 3.

anticipation [nt'specn] n.

anticipation mode [nt'specn


moud] .@ , .
anticipatory [nt'spetcr] adj.

anticipatory control [nt'spetcr kcn'troul] ()


anticipatory paging [nt'spetcr pe] .@ ,
,
, .
anticipatory staging [nt'spetcr 'ste] .@
, . . demand staging
anticoincidence ['ntkou'sdcns]
n.
anticoincidence circuit ['ntkou'sdcns 'sc:kt] ,
anticoincidence element ['ntkou'sdcns 'elmcnt] , , ,

antisymmetric
['ntsmetrk]
adj. ,

30

________________________________________________________________________________________

antisymmetric relation ['ntsmetrk r'lecn]

antisymmetrical ['nt's'metrkcl] adj.


anu ['en] adj., pron. -
( . .); ( . .); ( .
.).# anu longer .#
anu more .# at anu cost
.# at anu rate
; .#
if anu (anuthing) (, ..).# in anu case
(event)
anyhoy ['enhau] adv.

anyway ['enwe] adv.


,
apart [c'pa:t] adv. 1. ,
; 2. ; 3. ;
4. .# apart from apart
, .# wide
apart

APL (A Programming Language) ( )
apparatus [/pc'retcs] n. , , , ,

apparent [c'prcnt] adj. 1. , ; ; 2.

apparent power [c'prcnt 'pauc]



apparent variable [c'prcnt
'vcrcbl] . .
bound variable 2.
appeal [c'pi:l] v. 1. ;
2. ;
appear [c'pc] v. 1. ;
2. ; 3. .# appear

+ inf. - + inf..# it appears

appearance [c'pcrcns] n. 1. ; 2. () , .# to all appearance(s)


.# to make appearance
append [c'pend] v.
; . . concatenate
appendices [c'pendsi:z] pl.
appendix
appendix [c'pendks] n.
appliance [c'placns] n.1. ; ;
; 2.
applicability [pl'keblt] n. 1.
, ; 2.
applicable ['plkcbl] adj. , ,
(to)
applicant ['plkcnt] n. 1. ; 2. ,
application (layer) protocol
[/pl'kecn ('lec) 'proutck]l] , .@ , . . . open systems interconnection
application [/pl'kecn] n. 1.
. . application program; 2. , , ; ; 3. , ;
application call [/pl'kecn k]:l]

application domain [/pl'kecn
dc'men] , -

31

________________________________________________________________________________________

.@ ,
.
application package [/pl'kecn
'pk] , .@
.
application program [/pl'kecn 'proulrm] .@ 1. , ,
;

, ,
. 2.
.
application programmer [/pl'kecn 'proulrmc] ,

application system [/pl'kecn
'sstm]
application terminal [pl'kecn
'tc:mnl] .@
,
.
application-oriented [pl'kecn
']:rcntd]
-
applications software [/pl'kecn 's]ftwc] , .@ ,
-

. .
. system software
applicative language [pl'ketv
'llw] ,
. . functional language
applied [c'plad] adj. ;
applied mathematics [c'plad
/m'mtks]
applied research [c'plad r'sc:]
1. - ; 2.
apply [c'pla] v. 1. .@
N + 1 , ,
,
. 2. ; ; ; 3.
(); 4. ( ..); 5.
appraisal [c'prezcl] n.
appreciable [c'pri:cbl] adj. , ;
appreciate [c'pri:ct] v. 1. ; 2. ; ; 3. ; ;
(in)
approach [c'prou] n. 1. , ,
; 2. , ; 3.
; v. ;
;
appropriate [c'prouprt] adj.1.
, ; 2.
, ; 3. ; v. 1. ; 2.

32

________________________________________________________________________________________

approve [c'pru:v] v. 1.
(of); 2.
approximate [c'pr]ksmet] v.
()
approximate [c'pr]ksmt] adj.

approximate calculation [c/pr]ks'met 'klkjulecn]

approximate equation [c/pr]ks'met 'kwecn] 1. ; 2.


approximate solution [c/pr]ks'met sc'lu: cn]
approximate theory [c/pr]ks'met 'cr]
approximate value [c/pr]ks'met
'vlju:]
approximation [c/pr]ks'mecn]
n. , ,

approximation approach [c/pr]ks'mecn c'prou]
approximation in the mean
[c/pr]ks'mecn n i: mi:n]
approximation method [c/pr]ks'mecn 'mecd] ,
approximation process [c/pr]ks'mecn 'prouses]
approximation theory [c/pr]ks'mecn 'cr]
approximative [c/pr]ks'metv]
adj. ,

apriory ['epra']:ra]
apriory probability ['epra']:ra
/pr]bc'blt]
apt [pt] adj. 1. ; 2.
perdic. , ; 3.
.# to be apt ;
arabic number system ['rcbk
'n7mbc 'sstm]

arbitrary ['a:btrcr] adj. 1. ; 2. .# arbitrary sings and symbols



arbitrary access ['a:btrcr 'kses] .@ ,

arbitrary constant ['a:btrcr
'k]nstcnt]
arbitrary origin ['a:btrcr ']rn]
arbitrary statement ['a:btrcr
'stetmcnt] 1. ; 2.
arc [a:k] n. , .@
;
, .
arc hyperbolic function [a:k
/hapc'b]lk 'f7kcn]
arc of a graph [a:k ]v c lrf]

arc tangent [a:k 'tncnt]
arc trigonometric function [a:k
'trlcnc'metrk 'f7kcn]

arcade game [a:'ked lem] .@ -

33

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
, ,
.
architectural desing (high-level
desing) ['a:ktekcl d'zan] ( )
architecture ['a:ktekc] n. .@
.
archive ['a:kav] n. 1. .@
: ,
,
; 2.
archived file ['a:kavd fal]
,
arcing ['a:k] n. 1. ; 2.

area ['crc] n. 1. ,
; 2. ; 3. ; 4. , ,
areal ['crcl] adj.

argon ['a:l ]n] n.
argue ['a:lju:] v. 1.
; ; ; 2.
argument (arg) ['a:ljumcnt] n. 1.
. . actual
argument 2. 2. ; 3. ; 4.
argument field ['a:ljumcnt fi:ld]
.@

,

argument list ['a:ljumcnt lst]



argument passing ['a:ljumcnt
'pa:s] . .
parameter passing
argument solicitation ['a:ljumcnt sc/ls'tecn] ,

argument type list ['a:ljumcnt
tap lst] ()

arise [c'raz] v. (arose, arisen) 1.


; 2.
(from)
arithmetic [c'rmctk] n. 1.
, .@
. 2. .@ .
arithmetic and logical unit
(ALU) [c'rmctk nd 'l]kcl ju:nt]
- ,
, ,
.@ ,

.
arithmetic calculation [c'rmctk 'klkjulecn]

arithmetic check
[c'rmctk
tek]
arithmetic device [c'rmctk
d'vas]
arithmetic expression [c'rmctk ks'precn]
arithmetic function [c'rmctk
'f7kcn]
arithmetic operation [c'rmctk
/]pc'recn] -

34

________________________________________________________________________________________

.@ ,
arithmetic operator [c'rmctk
']pcretc]
arithmetic register [c'rmctk
'restc]

arithmetic series [c'rmctk 'scri:z]


arithmetic shift [c'rmctk ft]
.@
, ,

. . logical shift
arithmetic speed [c'rmctk
spi:d]
arithmetic technique [c'rmctk
tek'ni:k]

arithmetic unit [c'rmctk ju:nt] ,
, - , . . arithmetic and
logical unit
arithmetic(al)
[c'rmctk(cl)]
adj.
arithmetic(al) circuit [c'rmctk(cl) 'sc:kt]
arithmetic(al) instruction [c'rmctk(cl) n'str7kcn]
arithmetic(al) mean [c'rmctk(cl) mi:n]
,

arithmetic(al) shift [c'rmctk(cl) ft]

arity [c'rat] n. , ,
arity of an operator [c'rat ]v
cn ]'pcretc]
arm [a:m] n. 1. (
); 2. (); 3. ;
4. pl. ; ; v. ().# arms race .# to be armed with information

armature ['a:mctjuc] n.
armed interrupt [a:md ntc'r7pt]
, . . disabled
interrupt
around [c'raund] adv. 1. ;
2. ,
arrange [c'ren] v. 1. , , ; 2.
arrangement [c'renmcnt] n. 1.
, ; , ; 2.
; 3.
array [c're] n. 1. .@
.
. 2. , ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ; 6.
array cell [c're si:l]

array declaration [c're /deklc'recn]


array descriptor [c're ds'krptc]
, .@
, ,

35

________________________________________________________________________________________


.
array element [c're 'elmcnt]

array element successor function [c're 'elmcnt sck'sesc 'f7kcn]
1.
; 2.
array identifier [c're a'dentfac]
array list [c're lst]
array of cores array [c're ]v
k]:s c're]
array processor [c're 'prousesc]
;
.@ ,
: .
,
, . . . SIMD architecture
array representation [c're /reprzen'tecn]

array segment [c're 'selmcnt]



array variable [c're 'vcrcbl]
,
arrest [c'rest] v. ;
;
arrival [c'ravcl] n. ;
,
arrival rate [c'ravcl ret] (, )

arrive [c'rav] v. 1.
(at, in); 2. (at).# to arrive
at a conclusion .# to arrive at a decision

arrow ['rou] n.
arsenide ['a:snad] n.
art [a:t] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3. , .# state of
(the) art
( ..)
art strokes [a:t strouks]
artefact ['a:tfkt] n. 1. ; 2. , ;
2.
article ['a:tkl] n. 1. ; 2.
, ; 3. , ; 4.
artificial [/a:ti'ficl] adj.
artificial intelligence (AI) [/a:ti'ficl n'telcns]
artificial language [/a:ti'ficl
'llw]
artificial perception [/a:ti'ficl
pc'sepcn] .
. . pattern recognition
artificial system [/a:ti'ficl 'sstm] .@ , .
artist ['a:tst] n. 1. ; 2.
; 3.
artistic median ['a:tstk 'mi:djc]

as [z] adv. ; prp. ; . ; cj. 1. ; 2. ,
; ; 3.

36

________________________________________________________________________________________

, ; 4. ; ,
(
, : strange as it
is ); pron. , ; .# as as
; .# as affected
().# as
against .# as between .# as
compared to (with)
.# as a consequence .#
as consistent with
.# as contrasted to (with) -..# as distinct
from .# as early as
, .# as (is) evidenced by
.# as far as ; ; .# as far as
is concerned ;
.# as far as it goes , .# as far back as , .# as
following from .# as follows ; .# as for , .# as from .# as good
as , ; .# as
granted
.# as
judged by (from) .# as if
, .# as though
, .# as inferring
that , ;
, .# as is also .# as
it is (as they are) , .# as it does (as they
do) , .# as it stands
.# as it were
; .# as late as .#
as long as ; .# as long
ago as , .# as a conservative
estimate .#
as a matter of convenience
.# as a matter of course

.#
as a matter of engineering judgement ;
.# as a
matter of experience .# as a matter of fact ,
.# as a matter of record .# as it were ,
.# as many (much) .#
as much as ( . as high as, as large
as, as little as, as low as) (
); ,
.# as of (2000)
(2000 .).# as often as not .# as on .# as opposed to ,
.# as per .# as
regards , .# as relating to .#
as soon as .# as such
; ; .#
as time goes on .# as to ; ; .# as well ;
.# as well as ();
().# as a whole .# as
yet ; , .# in as
much as ; ,
.# so as + inf. , + inf..#
(in) so far as .# (in) so far
as is concerned ; ;
ascend [c'send] v.
ascender [c'sendc] n. (). . descender
ascending sort [c'send s]:t]
.@ , . . descending sort

37

________________________________________________________________________________________

ascertain [sc'ten] v. ,
ascribe [cs'krab] v. (, ),

aside [c'sad] adv. ;
.# aside from , .# to put aside .# to set aside
ASII (American Standard Code
for Information Interchange) .@ ,
.
. . extended ASII
ASII format ['f]mt]
.@
ASII
ASII keyboard ['ki:b]:d] ,
ASII
ASII terminal ['tc:mnl] (ASII)
ask [a:sk] v. 1. , ; 2. (for)
askable [a:sk'ebl] adj. .@
,

aspect ['spekt] n. 1. ,
; 2. ; 3.
aspect ratio ['spekt 'reou] 1.
.@ . 2.


.

assay [c'se] n. 1. ;
; ; 2.
assemblage [c'sembl] n. 1. , ; 2. ,

assemble [c'sembl] v. 1. ( ); 2.
(); 3.
assembler (asm) [c'semblc] n. 1.
, ( ); 2. . .
. assembly language
assembler directive [c'semblc
d'rektv] . .
. compiler directive
assembler language [c'semblc
'llw]

assembling [c'sembl] n. ,

assembly [c'sembl] n. 1. ( ), ; 2. , , ; 3. , ; 4.
,
assembly language [c'sembl
'llw] ,
assembly language listing [c'sembl 'llw lst]


assembly list [c'sembl lst]

assembly method [c'sembl 'mecd] 1. ; 2.

assembly phase [c'sembl 'fez]
()

38

________________________________________________________________________________________

assembly program [c'sembl


'proulrm]
assembly routine [c'sembl ru:'ti:n] ,
-
assembly system [c'sembl 'sstm]
,

assert [c'sc:t] v. 1. ,
. . . assertion 1.
2. , .@
. 3. ( ..)
assert statement [c'sc:t 'stetmcnt] .@ , ,
. ,
.
assertion [c'sc:cn] n. 1. , .@ ,
. 2. .
. assert statement
assertion checker [c'sc:cn 'tekc] , .@ ,
,
,

,
.
assertion operator [c'sc:cn ]'pcretc] . . assert
statement

assess [c'scs] v. ,
asset ['set] v. ;

assign (asg, asgn) [c'sa] v.1.
; 2. , . . . assignment; 3.
assignable object [c'saebl
]'bkt ] .@ , , ,
. . . ivalue
assigned
frequency
(AF)
[c'sad 'fri:kwcns]
assignment [c'samcnt] n. 1.
.@ , ,
,
. 2. .@
,
. 3.
assignment problem [c'samcnt
'pr]blcm] 1.
(. ); 2.
assignment statement [c'samcnt 'stetmcnt]
assignment symbol [c'samcnt
'smbcl]
assignment-free
language
[c'samcnt'fri: 'llw] .
. . functional language
assist [c'sst] v.

39

________________________________________________________________________________________

assistance [c'sstcns] n. ,

assisted panel [c'sstd 'pnl] ,


.@
,

.
associate [c'souet] v. 1. , ; ; 2. .# associated disciplines

associate [c'sout] n. 1. , ; 2. ; 3. -
association [c/sous'ecn] n. 1.
; ; ;
; 2.
association factor [c/sous'ecn
'fktc]
association list [c/sous'ecn lst]
.@
( , ).
associative [c/sous'etv] adj. ,
associative addressing [c/sous'etv c'dres] .@ , , ,
.
associative computer [c/sous'etv kcm'pju:tc]

associative interrogation register [c/sous'etv n'terclecn 'restc]

associative law [c/sous'etv l]:]


associative
memory
(AM)
[c/sous'etv memcr]
.@ ,

.
.
associative operation [c/sous'etv /]pc'recn] .@ , .
associative storage [c/sous'etv
'st]:r]
associativity [c/sous'etvt] n.
,
associativity relation [c/sous'etvt r'lecn]
assume [c'sju:m] v. 1. ,
; 2. , (, . .)
assumed decimal point [c'sju:md
'desmcl pont] .@
,

.

, . . actual
decimal point
assumed function [c'sju:md
'f7kcn]
assumption [c's7mpcn] n. , .# on the
assumption
assure [c'uc] v. 1. ; 2.

40

________________________________________________________________________________________

AST routine [ru:'ti:n]



astable ['tebl]
astable
blocking
oscillator
(ABO) ['tebl bl]k /]s'letc] -
asterisk ['stcrsk] *;

asymmetric relation [/s'metrk


r'lecn]
asymmetry [/s'metr] n.
asymptotic(al) ['smpt]tk(cl)]
adj.
asymptotic(al)
distribution
['smpt]tk(cl) ds'trbju:cn]
asymptotic(al) formula ['smpt]tk(cl) 'f]:mjulc]

asymptotic(al) mean ['smpt]tk(cl) mi:n]


asymptotic(al) path ['smpt]tk(cl) pa:]
asynchronous
[e'skrcncs]
().@
,

,
.
asynchronous circuit [e'skrcncs 'sc:kt]
asynchronous communication
[e'skrcncs kc/mjun'kecn] ,

asynchronous communications
interfase adapter (ACIA)

asynchronous
system
trap
(AST) [e'skrcncs 'sstm trp]
.@ ,

:
, (,
,
). . synchronous system
trap
asynchronous time division
multiplexing (ATDM) [e'skrcncs
tam d'vcn 'm7ltipleks] ,
asynchronous transmission [e'skrcncs trnz'mcn]
. synchronous
transmission
A-test [e'test]

atmosphere ['tmcsfc] n.
atmospheric [/tmcs'ferk] adj.

ATNgrammar ['lrmc] ATN.@ ,


.
atom ['tcm] n.
atomic [c't]mk] adj.
attach [c'tt] v. 1. .@
. ,
. 2. , -

41

________________________________________________________________________________________

; 3. ( ..
to)
attached procedure [c'ttt prc'si:c] .
@ ,

.
attached task [c'ttt ta:sk]
attachment [c'ttment] n. 1.
; 2.
attack [c'tk] v. 1. ; 2.
; 3. ; n. 1. ,
; 2.
attackable [c'tkcbl] adj. ; 2.
attain [c'ten] v. ,

attainable [c'tencbl] adj.


attainable accuracy [c'tencbl
'kjurcs]
attainment [c'tenment] n.
attempt [c'tempt] v. ,
; ; n.
attend [c'tend] v. 1. ( , ..);
2. ; ; 3.
.# to attend to
-.; -.,
-., -.
attendant [c'tendcnd] adj.
attended time [c'tendd tam]

attention [c'tencn] n. .# to attract (draw. call) attention

to .# to give
attention to .# to
pay attention to
attention device (AD) [c'tencn
d'vas] ,

attenuate [c'tenjut] v. 1. ; ; 2.
attenuation [c'tenjucn] n. .@

, .

.
attenuator [c'tenjutc] n. ,
attitude ['ttju:d] n. ,

attract [c'trkt] v. 1. ; ; 2. ,
attraction [c'trkcn] n. 1. ; 2. ;
3.
attraction
mode
[c'trkcn
moud] .@
( ), .
attractive [c'trktv] n. ; adj.
attribute (attributive) grammar
['trbju:t ('trbju:tv) 'lrmc] () .@ - ,

42

________________________________________________________________________________________

.

.
attribute ['trbju:t] n. 1. , .@ , . 2. .@ 1.
,
. . . data element 2.
,
, ,
, . 3. ; , ; v. -.; -. (to).# to be attributable to -.;
-., -.
attribute-value list ['trbju:t'vlju: lst] .@
,
.
attribute-value table ['tribju:t'vlju: 'tebl] . . attribute-value list
audible [']:dcbl] adj. ;
audio [']:dou] n. : adj.
audio frequency (AF) [']:dou
'fri:kwcns]
audio response unit (ARU)
[']:dou ris'p]ns ju:nt]

audio-frequency shift keying
(AFSK) [']:dou'fri:kwcns ft ki:]

audit [']:dt] n. ,

audit log [']:dt l]l] . . audit trail


audit trail [']:dt trel] .@ ,
.
augend [']:lcnd] n. ,
.@ , . . addend
augment []:l'ment] n. 1. , .@ , .
v. (), ()
augmented []:l'mentd] , . . extensible
addressing
augmented addressing (augmenting) []:l'mentd c'dres] ().@
( ) ( ) .
augmented matrix []:l'mentd
'metrks] ()
augmented transition network
(ATN) []:l'mentd trn'scn 'ntwc:k]
.@
,

,
.
authentification []:'entfkecn]
n. .@

43

________________________________________________________________________________________

, ()
.


.
;

, ,
,

.
authentification code []:'entfkecn koud] 1. .
@ ,

. 2.
authentification of message
[]:'entfkecn ]v 'mesi] .@
.
, .
authentification of user []:'entfkecn ]v 'ju:zc]
.@ .


.
authorization [/]:cra'zecn] n.
1. , ;
2.

authorization matrix [/]:'cra'zecn 'metrks] .@ , ,


;
.
authorized [']:crazd] adj. 1.
; 2. , .@
,

.
authorized access [']:crazd
'kses]
authorized user [']:crazd 'ju:zc] 1. ; 2.
autocode [/]:tou'koud] n. .@ (
).
autocorrelation function ( ACF)
[/]:tou'k]r'lecn 'f7kcn]
autodecremental
addressing
[/]:tou'dekrmcntcl c'dres] .@ , ;
( ) . . autoincremental addressing
autodump [/]:tou'd7mp] n. .@

.

44

________________________________________________________________________________________

autoincremental
addressing
[/]:tou'nkrmcntcl c'dres] .@
,
;
(
)
. . autodecremental addressing
autoload [/]:tou'loud] n. .@ 1. . 2.
.
automat []:'tcmt] n.
automata []:'tcmtc] pl.
automation
automata theory []:'tcmtc 'cr]
automated classification and interface adapter (ACID) []:'tcmtid
/klsf'kecn nd /ntc'fes c'dptc]


automated copmputing equipment (ACE) []:'tcmtid kcm'pju:t
'kwpmcnt] -

automated data processing


(ADP) []:'tcmtid 'detc 'prouses]
,

automatic (aut) [/]:'tcmtk] adj.

automatic abstracting [/]:'tcmtk 'bstrkt] .@ .

automatic binary data link


(ABDL) [/]:'tcmtk 'bancr 'detc
lk]
automatic calculation [/]:'tcmtk 'klkjulecn]
automatic calculator [/]:'tcmtk 'klkjuletc]
automatic calling unit [/]:'tcmtk 'k]:l 'ju:nt] .@ ,


.
automatic character generation
[/]:'tcmtk 'krktc 'encrecn] .@

automatic check [/]:'tcmtk


tek]
automatic chrominance control
(ACC) [/]:'tcmtk 'kroumncns kcntroul]

automatic circuit restoration
(ACR) [/]:'tcmtk 'sc:kt rs't]:recn]

automatic code translation
(ACT) [/]:'tcmtk koud trns'lecn]

automatic coding language
[/]:'tcmtk 'koud 'llw]

automatic coding system [/]:'tcmtk koud 'sstm]

45

________________________________________________________________________________________

automatic color control (ACC)


[/]:'tcmtk 'k7lc kcn'troul]
automatic computer [/]:'tcmtk
kcm'pju:tc]
automatic computer-controlled
electronic
scanning
system
(ACCESS) [/]:'tcmtk kcm'pju:tc'kcn'troult /lek'tr]nk 'skn 'sstm]


automatic control [/]:'tcmtk
kcn'troul] 1. (); 2.
automatic control system [/]:'tcmtk kcn'troul 'sstm] 1. (); 2.
automatic data conversion
[/]:'tcmtk 'detc kcn'vc:cn] .@


.
automatic data link (ADL)
[/]:'tcmtk 'detc lnk] ()

automatic
data
processing
[/]:'tcmtk 'detc 'prouses]
automatic
data
processing
equipment (ADPE) [/]:'tcmtk 'detc
'prouses 'kwpmcnt]

automatic data processing system (ADPS) [/]:'tcmtk 'detc 'prouses 'sstm]

automatic diagnosis [/]:'tcmtk


/dacl'nouss]
automatic digital encoding system (ADES) [/]:'tcmtk 'dtl
n'koud 'sstm]
automatic digital-data error recorder (ADDER) [/]:'tcmtk 'dtl'detc 'erc 'rek]:dc]


automatic error detection [/]:'tcmtk 'erc d'tekcn]

automatic exchange [/]:'tcmtk
ks'en] 1. ;
2. ; 3.
automatic frequency control
(AFC) [/]:'tcmtk 'fri:kwcns kcn'troul]
()
automatic gain control (AGC)
[/]:'tcmtk len kcn'troul]
automatic intercept system
(AIS) [/]:'tcmtk /ntc'sept 'sstm]

automatic interrupt [/]:'tcmtk
/intc'r7pt] 1. ; 2.

automatic machine [/]:'tcmtk


mc'i:n] .@ ,
. -

46

________________________________________________________________________________________


.
automatic manual switch [/]:'tcmtk 'mnjucl sw]
.@

automatic message exchange


[/]:'tcmtk 'mesi ks'en] 1.
; 2.
automatic modulation limiting
(AML) [/]:'tcmtk /m]djulecn 'lmt]

automatic network analyzer
(ANA) [/]:'tcmtk 'netwc:k 'nclazc]
automatic noise limiter (ANL)
[/]:'tcmtk n]z 'lmtc]
automatic overload control
(AOC) [/]:'tcmtk /ouvc'loud kcn'troul]

automatic phase control (APC)
[/]:'tcmtk 'fez kcn'troul]
automatic
plotter
(AUTOPLOT) [/]:'tcmtk 'pl]tc]
automatic polarity indication
(AUTOPOL) [/]:'tcmtk 'poulcrt
'ndkecn]
automatic power control (APC)
[/]:'tcmtk 'pauc kcn'troul]
automatic program search system (APSS) [/]:'tcmtk 'proulrm

sc:t 'sstm]
automatic programmable logic
array synthesis system (APLAS)
[/]:'tcmtk 'proulrmebl 'l]k c're
sn'ess 'sstm]


automatic programming [/]:'tcmtk 'proulrm]
.@ . ,
, .
automatic
remote
control
(ARC) [/]:'tcmtk r'mout kcn'troul]

automatic request (ARQ) [/]:'tcmtk r'kwest]
automatic selective control
(ASC) [/]:'tcmtk s'lektv kcn'troul]

automatic sensitive control
(ASC) [/]:'tcmtk s'lektv kcn'troul]

automatic sequence [/]:'tcmtk
'si:kwcns]
automatic stabilization and control system (ASCS) [/]:'tcmtk
/stebl'zecn nd kcn'troul 'sstm]

47

________________________________________________________________________________________

automatic storage allocation


[/]:'tcmtk 'st]:r 'lckecn]
automatic switch center (ASC)
[/]:'tcmtk sw 'sentc]
automatic
test
equipment
(ATE) [/]:'tcmtk test 'kwpmcnt]
()
( )
automatic threshold variation
(ATV) [/]:'tcmtk 'rehould 'vcri'ecn]

automatic translation (AT)


[/]:'tcmtk trns'lecn]
automatic variable [/]:'tcmtk
'vcrcbl]

automatic
voltage
control
(AVC) [/]:'tcmtk 'voult kcn'troul]

automatic zero set (AZS) [/]:'tcmtk 'zcrou set]

automatical cognition [/]:'tcmtkcl k]l'ncn]
automatical data processing
(ADP) [/]:'tcmtkcl 'detc 'prouses]

automatically
[/]:'tcmtkcl]
adv.
automatically taught system
[/]:'tcmtkcl t]:t 'sstm]
automation [/]:tc'mecn] n. 1.
.@

(, , . .). 2. ; 3.
; 4. .@ , .
autonomous system []:'t]ncmcs
'sstm]
autothread [/]:tc'red] n. . . autoload
auxiliary (AUX, aux) []:l'zljcr].@

, . adj.
auxiliary accumulator []:l'zljcr c'kju:mjuletc]
,
auxiliary device []:l'zljcr d'vas]
auxiliary ground equipment
(AGE) []:l'zljcr lraund 'kwpmcnt]


auxiliary information []:l'zljcr
/nfc'mecn] ()
auxiliary key []:l'zljcr ki:]
. . secondary key
auxiliary memory (AM) []:l'zljcr 'memcr] ,
.
. backing storage
auxiliary power unit (APU)
[]:l'zljcr 'ju:nt]

48

________________________________________________________________________________________

auxiliary quantity []:l'zljcr


'kw]ntt]
auxiliary routine []:l'zljcr
ru:'ti:n]
auxiliary storage []:l'zljcr 'st]:r] , . . backing storage
avail [c'vel] v. ,
.# of no avail .# to avail (oneself) of -..# to be of avail

availability [c/velc'blt] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3. ; 4.
availability ratio [c/velc'blt
'reou]
. @
available (free) list [c/velc'bl
(fri:) lst] () .@ .
available [c/velc'bl]
adj. 1.
; ; 2. ; 3. .# to be available
.# to become available
.# to make available ;
available accuracy [c/velc'bl
'kjurcs]
available gain (AG) [c/velc'bl
len]

available time [c/velc'bl tam]


.@
,
.

avalanche ['vcla:n] n. 1. ; 2.
avalanche multiplication ['vcla:n /m7ltpl'kecn]
avenue ['vnju:] n. 1. ;
; 2. ;
average ['vcr] adj. ;
; v. 1.
(),
; 2. ;
(.); n. ; .# on the average
average calculating operation
['vcr 'klkjulet /]pc'recn] ,
average counting device ['vcr 'kaunt d'vas]

average efficiency ['vcr 'fcns]
average speed ['vcr spi:d]
,

average-case analysis ['vcr'kes c'nlcsz]


averaging ['vcr] n.
averaging operator ['vcr
']pcretc]
Averican National Standarts
Institute (ANSI)
AVL tree (Adelson-Velsky and
Landis tree) [e'vi:'el tri:] AVL, ( ) .@ ,
,
. -

49

________________________________________________________________________________________


. . . balanced tree
avoid [c'v]d] v.
awake [c'wek] v. (awoke; awoke, awaked) 1. ;
( . .); 2. ;

awaken [c'wekcn] v. 1. ( . .) 2.
award [c'w]:d] v.
-., -.
aware [c'wc] adj. .#
to be aware of ,
away [c'we] adv. 1. ; 2. .# far away
; ,
awkward [']wcd] adj. , ;
axes ['kss] pl.
axial ['kscl] adj.
axiom ['kscm] n.
axiom of infinity ['kscm n'fnt]
axiom scheme ['kscm ski:m]

axiomatic semantics [/ksc'mtk si'mntiks] . @


, , , , .
axiomatic(al) ['ksc'mtik(cl)]
adj. , ,

axiomatic(al) method ['ksc'mtik(cl) 'mecd]

axiomatic(al) set theory ['ksc'mtik(cl) set 'cr]



axiomatic(al) system ['ksc'mtik(cl) 'sstm]
,
axiomatics ['ksc'mtiks] n.
axis ['kss] n. 1. ; 2.

azimuth ['zmc] n.
azimuthal ['zmccl] adj.
utomorphism [/]:tc'm]:fzm] n.
.@ () .

B*
back ['bk] adv. 1. , ; 2. ; adj. ; v. .# back and forth
, .# as far back
as ,
back action ['bk 'kcn] , ,
back bias ['bk 'bacs]

back face ['bk fes]


.@
, , . . .
hidden surface
back face removal ['bk fes r'mu:vcl] -

50

________________________________________________________________________________________

. . hidden surface removal


back out ['bk aut]
(); ( )
back space [bk spes]

back wave [bk wev]
backbone ['bkbound] n. 1.
; 2. ; ;
; adj.
backbone network ['bkboun
'netwc:k] .@ , .
back-end ['bk/end] ; .@ ,
. . front-end
back-end interface ['bk/end
/ntc'fes] .@
(,
, ,

). . front-end interface
back-end processor ['bk/end
'prousesc] 1. , (
); 2.
background ['bklraund] n. 1.
. . program background 2. , ; 3. .@ ,
,
, . . foreground. 4. ; 5.
; 6. , ; ; 7. ;

; adj. .#
background of experience .# historical
background
background color ['bklraund
'k7lc]
background job ['bklraund
]b]
background printing ['bklraund 'prnt] .@

.
background process ['bklraund 'prouses] .@
,
,

.
. foreground process
background processing ['bklraund 'prouses] ,
. @ ()
,
.
background program ['bklraund 'proulrm]
background queue ['bklraund
kju:]
background region ['bklraund
'ri:cn] .@
(), .
background task ['bklraund
ta:sk] ,
backgrounding ['bklraund] n.
, . . background processing
backing storage ['bk 'st]:r]
, -

51

________________________________________________________________________________________

.@ ,
;
. . main storage
backplan ['bkplen] ()
backslant ['bksla:nt] n.
backslash ['bksl] n. \;

backspace (BS) ['bkspes] n. 1.
.@
,

. ASII
8. 2. (
)
backspace ['bkspes] v. ()
back-to-back (BB, bb) [bk'tu:'bk]
backtrace ['bktres] n. .@
,
.
backtracking ['bktrk] n. .@ (, ),

.
backup (BAK) ['bk'7p] n. 1.
, ; ; 2. ; v.
; adj.
backup copy ['bk'7p k]p] ,

backup file ['bk'7p fal] ,

backup version ['bk'7p 'vc:cn]



Backus normal form (BNF)
[n]:mcl f]:m] , .@

Backus notation [nou'tecn]
.
. Backus normal form (BNF)
Backus-Naur form [f]:m] . .
Backus normal form (BNF)
backward ['bkwcd] adj.
backward diode (Bd, bd)
['bkwcd 'daoud]
backward error analysis ['bkwcd 'erc c'nlcsz]

backward error correction


(backward correction) ['bkwcd 'erc
kc'rekcn] .@
,


.
backward read ['bkwcd ri:d]
.@

.
backward reference ['bkwcd
'refrcns] .@ , . . forward reference

52

________________________________________________________________________________________

backward-chaining ['bkwcd'te] .@

,
,
;
,
,
. . forward- chaining.
. . goal-invoked interpretation
badge reader [b 'ri:dc]

badly ['bdl] adv. 1. ; 2.



bag (multiset) [bl (/m7lt'set)]
n. (
).@ 1.
, .
. set; 2.

.

,


() ,
.
balance ['blcns] n. 1. ; 2.
; 3. ; 4. ; 5.
; 6. ; 7. ;
v. 1. ; 2. .# on (upon) balance
,
balanced ['blcnst] adj. ,

balanced multiway search tree


['blcnst 'm7twe sc:t tri:] -,
-. . B-tree
balanced sample ['blcnst 'sa:mpl]
balanced tree ['blcnst tri:] .@ ,


1.

. . . AVL-tree,
B-tree
balancing ['blcns] n. ,
ball [d]:l] n. ,
band (Bd, bd) [bnd] n. 1. .@ , ,

.
. 2. ; 3. ; v. 1. ; 2. ()
band limited channel [bnd
'lmtd 'nl]
.@ .
band matrix [bnd 'metrks]
.@ ,

,

band printer [bnd 'prntc] .@
-
.
bandgap ['bnd/lp] n.

53

________________________________________________________________________________________

bandpass ['nd/pa:s] n.

bandpass
filter
(BPF)
['bnd/pa:s 'filtc] .
@ ,
, .
bandpass limiter (BPM) ['bnd/pa:s 'lmtc]
band-stop (-reject) filter ['bnd/st]p(r'ekt) 'filtc]
.@ , ,

()
()
.
bandwidth (BW, bw) ['bnd/wd] .@ .
bank [bk] n.
bank switching [bk 'sw]
.@ ,
() ,

.
,

.
banner page ['bnc pe] .@
, ,
.
banner ['bnc] n. .@
,

.
bar [ba:] n. 1. ; ;
; 2. (. ); 3.
, ; v. 1. ; 2.
; 3. ;
; 4. ;
bar chart [ba: a:t]
bar code [ba: koud]
.@ , .
bar code scanner [ba: koud
'sknc]
bar graph [ba: lrf]
, (
)
bar printer [ba: 'prntc]
barcode wizard ['ba:'koud 'wzcd] -
bare [bc] adj.
bare board [bc b]:d]
, ,

bare machine [bc mc'i:n] .@


.
barely ['bcl] adv. 1. ; 2.
,
barrel printer ['brcl 'prntc] .@
-
.
barrier layer ['brc 'lec] ,

54

________________________________________________________________________________________

basal ['besl] adj. ,


base [bes] n. 1. , ; 2. , ; 3. ,
; v. 1. ,
; 2.
base address [bes c'dres] .@ ,
.
, .
base addressing [bes c'dres]
.@
, , .
base and displacement [bes
nd ds'plesmcnt] .@

;
. . .
segment and offset
base integer [bes 'ntc] 1.
.@ . 2. .@ ,
(, 1917 1999 0
82).
base page [bes pe]
.@ , -

,
.
base register [bes 'restc] .@ ,
.
base terminal [bes 'tc:mnl]
base type [bes tap]
.@ ,

baseband (BB, bb) ['besbnd]

baseband LAN ['besbnd]
. @ , , . . broadband LAN
baseband networking ['besbnd net'wc:k] () .@ ,
, . . .
base-bound registers ['besbaund 'restcs]
.@
, , .
base-limit registers ['bes'lmt
'restcs]
. base-bound registers
base-line ['bes'lan] 1. ,
.@ . 2. ( )
base-of stack register ['bes/]v
stk 'restc]
()

55

________________________________________________________________________________________

basic ['besk] adj. 1. ;


2. ; 3.
basic access method [besk 'kses 'mecd] .
@ IBM
, . . queued access method
basic automatic checkout equipment (BACE) ['besk /]:'tcmtk
'tekaut 'kwpmcnt]
basic circuit ['besk 'sc:kt] ()
basic concept ['besk 'k]nsept]

basic direct access method
(BDAM) ['besk d'rekt 'kses 'mecd] .@ ,

.
basic disk operating system
(BDOS) ['besk dsk ']pcreit 'sstm]
, .@ - ,

, ,
- . . .
BIOS
basic indexed sequential access
method (BISAM) ['besk 'ndekst
s'kwencl 'kses 'mecd]
-
.@ , ,
. -

, .
basic instruction ['besk n'str7kcn]
basic order circuit ['besk ]:'dc
'sc:kt]
basic partitioned access method
(BPAM) ['besk pa:'ticnd 'kses 'mecd]
.@ , .
basic processing unit (BPU)
['besk 'prouses 'ju:nt]
basic research ['besk r'sc:]

basic sequential access method
(BSAM) ['besk s'kwencl 'kses
'mecd]
.@
,
.
basic symbol ['besk 'smbcl]

basic telecommunication access
method (BTAM) ['besk 'telkc/mju:n'kecn 'kses 'mecd] .@ ,
.
basically ['beskcl] adv. ,
basis ['bess] n. (pl. bases ) 1.
, ; 2.
; 3. .# on a weight basis
.# on this basis

basis circuit ['bess 'sc:kt] ()

56

________________________________________________________________________________________

batch [bt] n. 1. .@ , ; ,
. 2. , ; ; adj.
batch control [bt kcn'troul]
.@ ,
,
.
batch design [bt d'zan]
batch entry [bt 'entr] ()
batch file (BAT) [bt fal] . . command file
batch header [bt 'hedc] .@ ,
.
batch job [bt ]b]
.@ ,
.
batch mode [bt moud] , . . . batch processing
batch processing [bt 'prouses] .@ ,
.
batch production [bt 'pr]dckcn]
batch trailer [bt 'trelc] .@

,
.

batching ['bt] n. 1. ; 2.
batch-oriented ['bt']:rcntd]
, -.@ .
batchwise['btwaz] adv.
battery ['btcr] n. 1. ;
, (); 2.
()
baud [b]:d] n. .@
,
( ) . 1 = 1
;


.
baud rate [b]:d ret]

Baudot code [baud]t koud]
,

be [bi:] v. (sing. was, pl. vere;


been) 1. , ; 2.
, .# to be + inf. + .; + .;
+ .; , +
..# to be about +
..# to be going +
..# to be of inportance (value)
.# to be of interest
.# to be of no
help ;
beam [bi:m] n. ,
beam forming (BF) [bi:m 'f]:m] ()

57

________________________________________________________________________________________

beam-forming network (BFN)


[bi:m'f]:m 'netwc:k]
beam-of-light
transistor
(BOLT) [bi:m']v'lat trn'zstc]
beam-switching tube (BST)
[bi:m'sw tju:b] -
bear [bc] v. (bore, born) 1. ; 2. ; ; 3.
; 4. ;
5. , (on,
upon); 7. .# to bear in
mind ; .# to bear
a relation(ship) to
.# to bear a similarity .# to have a bearing on (upon)
;
bearer holder [bcr 'houldc]

beat oscillator (BO) [bi:t ']sletc]


beat-frequency oscillator (BFO)
[bi:t'fri:kwcns ']sletc]

because [b'k]:z] cj. ;


.# because of -, .# because of momentum
;
bed in [bed n]
before [b'f]:] prp. 1. ; 2.
; cj. ; ; adv.
1. ; 2. , .# before long , .# long before
( ).# shortly before ( ).# well
before ( )
beforehand [b'f]:hnd] adv. ;
before-look journal [b'f]:/luk
'c:nl] .@ ,


.
. .
after-look journal
begin [b'ln] v. (began, begun)
().# to begin with
, -
beginning-(of)-file label [b'ln
(]v)'fal 'lebl] ;
. . . file label
beginning-of-information marker (BIM) [b'ln']v/nfc'mecn
'ma:kc] .
@ ,
.
beginning-of-tape marker [b'ln']v'tep 'ma:kc]
. . beginning-of-information
marker
beginning-of-transmition marker (BOT) [b'ln']v/trnz'mcn
'ma:kc]
beginning-of-volume label [b'ln']v'v]ljum 'lebl] .@
, .
behalf [b'ha:f] n. : .# in behalf of .# on behalf of .# on my
behalf
behave [b'hev] v. ,

behaviour [b'hevjc] n. 1. ; 2. ()
BEL (bell) ,
.@ ,
.
ASII 7.

58

________________________________________________________________________________________

belief [b'li:f] n. 1. , .@
. 2. ;
(in); 3. ()
belief-invoked
interpretation
[b'li:f/n'voukt n/tc:pr'tecn] ,
.@
,

.
. goal-invoked interpretation
believe [b'li:v] v. 1. ; 2.
,
bell [bel] n. 1. ; ;
2.
Bell Laboratories (Bell labs).@

( AT&T),
,

.
belong [b'l]] v. 1. (to); 2. (to)
below [b'lou] prp. , ;
adv. ,
belt [belt] n. ,
belt printer [belt 'prntc] . .
band printer
benchmark ['bentma:k] n. . . . benchmarking
benchmark package ['bentma:k
'pk]
benchmark problem ['bentma:k
'pr]blcm]
benchmark program ['bentma:k
'proulrm] .@ , -


.
benchmark test ['bentma:k test]
. . . benchmarking
benchmarking ['bentma:k] n.
.@ (
)
.
bench-replacement
assembly
(BRA) ['bent/r'plesmcnt c'sembl]
;
bend [bend] n. ; ; v.
,
bending [bend] n. ;
beneficial [ben'fcl] adj.
benefit ['benft] n. , ; v. 1. ,
-. (by); 2. ;
.#
for the benefit of , .# to the
benefit of .# without
the benefit of
benign [b'nan] adj. 1. ;
2. ; 3.
beset [b'set] v.
beside [b'sad] prp. ;

besides [b'sadz] prp. ;


adv.
Besier curve [kc:v]
.@ .
,

.

59

________________________________________________________________________________________

best [best] adj. (. good) ; adv.


.# best value .# at best .#
to the best of our knowledge .# to do one's
best .# to make
the best -.
best fit [best ft] .@ ,

, . . first fit
beta-node ['btc'noud] -, . . .
and/or tree
beta-test ['btc'test]
;
between [b'twi:n] prp. .#
as between .#
few and far between
beyond [b'j]nd] prp. 1.
; ; 2. , ; 3. ;
adv. ; .# beyond
the reach .# to be (go)
beyond (outside) the scope
-.
bias ['bacs] n. 1. ,
, ;
2. , ; 3.
; v.
bias wire ['bacs wac]
,
biased ['bacst] adj. ,

biased data ['bacst 'detc] -
, .@ ,


.
biased exponent ['bacst eks'pouncnt] , .@
,
,
.
biased sample ['bacst 'sa:mpl]
.@ ,

.
biased sampling ['bacst 'sa:mpl]
biconditional [b'kcndcnl] adj.

biconditional implication [b'kcndcnl /mpl'kecn]


,
biconditional operation [b'kcndcnl /]pc'recn]
bidirectional printer [b'drekcnl 'prntc] .@
, , ,
.
bidirectional switch [b'drekcnl
sw]
bidirectional triod thyristor
[b'drekcnl 'traoud 'arstc]
bifurcation [/bafc:ke'cn] 1.
.@ -

60

________________________________________________________________________________________

. 2. .@ .
bijection [bi:'ckcn]
( )
bilateral [ba'ltcrcl] adj.
billion ['bljcn] n. 1. (
); 2.
( )
binary (bin) ['bancr] .@ 1.
; . 2.

.
binary accumulator ['bancr
c'kju:mjuletc] c
binary add(ing) circuit ['bancr
'd 'sc:kt]
binary adder ['bancr 'dc]

binary adder ['bancr 'dc]

binary arithmetic ['bancr c'rmctk] 1. ; 2.

binary asymmetric channel
(BAC) ['bancr /s'metrk 'nl]


binary card ['bancr ka:d] .@
binary carry ['bancr 'kr]

binary cell ['bancr si:l] ,


binary chop ['bancr t]p] , . . binary search
binary code ['bancr koud] 1.
.@

. 2.
.@ , .
binary coded decimal (BCD)
arithmetic ['bancr 'koudd 'desmcl
c'rmctk]
-
binary coded information (BCI)
['bancr 'koudd /nfc'mecn] -
binary computer ['bancr kcm'pju:tc]

binary counter ['bancr 'kauntc]



binary data ['bancr 'detc]
binary decade counter ['bancr
'dked 'kauntc]
, -
binary decoder ['bancr 'di:'koudc]
binary digit ['bancr 'dt] 1.
, ;
2.
binary divider ['bancr d'vadc]
binary dump ['bancr d7mp]
.@
.

61

________________________________________________________________________________________

binary encoding ['bancr n'koud]


binary format ['bancr 'f]:mt]
.@

.
binary fraction ['bancr 'frkcn]
binary image ['bancr 'm] 1.
.@ . 2.
binary incremental representation ['bancr 'nkrmcntcl /reprzen'tecn]
, -

binary information ['bancr /nfc'mecn]


binary internal number base
['bancr n'tc:nl 'n7mbc bes]

binary keyboard ['bancr 'ki:b]:d]


binary loader ['bancr 'loudc]
. . absolute
loader
binary logic ['bancr 'l]k]
.@ , . . fuzzy logic, ternary logic
binary message ['bancr 'mes]

binary multiplication ['bancr
/m7ltpl'kecn] (
)

binary multiplier ['bancr 'm7ltplac] ( )


binary notation ['bancr nou'tecn] .@ 1.

. 2.
.
binary number ['bancr 'n7mbc]
.@ , .
binary number system ['bancr
'n7mbc 'sstm]

binary numeral ['bancr 'nju:mcrcl] 1. ; 2. . . binary number


binary operation ['bancr /]pc'recn] 1. .@
.
2. .@
.
binary output ['bancr 'autput]
1. ; 2.

binary pair ['bancr pc]
binary
phase-shift
keying
(BPSK) ['bancr 'fez'ft ki:]
binary point ['bancr p]nt]

binary quadratic form ['bancr
kwc'drtk f]:m]
binary relation ['bancr r'lecn] .@ .

62

________________________________________________________________________________________

binary representation ['bancr


/reprzen'tecn]
binary scale (BS) ['bancr
'skel]
binary scaler ['bancr 'skelc]
1. ; 2.
,

binary search ['bancr sc:t]
,
.@ ,



.
binary search tree ['bancr sc:t
tri:] ().@
,
, , .
binary semaphore ['bancr 'semcf]:] .@ , 0 1.
,
, 1,
.
binary sequence ['bancr 'si:kwcns] .@ . ,

,
,

.
binary signal ['bancr 'slncl]

binary stage counter ['bancr
ste 'kauntc]

binary storage device ['bancr


'st]:r d'vas]
binary subtraction ['bancr scb'trkcn] .@
binary switch ['bancr sw]

binary
symmetric
channel
(BSC) ['bancr 'smetrk 'nl] .@ ,
, .
,
.
binary symmetric dependent
channel (BSDC) ['bancr 'smetrk
d'pendcnt 'nl]
binary symmetric independent
channel (BSIC) ['bancr 'smetrk
n/d'pendcnt 'nl]
binary synchronous communication (BSC, bisync) ['bancr 'skrcncs kc'mju:n'kecn]
() .@
IBM, .

63

________________________________________________________________________________________

binary system ['bancr 'sstm]



binary transfer scheme ['bancr
'trnsfc ski:m]
binary transversal filter (BTF)
['bancr 'trnsvcrsl 'filtc]

binary tree ['bancr tri:] .@ ,
.
binary tree representation ['bancr tri: /reprzen'tecn]
binary variable ['bancr 'vcrcbl]
binary-coded decimal digit
(BCD) ['bancr'koudd 'desmcl 'dt]
- .@
,
.
binary-coded decimal notation
['bancr'koudd 'desmcl nou'tecn] 1.
- . .
. BCD; 2. - ,
-
binary-coded decimal representation ['bancr'koudd 'desmcl /reprzen'tecn] , -
binary-coded decimal system
['bancr'koudd 'desmcl 'sstm] - , -

binary-coded
frequency-shift
keying (BCFSK) ['bancr'koudd
'fri:kwcns'ft ki:]

binary-coded octal ['bancr'koudd ']ktcl] -
binary-coded output ['bancr'koudd 'autput] -
binary-coded
representation
['bancr'koudd /reprzen'tecn] ,
binary-image processor (BIP)
['bancr'm 'prousesc]

binary-to-analog (BA) converter ['bancr'tu:'ncl]l kcn'vc:tc]

binary-to-decimal (Bd, bd)
['bancr'tu:'desmcl] ()
binary-to-decimal conversion
['bancr'tu:'desmcl kcn'vc:cn] ()
bind [band] v. (bound) 1. .@ . 2. , . . link 1. 3. .# to
be bound , (to); (for).# to
be bound up with
-., -.
binder ['bandc] n. 1. ; 2.

binding ['band] adj. 1. ; ; 2. , ; 3. ; . n. 1. ;

64

________________________________________________________________________________________

2. ; ; ; 3. ()
binding of modules ['band ]v
'm]dju:ls] .@

.
binding of names ['band ]v
nems] .@ .
binding of variable ['band ]v
'vcrcbl] .@
.
binomial [ba'noumjcl] n. ,

binomial distribution [ba'noumjcl ds'trbju:cn]


.@ ,
.
binomial series [ba'noumjcl 'scri:z]
bionic computer [ba']nk kcm'pju:tc]
BIOS (Basic Input Output System) -.
. . BDOS
bipartite [ba'pa:tat] adj. 1. ; 2.

bipartite graph [ba'pa:tat lrf]



bipolar [ba'poulc] adj. ,
bipolar insulated-gate fieldeffect transistor (BIGFET) [ba'poulc
'nsjuletd'let fi:ld/'fekt trn'zstc]

bipolar integrated circuit [ba'poulc 'ntlretd 'sc:kt]



bipolar junction transistor
(BJT) [ba'poulc '7kcn trn'zstc]

bipolar metal-oxide-semoconductor] (BIMOS, bi-MOS) [ba'poulc
'metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc] 1.
-; 2. () -
bipolar signal [ba'poulc 'slncl]

bipolar-junction
field-effect
transistor (BIFET, bi-FET) [ba'poulc'7kcn fi:ld/'fekt trn'zstc] 1.

; 2. ()

bipphase modulation (BPM)
[bp'fez /m]djulecn]
biquinary [ba'kwanr] -.@
,
-
: 0 0000, 1 0001, 2 0010, 3
0011, 4 0100, 5 1001, 6 1001,
7 1010, 8 1011, 0 1100.
biquinary code [ba'kwanr
koud] -
biquinary notation [ba'kwanr
nou'tecn] - , -
biquinary representation [ba'kwanr /reprzen'tecn]

65

________________________________________________________________________________________

bisection [ba'sekcn] n.

bisection algorithm [ba'sekcn


'll]/rcm]
. . . binary search
bistable circuit ['bstebl 'sc:kt]

bistable
magnetic
core
(BIMAC) ['bstebl ml'netk k]:]

bistable multivibrator (BSMV)
['bste7bl 'm7lt/va'bretc]
bistable trigger circuit ['bstebl
'trlc 'sc:kt] , ,
bit (binary digit) [bt ('bancr
'dt)] n. ,
bit cell [bt si:l]

bit density [bt 'denst] .@ , .


bit flipping [bt 'flp] 1. ,
; 2. .@ .
bit handling [bt 'hndl] ,

bit image [bt 'm]


, .@ .
bit loss [bt l]s] ()

bit manipulation [bt mc/npju'lecn] , .


bit map [bt mp] 1.
; .@
( ),
( ) , , , , , . 2. . . frame buffer
bit maping [bt 'mp] .@ ,
.
bit matrix [bt 'metrks]
.@ ,
.
bit pattern [bt 'ptcn] ; ,
bit plane [bt plen]
bit rate [bt ret]
bit slot [bt sl]t]
,
bit string [bt str] .@ ,

.
bit stuffing [bt 'st7f]
,

66

________________________________________________________________________________________

bit time [bt tam] ,


bit-BLT (bit block transfer) [bt
bl]k 'trnsfc]) .@
.
bit-by-bit [bt'ba'bt]
bit-interleaved
[bt/ntc'li:vt]
.@
,
. . byte-interleaved
bit-interleaving [bt/ntc'li:v]

bitmap color mask ['btmp
'k7lc ma:sk]
bitmap extrude ['btmp eks'tru:d]
bit-map(ped)
display
[bt'mp(t) ds'ple] ()
,
.@
,

;
,

.
bit-map(ped) graphics [btmp(t) l'rfks] .
. . bit-map, bit-map(ped) display
bit-organized memory [bt']:lcnaizd 'memcr]

bitpad ['btpd]
.@
bits per inch (BPI, bpi) [bts pc:
nt] .@ .
bits per second (BPS, bps) [bts
pc: 'sekcnd] , /
bit-serial [bt'scrcl] .@
, .
bit-slice architecture [bt'slas
'a:ktekc] -
bit-slice processor [bt'slas
'prousesc] , - ,
bit-timing recovery (BTR) [bt'tam r'k7vcr]

bitwise addition [bt'waz c'dcn] .@ ,

2 .
bitwise operation [bt'waz /]pc'recn]
bivariate distribution [/ba'vcret ds'trbju:cn]
bivariate interpolation [/ba'vcret n/tc:pc'lecn]
black-and-white display (BWdisplay) [blk'nd'wat ds'ple]] - ;

67

________________________________________________________________________________________

blackboard [blk'b]:d] n. .@ , ,
,
.
black(-)box [blk b]ks]
black(-)box(-)model [blk b]ks
'm]dl] .@
, , . , X Y (X , Y );
F, (Y =
F(X)), ,
blacken [blkcn] v.
bladder [bldc] n. 1. ; 2.

blank [blk] n. 1. , ; 2. ; 3. ,
, , ; v. .# blank run
blank common [blk 'k]mcn]
. .
. common block
blank diskette [blk 'dskct]
;
blank instruction [blk n'str7kcn] ,
blank medium [blk 'mi:djcm]
()
blankcharacter [blk'krktc]

blanking ['blk] n. .@
.
blast [bla:st] v. 1. .
@
. 2.
,

blaster ['bla:stc] n. . . . PROM burner
bleach ['bli:t] v.
blend [blend] v. 1. (); 2. ( );
3. , ; 4. ;
5.
blender ['blendc] n.
blending function ['blend 'f7kcn] .@

,
.
blind keyboard [bland 'ki:b]:d]
.@ ,


.
blink(ing) [blk()] .@

.
block buffer [bl]k 'b7fc]
.@ -
.
block cancel character [bl]k
'knscl 'krktc]
.@ , -

68

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
.
block multiplexer channel [bl]k
'm7ltipleksc 'nl] - .@
.
block [bl]k] n. 1. .@ 1. ,
. 2.
. 3.

, . 4.

, ,

. v. .@ 1.
. 2. , .
block address [bl]k c'dres]
block chaining [bl]k 'te]
.@

.

.
block check [bl]k tek]

block check character (BCC)
[bl]k tek 'krktc]
.@ ,

.
block code [bl]k koud]
.@
,


(, k) , ,

(, n). (n, k)-, . .
k n.
block constant [bl]k 'k]nstcnt]
()
block design [bl]k d'zan]
block diagram [bl]k 'daclrm]
-, .@
,
, .
block diagram symbol [bl]k
'daclrm 'smbcl] ( ) -
block encryption [bl]k n'krpcn] .@
,
.
block gap [bl]k lp] .@ ( ) .
block head [bl]k hed]
, .@

block length [bl]k le]
.@ ( )
.
block number [bl]k 'n7mbc] .@ , (
) . (
).

69

________________________________________________________________________________________



.
.

.
block parity [bl]k 'prt]
block representation [bl]k /reprzen'tecn] -
block retrieval [bl]k r'tri:vcl]
( -)
block sort [bl]k s]:t]
.@ ,

, .
block transfer [bl]k 'trnsfc] 1.
; 2.
,
blocked process [bl]kt 'prouses]
.@ ,
,
- .
blocking factor [bl]k 'fktc] 1.
.@ . 2.
blocking order ['bl]k ]:'dc]

blocking oscillator (BO) ['bl]k
/]s'letc] -
blockmark ['bl]kma:k] n. , -.@ ,
.

block-oriented device [bl]k']:rcntd d'vas] - , .@ ,



(, ). . record-oriented device, stream-oriented device
block-structured language [bl]k
'str7ktct 'llw]
.@ ,
(,
).
blow [blou] v.
,

blurred image ['blc:d 'm] ()


blurring ['blc:r] n.
board (Bd, bd) [b]:d] n. ;
; ;
bodilly ['b]dl] adv. 1. ; 2.
;
body ['b]d] n. 1. .@ ,
. .
header. 2. , ,
; 3. , ; 4. ;
; ; ; 5. -.; 6. ;
boilerplate ['b]lcpleit] .
@

.
bold [bould] n.
()

70

________________________________________________________________________________________

bolometer [bou'l]mtc] n.
bond [b]nd] n. ,
, , ; v.
,
bonding [b]nd] n. , ,
bookmark ['bu:kma:k] n. .@
,
.
bookmark manager ['bu:kma:k
'mnc]
Boolean [Bu:lin]
Boolean algebra system of notation [Bu:lin 'lbrc 'sstm ]v nou'tecn]
Boolean calculation [Bu:lin
'klkjulecn]
Boolean expression [Bu:lin ks'precn] ()
Boolean function [Bu:lin 'f7kcn]
Boolean matrix [Bu:lin 'metrks]

Boolean operation [Bu:lin /]pc'recn] ()
Boolean operator [Bu:lin ']pcretc] ()

Boolean tree [Bu:lin tri:]

Boolean value [Bu:lin 'vlju:]


()
Boolean variable [Bu:lin 'vcrcbl] ()

boost ['bu:stc] n. 1. ; 2.

boost [bu:st] adj.


boot [bu:t] n. . . bootstrap. v. (),
()
bootstrap ['bu:t/strp] n. 1. .@
, ,
. 2. .@ , , .
.
v. 1. , ; 2.
bootstrap block ['bu:t/strp bl]k]
.@
,

.
bootstrap loader ['bu:t/strp
'loudc] , (
)
bootstrap loading ['bu:t/strp
'loud] . . .
bootstrap 1.
bootstrap memory ['bu:t/strp
'memcr] .@ ,
.
borrow ['b]rou] n. , . . carry (endaround borrow); v. 1. ; 2.

71

________________________________________________________________________________________

Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem codes


( ).@ .

,

.


.
.
both [bou] pron. .# both
and ;
both-way circuit [bou'we 'sc:kt] . . duplex
circuit
bottle ['b]tl] n. , .# bottle-neck
bottom ['b]tcm] n. 1. , ,
-.; 2. ;
bottom of stack ['b]tcm ]v stk]
, .
. top of stack
bottom of stack pointer ['b]tcm
]v stk 'p]ntc] .
. top of stack pointer
bottom view ['b]tcm vju:]

bottom-up analysis ['b]tcm'7p


c'nlcsz] . .
bottom-up parsing
bottom-up design ['b]tcm'7p d'zan] .
. . bottom-up development
bottom-up development ['b]tcm'7p d'velcpmcnt]
, .
@

,

,
. . topdown development
bottom-up parsing ['b]tcm'7p
'pa:z] .@ ,
,
. . top-up parsing
bottom-up reasoning ['b]tcm'7p
'ri:zn] ()
;
bound of the error ['baund ]v
i: 'erc]
bound (boundary) value problem [baund ('baundcr) 'vlju: 'pr]blcm]
bound ['baund] n. 1. ,
; 2. . pl. ; v.
.# to put (set) bounds
to -.
bound check [baund tek] ,
. . range check
bound variable [baund 'vcrcbl]
.@ 1. , . . unbound variable; 2. ,
. . free
variable
boundary ['baundcr] n. ,
, , ; adj.
;
boundary alignment ['baundcr
c'lainmcnt] .
. address alignment
boundary condition ['baundcr
kcn'dcn]

72

________________________________________________________________________________________

boundary fill ['baundcr fil] . .


fill 2.
boundary layer ['baundcr 'lec]

boundary of a system ['baundcr
]v c'sstm] .@ 1.
,
,-
() ,
.. . 2. ,
.
boundary protection ['baundcr
prc'tekcn] .@ , .
boundary register ['baundcr 'restc] . . .
base-bound register
bounded-context
grammar
[baundd'k]ntekst 'lrmc] .@
- ,

.
bounds register [baunds 'restc] .@

, , . .
base-bound registers
bounds violation [baunds /vac'lecn] () ,

bouyancy ['b]cns] . buoyancy

box [b]ks] n. 1. ,
.@ -, . 2. ; 3. ,
,
braces ['bress] n.

bracket ['brkt] n. 1. ; 2.
; ; v. 1.
; 2. ()
brackets ['brkts] n. 1. ;
2. . . parentheses
brain [bren] n. 1. ; 2. pl. ;

brainpower ['bren'pauc] n. ;
brain-storning ['bren'st]:n] n.
.@ ,
;
:
;
;
, .
brake [brek] v. 1. ; 2.

branch (BR, br) [bra:nt] n. 1.


(, ); 2. , ; v. 1. , ; 2.
branch and bound algorithm
[bra:nt nd baund 'll]/rcm] .@
.
branch instruction [bra:nt n'str7kcn]

73

________________________________________________________________________________________

branch operation [bra:nt /]pc'recn] ,

branch(ing) instruction ['bra:nt() n'str7kcn] ,



branch(ing) point ['bra:nt()
p]nt]
branching ['bra:nt] n. ,
branchpoint ['bra:ntp]nt] n.
.@ ,
.
brass [bra:s] n.
breadboard (BB, bb) ['bredb]:d] n. ,
breadth ['bred] n.
breadth-first search ['bred'fc:st
sc:t] ,
.@
, ,
. . depth-first search
break [brek] v. (broke; broken)
1. (), (); () (doun); 2. (out);
3. () (through); n. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
break key [brek ki:]
.@ , .
break point [brek p]nt] 1. (); 2.

break storage cycle [brek 'st]:r 'sakl]



breakdown ['brekdaun] n. 1.
; 2. ; ;

; ; 3. ; ; 4. ; ; ( )
breakeven ['breki:vcn] n. ( . .)
breakpoint ['brekp]nt] n. 1.
.@ ,
. 2. .@ , .

.
breakpoint instruction ['brekp]nt n'str7kcn]
breakthrough ['brek'ru:] n. 1.
; 2. ;
brevity code ['brevt koud]
brick [brk] n. ; adj.
bridge [br] n. 1. ; .
@ ,
. , . 2. (BR,
br) ;
; 3. ,
bridgeware ['brwc] n. .@

.
brief [bri:f] adj.
brightness ['bratns] n.
brilliant ['brljcnt] adj. 1. , ; 2. ,

74

________________________________________________________________________________________

brilliant image ['brljcnt 'm]


( )
bring [br] v. (brought) 1. ; ; 2. ,
(about); 3. , (about); 4. (out); 5. (down); 6. (to); 7. (up).#
to bring (call) into action (play)
, .# to bring (call) into being , .# to
bring forward (forth) .# to
bring home -.; .# to bring to notice
.# to bring to
correspond
brittle ['brtl] adj. ,
brittle program ['brtl 'proulrm] ;
- . .
. machine-dependent
broad [br]:d] adj. , .# broadly speaking

broadband (BB, bb) ['br]:dbnd]


broadband coaxial systems
['br]:dbnd 'kou'ksjcl 'sstms] .@ ,
.

.
broadband LAN ['br]:dbnd]

, .@ , -


. . baseband LAN
broadband networking ['br]:dbnd net'wc:k] .@ ,

.
broadcast ['br]dka:st] v. ( ,
, , ); adj.
broadcast address ['br]dka:st
c'dres] .@ ,
, .
broadcast network ['br]dka:st
'netwc:k] .
@ (
), , ,

.
broadcasting ['br]dka:st] .@ ,

.
broaden ['br]dn] v. 1. (); 2.
broadening ['br]dn] n.
broken line graph ['broukcn lan
lrf]

brother node ['br7c noud].@


,

75

________________________________________________________________________________________

, .
browse [brauz] v. . . . browser
browser ['brauzc] n. 1.
; 2. .@
,

.
browsing ['brauz] n. .@ ,

.
brush [br7] n. 1. .@
, ,
. .
. paintbrush program. 2. (BR,
br)
brush reader [br7 'ri:dc]

brushless ['br7les] adj.


B-test [bi:'test]
B-tree [bi:'tri:] n. -, .@ , :
, N, N
,
-;
D.

,

. .
. balanced tree
bubble sort ['b7bl s]:t] , .@ ,
.
buck ['b7k] v.
bucket ['b7kt] n. 1. , .@
, . 2.
-
bucket sort ['b7kt s]:t]
.@ ,
, .
buddy system ['b7d 'sstm] .@ ,
, 2;

buffer ['b7fc] n. 1. .@ ; 2. , ; 3.

buffer action ['b7fc 'kcn]


, , ,
buffer function ['b7fc 'f7kcn]

buffer pool ['b7fc pu:l]
, .@ ,

.

76

________________________________________________________________________________________

buffer register (BR, br) ['b7fc


'restc] .@ ,

.
buffer storage ['b7fc 'st]:r]

buffer thrashing ['b7fc 'r]
.@ ,

-.
buffer unit ['b7fc 'ju:nt]
buffer write-through ['b7fc rat'ru:] .
buffered input-output ['b7fcd
'nput'autput] -
buffering ['b7fcr] n. , .@
,
,

.
bug [b7l] n. ( )
bug patch [b7l pt] . . . patch
building ['bld] n. 1. ; 2.

building block principle ['bld


bl]k 'prnspcl]
build-up ['bld'7p] n. 1. -

; ; ;
2. ; 3. ; ; 4.
; 4. ; v. 1. , ; 2. ,

built-in ['blt'n] 1. ,
.@ , . 2. .@ .
built-in check ['blt'n tek] 1.
,
.@ ,
. 2.
.@
.
built-in function ['blt'n 'f7kcn] 1. ; 2. (. )
built-in logic block observer
(BILBO) ['blt'n 'l]k bl]k cb'sc:vc]

built-in macro instruction ['blt'n 'mkrou n'str7kcn]
.@ ,
.
built-in pulser (BIP) ['blt'n
'p7lsc]
built-in storage ['blt'n 'st]:r]

built-in type ['blt'n tap] , .
@
,
(, ,
, ).
built-up ['blt'7p] adj.

77

________________________________________________________________________________________

bulb [b7lb] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
bulge [b7l] n. 1. ;
2.
; v. ;
bulk [b7lk] n. 1. ,
-.; 2. , .# in bulk ;
bulk charge-coupled device
(BCCD) [b7lk a:c'k7pld d'vas]

bulk resistance (BR, br) [b7lk
r'zstcns]
bulk sampling [b7lk 'sa:mpl]

bulk storage [b7lk 'st]:r] 1.
, . . . backing storage 2. . .
. mass storage
bulky [b7lk] adj. ;
;
bunch [b7n] n.
bundied attributes ['b7ndcd
'trbju:ts] .@
,

.
bundied software ['b7ndcd 's]ftwc] .@ ,
.
bundies table ['b7ndcs 'tebl]
, .@ ,

.

buoyancy ['b]cns] n. 1. ; 2.
burn [bc:n] v.
,
.@ , ,

. . . PROM
burner. n.
burst [bc:st] n. 1. . .
. burst mode; 2. ; 3.
; v. .@

.
burst error (error burst) [bc:st
'erc] .@
,
,
( ), .
burst mode [bc:st moud] , .@
,

().
burst performance [bc:st pc'f]mcns] (
)
bury ['ber] v. 1. ; 2.

bus [b7s] n. , .@ ,


.

78

________________________________________________________________________________________

bus arbitrator [b7s 'a:btretc]



bus architecture [b7s 'a:ktekc]
1. .@
,

; . 2. . . . bus topology
bus extender [b7s ks'tendc]
.@

.
bus request (BREQ) [b7s r'kwest]
bus state analyzer (BSA) [b7s
stet 'nclazc]

bus terminator [b7s /tc:m'netc]


( ).@
, , , ,
, , .
bus topology [b7s tc'p]l]]
,
.@ ,

.
busbar ['b7sba:] .@ ,
. busbar bus.
business data ['bzns 'detc]

business graphics ['bzns l'rfks] .@


, .
business oriented language
['bzns ']:rcntd 'llw]
()
business problem ['bzns 'pr]blcm]
business software ['bzns 's]ftwc]

busy signal ['bz 'slncl]


.@ ,

,
.
busy wait ['bz wet]
, .@
, .
but [b7t] adv. , ; prp. ; cj. , .# but
for .# all but ; ; ; .# cannot but
+ ..# last but one
.# next but one
.# nothing but
button (BTN) ['b7tn] n. 1. ; 2.

by [ba] prp. 1. , , ; 2.
; 3. , ; 4. (
); 5. .# by the agancy .# by all means
; , ,
.# by and by ; .# by and large
.# by as many (much)

.# by chance .#

79

________________________________________________________________________________________

by constant to (with)
.# by degrees .# by dint
of .# by eye .#
by far ; .#
by hand .# by means of ; .# by no
means ; .#
by now .# by turns
.# by (in) virtue of (-.), (.); , (-.).#
by the way .# by way
of ; ; , , .# by which means
.# far and by
,
by hardware [ba 'ha:dwc].@

.
bypass ['bapa:s] n. ; v. 1.
; 2.
bypass capacitor (byp cap)
['bapa:s kc'pstc]

bypass channel ['bapa:s 'nl]



by-product ['ba/pr]dckt] n.
byte [bat] n. ,
byte instruction [bat n'str7kcn]
.@ 1.
. 2. ,
.
byte machine [bat mc'i:n]

byte-interleaved [bat/ntc'li:vt]
-.@
,
() . . bit-interleaved

byte-multiplexer channel [bat'm7ltipleksc 'nl] - .@


()
.
byte-multiplexing
[bat'm7ltipleks] .@ ,
.
byte-organized memory [bat']:lcnaizd 'memcr] .@ , .
byte-serial [bat'scrcl] , .@
,

(),

.
.

C*
cable ['kebl] n. 1. ; 2.

cache [kc] n. 1. , . . . cache


memory; 2. ; . . disk
cache
cache memory [kc 'memcr]
, .@

(
, ), -

80

________________________________________________________________________________________



.
CAD/CAM
(computer-aided
design / computer-aided manufacturing)

cage [ke] n. 1. ; 2.

calculate ['klkjulet] v. 1. , ; ;
; 2. ,
calculating apparatus ['klkjulet /pc'retcs]
calculating integral ['klkjulet 'ntlrcl]
calculating machine ['klkjulet mc'i:n]
calculating speed ['klkjulet
spi:d]
calculating time ['klkjulet
tam]
calculation ['klkjulecn] n. , , ,
calculation ['klkjulecn] n. ,
calculator ['klkjuletc] n. ,
calculus ['klkjulcs] n. , ,
calculus of approximation ['klkjulcs ]v c/pr]ks'mecn] ,
calculus of residues ['klkjulcs
]v 'rezdju:s]
calculus of variations ['klkjulcs
]v 'vcri'ecns]

calibtate ['kl'bret] v. ;
calibtation ['kl'brecn] n. ;
calibtation chart ['kl'brecn
a:t]
call [k]:l] n. 1. (), ( ).@

,
.
2. , .@ . v. 1. (), ( ); 2. ; 3. ; 4.
; (for); 5.
(forth).# to call attention
(to) ().# to
call (bring) into action (play) ; .# to
call (bring) into being
,
call address [k]:l c'dres]
()
call by name [k]:l ba nem] .@ ,
.
call by pattern [k]:l ba 'ptcn]
.@ ,
.
.
call by reference [k]:l ba
'refrcns]
. . . parameter passing
by reference

81

________________________________________________________________________________________

call by value [k]:l ba 'vlju:]


.
. . parameter passing by value
call instruction [k]:l n'str7kcn]
,
call of zero (CZ) [k]:l ]v 'zcrou]
calligraphics display [kc'llrcfks ds'ple] . .
. vector-mode display
calligraphy pen [kc'llrcf pen]


calling order ['k]:l ]:'dc] ()
calling sequence ['k]:l 'si:kwcns] .@ , .
CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement And Control) .@
, .
camera ready copy ['kmcrc
'red 'k]p] -;
. .
. printing quality
CAN (cancel) .@ ,
. ASII 24.
can [kn] n. 1. ; 2.
, ; v.
cancel ['knscl] n. ; v. 1.
(

); 2. , ; 3.
cancel character ['knscl 'krktc] . . . CAN
cancellation [knse'lecn] n. 1.
.@ . 2.
;
candidate ['knddt] n.
candidate key ['knddt ki:]
.@
- ,
.
canned software [knd 's]ftwc]

canonical form [kc'n]nkcl f]:m]

canonical representation (CR)
[kc'n]nkcl /reprzen'tecn]
canonical schema [kc'n]nkcl
ski:m] .@ ,

.

, . . . schema 2.
cap [kp] n. 1. , ; 2.
capability (capa) [/kepc'blt] n.
1. .@ ;
. 2. ( ); 3.

82

________________________________________________________________________________________

( ); 4.
( )
capability architecture [/kepc'blt 'a:ktekc] .@
,

: , .
,
.
, .
,
, .
capability list [/kepc'blt lst]
.@ , .
capable ['kepcbl] adj. 1. , ; 2. ;

capacitance [k'pcstcns] n.
capacitive [k'pcsttv] adj.
capacitor [kc'pstc] n.
capacitor read-only storage
(CROS) [kc'pstc ri:d'ounl 'st]:r]

capacity [k'pcst] n. 1. ; 2. ( ); 3.
; 4. ; 5. ; 6. ; 7. ; ; adj.

.# in the capacity of
capline [kp'lan] n.
( )
caps lock [kps l]k] .@
.
capture ['kptc] v. 1. ;
2. ; n. 1. ; 2.

carbide['ka:bad] n.
carbon [ka:'bcn] n. 1. ; 2.

card deck [ka:d dek] n.

card [ka:d] n. 1. , ; 2.
(
)
card cage [ka:d ke]

card feed [ka:d fi:d]
card format [ka:d 'f]:mt] -


card image [ka:d 'm]
.@
, ,
.
card punched unit (card punch)
[ka:d p7nt 'ju:nt]
card reader [ka:d 'ri:dc] ,
,
card reader unit [ka:d 'ri:dc
'ju:nt]

card row [ka:d rou]

83

________________________________________________________________________________________

card run [ka:d r7n]


cardinal ['ka:dncl] adj. , ,
cardinal algebra ['ka:dncl 'lbrc]
cardinality ['ka:dnclt] n. ,
care [kc] n. 1. , ; 2.
; .# to exercise care .# to take
care (of) ; ;
carefully ['kcful] adv. ;
caret ['krct] n. ^
carriage return (CR) ['kr
r'tc:n] ;
.@ ASII
13.
carrier ['krc] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
; 4. ,
carrier (car) ['krc] n.
carrier-sense multiple access
['krc'sens 'm7ltpl 'kses] (CSMA)

,
.@

,
; , .
. . CSMA/CD protocol
carrier-sense multiple access
and collision detection (CSMA/CD)
protocol ['krc'sens 'm7ltpl 'kses

nd kc'licn detection 'proutck]l] CSMA/CD.@ . CSMA,


, ,


. . . CSMA
carrier-to-noise ratio (CNC)
['krc'tu'n]z 'reou]
-
carry ['kr] n. 1. , .@ , , . 2.
. . borrow; v. 1. ,
; 2. ; 3. (on); (out)
carry bit ['kr bt] , . . . carry
carry circuit ['kr 'sc:kt]

carry clear ['kr klc] . . . carry


carry clearing operation ['kr
'klcr /]pc'recn]

carry delay ['kr d'le]


carry digit ['kr 'dt]
, , .
. . carry
carry flag ['kr fll]
.@
, 1
( ),
, 0
( ), -

84

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
.
carry handling facility ['kr
'hndl fc'slt]
carry input ['kr 'input]

carry out ['kr 'aut]


carry output ['kr 'autput]
carry set [ fll] . . . carry flag
carry storage ['kr 'st]:r]

carry storage device ['kr
'st]:r d'vas]
carry-save adder (CSA) ['kr'sev 'dc]

Cartesian coordinate(s) [ka:'ti:zjcn kou']:dnt(s)] ()


Cartesian product [ka:'ti:zjcn
'pr]dckt] ,
.@
,
, .
Cartesian structure [ka:'ti:zjcn
'str7ktc] .@
,
, .
cartridge ['ka:tr] n. ,
.@ ,
, , ,
, -

.
cartridge disk ['ka:tr dsk]
,
cartridge tape ['ka:tr tep]
, . .cassette tape
cascadable counter [ks'kedebl
'kauntc] .@ , .
cascade [ks'ked] n. ; v.

cascade connection [ks'ked


kc'nekcn]
cascade trigger circuit [ks'ked
trlc 'sc:kt]

cascaded carry [ks'kedd 'kr] .@


,

,
. , .
case [kes] n. 1. ; 2. . . .
case statement; 3. ; ; ; 4. ; 5.
; 6. ; .#
case history ; .# the case is (that)
().# as the case may be
.# as
the case stands .# as is usually the case
.# in case
.# in the case of .# in
any case .# in no
case .# in which
case .# just in case
.# this is far from
being the case , -

85

________________________________________________________________________________________

.# to be the
case , .# to
meet the case
case frame [kes frem]
, .@
, ,
.
case statement [kes 'stetmcnt]
.@
,
.
case-insensitive search [kesn'senstv sc:t] .@
, . .case-sensitive search
case-sensitive search [kes'senstv sc:t] .@
,

.
.case-insensitive search
cash [k] n. 1. ; 2. ; v. 1. ; 2.

cash dispensing bank teller [k
dis'pens bk 'telc]
cassette tape ['ksctc tep] .@ , , . . cartridge
tape

cast [ka:st] n. 1.
(); ( -68).
. . cast operator 2. v. 1. . . . type coercion; 2.
, , ; ; 3. , ().#
to cast doubt on -..# such being the cast ,
cast operator [ka:st ']pcretc]
().@
. . . type coercion
casual ['kjucl] adj.
casual user ['kjucl 'ju:zc] .@ , .
.
catalog of programs (CAPR)
['ktcl]l ]v 'proulrm]
catalog(ue) ['ktcl]l(juc)] n. 1.
.@ , . . . directory;
v. ,
cataloged date set ['ktcl]ld
det set]

cataloged procedure ['ktcl]ld


prc'si:c] , .@
JCL,
.
catalogue ['ktcl]l] n. .
. catalog
catastrophic code [/ktc'str]fik
koud] .@
, -

86

________________________________________________________________________________________


, . .
,
.
catastrophic error propagation
[/ktc'str]fik 'erc /pr]pc'eicn]
catastrophic failure [/ktc'str]fik 'feljc] ,
categorial grammar ['ktlcrcl
'lrmc]
category ['ktlcr] .@

.
catenation [kt'necn] n. . . . concatenation
cathode ['koud] n.
cathode follower (cath fol) ['koud 'f]louc]
cathode-ray tube (CRT) ['koud're tju:b] -
()
cause [k]:z] n. 1. ; 2.
, , ; 3.
; v. 1. ; ; 2.
.# be cause of
-,
, .# to be the
cause , .# in
cause .# in any cause

caution ['k]:cn] n. 1. ; ; ; 2. ,
;
v.
(against)
cavity ['kvt] n. 1. ,
; 2.

ceiling ['si:l] n. 1. ; 2.
; adj. ;
celestial [s'lestjcl] adj.
cell (class) boundary [si:l (kla:s)
'baundcr] ()
cell [si:l] n. 1. .@

. 2. ; 3. ; 4.
cell array [si:l c're] .@ ,
.
cellular ['seljulc] adj. 1. ; 2. ,
cellular logic image processor
(CLIP) ['seljulc 'l]k 'm 'prousesc]
center-frequency stabilization
(CFS) ['sentc'fri:kwcns /stebl'zecn]
centigrade ['sentgred] adj.
centimeter ['sent/mi:tc] n.
central ['sentrel] adj.
central computer ['sentrel kcm'pju:tc]
,


central control (CC) ['sentrel
kcn'troul]
central control desk ['sentrel
kcn'troul desk]
()

87

________________________________________________________________________________________

central processing unit (CPU)


['sentrcl 'prouses 'ju:nt] ,
central processor (CP) ['sentrcl
'prousesc 'ju:nt] 1.
, . . . central
processing unit; 2.
, . . .
host computer
centralized automatic trouble
location system (CATLS) ['sentrelazd /]:'tcmtk 'tr7bl lou'kecn 'sstm]
centralized data processing
['sentrelazd 'detc 'prouses]
centralized routing ['sentrelazd
'raut] .@
,

. . distributed routing
centre ['sentc] n.; v.
centre of mass ['sentc ]v ms]
,
centrifugal [sen'trfjulcl] adj.

century ['sentur] n. ,
.# at the turn of the century

ceramic [s'rmk] adj.
ceramic dual-in-line package
(cerdip) [s'rmk 'dju:cl'nlan 'pk]

certain ['sc:tn] adj. 1. ; 2. ; ; 3. predic. .# for certain , .# to


be (feel) certain ;
.# to make certain of ,
certainly ['sc:tnl] adv.
certainty ['sc:tnt] n. 1. ; 2.
certainty value ['sc:tnt 'vlju:]

chain [ten] n. 1. , ; 2. ; 3.
chain code [ten koud]
.@ , n- .


. : 000 001 010 101 011 111 110
100.
chain printer [ten 'prntc] .@

,

chained file [tend fal] .@
,
( )
.
chained list [tend lst]
. .
. linked list
chaining search ['ten sc:t]
.@ ,

88

________________________________________________________________________________________

challenge ['ln] n. 1.
( . .); 2. ; 3. , ; v.
1. ; 2. ;
,
challenging ['ln] adj.
;
chamber ['tenbc] n.
chance [a:ns] n. 1. ; ; 2. ; ; ; adj. ; v. , .# by
chance .# to miss a chance
.# to take a
chance
change [ten] v. 1. (); 2. (); 3. (over)
change bit [ten bt]
, .@ ,
.
change dump [ten d7mp]
.@ .
change file [ten fal]
.@
, ,
.
change record [ten 'rek]:d]

channel ['nl] n. 1. -. . . input-output
channel; 2. ()
. . circuit; 3. ( )
channel capacity ['nl k'pcst] 1. () .@
, -

, . . . 2.

channel coding ['nl 'koud]


.@
()

. , .
channel coding theorem ['nl
'koud 'crcm] ( )
channel controller ['nl kcn'troulc] .@ .
channel director ['nl d'rektc]
.@
, -.
channel program ['nl 'proulrm] .@ -,

.
channel selector ['nl s'lektc]
()
channel status byte ['nl 'stetcs bat]
channel status word ['nl
'stetcs wc:d] . . . status word

89

________________________________________________________________________________________

channel switching ['nl 'sw] . . .


circuit swit-ching
channel-to-channel
adapter
['nl'tu:'nl c'dptc] -
chapter ['ptc] n. 1. ; 2.
,
character (by-character) transfer ['krktc 'trnsfc] , ,
character (char) ['krktc] n. 1.
, ; , , ;
2. , ; 3.
; 4. ; ; 5.
, ; ; 6. ,

character assembly ['krktc
c'sembl] . . character disassembly
character attribute
['krktc
'trbju:t] ,
.@
, ,
.
character check ['krktc tek]

character density ['krktc 'densit]
character disassembly ['krktc
/ds'sembla] .
@
- ;
.
character display ['krktc ds'ple]
character encoding ['krktc n'koud]
character field ['krktc fi:ld]
,

character fill ['krktc fil] 1. , .@


, ; 2. ,

character function ['krktc
'f7kcn]
character generator ['krktc
'encretc] , .@
.
character graphics ['krktc
l'rfks] , .@
.
character
image
['krktc
'm]
character literal ['krktc 'litcrcl] ,
.@ ,
().
character machine ['krktc mc'i:n]
character mode ['krktc moud]
, .@ , .
character parity check ['krktc 'prt tek]

character position ['krktc pc'zicn]


character printer ['krktc 'prntc]

90

________________________________________________________________________________________

character reading system ['krktc 'ri:d 'sstm]


character recognition ['krktc
r'k]lncn] .
@ ,
.
character representation ['krktc /reprzen'tecn]
.@
, .
character set ['krktc set] ; .@ 1. (),

. 2. , .
character spacing ['krktc
'spes]
character string ['krktc str]
()
character terminal ['krktc
'tc:mnl]
character-interleaved ['krktc/ntc'li:vt] -. .
. byte-interleaved
characteristic [/krktc'rstk] n.
1. , . . . biased exponent; 2.
, ; adj.
; .# of characteristic
characteristic frequency (CHF)
[/krktc'rstk 'fri:kwcns]
characteristic function [/krktc'rstk 'f7kcn]

characteristic vector [/krktc'rstk 'vektc] 1.


; 2.
characters per second (cps)
['krktc 'pc: 'sekcnd] .@

.
charge [a:c] n. 1. ; 2.
; 3. ; 4. ; 5. pl. , ; v. 1.
; 2. .# free of
charge ; .# to
be in charge of , .# to take charge of

charge-coupled device (CCD)


[a:c'k7pld d'vas]
charge-transfer device (CTD)
[a:c'trnsfc d'vas] ;
;
chart [a:t] n. 1. , , ; 2. , ,
chassis ['s] n. ;
cheap [ip] adj. 1. ; 2.
; adv.
check [tek] n. 1. , ; 2. (
); v. 1.
, ; 2. (up); 3. ; 4. , (with).# to
hold (keep) in check ;

check bits [tek bts] .@


,
-

91

________________________________________________________________________________________


.
check character [tek 'krktc]

check digit [tek 'dt] . . . check
bits
check list [tek lst] 1. ; 2.

check position [tek pc'zicn] 1.


; 2.

check problem [tek 'pr]blcm]


()
( )
check read [tek ri:d] .@ ,
.
check register [tek 'restc]

check sum error-detecting system ['tek s7m 'erc/d'tekt 'sstm]


check sum failure ['tek s7m
'feljc]
check symbol ['tek 'smbcl]
()
check total [tek 'toutl] . . . checksum
check(ing) circuit ['tek() 'sc:kt] ,
check(ing) program ['tek()
'proulrm]
check(ing) routine ['tek() ru:'ti:n]
check(ing) subroutine ['tek()
scb/ru:'tn]

checking ['tek] n. ,

checking calculation ['tek
'klkjulecn] ,

checking information ['tek
/nfc'mecn]
checking table ['tek 'tebl] 1.
; 2.
checkout ['tekaut] 1. ; 2.
. debugging
checkpoint [p]nt 'tekp]nt] n. 1.
.@ , ,
. 2. , .@
.
checkpoint data set [tekp]nt
'detc set] .@ (),

,
.
checkpoint restart ['tekp]nt
'ri:sta:t]
, .@

.
checkpoint space [tekp]nt
spes] .@ .
checkpointable task [tek'p]nt'tebl ta:sk]
checkpointing ['tekp]nt] n. 1.

( ); 2. .@

92

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
checksum ['teks7m] n. .@
(,
, )
chemical ['kemkcl] adj.
chemically ['kemkcl] adv.
chemically deposited printed
circuit ['kemkcl d'p]ztd 'prntd
'sc:kt] ,
chemically reduced printed circuit ['kemkcl r'dju:st 'prntd 'sc:kt]
,
chemist ['kemst] n.
chemistry ['kemstr] n.
chief [ti:f] adj.
chief programmer [ti:f 'proulrmc] .@
. . . chief
programmer team
chief programmer team [ti:f
'proulrmc ti:m]

chiefly [ti:fl] adv.


child [tald] adj.
child node [tald noud] .@ ,
. .
parent node
chip [tp] n. ; , .@ -

,
.
chip card [tp ka:d]

chip configuration byte (CCB)


[tp kcn/flju'recn bat]
chip configuration register
(CCR) [tp kcn/flju'recn 'restc]

chip set [tp set]
chip socket [tp 's]ket] .@ ,

.
chip test mode (CTM) [tp test
moud]

chirp-Z transform (CZT) [rp'zed trns'f]:m] Z-



choice [t]s] n. 1. ,
; 2. .@ 1. ,
(, , ). 2. .
choice device [t]s d'vas] .@
,

()
choice function [t]s 'f7kcn]
.@
;
-

93

________________________________________________________________________________________


.
choose [u:z] v. (chose, chosen)
1. ; 2. ;
chop []p] v. 1. ; 2.
; n.
chopper []pc] n.
chopper amplifier (CA) []pc
'mplfac]

chopper-stabilized
amplifier
(CSA) []pc'steblazd 'mplfac]


chord keyboard [k]:d 'ki:b]:d]
.@ ,
,
,
.
chroma [krc'm] n. 1. ; 2.

chromatic [krc'mtk] adj.


chrominance ['kroumncns] n.

cine-oriented image ['sn']:rcntd 'm] ,


( )
cipher ['safc] n. ; v. . . decipher
cipher message ['safc 'mes]
()

circle [sc:kl] n. ,
circuit of high impendence
circuit ['sc:kt ]v ha m'pendcns
'sc:kt]
circuit of low impendence circuit ['sc:kt ]v l]: m'pendcns 'sc:kt]

circuit ['sc:kt] n. 1. ; 2. () .
. channel; 3.() ;
4. ; 5. ; 6.
( ); 2. .#
circuit of action ;
.# to clear the circuit

circuit board (card) ['sc:kt b]:d
(ka:d)]
circuit design ['sc:kt d'zan]
,
circuit switching ['sc:kt 'sw] .@ ,

.
circuit technique ['sc:kt tek'ni:k]

circuitry ['sc:ktr] n.
circular ['sc:kjulc] adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4.
circular buffer ['sc:kjulc 'b7fc]
.@
, , , ;
.
circular list ['sc:kjulc lst] .@ ,

94

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
circular reference
['sc:kjulc
'refrcns]
circular shift ['sc:kjulc ft] .@ ,
,
, .
circulate ['sc:kju:let] v. 1. ; 2. ()
circulating [/sc:kju'let] adj.

circulating code register [/sc:kju'let koud 'restc] 1. ; 2.


circulating memory [/sc:kju'let 'memcr] ,

circulating register [/sc:kju'let
'restc]
circulating storage [/sc:kju'let
'st]:r] ,
circulation [/sc:kju'lecn] n.
circulator [/sc:kju'letc] n.
circumstance ['sc:kcmstcns] n.
1. , ; 2. pl. , .# under the
circumstance
circumstantial [/sc:kcms'tncl]
adj. 1. ; 2. ;

circumvent [/sc:kcm'vent] v. 1.
, , ; 2.
( . .)

cite [sat] v. ; ;
claim [klam] v. 1. ; 2.
; 3. ; n. 1.
; 2. ,
claimed accuracy [klamd 'kjurcs]
clamp [klmp] n. ; v. 1.
;
clamp diode [klmp 'daoud]
n. ()

clarification [/klrf'kecn] n. 1.
; 2.
class [kla:s] n. ; v. 1. , ; 2.
, (with)
classic ['kla:sk] adj. ,
classical ['kla:skcl] adj.
classification [/klsf'kecn] n.
.@ 1.
,
; . 2.
; ,

classificatory model [/klsf'ketcr 'm]dl] .@ ,

classified ['klsfad] adj. 1.
; 2. ;

classify ['klsfa] v. ; (into)

95

________________________________________________________________________________________

clause [kl]:z] n.
( );
clean [kli:n] v. ,
clean-up ['kli:n'7p] n.
clear (CLR) [klc] v.
, (, ); (); adj. 1.
, ; ; 2. ; 3.
clear and add instruction [klc
nd cd n'str7kcn]

clear screen (CLS) [klc skri:n]

clearance ['klcrcns] v.
clear-cut ['klc'k7t] adj.
,
clear-write time ['klc'rat tam]


cleavage ['kli:v] n. 1. ; ; 2. ; 3. (); 4. ;
cleave [kli:v] v. ();
()
click [klk] v. ()
client ['klacnt] n. .
@ , .
client of abstraction ['klacnt ]v
'bstrkcn] . . . user of abstraction
clip [klp] n. ; ; v. 1. , .
. . clipping; 2. , .@

.
. . clipboard

clipboard ['klpb]:d] n.
.@
,

,
. . paste
buffer
clipping ['klp] n. 1. .@ ,
. . .
scissoring; 2. . . .
clipboard
clobber ['kl]bc] v. .@
,

.
clock [kl]k]
clock cycle [kl]k 'sakl]
clock flip-flop [kl]k 'flp'fl]p]


clock frequency [kl]k 'fri:kwcns] ,
clock interrupt [kl]k /intc'r7pt]
1. ; 2. ; 3.
. . .
timer interrupt
clock rate [kl]k ret]

clock skew [kl]k skju:]


clocked complementary metaloxide-semiconductor
(C2MOS)
[kl]kt 'k]mpl'mentcr 'metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc]
,

96

________________________________________________________________________________________

clocking ['kl]k] n. 1. ;
clock-pulse generator ['kl]k'p7ls
'encretc]
()
clockwise (CW) ['kl]kwaz] adv.

clone [kloun] n. ; .@ , . . . look-alike
close [klous] adj. 1. ; 2.
, ; 3. ; ; 4. ; adv. (to)
close [klouz] n. 1. , ; 2. ; v. 1. (); 2. (); 3. ; .# at the close
close a file [klouz c fal] .@
.

,
. . open a file
closed [klouzd] adj. 1. ; 2. ()
closed cycle [klouzd 'sakl]
closed cycle control [klouzd
'sakl kcn'troul]
closed function [klouzd 'f7kcn]
,
()
closed loop [klouzd lu:p] , ,

closed loop control [klouzd lu:p
kcn'troul]

closed routine [klouzd ru:'ti:n]


() . . .
subroutine
closed semiring [klouzd 'semrnl]
closed shop [klouzd ]p] .@
,
, .

. . open shop
closed subroutine [klouzd scb/ru:'tn] () .
. . subroutine
closed surface [klouzd 'sc:fs]

closed system [klouzd 'sstm]
.@ ,
. . open
system
closed user group [klouzd 'ju:zc
lru:p] .@
,
.
close(-)down [klous 'daun] (
)
close(-)loop gain [klouz 'lu:p
len]
closely ['klousl] adv. 1. ;
; 2. ; 3. ; ;
closely(-)coupled
interface
['klousl 'k7pld /ntc'fes]
.@ ,
-

97

________________________________________________________________________________________

-
.
closure ['klouc] n. 1. ,
.@ , . 2.
closure domain ['klouc dc'men]
closure properties ['klouc 'pr]pcts]

cluster ['kl7stc] n. 1. .
@ 1.
( ) . 2. . 3.
,
. 4.
. 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5.
cluster analysis ['kl7stc c'nlcsz] .@ .
cluster sampling ['kl7stc 'sa:mpl]
clustering ['kl7stcr] n. , .@

.
clusterization ['kl7stcrzecn] n.
.@
.
clusters topology ['kl7stcs tc'p]l]]
( ).@ , (),

.

clutter ['kl7tc] n.
coarse [k]:s] adj. 1. , ; 2.
coat [kout] v.
coating ['kout] n.
coaxil ['kou'ksjcl] adj.
cocktail shaker sort ['k]ktel
'skc s]:t] .@ , , .
code [koud] n. 1. ,
.@ ,
(,
), (, ). 2. , .@ , . 3. ,
, ; 4. .@ ,
. 5. , ; 6. ,
,
code audit [koud ']:dt]
,

code book ['koud bu:k]

code capacity [koud k'pcst]


(
)
code check [koud tek]

code converter [koud kcn'vc:tc]



code element [koud 'elmcnt]

98

________________________________________________________________________________________

code extension character [koud


ks'tencn 'krktc] .@ ,

, ,
.
code generation [koud 'encrecn] ,
. . . code generator
code generator [koud 'encretc] ,
.@ , , .
code image [koud 'm] .@ , .
code inspection [koud n'spekcn]

( )
code length [koud le]
()
code line [koud lan]
()
code machine [koud mc'i:n]
code operated switch (COS)
[koud /]pc'retd sw]
code position [koud pc'zicn]
code register [koud 'restc]
code removal [koud r'mu:vcl]
.@

,

.
code row [koud rou]

code sing [koud s]

code storage circuit [koud 'st]:r 'sc:kt]


code system [koud 'sstm]
code walkthrough [koud 'w]k'ru:] .@


.
code word [koud wc:d]

coded area ['koudd 'crc] ,


coded message ['koudd 'mes]
()
coded sequence ['koudd 'si:kwcns]
coded word ['koudd wc:d]
code-dependent system [koud/d'pendcnt 'sstm] , , . . . code-sensitive system
code-division multiple access
(CDMA) [koud/d'vcn 'm7ltpl 'kses]

code-division
multiplexing
(CDM) [koud/d'vcn 'm7ltpleks]

coded-pattern method ['koudd
'ptcn 'mecd]

99

________________________________________________________________________________________

code-independent system ['koud


/nd'pendcnt 'sstm] ,
. . . data transparency
code-insensitive system ['koud/n'senstv 'sstm] ,
. . . data transparency
coder [koudc] n. 1. , .@ ,
.
2.
coder-decoder ['koudc'dkoudc]
-
code-sensitive system ['koud'senstv 'sstm] ,
, .@ , .
code-transparent system ['koud/trns'pcrcnt 'sstm] , , .
. . data transparency
code-transparent transmission
['koud/trns'pcrcnt trnz'mcn] . .
. data transparency
codeword length ['koudwc:d
le]
code [koudek] -
()
coding (code) device ['koud
('koud) d'vas]
coding (code) relay ['koud
('koud) 'ri:'le]
coding ['koud] n. 1. .@ . 2.
,

, .@

( ) .
coding bounds ['koud baunds]
.@
, ,
,
,
.
coding check ['koud tek]
coding scheme ['koud 'ski:m]
, ;

coding sheet ['koud i:t]



coding standards ['koud 'stndcds]
coding theorems ['koud 'crcms]
coding theory ['koud 'cr]

coefficient [/kou'ficnt] n. 1. ,
; 2.
coercion [kou'c:cn] n. (). . . type coercion
coercive [ko'c:sv] adj.
cognition [k]l'ncn] n.
cognitive model ['k]lntv 'm]dl]
.@
;

cognitive
science
['k]lntv
'sacns] ,
.@ ,
.
coherence [kou'hcrcns] n.

100________________________________________________________________________________________
coherent [kou'hcrcnt] adj.
cohesion [kou'hi:cn] n. 1. . . . connectivity. 2. ; ; 3.
coil [k]l] n. 1. ; 2.
coincide [/koun'sad] v. 1. ; 2.
coincidence [kou'sdcns] n. 1.
; 2.

coincidence register [kou'sdcns


'restc]
coincidence-type adder [kou'sdcns'tap 'dc] ,
coincident [kou'sdcnt] adj. 1.
; 2.
coincident selection system
[kou'sdcnt s'lekcn 'sstm] .@
,

cold backup [kould 'bk'7p]
.@ ,


. . hot backup, warm
backup
cold boot [kould bu:t] , . . warm boot. . .
cold restart
cold restart [kould 'ri:sta:t] .@ 1. , . 2. ,

(-

) . . warm
restart
cold standby [kould 'stndba]
. .
. cold bac-kup
collaborate [kc'lebcret] v. .# in collaboration with

collaborator [kc'lebcretc]
n.
;
collate [k]'let] v. 1. ,
.@
. . coalesce. 2.
;
collate function [k]'let 'f7kcn]
1. ;
2.
collateral execution [k]'ltcrcl
/eks'kju:cn]
collateral statement [k]'ltcrcl
'stetmcnt]
collating sequence [k]'let
'si:kwcns] ; .@
, .
collect [kc'lekt] v. 1. ;
; 2.
collector [kc'lektc] n.
collision [kc'licn] n. , ,
collision frequency [kc'licn
'fri:kwcns]
colon ['koulcn] n.
color ['k7lc] n. ; v.
color gamut ['k7lc 'gmct] , .@ -

101

________________________________________________________________________________________

, . ,

, ;
,

.

.
color plane ['k7lc plan] .@ ,
.
color transform ['k7lc trns'f]:m]
column (col) ['k]lcm] n.
(, , -)
column vector ['k]lcm 'vektc]
-
column-major order ['k]lcm'mec ]:'dc]
.@
,
.
column-ragged ['k]lcm'rld]
(
)
combination [/k]mb'necn] n. 1.
.@ . 2.
combinational logic [/k]mb'necnl 'l]k] .
@ ,
.
combinational circuit [/k]mb'necnl 'sc:kt] .@ ,


.
combinational logic element
[/k]mb'necnl 'l]k 'elmcnt]

combinationally [/k]mb'necnl]
adv.
combinatorial network (CN)
[/k]mb'netrcl 'netwc:k]
combinatorics [/k]mb'netrks]
1. ; 2. .@
, , ,
, ,
,

,
.
combinatory logic [/k]mb'netr
'l]k]
combine [kcm'ban] v. 1. (); (); 2. , ()
combined [kcm'band] adj. 1.
; ; 2. ;
combined environmental reliability test (CERT) [kcm'band n'vacrcnmcntcl r/lac'blt test]

combined station [kcm'band
'stecn] .@
, HDLC, ..
. . primary
station, secondary station
combustion [kcm'b7stcn] n.

102________________________________________________________________________________________
come [k7m] v. (came, come) 1.
, ; 2. ,
; 3. , ; (to).# in years to
come , .# to come + inf. + .;
+ ..# to come into account .# to come into
being , .# to
come into existance , .# to come into service , .# to come into
effect .# to come into
force .# to come into
one's own (right)
.# to come into play
.# to come to grips
.# to come to
hand .# to come to know
,
comic-strip oriented image ['k]mk'strp ']:rcntd 'm] ,
( )
comma ['k]mc] n.
command [kc'ma:nd] n. .@ 1. . 2.
,
. 3. . 4. . v. ,
command character [kc'ma:nd
'krktc]
command control language
[kc'ma:nd kcn'troul 'llw] .@
,
.
command control program [kc'ma:nd kcn'troul 'proulrm] -

,
. . .
command
processor
command decoder [kc'ma:nd
'di:'koudc]
command environment [kc'ma:nd n'vacrcnmcnt]
.@
UNIX ,
.
command file [kc'ma:nd fal]
.@ 1. , , ; . 2. , ()
.
command generator [kc'ma:nd
'encretc]
command interpreter [kc'ma:nd
n'tc:prtc]
, . .
. command processor
command language [kc'ma:nd
'llw] 1. ;
.@ , () .
, .
2. , .@
.
command line [kc'ma:nd lan]
.@
, -

103

________________________________________________________________________________________


.
command line parameter [kc'ma:nd lan pc'rmtc] .@ ,
.
command list [kc'ma:nd lst]
()
command
mode
[kc'ma:nd
moud] .@
,
,
.
command procedure [kc'ma:nd
prc'si:c]
, . .
. command file
command processor (CP) [kc'ma:nd 'prousesc] , ;
.@ , ( ), ,
.
command qualifier [kc'ma:nd
'kw]lfac]
, . . .
file qualifier, parameter qualifier
command register [kc'ma:nd 'restc]
command word [kc'ma:nd wc:d]
, (
)
commence [kc'mens] v. ()

commensurable [kc'mencrcbl]
adj. 1. ; 2.
commensurate [kc'mencrt] adj.
;
comment ['k]ment] n. 1. ; ;
2. ; 3. .@
,

( ). .
comment statement ['k]ment
'stetmcnt] ;
. . . comment
commentary ['k]mcntcr] n.

comment-out ['k]ment'aut] .@
. , .
commercial [kc'mc:cl] adj. 1.
, ; 2. ;
commercial computer [kc'mc:cl
kcm'pju:tc] 1.
; 2.
commercially [kc'mc:cl] adv.

commission [kc'mcn] v. 1. ; ; 2.
; ;
n. 1. ; 2.

104________________________________________________________________________________________
common ['k]mcn] adj. 1. ;
2. ; 3. (to).#
in common ; .# in
common with ,
.# it is common knowledge
Common Algorithmic Language (COMAL).@ ,

.
common block ['k]mcn bl]k]
(COMMON)
common control of commutating groups ['k]mcn kcn'troul ]v
/k]mju:'tet lru:ps]
common denominator ['k]mcn
d'n]mnetc]
common equipment (CE) ['k]mcn 'kwpmcnt]
common error ['k]mcn 'erc]

common fraction ['k]mcn 'frkcn]
common load ['k]mcn loud]
common logarithm ['k]mcn 'l]lcrcm]
common machine language
['k]mcn mc'i:n 'llw]

common multiple ['k]mcn 'm7ltpl]
common software ['k]mcn 's]ftwc]
common storage area ['k]mcn
'st]:r 'crc]
common subexpression ['k]mcn
's7b/ks'precn] .
@ ,


. .
common-mode (asymmetrical)
disturbances ['k]mcn'moud (/s'metrkcl) ds'tc:bcns]

common-mode rejection (CMR)
['k]mcn'moud r'ekcn]

common-mode rejection ratio
(CMRR) ['k]mcn'moud r'ekcn
'reou]

common-mode voltage (CMV)
['k]mcn'moud 'voult]
;
commonplace ['k]mcnples] adj.

common-sense ['k]mcnsens] n.

communicate [kc'mju:nket] v.
1. ; (to); 2. () (with)
communication (com, comm)
[kc'mju:n'kecn] n. 1. ( pl)
; ; 2. ;
communication channel [kc'mju:n'kecn 'nl] ,
communication chart [kc'mju:n'kecn a:t] ,

communication device [kc'mju:n'kecn d'vas]
communication
engineering
[kc'mju:n'kecn /en'ncr]

105

________________________________________________________________________________________

communication facility [kc'mju:n'kecn fc'slt]


Communication I/O Control
System (CIOCP)
communication light [kc'mju:n'kecn 'lat]
()
communication network [kc'mju:n'kecn 'netwc:k]
communication port [kc'mju:n'kecn p]:t]
.@ , .
communication processor [kc'mju:n'kecn 'prousesc] .@ -,
.
communication server [kc'mju:n'kecn 'sc:vc]

communication
subnetwork
(subnet) [kc'mju:n'kecn 's7b'netwc:k] .@
, .
communication system [kc'mju:n'kecn 'sstm] .@
, .
communication theory [kc'mju:n'kecn 'cr]

communication vector table


(CVT) [kc'mju:n'kecn 'vektc 'tebl]

communication(s) link [kc'mju:n'kecn(s) lk] ()
communications
electronics
(CE) [kc'mju:n'kecn /lek'tr]nks]

communicative [kc'mju:n'ketv] adj. ,
communicative law [kc'mju:n'ketv l]:] ,
commutation [/k]mju:'tecn] n.
, ,
commutation circuit [/k]mju:'tecn 'sc:kt] ,
commutation function [/k]mju:'tecn 'f7kcn]

commutative group (abelian


group) [/k]mju:'tetv lru:p] ( )
commutative operation [/k]mju:'tetv /]pc'recn]

commutative ring [/k]mju:'tetv


r]
commutative semiring [/k]mju:'tetv 'semrnl]
commutator [/k]mju:'tetc] n.

commute [kc'mju:t] v. ,
compact [kcm'pkt] v. ;
; adj.
compacting garbage collection
[kcm'pkt 'la:b kc'lekcn ] -

106________________________________________________________________________________________
.@
, ,
.
compaction [kcm'pkcn] .@ 1.


,
. 2.
.
companion [kcm'pnjcn] n. 1.
; ; 2. ; 3.
; v. ;

companion keyboard [kcm'pnjcn 'ki:b]:d]


comparable [kcm'pcrcbl] adj. 1.
, ; 2.
comparably [kcm'pcrcbl] adv.
,
comparand word [kcm'prnd
wc:d] . . . search
word
comparatively
[kcm'pcrctvl]
adv. ,
comparator [kcm'prtc] n.
.@ ,


,
,
,
.
comparator circuit [kcm'prtc
'sc:kt] ,

compare [kcm'pc] v. 1. ; (with); 2. ; 3. ;


; 5. (to).# to
compare favourably with

comparison [kcm'prsn] n.
.# as compared to (with)
.# in comparison
with .# beyond comparison .# to make
comparisons
comparison circuit [kcm'prsn
'sc:kt] , ,
comparison counting sort [kcm'prsn 'kaunt s]:t] .@ ,
, .
comparison operator [kcm'prsn ']pcretc] ;
comparison unit [kcm'prsn
'ju:nt] ,
comparison zone [kcm'prsn
zoun]
compartmentation
[kcm'pa:tmcntecn] .@ .
compatibility [kcm/ptc'blt] n.
.@ 1.

(, )


. 2. -

107

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
,

. 3.


,
.
compatibility mode [kcm/ptc'blt moud] .@ ,
.
.
compatible [kcm'ptcbl] adj. 1.
.@ 1.
, ; 2. , ; 2.
(with); 3.
compatible current-sinking logic (CCSL) [kcm'ptcbl 'k7rcnt'snk 'l]k]
()

compatible high-density bipolar


code (CHDB) [kcm'ptcbl ha'denst
ba'poulc coud]
compatible time-sharing system
(CTSS) [kcm'ptcbl tam'cr 'sstm]
compel [kcm'pel] v. ,

compelling [kcm'pel] adj. ;

compensate ['k]mpenset] v. 1.
; ; 2. (for)
compensating action ['k]mpenset 'kcn] ,
compensating delay ['k]mpenset d'le]
compensation ['k]mpensecn] n.
;
compensation capacitor ['k]mpensecn kc'pstc]
compensator ['k]mpensetc] n.

compete [kcm'pi:t] v. 1. ; 2.
competition [/k]mp'tcn] n. .@ ,
.
competitive [/k]mp'ttv] adj.

compilation [/k]mp'lecn] n.
, .@
( )
( ). . . translation
compilation order [/k]mp'lecn
]:'dc] ,

compilation time [/k]mp'lecn


tam]
compilation unit [/k]mp'lecn
'ju:nt] ,
.@
(, , ), ,

108________________________________________________________________________________________
, .
compile [kcm'pal] v. , . . .
compilation
compile time statement [kcm'pal tam 'stetmcnt]
compile time variable [kcm'pal
tam 'vcrcbl]
.@ , .
compile time [kcm'pal tam]
()
compile time check [kcm'pal
tam tek] ,
.@ ,

. . run-time check
compile time constant [kcm'pal
tam 'k]nstcnt] .@ ,
. . run-time constant
compile time elaboration [kcm'pal tam /lbc'recn]

compile time error [kcm'pal
tam 'erc] .@
, .
compile time group [kcm'pal
tam lru:p]
compiled code [kcm'pald koud]
,
compiled program [kcm'pald
'proulrm] ,

compiler [kcm'palc] n. , .@ ,

.
compiler diagnostics [kcm'palc
/dacl'n]stks] .@ , .
compiler directive [kcm'palc
d'rektv] ,
.@ ,
,

- (, , ..)
compiler generator [kcm'palc
'encretc] ,
.
. . compiler-compiler
compiler language [kcm'palc
'llw]

compiler options [kcm'palc ']pcns] , .@ ,


.
compiler program [kcm'palc
'proulrm] -
compiler toggles [kcm'palc
't]lls] , . . . compiler options
compiler-compiler [kcm'palckcm'palc] , -

109

________________________________________________________________________________________

.@ ,
;

. . syntax-directed compiler
compile-time
[kcm'pal'tam]
.@
. . run-time
compiling routine [kcm'pal
ru:'ti:n] ,
-,
complement ['k]mplment] n.
; v. 1. ; 2.

complement number ['k]mpl'ment 'n7mbc] .


@ .
complement number ['k]mpl'ment 'n7mbc] .
@ .
complementary ['k]mpl'mentcr] adj.
complementary logic ['k]mpl'mentcr 'l]k]

complementary
metal-oxidesemiconductor/silicon-on-sapphire
(CMOS/SOS) ['k]mpl'mentcr 'metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc 'slkcn']n'sfac] -

complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) ['k]mpl'mentcr 'metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc] -


complementary resistor-diodetransistor logic (CRDTL) ['k]mpl-

'mentcr r'zstc'daoud' trn'zstc 'l]k] -

complementary transistor logic


(CTL) ['k]mpl'mentcr trn'zstc 'l]k] ,
complementary transistor micrologic
(CT:L) ['k]mpl'mentcr
trn'zstc 'makrou'l]k]

complementary transistor-resistor (CTRL) ['k]mpl'mentcr trn'zstc/r'zstc 'l]k]


complementary
unijunction
transistor (CUJT) ['k]mpl'mentcr
'juni:'7kcn trn'zstc]
complemented lattice ['k]mpl'mentd 'lts]
complete [kcm'pli:t] adj. ; ; ; v.

complete
automatic
check
[kcm'pli:t /]:'tcmtk tek]

complete carry [kcm'pli:t 'kr]
.@ , .
complete graph [kcm'pli:t lrf]

complete information [kcm'pli:t
/nfc'mecn]
complete instruction [kcm'pli:t
n'str7kcn]

110________________________________________________________________________________________
complete lattice [kcm'pli:t 'lts]

complete operation [kcm'pli:t
/]pc'recn] ()

complete tree [kcm'pli:t tri:]


complete unit [kcm'pli:t 'ju:nt]

completeness [kcm'pli:tni:s] n.
,
completion [kcm'pli:cn] n. 1. , ; ;
2.
completion code [kcm'pli:cn
koud] .@ ,
(0 - , 1 , 2 , 3 ).
complex ['k]mpleks] adj. 1.
, , ;
2. ; n. ;
complex arithmetic ['k]mpleks
c'rmctk] 1. ,
; 2.

complex field amplitude (CFA)


['k]mpleks fi:ld 'mpltju:d]
complex integer ['k]mpleks 'ntc]
complex operation ['k]mpleks
/]pc'recn] 1. ; 2.

complex plane ['k]mpleks plen]

complex system ['k]mpleks 'sstm] .@ ,


,
,

complex variable ['k]mpleks
'vcrcbl]
complexity ['k]mplekst] n. 1.
.@ 1. (, , ) , , , , . 2.
,
,
. 2.
complexity classes ['k]mplekst
kla:ss] .@
.
complexity factor ['k]mplekst
'fktc]
complexity function (work
function) ['k]mplekst 'f7kcn (wc:k
'f7kcn)] ()
complexity measure ['k]mplekst 'mec] .@
, .
compliance [kcm'placns] n. ;
complicate ['k]mpl'ket] v.
complicated ['k]mpl'ketd] adj.
;
complication ['k]mpl'kecn] n.

111

________________________________________________________________________________________

comply [kcm'pla] v. 1. -.;


-. (with); 2. (); -.
(with)
component [kcm'pouncnt] n. 1.
, ( ,
); 2. , , , , ; adj. ;
component values [kcm'pouncnt
'vlju:s] ,
compose [kcm'pouz] v. 1. ; 2.
composite ['k]mpczt] adj. , ,
composite attribute ['k]mpczt
'trbju:t] .@ ,
.
composite function ['k]mpczt
'f7kcn]
composite probability ['k]mpczt /pr]bc'blt]
composition ['k]mpc'zicn] n.
.@ 1. . 2.

n a1, a2 , , ak , n = a1 + a2 + + ak ,
ai .

n 2n - 1 .
composition row ['k]mpc'zicn
rou]
composition table ['k]mpc'zicn
'tebl]
compound (cpd) ['k]mpaund] n.
; ; ; adj. , ,

compound density ['k]mpaund


'denst] ()
compound disturbance ['k]mpaund ds'tc:bcns] ,
compound domain ['k]mpaund
dc'men]
compound statement ['k]mpaund 'stetmcnt] .
@ , . . simple
statement
comprehend [/k]mpr'hend] v. 1.
; 2. ,
comprehensible
[/k]mpr'henscbl] adj. ,
comprehensive [/k]mpr'hensv]
adj. ;
compress [kcm'pres] n. ; v. ;
compressed message [kcm'prest
'mes]
compression [kcm'precn] n.

compression coding [kcm'precn


'koud] ,

compressional [kcm'precnl] adj.

comprise [kcm'praz] v. 1. , ; 2.
compromise ['k]mprcmaz] n.

compulsory [kcm'p7lscr] adj.


;
computability [kcm'pju:tcblt]
n.
computable [kcm'pju:tcbl] adj.

computable function [kcm'pju:tcbl 'f7kcn]

112________________________________________________________________________________________
computation of interest [/kcmpju:'tecn ]v 'ntrst]

computation [/kcmpju:'tecn] n.
, , , ,

computation speed [/kcmpju:'tecn spi:d]


computational [/kcmpju:'tecnl]
adj.
computational linguistics [/kcmpju:'tecnl 'llwstks] .@
,
,
- .
computational problem [/kcmpju:'tecnl 'pr]blcm]
()
computational psychology [/kcmpju:'tecnl sa'k]lc] .@

.
,
.
computational scheme [kcm'pju:tccnl ski:m]
,
compute [kcm'pju:t] v. , ,
computed [kcm'pju:td] adj. e
computed value [kcm'pju:td
'vlju:]
computer configuration [kcm'pju:tc kcn/flju'recn]

,
computer [kcm'pju:tc] n. () , ,
computer architecture [kcm'pju:tc 'a:ktekc] . . . architecture
computer calculation [kcm'pju:tc 'klkjulecn]
computer center (centre) [kcm'pju:tc 'sentc]
computer circuit [kcm'pju:tc
'sc:kt]
computer conference [kcm'pju:tc 'k]nfcrcns]
computer control system [kcm'pju:tc kcn'troul 'sstm] .@

computer cycle [kcm'pju:tc
'sakl]
computer dead time [kcm'pju:tc
ded tam]
Computer Description Language (CDL)
computer design [kcm'pju:tc d'zan] ()
computer display [kcm'pju:tc
ds'ple]

computer efficiency [kcm'pju:tc


'fcns]

113

________________________________________________________________________________________

computer facility [kcm'pju:tc fc'slt] ( )


computer family [kcm'pju:tc
'fml] .@
,
.
computer fraud [kcm'pju:tc
fr]:d] .@
,


.
computer function [kcm'pju:tc
'f7kcn]

computer game [kcm'pju:tc


lem] ,
computer generation [kcm'pju:tc 'encrecn]
computer graphics [kcm'pju:tc
l'rfks]
computer graphics metafile
(CGM) [kcm'pju:tc l'rfks /metc'fail]
.@
.
computer hardware [kcm'pju:tc
'ha:dwc]
computer instruction [kcm'pju:tc n'str7kcn]
computer intelligence access
(CIA) [kcm'pju:tc n'telcns 'kses]

computer interface (CI) [kcm'pju:tc /ntc'fes]

computer language [kcm'pju:tc


'llw] ,
.@ .
computer literacy [kcm'pju:tc
'ltcrcs] ,
.@
,

.
computer logic [kcm'pju:tc 'l]k] .@ , ,
.
computer mail [kcm'pju:tc mel]
. . . electronic mail
computer manager [kcm'pju:tc
'mnc]
computer memory [kcm'pju:tc
'memcr]

computer micrographics [kcm'pju:tc 'makrou/l'rfks]


.@


.
computer network [kcm'pju:tc
'netwc:k] ,
.@

,
,
.
computer operation [kcm'pju:tc
/]pc'recn] 1. ; 2.

114________________________________________________________________________________________
computer operator [kcm'pju:tc
']pcretc] ,
computer power [kcm'pju:tc
'pauc] .@

, ,
,
.
computer program [kcm'pju:tc
'proulrm]
computer programming [kcm'pju:tc 'proulrm]
computer run [kcm'pju:tc r7n]
; ; ,
computer science [kcm'pju:tc
'sacns] .@ , ;
, ,
, ,
.
computer services manager
[kcm'pju:tc 'sc:vss 'mnc]
computer storage [kcm'pju:tc
'st]:r]

computer store [kcm'pju:tc st]:]


@
, ,
.

computer system [kcm'pju:tc


'sstm] ,
.@
.
computer test circuit [kcm'pju:tc test 'sc:kt]
computer time [kcm'pju:tc tam]
.@

computer useful time [kcm'pju:tc 'ju:sful tam]

computer user [kcm'pju:tc 'ju:zc]


. . . user
computer vision [kcm'pju:tc 'vicn] .@
.
computer word [kcm'pju:tc
wc:d] . . .
word
computer zero [kcm'pju:tc 'zcrou]
computer-aided [kcm'pju:tc'edd] adj.
computer-aided computer design (CAD) [kcm'pju:tcedd kcm'pju:tc d'zan]
computer-aided control system
design (CACSD) [kcm'pju:tc'edd
kcn'troul 'sstm d'zan]

computer-aided design (CAD)


[kcm'pju:tc'edd d'zan] , ,

115

________________________________________________________________________________________

;
computer-aided design and test
(CADAT) [kcm'pju:tc'edd d'zan
nd test]
computer-aided design of integrated circuits (CADIC) [kcm'pju:tc'edd d'zan ]v 'ntlretd 'sc:kts]
computer-aided
engineering
[kcm'pju:tc'edd /en'ncr] .@
,

.
computer-aided
instruction
(CAI) [kcm'pju:tc'edd n'str7kcn]

computer-aided manufacturing
(CAM) [kcm'pju:tc'edd /mnju'fktcr] ,
,
computer-aided programming
[kcm'pju:tc'edd 'proulrm]
computer-aided software engineering (CASE) [kcm'pju:tc'edd
's]ftwc /en'ncr]
computer-aided testing (CAT)
[kcm'pju:tc'edd 'test]
computer-assisted
education
(CAE) [kcm'pju:tc'sstd /edju:'kecn]

computer-assisted instruction
(learning) [kcm'pju:tc'sstd n'str7kcn ('lc:n)] .

. . computer-aided instruction
computer-dependent [kcm'pju:tc/d'pendcnt] -.
. machine-dependent
computer-dependent language
[kcm'pju:tc/d'pendcnt 'llw] - .@
,


.
computer-independent
[kcm'pju:tc/nd'pendcnt] -. C. machine-indepen-dent
computer-independent language [kcm'pju:tc/nd'pendcnt 'llw] -
computer-managed instruction
(CMI) [kcm'pju:tc'mnd n'str7kcn] . . .
computer-aided instruction
computer-oriented
language
[kcm'pju:tc']:rcntd 'llw] -
.@

,
: , , -.
computer-programming language [kcm'pju:tc'proulrm 'llw]
computer-sensitive
language
[kcm'pju:tc'senstv 'llw] - . . .
computer-dependent language
computing machinery [kcm'pju:t mc'i:ncr]

116________________________________________________________________________________________
computing [kcm'pju:t] n. 1.
, ; 2.
; 3.
computing facility [kcm'pju:t
fc'slt]
computing load [kcm'pju:t
loud]
computing machine [kcm'pju:t
mc'i:n]
computing system [kcm'pju:t
'sstm] ,
()
computing technique [kcm'pju:t tek'ni:k]
computing time [kcm'pju:t
tam]
concatenate [k]n/kt'net] v.
. . . concatenation
concatenated code [k]n/kt'netd koud]
concatenated coding systems
[k]n/kt'netd koud 'sstms] .@
,
, ;
(
,
)
,
;

.
concatenation [k]n/kt'necn]
n. .@
(, ) ,

,
.
concatenation closure [k]n/kt'necn 'klouc]

concave ['k]n'kev] adj.


conceal [kcn'si:l] v.
conceivable [kcn'si:vcbl] adj.
; , ;

conceive [kcn'si:v] v. 1. ; 2. ; 3.

concentrate ['k]nsentret] v.

concentration ['k]nsentrecn] n.

concentric ['k]n'sentrk] adj.

concentrator ['k]nsentretc] n.
.@ ,
,

; .
concept ['k]nsept] n. , ,
conceptual [k]n'septjucl] adj. 1.
; 2.
conceptual design [k]n'septjucl
d'zan] .@
. .

117

________________________________________________________________________________________

conceptual model [k]n'septjucl


'm]dl] .@
,
.
conceptual schema [k]n'septjucl
ski:m] .@ , .
concern [kcn'sc:n] v. 1. ,
; ; 2. ; n. 1. , ; 2.
, ; 3. , ; 4. , ; 5. ,
; 6. .# as far as is
concerned ,
.# (in) so far as is concerned ,
.# (sofar) as concerns , .# of concern .# to
concern oneself with ,
-.;
-..# to be concerned with
(), -.;
-..# to have
no concern with
concerned [kcn'sc:nd] adj. 1.
; 2. ; 3. -.,
concerning [kcn'sc:n] prp. ,
concert ['kcnsc:t] n. ;
;
concerted [kcn'sc:td] adj.
concise [kcn'sas] adj. 1. ; ; 2. ,

conclude [kcn'klu:d] v. 1. , (); ; 2.



conclusion [kcn'klu:n] n. 1. ; ; 2. .# to
bring to a conclusion , .# to arrive at a conclusion
.# to reach a
conclusion .#
to draw a conclusion ,

conclusive [kcn'klu:sv] adj. 1.


; 2. ;
3.
concomitant [kcn'k]mtcnt] adj.

concordance [kcn'k]dcns] n.
.@
.
concordance condition [kcn'k]dcns kcn'dcn]
concurrence [kcn'k7rcns] n. 1.
; ;
2. ;
concurrency [kcn'k7rcns] n. . . . concurrent
concurrent [kcn'k7rcnt] adj. 1.
.@
, . . parallel 1; 2. ; 3.
()
concurrent execution [kcn'k7rcnt /eks'kju:cn]
concurrent processes [kcn'k7rcnt 'prousess] .@ ,
.

118________________________________________________________________________________________
concurrent processing [kcn'k7rcnt 'prouses] ; .
concurrent programming [kcn'k7rcnt 'proulrm]
.@ .
condemn [kcn'dem] v.
condensation
[kcn'densecn]

condense [kcn'dens] v. 1. -

(); 2. () ()
condenser [kcn'densc] n. ;
condensing routine [kcn'dens
ru:'ti:n] ()
condition (COND) [kcn'dcn] n.
1. .@ ,
. 2. , ; ; 3. ; 4. pl.
; v. 1. ;
2. ; .# in
condition .#
out of condition .# on (upon) condition .# under such conditions
condition code [kcn'dcn koud]
1. . . . completion code; 2. , . . . exception
condition handler [kcn'dcn
'hndlc] ,
. . . exception handler

condition name [kcn'dcn nem]



condition number [kcn'dcn
'n7mbc] .@
,
.
condition transfer instruction
[kcn'dcn 'trnsfc n'str7kcn]
conditional [kcn'dcnl] n. .@
. adj.

conditional branch [kcn'dcnl


bra:nt] . . .
conditional jump
conditional branch instruction
[kcn'dcnl bra:nt n'str7kcn]
().
conditional breakpoint instruction [kcn'dcnl 'brekp]nt n'str7kcn]


conditional compilation [kcn'dcnl /k]mp'lecn] .@ ,


.
conditional convergence [kcn'dcnl kcn'vc:cns]
conditional implication [kcn'dcnl /mpl'kecn]
conditional inequality [kcn'dcnl /ni:'kw]lt]

119

________________________________________________________________________________________

conditional instruction [kcn'dcnl n'str7kcn] ,



conditional jump [kcn'dcnl
7mp] ,
.@



.
conditional jump instruction
[kcn'dcnl 7mp n'str7kcn]
conditional maximum likelihood estimate (CMLE) [kcn'dcnl
'mksmcm 'laklhud 'estmt]

conditional operation [kcn'dcnl /]pc'recn]


conditional probability [kcn'dcnl /pr]bc'blt]
conditional statement [kcn'dcnl 'stetmcnt] .@
, , .
conditional stop instruction
[kcn'dcnl st]p n'str7kcn]

conditional transfer (instruction) [kcn'dcnl 'trnsfc (n'str7kcn)]
1.
; 2.
; 3.
; 4.
conduct [kcn'd7kt] v. 1. ; 2.
; 3.

conductance [kcn'd7ktcns] n.
conduction [kcn'd7kcn] n.
conduction through [kcn'd7kcn
'ru:]
conductive [kcn'd7ktv] adj. 1.
; 2.
(to)
conductivity [kcn'd7ktvt] n.
();
conductor [kcn'd7ktc] n.
cone [koun] n.
confer [kcn'fc:] v. 1. ;
; ; 2. ,
confidence ['k]nfidcns] n. 1. , ; 2.
confidence interval ['k]nfidcns
'ntcvcl] .@
,
.
confidence level ['k]nfidcns 'levl]
,

confidence limits ['k]nfidcns 'lmts]


confident ['k]nfidcnt] adj.
configuration [kcn/flju'recn] n.
( ).@
, , -

120________________________________________________________________________________________
.
configuration
management
[kcn/flju'recn 'mnment] .@
.
configurator [kcn/flju'retc] n.
.@
,
.
configured-in, -off, -out [kcn/fljurdn] , .@ ,

.
confine [kcn'fan] v. 1. ; 2.
confinement [kcn'fanmcnt] n.

confirm [k]n'fcm] v. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ,
confirmation [k]nfc'mecn] n.
. . . acknowledgement
conflict ['k]nflkt] v. (with)
conflict resolution ['k]nflkt /rezc'lu:cn] ,
.@ ,
,
.

conflicting ['k]nflkt] adj.


conform [kcn'f]:m] v. ;
conformal map [kcn'f]:mcl
mp]
conformal representation [kcn'f]:mcl /reprzen'tecn]

conformant arrays [kcn'f]:mcnt


c'res]
confront [kcn'fr7nt] v.
,
confuse [kcn'fju:z] v. 1. ,
; 2. ,
confusion [kcn'fju:n] n. 1. ; 2. ;
confusion of goals [kcn'fju:n ]v
louls]
congestion [kcn'estcn] n. ( )
congnitive model ['k]nlntv
'm]dl] .@
;
.
congruence ['k]lrucns] n. 1.
; 2. ;
3. ; 4.
congruence relation ['k]lrucns
r'lecn]
conical ['k]nkcl] adj.
conjecture [kcn'ekte] n. , .# to hazard a
conjecture
conjugate ['k]nult] adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3.

121

________________________________________________________________________________________

conjugate complex number


['k]nult 'k]mpleks 'n7mbc]
conjunct [kcn'7kt] n. .@ .
conjunction [kcn'7kcn] n. 1.
, . . . AND 2. .@ , ,
. 3. , ; 4. ; 5. .# in conjunction ,
conjunctive normal form (CNF)
[kcn'7ktv n]:mcl f]:m] ,
conjunctive search [kcn'7ktv
sc:t] .@ , ,
. . disjunctive search
connect [kc'nekt] v. ,

connect time [kc'nekt tam]


connected component [kc'nektd
kcm'pouncnt] ,

connected graph [kc'nektd
lrf] .@ , . . disconnected graph
connection (connexion) [kc'nekcn] n. 1. , , , , ;
2. ; 3. ; 4.
connection diagram [kc'nekcn
'daclrm] 1. ,
; 2.

connectionless operation [kc'nekcnles /]pc'recn] .@


,

.


. . acknowledged connectionless
operation,
connectionoriented operation
connection-oriented operation
[kc'nekcn']:rcntd /]pc'recn]
.@
,


, , ,

.
. connectionless operation
connective [kc'nektv] n. .@ ,
(, ).
connectivity [kc'nektvt] n.
.@
,

.
connectivity matrix [kc'nektvt
'metrks] . .
. adjacency matrix
connectivity of a graph [kc'nektvt ]v c lrf]

122________________________________________________________________________________________
connector [kc'nektc] n. ; ;
consciousness ['k]ncsns]
consecutive [kcn'sekjutv] adj.

consensus [kcn'senscs]
consequence ['k]nskwcns] n.
; , .#
as a consequence .# in
consequence of ; .# in consequence of which
.# of consequence
.# of no consequence to , ()
consequent ['k]nskwcnt] n.
.@
. . antecedent.
adj. 1. ; 2.
consequent interpretation ['k]nskwcnt n/tc:pr'tecn] . . . goalin-voked interpretation
consequently
['k]nskwcntl]
adv.
consequtive computer [kcn'sekjutv kcm'pju:tc]

conservation [kcn'sc:vccn] n.

conservative [kcn'sc:vctv] adj.


1. ; 2. ;
; 3. ; .# as a conservative estimate
consider [kcn'sdc] v. 1. , ; 2. ,
; 3. ; 4. -

; 5.
(-.)
consideration [kcn/sdc'rccn] n.
1. , ; 2. ; ; 3. .# by practical considration , .#
on (under) no considration
.# under considration
.# without considration .# to give considration to ,
-..# to take into considration

considrable [kcn'sdcrcbl] adj.

consist [kcn'sst] v. 1.
(of); (in); 2. (with)
consistency [kcn'sstcns] n. 1.
,
, .@ (,
, )
. . inconsistency. 2. ; 3.
consistency check [kcn'sstcns
tek]
consistent [kcn'sstcnt] adj. 1.
, ;
2. , ; 3.
, .# as
consistent with .#
in a consistent manner .# self consistent ; .# to be
consistent with -.; -.;

123

________________________________________________________________________________________

consistent class [kcn'sstcnt


kla:s]
consistent compilation [kcn'sstcnt /k]mp'lecn]
.@ ,

. .
inconsistent compilation
consistent unit [kcn'sstcnt 'ju:nt]


console [kcn'soul] n. 1.
, .@
.
, . 2. , 3.
console command processor
[kcn'soul kc'ma:nd 'prousesc] . . . command
processor
console debugger [kcn'soul d'b7lc] . . interactive debugger
console display register [kcn'soul ds'ple 'restc]
console log [kcn'soul l]l] .@
,
.
console scope [kcn'soul skoup]
1. ; 2.
-

console terminal [kcn'soul 'tc:mnl]


constant ['k]nstcnt] n. , , ; adj. ,

constant
angular
velocity
(CAV) ['k]nstcnt 'ljulc v'l]st]

constant area ['k]nstcnt 'crc]
.@ ,
constant bias ['k]nstcnt 'bacs]
()
constant declaration ['k]nstcnt
/deklc'recn]
constant expression ['k]nstcnt
ks'precn] .
@ ,
.
constant factor ['k]nstcnt 'fktc]
constant frequency (CF) ['k]nstcnt 'fri:kwcns]
constant list ['k]nstcnt lst]
constant motion ['k]nstcnt 'moucn]

constant of integration ['k]nstcnt ]v 'ntlrecn]


constant of inversion ['k]nstcnt
]v 'n'vc:cn]
constant of proportionality
['k]nstcnt ]v prc'p]:cnlt]

constant-false-alarm
rate
(CFAR) ['k]nstcnt'f]:ls/c'la:m ret] ;

124________________________________________________________________________________________

constant-frequency variable-dot
system (CFVD(S)) ['k]nstcnt'fri:kwcns 'vcrcbl'd]t]

constituent [kcn'sttjucnt] n. ; (); adj.
constituent grammar [kcn'sttjucnt 'lrmc] ( ), HC. . dependency grammar
constitute [kcn'sttju:t] v. 1. ; 2. ; ;

constrain [kcn'stren] v. 1. , ; 2. ;
constraint [kcn'strent] n. 1. ; ; 2. ;
constraints [kcn'strents] n. .@

, () .
constrictor [kcn'strktc] n.
construct [kcn'str7kt] v. ,

construction [kcn'str7kcn] n. 1.
; 2.
constructive [kcn'str7ktv] adj. 1.
; 2. , ; 3.
constructive function [kcn'str7ktv 'f7kcn] .@ , -

, , ,
.
consult [kcn's7lt] v. 1. ; ; 2. ; 3. ; 4.

consulting [kcn's7lt] adj.
consulting model [kcn's7lt
'm]dl] -; . . . expert
system
consulting program [kcn's7lt
'proulrm] -;
. . . expert
system
consume [kcn'sju:m] v. , ;
consumer [kcn'sju:mc] n.
consumption [kcn's7mpcn] n.
;
contact ['k]ntkt] n. ; v.

contact bounce ['k]ntkt bauns]



contact-potential
difference
(CPD) ['k]ntkt/pc'tencl 'dfrcns]

contain [kcn'ten] v. ,

contained system [kcn'tend 'sstm]] n. .@ , .


(, - )
containing system [kcn'ten
'sstm] .@ ,

125

________________________________________________________________________________________

containment [kcn'tenmcnt]] n.
1. ; 2.
contaminant [kcn'tmnent] n.

contaminate [kcn'tmnet] v. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
contamination [kcn'tmnecn]
n. 1. ; 2.
contemplate ['kcntemplet] v. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
contemporary [kcn'tempcrcr] n.
; adj. 1. ;
2.
contend [kcn'tend] v. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
content ['k]ntent] n. 1. pl. ; 2. , ; v.
.# to content oneself
with , -. # table of contents

content-addressable
memory
(CAM) ['k]ntent c'dres'eibl 'memcr]
1. ; 2. . . . associative memory
contentful model ['k]ntentful
'm]dl]
contention ['k]ntencn] n. 1.
, .@
. 2. .@

,

. . . CSMA. 3. ; 4.
; 5. ; 6.

contest ['k]ntest] n. 1. ; 2.
; ; v. ;

context ['k]ntekst] n. 1. ; ; 2. , ,

context editor ['k]ntekst 'edtc]


() .@ ,

.
context switching ['k]ntekst 'sw] .@




.
context-dependent ['k]ntekst/d'pendcnt] , . . . context-sensitive
context-free grammar ['k]ntekst
'fri: 'lrmc] -
.@ ,

.
context-free language ['k]ntekst
'fri: 'llw] - .@ , - .
context-sensitive ['k]ntekst'senstv] -, ( , ,
)
context-sensitive constraint ['k]ntekst'senstv kcn'strent]

126________________________________________________________________________________________
context-sensitive grammar ['k]ntekst'senstv 'lrmc] ,

context-sensitive language ['k]ntekst'senstv 'llw] , .


@ ,
-

- .
contextual ['k]ntekstjucl] adj.

contextual coercion ['k]ntekstjucl kou'c:cn] (). . . type coercion
contextual declaration ['k]ntekstjucl /deklc'recn] () ()
contiguous [kcn'tljucs] adj. 1.
, ; 2. , ;
contiguous area [kcn'tljucs 'crc] .@
, (, ,

).
contiguous file [kcn'tljucs fal]
.@ ,
.
contiguous function [kcn'tnjucs
'f7kcn]
contiguous processing [kcn'tljucs 'prouses]
contiguous simulation [kcn'tljucs /smju'lecn] .@ ,


.
. discrete simulation
contiguous stationery [kcn'tljucs 'stencr]

contingency table [kcn'tncns
'tebl] .@
,

,
.
continuation [kcn'tnju:ecn] n.
.@ , . ,
- ;
, .
,
.
continue [kcn'tnju:] v. 1. (); ; ; 2. ;
continuied [/kcnt'nju:d] adj. 1.

; ; ; 2. .# to be continuied
continuied fraction [/kcnt'nju:d 'frkcn] ()

continuied product [/kcnt'nju:d 'pr]dckt]

127

________________________________________________________________________________________

continuing [/kcnt'nju:] adj. 1.

; 2.
continuity [/kcnt'nju:t] n. 1.
; ; ; 2. (); 3. ; 4.
()
continuity condition [/kcnt'nju:t kcn'dcn]
continuous delta modulation
(CDM) [kcn'tnjucs 'deltc /m]djulecn] -
continuous [kcn'tnjucs] adj. ; ; .# in continuous of
continuous approximation [kcn'tnjucs c/pr]ks'mecn]

continuous control [kcn'tnjucs


kcn'troul]
continuous current () [kcn'tnjucs 'k7rcnt]
continuous distribution [kcn'tnjucs ds'trbju:cn]
continuous Fourier transform
(CFT) [kcn'tnjucs f]:rcr trns'f]:m]

continuous function [kcn'tnjucs
'f7kcn]
continuous process [kcn'tnjucs
'prouses]
continuous progressive code
[kcn'tnjucs prc'lresv koud]
continuous record [kcn'tnjucs
'rek]:d]
continuous sampling [kcn'tnjucs 'sa:mpl]

continuous segment [kcn'tnjucs


'selmcnt]
continuous sequence [kcn'tnjuc
'si:kwcns]
continuous time [kcn'tnjucs
tam]
continuous variable representation [kcn'tnjucs 'vcrcbl /reprzen'tecn]

continuously [kcn'tnjucsl] adv.

continuously variable slope


(CVS) [kcn'tnjucsl 'vcrcbl 'sloup]

continuously variable-slope deltamodulation (CVSDM) [kcn'tnjucsl 'vcrcbl'sloup 'deltc/m]djulecn]
-
continuum [kcn'tnjum] n.
continuum problem [kcn'tnjum
'pr]blcm]
contour ['k]ntuc] n. ; , ; v.
contract [kcn'trkt] v. (); ()
contracted notation [kcn'trktd
nou'tecn]
contraction [kcn'trkcn] n.

contradict [/k]ntrc'dkt] v. 1.
; 2. ,
contradictory
[/k]ntrc'dktcr]
adj. ; ; ; n.
,

128________________________________________________________________________________________
contradictory information [/k]ntrc'dkcn /nfc'mecn]
contrary ['k]ntrcr] adj. .# contrary to .# on the contrary
contrast ['k]ntrst] n. 1. ; 2. ,
; v. .# as
contrasted with -.; ..# by contrast to (with) -.;
-..# in contrast with -.;
-.
contrast image ['k]ntrst 'm]

contribute [k]ntr'bju:t] v. 1. ( . .); 2. , ; 3.
, ; 4.
, (to); 5.
contribution [/k]ntr'bju:cn] n. 1.
; ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ; ;

contributor [/kcntrbju:tc] n. ;
control (CTRL) .@ ,
.
control [kcn'troul] n. 1. .@ (.. , ). 2.
, ;
3.
() . v. 1.
, ; 2. ,

control action [kcn'troul 'kcn]


()
control and switching equipment (CSE) [kcn'troul nd 'sw
'kwpmcnt] -


control bit [kcn'troul bt] ;
control block [kcn'troul bl]k]
.@
, .
control bus [kcn'troul b7s]
.@ ,
.
control character [kcn'troul 'krktc] (),
.@ ,

.
control chart [kcn'troul a:t]

control circuit [kcn'troul 'sc:kt]
, ,
,

control code [kcn'troul koud]



control command [kcn'troul kc'ma:nd]
control component [kcn'troul
kcm'pouncnt]
control computer (CC) [kcn'troul kcm'pju:tc]
control computer [kcn'troul
kcm'pju:tc]

129

________________________________________________________________________________________

control
computer
module
(CCM) [kcn'troul kcm'pju:tc 'm]dju:l]

control design [kcn'troul d'zan]
()
control desk [kcn'troul desk]
()
control device [kcn'troul d'vas]
1. ; 2.
control flow [kcn'troul flou] .@
control flow chart [kcn'troul flou
a:t]
control function [kcn'troul 'f7kcn]
control heading [kcn'troul 'hed] () .@ ,

control hierarchy [kcn'troul
'hacra:k]
()
control index [kcn'troul 'ndeks]

control input [kcn'troul 'input]

control instruction [kcn'troul n'str7kcn] ,
control line [kcn'troul lan] .@ ,
.
control list [kcn'troul lst]
control logic [kcn'troul 'l]k] 1.
; 2.

control mark [kcn'troul ma:k]


,
control of electromagnetic radiation (conelrad) [kcn'troul ]v /lek'tr]ml'netk /red'ecn]

control operation [kcn'troul
/]pc'recn] ()
control panel [kcn'troul 'pnl]

control pen [kcn'troul pen] . . . control light
pen
control point [kcn'troul p]nt]
.@
,

.
control program (CP) [kcn'troul
'proulrm] .@ 1. . 2.
, .
control record [kcn'troul 'rek]:d]
.@ , ,

.



.
control register [kcn'troul 'restc] 1. ; 2. ; 3.
control response [kcn'troul ris'p]ns]
control section [kcn'troul 'sekcn] (CS, CSECT) .@

130________________________________________________________________________________________
,
.
control sequence [kcn'troul 'si:kwcns] ,
control stack [kcn'troul stk]
.@ , .
.
control statement [kcn'troul
'stetmcnt] ,
control storage [kcn'troul 'st]:r] .@ ,
.
.
control storage load (CSL)
[kcn'troul 'st]:r]
control structure [kcn'troul 'str7ktc] , .@
: ,
.
control system [kcn'troul 'sstm]
1. (); 2.
control terminal [kcn'troul 'tc:mnl]
control total [kcn'troul 'toutl]
. . . checksum
control transfer [kcn'troul 'trnsfc] ,

control transfer instruction


[kcn'troul 'trnsfc n'str7kcn]
control unit [kcn'troul 'ju:nt] 1.
; 2.
control value [kcn'troul 'vlju:]

control word [kcn'troul wc:d]

controlability [kcn'troulcblt]
n. , ,

controllable [kcn'troulcbl] adj.


, ,
controlled member [kcn'troul
'membc]
controlled process [kcn'trould
'prouses] ()
controlled sampling [kcn'trould
'sa:mpl]
controlled variable [kcn'trould
'vcrcbl]
controller [kcn'troulc] n. .@


. . .
device controller
controlling mean [kcn'troul
mi:n] ()
controversial [/kcntrc'vc:cl] adj.

controversy ['kcntrcvc:s] n.
, .# without (beyond)
controversy ,
convection [kcn'vekcn] n.
convene [kcn'vi:n] v. 1. ; 2.

131

________________________________________________________________________________________

convenience [kcn'vi:njcns] n.

convenient [kcn'vi:njcnt] adj.


,
conveniently [kcn'vi:njcntl] adv.

convention [kcn'vencn] n. 1. , ; 2. , ; 3. ; ; 4. ; .# by
convention ;
conventional [kcn'vencncl] adj.
1. ; 2. ; ; 3. .# in is conventional ;
conventional sing [kcn'vencncl
s]
converge [kcn'vc:] v. 1. , ; 2.
convergence [kcn'vc:cns] n.
, .@

convergence inprobability [kcn'vc:cns n/pr]bc'blt]



convergence measure [kcn'vc:cns 'mec]
convergent [kcn'vc:cnt] adj.

convergent series [kcn'vc:cnt


'scri:z]
conversational [kcn'vc:cnl] adj.
. . . interactive
conversational compiler [kcn'vc:cnl kcm'palc]
conversational mode [kcn'vc:cnl moud] . .
. interactive
conversational (linguistic) model [kcn'vc:cnl ('llwstk) 'm]dl]

.@ , -.
(,
; , . .).
conversational processing [kcn'vc:cnl 'prouses]
conversational program [kcn'vc:cnl 'proulrm] .@
converse [kcn'vc:] n.
(); adj. ,
converse law of double negation [kcn'vc: l]: ]v 'd7bl n'lecn]

conversely [kcn'vc:sl] adj. ;
conversion [kcnvc:cn] n. 1. ; 2. ( ); 3. (
); 4.
conversion device [kcn'vc:cn
d'vas]
(. )
conversion factor [kcn'vc:cn
'fktc] ,
conversion loss [kcn'vc:cn l]s]
,

conversion rate [kcn'vc:cn ret]



conversion table [kcn'vc:cn
'tebl] . .
. look-up table
conversion time [kcn'vc:cn
tam]

132________________________________________________________________________________________
conversional program system
(CPS) [kcn'vc:cncl 'proulrm 'sstm]

convert [kcn'vc:t] v. 1. ; 2.
convert instruction [kcn'vc:t n'str7kcn] .
@ .
converter [kcn'vc:tc] n. 1. , ;
2.
; 3.

convex ['k]n'veks] adj. ;


convex body ['k]n'veks 'b]d]

convex hull ['k]n'veks h7l] .@
,

.
convex program ['k]n'veks
'proulrm]
convey ['k]n've] v. ,
; 2. ; 3.
.# to convey the impression

conviction [kcn'vkcn] n.
convince [kcn'vns] v.
convolution [/k]nve'lu:cn] n. 1.
.@ , i
i
i+1; 2. ; ; 3.
; ; 3. ()

convolutional code [/k]nve'lu:cnl koud] .@ .


cool [ku:l] v.
coolant ['ku:lcnt] n.
cooler ['ku:lc] n. 1. ;
2. ; 3.
cooperate [kou']pcret] v. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
;
cooperative [kou']pcrctv] adj. 1.
; ; ; 2.
coordinate graphics [kou']:dnt
l'rfks] .@
,
.
coordinate paper [kou']:dnt
'pepc] ( )
coordinate scale [kou']:dnt
skel] ()

coordinate system [kou']:dnt


'sstm] ,
coordinate(s) [kou']:dnt(s)] n.

coordination [kou']:dncn] n.
,
coordinator routine [kou']:dntc
ru:'ti:n] -
cope [koup] v. ; (with)
copper ['k]pc] n. ; adj. ; v.
coprocessor [k]'prousesc] n. .@
,
.

133

________________________________________________________________________________________

copy ['k]p] n. 1. ; 2.
; v.
copyprotected dick ['k]pprc'tektd dsk] . .
. copyprotection
copyprotected software ['k]pprc'tektd 's]ftwc] . . . copyprotection
copyprotection ['k]pprc'tekcn]
n. ( ).@

. (), .
cord [k]:d] n. ;
core [k]:] n. 1.
; 2. . . .
main memory; 3. . . .
kernel. 4.
core buffer [k]: 'b7fc] 1.

; 2.

core image [k]:'m]




core memory [k]: 'memcr]
core storage [k]: 'st]:r]
co-resident [kou'rezidcnt]

core-transistor logic (CTL) [k]:


'trn'zstc 'l]k] -
corner ['k]:nc] n. 1. ; 2.
, .# corner stone .# the four corners
of the erarth
corollary ['kcr]lcr] n. 1. ,
; 2. ; adj.
coroutine [kouru:'ti:n] n. .@
, .

.
correct [kcrekt] adj. ; ; v. , , .# correct
to .# corrected to
(for)
correcting code ['kcrekt koud]
, ,
correction [kc'rekcn] n. 1. , (); 2. ;
3.
correction computation [kc'rekcn /kcmpju:'tecn]
correction factor (CF) [kc'rekcn
'fktc] ,

corrective [kc'rektv] adj. ; n. ; ,

corrective delay [kc'rektv d'le]


134________________________________________________________________________________________
corrective maintenance [kc'rektv 'mentncns]
correctness proof [kc'rektns
pru:f]
. . . program verification
correlate ['k]rlet] v. , ,
correlating voltmeter (CVM)
['k]rlet 'voult'mi:tc]
correlation [/k]r'lecn] 1. .@
. 2. ,
correlation device [/k]r'lecn
d'vas]
correlation difference [/k]r'lecn 'dfrcns]
correlation function (CF) [/k]r'lecn 'f7kcn]
( )
correlation matrix [/k]r'lecn
'metrks]
,
correspond [/k]r'sp]nd] v. 1. (with, to); ; 2. (to); 3.
(with).# to bring
correspond
correspondence-quality printer
[/k]rs'p]ndcns'kw]lt 'prntc] . .
. letter-quality printer
correspondence-quality printing [/k]rs'p]ndcns'kw]lt 'prnt] . . . letterquality printer

corroborate [kc'r]bcret] v.
cosine ['kousan] n.
cost [k]st] n. 1. , ;
2. ; .# at any cost
; .# at all cost ;
.# at the cost of
-.; .# at one's cost
-.
cost function [k]st 'f7kcn]

cost per bit [k]st pc: bt] .@ 1. . 2. .
count [kaunt] n. 1. , ; 2. ,
; v. 1. , , ; 2. ; 3. (on, upon)
countable set ['kauntebl set]
.@ ,
.

. , ;

.
,
.
counter ['kauntc] n. , ,
; adj.
counter- ['kauntc] pref.
-, -, :
counter-clockwise

counter body ['kauntc 'b]d]


135

________________________________________________________________________________________

counter capacity ['kauntc k'pcst] ,



counter circuit ['kauntc 'sc:kt]
,
counter register ['kauntc 'restc] 1. ; 2.
counter tipe adder ['kauntc tap
'dc]
,
counteract [/kauntc'rkt] v. 1.
; 2.
counterbalance ['kauntc/blcns]
n. ; v.
counter-clockwise (CCW) ['kauntc'kl]kwaz]
counter-counter
measures
(CCM) ['kauntc'kauntc 'mecs] ;
counterelectromotive
force
(CEMF) [/kauntc/lek'tr]'moutv f]:s]
;
counterpart [/kauntc'pa:t] n. 1.
, , ; 2. , ; ; 3.
counting ['kaunt] n. , , ,
counting
channel
['kaunt
'nl]
counting device ['kaunt d'vas]
,
counting loss ['kaunt l]s] , ,
counting operation ['kaunt
/]pc'recn] .@ 1.
-

. 2.
- .
counting problem ['kaunt
'pr]blcm]
counting yield ['kaunt ji:ld]

country ['k7ntr] n. 1. ; 2.
, ; 3. ; 4. , .#
country at large .# in this
country
,
()
couple ['k7pl] n. ; v. ; .# coupled with ,
coupled ['k7pld] ().@ ,
, ,
,
.
coupled
computers
['k7pld
kcm'pju:tcs] ,
coupling ['k7pl] n. 1. ;
; 2. .#
cross coupling
coupling factor ['k7pl 'fktc]

course [k]:s] n. , ,
.# as a matter of course .#
during (in) the course of ,
.# in due course (time)
, .# in the
course of time .#
of course
course calculator [k]:s 'klkjuletc] 1. ; 2.

course-of-value function [k]:s']v'vlju: 'f7kcn]

136________________________________________________________________________________________
covalent ['kou'velcnt] adj.
cover ['k7vc] v. 1. ; 2.
, ; 3. , ; 4.
coverage ['k7vcr] n. 1. ;
2. ; 3.
coveriance ['k7fcrcns] .@ ,
.
covering ['k7fcr] .@
, ,
,
.
covering domain ['k7fcr dc'men]
CPU(-)bound task [baund ta:sk]
. . . processorbound task
CPU(-)cycle ['sakl] .@
.
CPU(-)ime [tam] ,
,
.@ ,
. .elapsed
time.
crack [krk] n.
craft [kra:ft] n. 1. , ; 2.
crash [kr] n. ,
.@ . v. 1. , ; 2. (down); adj.

creast factor [kri:st 'fktc]


create [kri:'et] v. ,
creative [kri:'etv] adj. , ; n.
creature ['kri:tc] n. 1. ,
; 2.
credit ['kredt] v. 1. ; 2.
; 3.
-., -. (with).# to give credit
for
creep [kri:p] n.
crew [kru:] n. , ;

crises ['krasi:z] n. pl. crisis


crisis ['krass] n.
criterion [kra'tcrcn] n. (pl. criteria) .@ 1.
;
; . 2.
;

criterion function [kra'tcrcn
'f7kcn] 1. . .
. evaluation function; 2. .@
,
, .
critical ['krtkcl] adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. , , ;
critical path method ['krtkcl
pa: 'mecd]
critical region ['krtkcl 'ri:cn]
,
. . . critical section
critical resource ['krtkcl r's]:s]
.@ , -

137

________________________________________________________________________________________


,
.
critical section ['krtkcl 'sekcn]
,
.@ ,

.
critical value ['krtkcl 'vlju:]

cross [kr]s] n. 1. ; 2. (); 3. ; adj. 1.
; ; 2.
; v. 1. ; 2.
; .# cross section
cross assembler [kr]s c'semblc]
-.@
,

.
cross compiler [kr]s kcm'palc]
-, -.@ ,

.
cross development [kr]s d'velcpmcnt] -.@ ( )
(
). , (,
)
.

cross software [kr]s 's]ftwc]


-.@ .
cross system [kr]s 'sstm] .@ -
. -, -,
.
cross talk [kr]s t]lk] .@ , ,
. .
crosscheck [kr]s'tek] n. 1. .@

.
2.
cross-correlation
function
(CCF) [kr]s/k]r'lecn 'f7kcn]
crossed field multiplier [kr]st
fi:ld 'm7ltplac]
crosshair [kr]s'hc] n. .@ .
crossjumping [kr]s'7mp] n.
.@
.
cross(-)over ['kr]s'ouvc] n. 1.
; ;
; 2.
cross-reference table [kr]s 'refrcns 'tebl]

138________________________________________________________________________________________
.@ ,
,

, ,

.
cross-section [kr]s'sekcn] n.
cross-section paper [kr]s'sekcn
'pepc]
crowd [kraud] n. 1. ; ; 2. , -.
CRT display [ds'ple]
( )
CRT terminal ['tc:mnl]
crucial ['kru:jcl] adj. ,
crude [kru:d] adj. , ; ;
crude sampling [kru:d 'sa:mpl]

crunch [kr7nt] v. 1. .@


.

. 2. , .
crux [kr7ks] n. ;
.# the crux of the
matter
cryogenic [krac'cnk] adj.
,
cryogenic electronics (cryotronics) [krac'cnk /lek'tr]nks]
cryogenic engineering [krac'cnk /en'ncr]

cryogenic memory [krac'cnk


'memcr] .@ ,
,
(
4), .
cryptanalysis
[krptc'nlcsz]
.@
, .
cryptography ['krptoura:f] n.
.@
,
, .
crystal ['krstl] n.
crystal oscillator (CO) ['krstl
/]s'letc] ,

crystalline ['krstclan] adj.


crystallite ['krstclat] n. ,
crystallize ['krstclaz] v.
crystallographic [krstc'l]lrcfk]
adj.
C-scale sound level in decibels
(dBc) [si:'skel saund 'levl n 'desbels]

cube [kju:b] n.
cube root [kju:b ru:t]
cubic ['kju:bk] adj.
cubic measure ['kju:bk 'mec]

139

________________________________________________________________________________________

cumulative [kju:mjuletv] adj.


, ;
cumulative distribution function [kju:mjuletv ds'trbju:cn 'f7kcn]
cuprous ['kju:prcs] adj.
curious ['kjucrcs] adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ;
current ['k7rcnt] n. 1. ;
2. ().@ . 3. ; ;
adj. 1. ; ; ; 2. , ; 3.

current address register ['k7rcnt


c'dres 'restc] 1. .
. . program counter; 2.
current check ['k7rcnt tek]
current directory ['k7rcnt drectcr]
current instruction register
(CIR) ['k7rcnt n'str7kcn 'restc] 1.
. . . instruction register; 2.
current limitation [k7rcnt /lm'tecn]
current of realm ['k7rcnt ]v
relm] ()
current of record type ['k7rcnt
]v 'rek]:d tap] ()

current of run-unit ['k7rcnt ]v


r7n'ju:nt] ()
current of set ['k7rcnt ]v set] ()

current operation symbol ['k7rcnt /]pc'recn 'smbcl]


current or voltage (curtage)
['k7rcnt ]: 'voult]
current order ['k7rcnt ]:'dc]
current source inverter (CSI)
['k7rcnt s]:s n'vc:tc]
current task ['k7rcnt ta:sk] . . . active task
current value ['k7rcnt 'vlju:]

current-controlled current source (CCCS) ['k7rcnt/kcn'trould 'k7rcnt s]:s] ,
current-controlled voltage source (CCVS) ['k7rcnt/kcn'trould 'voult s]:s] ,
current-flow line (CFL) ['k7rcnt'flou lan]
current-inversion negative-immittance converter (INIC) ['k7rcnt/n'vc:cn 'nelctv'mtcns kcn'vc:tc]

current-inversion negative-impedance converter (INIC) ['k7rcnt/n'vc:cn 'nelctv/m'pi:dcns kcn'vc:tc]
currently ['k7rcntl] adv. ,
current-merget logic (CML)
[k7rcnt'mc:c 'l]k]

,

140________________________________________________________________________________________
current-sinking logic (CSL)
['k7rcnt'snk 'l]k]
()

curried function ['k7rd 'f7kcn] .@ ,


.
cursor ['kc:sc] n. 1. .@
,
, ,
,
. 2.
.
cursor arrow ['kc:sc 'rou] . .
. cursor control keys
cursor control keys ['kc:sc kcn'troul ki:s]
cursor update ['kc:sc 7p'det]
cursory ['kc:scr] adj. ,

curvature ['kc:vcc] n. , ,
curve [kc:v] n. 1. (), , , , ; 2. , ,
curve [kc:v] n. ,
curve generator [kc:v 'encretc] .@ ,
.
curvilinear coordinate(s) [kc:v'lnc kou']:dnt(s)]

cushion ['kucn] n. 1. ;
2. ; 3.

custom ['k7stcm] n. 1. ;
2. pl.
custom software ['k7stcm 's]ftwc] .@ ,
.
customer ['k7stcmc] n. ; ;
customer engineer ['k7stcmc
/en'nc] . . . field
engineer
customery ['k7stcmcr] adj.
,
customizable ['k7stcmzebl] adj.
, . . . customize
customization ['k7stcmzecn] n.

customize ['k7stcmz] v. ,
cut [k7t] v. 1. , .@

. . . paste. select.
2. , (doun); 3.
; ;
(off).# cut and dried ,
.# cut and try method
;
.#
clear cut ,
cut form [k7t f]:m] 1. ;
2. .@ , (
).
cut form feed [k7t f]:m fi:d] .
cut off [k7t ]:f] ;

141

________________________________________________________________________________________

cut sheet feed [k7t i:t fi:d] . . . cut form


feed
cut-and-try method [k7t'nd'tra
'mecd] ,

cutset ['k7tset] n. .@
,
. . . connectivity
cutter ['k7tc] n.
cybernetic model [/sabc'netk
'm]dl]
cybernetics [/sabc'netks] .@ .

: .
, . .
cycle (index) counter ['sakl
('ndeks) 'kauntc] .@
,
. .
cycle ['sakl] n. 1. ;
. . . loop; 2. .@

. 3.

cycle body ['sakl 'b]d]


. . . loop body
cycle check ['sakl tek]

cycle index ['sakl 'ndeks]


cycle index polynomial ['sakl
'ndeks /p]l'noumjcl] -

cycle order ['sakl ]:'dc]


cycle per minute (cpm) ['sakl
ft]
cycle shift ['sakl ft] . . . circular shift
cycle stealing ['sakl 'sti:l] . . .
memory cycle stealing
cycle time ['sakl tam]

cyclic ['saklik] adj.


cyclic access ['saklik 'kses] .@
.
.
cyclic address generator (CAG)
['saklik c'dres 'encretc]
cyclic binary code ['saklik 'bancr koud]

cyclic check ['saklik tek]


cyclic code ['saklik koud] () .@ ,
: ,
.
cyclic code-shift keying (CCSK)
['saklik 'koud'ft ki:]

cyclic graph ['saklk lrf]
cyclic index ['saklk 'ndeks] 1.
; 2.
cyclic memory ['saklk 'memcr]

cyclic permuted code ['saklik
pc'mju:td koud] -

142________________________________________________________________________________________
,
cyclic process ['saklk 'prouses]

cyclic redundancy check (CRC)
['saklk r'd7ndcns tek]
.@

.
cyclic shift ['saklk ft] . . . circular
shift
cyclic(al) ['saklk(cl)] adj. ,
cyclic(al) shift [saklk(cl) ft]

cyclie code [saklc koud]
cycling ['sakl] n. 1. , ;
2. ,
cylinder ['slndc] n. .@
; .
cylinder number ['slndc 'n7mbc]
cylindrical coordinate(s) [s'lndrkcl kou']:dnt(s)]
cypher (cipher)['safc]

D*
dager ['denc] n.
dagger operator ['dlc ']pcretc] , -.
. . NOR

daily ['del] adj. ;


; adv.
daisy chain ['dez ten] ,
daisy wheel ['dez wi:l] . . . daisy wheel printer
daisy wheel printer ['dez wi:l
'prntc]
.@

(),
.
30-40 .
daisychain (bused interface)
[dezten (but /ntc'fes)]
( ).@ . , ,
.

..
daisy-chain-topology ['dez'ten
/tc'p]l]] .@ ,

.
damage ['dm] n. 1. ; 2. ; v. 1. ; 2.

damp [dmp] v. 1. ; 2.
()
damper ['dmpc] n. 1. ; 2.
damper flux linkage ['dmpc
fl7ks 'lk]

143

________________________________________________________________________________________

damping ['dmp] n. ;
dangerous ['denrcs] adj. ;
dangle ['dll] v. 1.
, ; 2.
dangling pointer ['dll 'p]ntc] .@ ,
,
.
dangling reference ['dll 'refrcns] . . .
dangling poin-ter
dashed [dt] adj. ;

data ['detc] n. pl. datun


(.) , , ,
, , ,
data abstraction ['detc 'bstrkcn] .@ 1.

. 2. , .

, .
data access arrangement (DAA)
['detc 'kses c'renmcnt]

data acquisition ['detc /kw'zcn] , .@

.
-

. . . data
capture, data collection
data acquisition unit (DAU)
['detc /kw'zcn 'ju:nt]

data address ['detc c'dres]

data addressed memory ['detc


c'drest 'memcr] . . . associative memory
data administrator ['detc cd'mnstretc] 1. .
@ , ,

. 2. . . .
data-base administrator
data aggregate ['detc 'lrlt]
.@
(
); .
data
analog
computer
(DATAC) ['detc 'ncl]l kcm'pju:tc]

data analysis display ['detc
c'nlcsz ds'ple] -


data area ['detc 'crc]

data array ['detc c're]


. . . array
data attribute ['detc 'tribju:t]
() .@ , , , .
data bank ['detc bk]
.@
(, , )
.
data base (DB) ['detc bes]
.@ -

144________________________________________________________________________________________
, .
Data Base Task Group (DBTG)
['detc bes ta:sk lru:p] ,
data block ['detc bl]k] ,
data break (cycle stealing)
['detc brek('sakl 'sti:l)] (
)
data bus ['detc b7s]
data capture ['detc 'kptc]
, .@

.
, . . . data
acquisition, data collection
data chaining ['detc 'te]
.@
,
.
.

.
data channel ['detc 'nl]
, ,
data cleaning ['detc 'kli:n]
.@

.

data collection ['detc kc'lekcn]


, .@

.
. .
. data acquisition, data capture
data communication equipment
(DCE) ['detc kc/mju:n'kecn 'kwp-

mcnt]
data communication terminal
['detc kc/mju:n'kecn 'tc:mnl] ( )
data communications (comms)
['detc kc/mju:n'kecns]

data compaction ['detc 'k]mpkcn] ,


. . . data compression
data compression ['detc kcm'precn] ,
.@
.
data concentrator ['detc 'k]nsentretc]
data contamination ['detc /k]ntcm'necn]
data control ['detc kcn'troul]

data control block (DCB) ['detc
kcn'troul bl]k]
data corruption data ['detc kc'r7pcn 'detc]
data definition language (DDL)
['detc /def'ncn 'llw] -

145

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
, . . . data description language
data definition name (ddname)
['detc /def'ncn nem]
, .@
JCL

,
()
, .
data density
['detc 'denst]
. . . bit density
data description ['detc ds'krpcn]
data
description
language
(DDL) ['detc ds'krpcn 'llw]
,
.@

data dictionary ['detc 'dkcnr]
() .@ ,

.
, ,
. .
data
dictionary/directory
(DD/D) ['detc 'dkcnr d'rektcr] () . . . data
dictionary
data directory (DD) ['detc d'rektcr] () . .
. data dictionary

data division ['detc d'vcn]



data element ['detc 'elmcnt]
.@
;

. . . data item
data entry ['detc 'entr] 1.
; 2. .@ , , ,
.
data entry screen ['detc 'entr
skri:n] .@
()

.
data error ['detc 'erc]

data exchange control ['detc


ks'en kcn'troul]
data field ['detc fi:ld] .@ ,
.
data file ['detc fal] .@ , , , , .
data format ['detc 'f]:mt] -


data format ['detc 'f]:mt]
. . . format 1.

146________________________________________________________________________________________
data gathering system ['detc
'lcr 'sstm]
data handling ['detc 'hndl]
,

data handling unit ['detc 'hndl 'ju:nt]

data independence ['detc /nd'pendcns] () .@





.
data input ['detc 'input]
.@

.
data input ['detc 'input]

data integrity ['detc n'telrt]


.@
.
data item ['detc 'atem]
.@
,
: , ,
. . . data element
data level ['detc 'levl]

data link ['detc lk]


data link (D/L) ['detc lk] 1.
; 2.

data link (layer) protocol ['detc
lk ('leic) 'proutck]l] -

, .@ ,
, . . . HDLC, open
systems interconnection
data link control protocol ['detc
lk kcn'troul 'proutck]l]
.@ , ( )
,
.
data link hierarchy ['detc lk
'hacra:k] .@ ,
I
,
I +1, ,
,
.
data link layer ['detc lk 'leic]
.@ , , ,
,
. . . . open systems interconnection
data list ['detc lst]

data logging ['detc 'l]l]


.@
,

, .

147

________________________________________________________________________________________

data management ['detc 'mnment]


.@
,
.
data
management
system
(DMC) ['detc 'mnment 'sstm]

data manipulation language
['detc mc/npju'lecn 'llw]
, .@
, . ,

. . . host
language
data mark ['detc ma:k]

data matrix ['detc 'metrks]


.@
,
, -.
data medium ['detc 'mi:djcm]

data model ['detc 'm]dl]
.@
,

.

.
data module ['detc 'm]dju:l]
. . . Winchester disk
data name ['detc nem]
.@ , -

,

.
data network ['detc 'netwc:k]
. . .
computer network
data output ['detc 'autput] .@

.
data packing ['detc 'pk] .@ ,


.
data path ['detc pa:] .@
,

.
data plotter ['detc 'pl]tc]
data preparation ['detc 'prepc'recn] .@
.
data presentation layer ['detc
/przen'tecn 'leic] . . . presentation layer
data presentation protocol ['detc /przen'tecn 'proutck]l]
. .
. presentation (layer) protocol
data processing (DP) ['detc
'prouses]

148________________________________________________________________________________________
data processing machine ['detc
'prouses mc'i:n]

data processing operation ['detc 'prouses /]pc'recn]

data processing system (DPS)
['detc 'prouses 'sstm] .@ ,
, , ,

.
data processor ['detc 'prousesc]

data protection ['detc prc'tekcn]
data rate (DR) ['detc ret]
data reader ['detc 'ri:dc]
data record ['detc 'rek]:d]
data recording control (DRC)
['detc 'rek]:d kcn'troul]

data recording device (DRD)
['detc 'rek]:d d'vas]

data reduction ['detc r'd7kcn]
.@
.
data reduction system ['detc
r'd7kcn 'sstm] 1. ; 2.

data register (DR) ['detc
'restc]
data representation ['detc /reprzen'tecn] .
@ -

, .
data retrieval ['detc r'tri:vcl]
, .@ , .
data retrieval system ['detc r'tri:vcl 'sstm]
data set (DS) ['detc set] 1.
, ; 2.
data sheet ['detc i:t]
data sink ['detc sk]

data source ['detc s]:s]


data specification ['detc /spesfi'kecn]
data station ['detc 'stecn] .@
. . . data terminal
equipment
data storage ['detc 'st]:r] 1.
; 2. ()

Data Storage Description Language (DSDL) ['detc 'st]:r ds'krpcn 'llw] ,


data storage system ['detc 'st]:r 'sstm]

data stream ['detc stri:m]


.@ ,

149

________________________________________________________________________________________


,
,
.
data structure ['detc 'str7ktc]
.@ : , , .
data structure language ['detc
'str7ktc 'llw]

data switching exchange (DSE)
['detc 'sw ks'en]

data tablet ['detc 'tblt] () . . . graphic tablet
data take-off
(DTO) ['detc
'tek/]:f]
data terminal ['detc 'tc:mnl]
( )

data terminal equipment (DTE)
['detc 'tc:mnl 'kwpmcnt] ,
data transfer ['detc 'trnsfc]

data transfer instruction ['detc
'trnsfc n'str7kcn]
data transfer rate ['detc
'trnsfc ret]
.@
. -,
.
data transfer register ['detc
'trnsfc 'restc]

data transfer unit (DTU) ['detc


'trnsfc 'ju:nt]
data translation ['detc trns'lecn] .@
(
)

.
data transmission (DT) ['detc
trnz'mcn]
data transparency ['detc trns'pcrcns] .
@ ,
.
data type ['detc tap] ().@ .


.
data unit ['detc 'ju:nt]
data validation ['detc /vl'decn] () .@

(
, ).
data word ['detc wc:d]
.@ ,
.
database administrator (DA)
['detcbes cd'mnstretc] .@
,
.

150________________________________________________________________________________________

,

,
.
, .
database key ['detcbes ki:]
,
. . . entity identifier
database language ['detcbes
'llw] . .
. data-description language,
data-manipulation language, query
language
database machine ['detcbes
mc'i:n] ,
() .@ ,
. . . data-base processor
database management system
(DBMS) ['detcbes 'mnment 'sstm] , .@ ,

,
.
database procedure ['detcbes
prc'si:c] .@

,

. . . attached procedure

database query ['detcbes 'kwcr]


database recovery ['detcbes r'k7vcr] .@ .
database sublanguage (DSL)
['detcbes scb'llw]
database system ['detcbes 'sstm] .@ 1. ; 2.

( ) (
).
data-circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) ['detc'sc:kt/tc:m'net
'kwpmcnt]

data-definition statement ['detc


/def'ncn 'stetmcnt]
, , DD.@
JCL , ()
.
data-driven ['detc'drvn] .@
,
. . . dataflow machine
dataflow computer ['detcflou
kcm'pju:tc] () , .
. . dataflow machine
dataflow diagram ['detcflou
'daclrm]

151

________________________________________________________________________________________

dataflow graph ['detcflou lrf]


.@ , .

,
.
dataflow machine ['detcflou
mc'i:n] () ,
.@ , ; .

, , .
. , ,
. ,
,
. . . . von
Neumann architecture, non von
Neumann architecture
datagram ['detclrm] n. .@
,


.
data-in ['detc'n] n.

data-limit registers ['detc'lmt


'restcs] .
. . base-bound registers
data-link control (DLC) ['detc'lk kcn'troul]

data-link control chip (DLCC)
['detc'lk kcn'troul tp]

data-out ['detc'7ut] n.
data-vet program ['detcvet
'proulrm] .@
, .

,
.
date [det] n. , ; v. 1.
; 2. ; (from); 3. .# at
an early date .# out of date .# to
this date .# up to
date , .# (up)
to date , ;
datum ['detcm] n. 1.
. . . data item; 2. ,
datum-limit registers ['detcm'lmt 'restcs] . . base-bound registers

152________________________________________________________________________________________
daughter node ['d]:tc noud] . . . child
node
dB ,
de- [d] pref. -. : dewater

deacceleration time [d'k/selc'recn tam]


deactivate [d'kt'vet] v. 1. (
); 2. , (
); 3.
, ( ); (
); n.
dead [ded] adj. 1. ; ; 2. ; .# dead load (weight) ;
dead file [ded fal]
.@ , , , .
dead space [ded spes] ,
dead time [ded tam] 1. , , ;
2. ; 3.

dead zone [ded zoun] ,


deadlock ['dedl]k] n. , , .@ ,
, ,
, -

, .
deadly embrace ['dedl m'bres]
, , . . . deadlock.@ ,
, ( )
.
dead-on-arrival integrated circuit (DOAIC) ['ded']n/c'ravcl 'ntlretd 'sc:kt] ,

deal [di:l] v. (dealt)
(with); ; .# a
great (good) deal of
deallocate [d'lcket] v. .@
.
dearth [dc:] n. ,
debatable [d'betcbl] n. 1. , ; 2.
debatable time [d'betcbl tam]

deblock [d'bl]k] v. .@ .
debouncing [d'bauns] .@
,
.

153

________________________________________________________________________________________

debug [d'b7g] v. 1. ;
; 2. . . .
debugging
debug driver [d'b7g 'dravc] .@ ,
:
.
debug monitor [d'b7g 'm]ntc]
. . . debugger
debug time [d'b7g tam]

debug tool [d'b7g tu:l] . . . debugger


debugger [d'b7lc] n. .
@ , ,
,
,
.
debugging [d'b7l] .@
.
debugging condition [d'b7l
kcn'dcn]
debugging statement [d'b7l
'stetmcnt] .@
,
.
decade ['dked] n. 1. -

; 2.
decade counter ['dked 'kauntc]
()
decade scaler ['dked 'skelc]
()
decant [d'knt] v. 1. ; 2.
decay [d'ke] n. 1. ,
; 2. ; 3. ; v. 1.

; ; 2. ; ; 3.
decay time of a pulse [d'ke
tam ]v c p7ls]
decentralized system [di:'sentrclaizd 'sstm] .@ ,
.
decidable [d'sadebl] adj.
decide [d'sad] v. 1. ; 2.
, (between, on)
decided [d'sadd] adj. ,
decimal (DEC) ['desmcl] adj.

decimal adder ['desmcl 'dc]



decimal arithmetic ['desmcl
c'rmctk]
decimal carry ['desmcl 'kr]

decimal code ['desmcl koud]

decimal computer ['desmcl
kcm'pju:tc]
decimal digit (decit) ['desmcl
'dt]
decimal format ['desmcl 'f]:mt]
decimal keyboard ['desmcl 'ki:b]:d]
decimal location ['desmcl lou'kecn]
decimal multiplication ['desmcl
/m7ltpl'kecn] ( )

154________________________________________________________________________________________
decimal number system ['desmcl 'n7mbc 'sstm]
decimal point ['desmcl p]nt]

decimal representation ['desmcl /reprzen'tecn]
decimal scaler ['desmcl 'skelc]

decipher [d'safc] . . cipher
decision [d'scn] n. ;

decision box [d'scn b]ks]


() .@
-, .
decision element [d'scn 'elmcnt]
decision function [d'scn 'f7kcn] .@ ,

decision gate [d'scn let] .@ , ,


.
decision instruction [d'scn n'str7kcn] , ,
decision machine [d'scn mc'i:n]
decision making [d'scn mek] .@
.
-


.
decision problem [d'scn 'pr]blcm] 1. .@

. , . 2.
( ); 3.
decision space [d'scn spes]
.@ , .
decision support system [d'scn sc'p]:t 'sstm]
, .@
, .

,
;


.
,

. . . management information system
decision table [d'scn 'tebl]
.@ , ,

155

________________________________________________________________________________________

, , , .
decision theory [d'scn 'cr]

decision tree [d'scn tri:] .@ ,
.
decision-feedback system [d'scn'fi:d/bk 'sstm] ,
deck [dek] n. 1.
; 2.
declaration [/deklc'recn] 1.
, .@
(, , ).
2.
.@ , declaration definition,
. 3.
.@ , declaration specification, - .
declaration part [/deklc'recn
pa:t] .@ ,
.
declarative [d'klrctv] adj. 1.
; 2. ( )
declarative language [d'klrctv
'llw] , .@ , -

. :
,
. .
. procedure-oriented language
declarative representation [d'klrctv /reprzen'tecn] .@
, .
. . procedural representation
declarative statement [d'klrctv 'stetmcnt] 1. . . . declaration; 2. . . impe-rative
statement. . . declarative representation
declarator [d'klrctc] n. , .@ , ,
.
declare [d'klc] v. .
. . declaration
declared symbol [d'klcd 'smbcl] ,
. . undeclared
symbol
decline [d'klan] v. 1. (); 2. ; 3. ;
4. n. 1. ; 2. ; 3.

156________________________________________________________________________________________
decode ['di:'koud] v. . . encode
decoder ['di:'koudc] n. , ,
decoder error ['di:'koudc 'erc]

decoding ['di:'koud] .@
.
decoding scheme ['di:'koud
ski:m]
decollate [d'k]let] .
. . burst 2.
decompliler [d'kcm'plalc] , .@
,

. .
. disassembler
decomposable matrix [/di:kcm'pouzcbl 'metrks]
decompose [/di:kcm'pouz] v. 1.
; 2.
; 3. ,
decomposition [d'k]mpc'zicn]
n. 1. .@ 1.

, . 2.
. 2.
deconvolution [d'k]nve'lu:cn]

decouple [d'k7pl] v.
decoupling [d'k7pl] n. ,
decrease [/di:kri:s] v. (), ()

decrement (DEC) ['dekrmcnt]


n. ( ); ; v.

decrement operation ['dekrmcnt /]pc'recn] ,


decryption ['dekrpcn] n. . . Encryption
dedicate ['dedket] v. 1. ; 2.
dedicated ['dedketd] adj. , .@
.
dedicated circuit ['dedketd
'sc:kt] ; .@
,
. . swit-ched circuit
dedicated mode ['dedketd
moud] .@ ,


.
dedicated word processor ['dedketd wc:d 'prousesc] .
deduce [d'dju:s] v.
(, )
deducibility [d'dju:sblt] n.

deducibility problem [d'dju:sblt 'pr]blcm]


deducible [d'dju:sbl] adj.
deducible row [d'dju:sbl rou]

157

________________________________________________________________________________________

deduct [d'd7kt] v. ,
deduction [d'd7ktcn] n. , , ,
deductive method [d'd7ktv 'mecd]
deem [di:m] v. ,
deep binding [di:p 'band]

deep structure [di:p 'str7ktc]
.@ ,
.
default [d'f]:lt] n. () .@
,
, . v. ..# in default of ,

default drive [d'f]:lt draiv] .@ , ,
.
default library [d'f]:lt 'labrcr]
,
default option [d'f]:lt ']pcn] 1.
, ; 2. ,

default parameter [d'f]:lt pc'rmtc] ,



default reaction [d'f]:lt ri:'kcn]
default value [d'f]:lt 'vlju:]
;
defect [d'fekt] n.
defect skiping [d'fekt 'skp]
.@ , -

.
defective [d'fektv] adj.
defend [d'fend] v. ()
Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency (DARPA)

defer [d'fc:] v. 1. ,
; 2.
deferred address [d'fc:d c'dres]
. . . indirect
address
deferred addressing [d'fc:d
c'dres] . .
. indirect addressing
deferred constant [d'fc:d 'k]nstcnt] . @ ,
,

. . . runtime constant
defficulty ['dfkclt] n. ;
deficiency [d'fcns] n. 1. , (-.), ; 2.
deficient [d'fcnt] adj. 1. ; , ;
2. (-.),
(in)
definable [d'fancbl] adj. ,
define [d'fan] v. 1. .@ (, , ) . 2. ,

158________________________________________________________________________________________
defined notation [d'fand nou'tecn]
defined value [d'fand 'vlju:]

defining language [d'fan
'llw]
definite [/def'nt] adj.
definite integral [/def'nt 'ntlrcl]
definition [/def'ncn] n. 1. ; 2. , ; 3.
, ()
definitional domain [/def'ncnl
dc'men]
definitional language [/def'ncnl
'llw] . . . single-assignment language
definitions module [/def'ncns
'm]dju:l] .@
, . .
. interface specification
definitive [/def'ntv] adj.
deflation [d'flcn] n. 1. ; 2.
deflect [d'flekt] v. ()
deflector [d'flektc] n.
deform [d'f]m] v.
deformation [df]'mecn] n.
degeneracy [d'encrcs] n. 1.

, ; 2.

degeneracy condition [d'encrcs kcn'dcn]

degenerate

;
v.

[d'encrct]

adj.

degradation [/delrc'deicn] n. 1.
; 2.
( . .); 3.
; 4. ; ; 5.

degradation failure [/delrc'deicn 'feljc] .@




degrade [d'lred] v. 1. ; 2. ; n.
degree [d'lri:] n. 1. ,
, , ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. , .# to a certain degree .# by degree
degree of a map [d'lri: ]v c
mp]
degree of accuracy [d'lri: ]v
'kjurcs]
degree of convergence [d'lri: ]v
kcn'vc:cns]
degree of correlation [d'lri: ]v
/k]r'lecn]
degree of curvature [d'lri: ]v
'kc:vcc]
degree of differential equation
[d'lri: ]v /dfc'rencl 'kwecn]
degree of freedom [d'lri: ]v
fri:d]m]
degree of polynomial [d'lri: ]v
/p]l'noumjcl]
degree of unsolvability [d'lri:
]v 7n/s]lvc'blt]

159

________________________________________________________________________________________

degree of vertex [d'lri: ]v 'vc:teks]


degree of wholeness [d'lri: ]v
'houlnes]
delay [d'le] n. , , , ; v. ,
delay characteristic [d'le /krktc'rstk]
delay circuit [d'le 'sc:kt] ,
delay component [d'le kcm'pouncnt] ,
delay device [d'le d'vas] ()
delay differential equations [d'le /dfc'rencl 'kwecns] .
delay element [d'le 'elmcnt]
,
delay factor [d'le 'fktc]
delay generator [d'le 'encretc]
delay line (DL) [d'le lan]
delay line storage [d'le lan
'st]:-]

delay period [d'le 'pcrcd]
delay pulse oscillator (DPO)
[d'le p7ls /]s'letc]
delay time [d'le tam]
delay unit [d'le 'ju:nt]
() ,

delay-and-sum (DS) [d'le'nd's7m]


delayed action [d'led 'kcn]
, ,

delayer [d'lec] n.
delay-line-time
compression
(DELTIC) [d'le'lan'tam kcm'precn]

delay-power-product [d'le'pauc
'pr]dckt] .@ , .
delete [d'li:t] v. ; ,
delete character (DEL) [d'li:t
'krktc] ,

deleted neighbourhood [d'li:td


'nebchud]
deleted representation [d'li:td
/reprzen'tecn]
deletion [d'li:cn] .@

.
deletion record [d'li:cn 'rek]:d]
.@ ,

deliberate [d'lbcrt] adj. , ; v. 1. , ; 2. ;
delimiter [d'lmtc] n. , .@ 1.
,
(, ,

160________________________________________________________________________________________
BEGIN. END). 2. ,
()
.
deliver [d'lvc] v. 1. ;
2. (); (); 3. , ; n. ,

delta connection ['deltc kc'nekcn]


delta function ['deltc 'f7kcn]
-
delta modulation (DM) ['deltc
/m]djulecn] -
delta-sigma modulation (DSM)
['deltc'slmc /m]djulecn]
demand [d'ma:nd] v. ;
; n. 1. ; ; 2. .# to meet the
demand
demand assignment (DA) [d'ma:nd c'samcnt]
()
demand assignment multiple
access (DAMA) [d'ma:nd c'samcnt
'm7ltpl 'kses]


demand function [d'ma:nd 'f7kcn]
demand I/O [d'ma:nd] .@
-,

. . . anticipatory staging, disk cache
demand meter (DM) [d'ma:nd
'mi:tc]
demand multiplexing [d'ma:nd
'm7ltpleks] -

, .@
,

.
demand paging [d'ma:nd 'pe] .@

,

,
. . anticipatory
paging
demand processing [d'ma:nd
'prouses] ()

demand reading (writing) [d'ma:nd 'ri:d ('rat])]
() .@ ,
.
demand staging [d'ma:nd 'ste] .@
.
. anticipatory paging
demodulator [d'm]dju'letc] .@ , .
demodulator band filter (DBF)
[d'm]dju'letc bnd 'filtc]

demon ['di:mcn] n. , . . .
attached procedure
demonstrate ['di:mcnstret] v. 1.
; ; 2. ;

161

________________________________________________________________________________________

demount [di:'maunt] v. .
@ 1.

. 2. ,
.
demountable [di:'mauntebl] adj.

demultiplexer (DPPX) [di:'m7ltpleksc] .@ 1.


,
,
,
. 2.
, n 1
m , m 2n.
denary ['di:ncr] adj. . . . decimal
dendrogram [den'dr]lrm]
denial [d'nacl] n. 1. ;
2. .# flat denial ; 3. .#
to take no denial
denial of service [d'nacl ]v 'sc:vs] .@ ,
.
denominator [d'n]mnetc] n.

denotation [/d'nou'tecn] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3. ()
; 4.
denotational semantics [/d'nou'tecnl si'mntiks] .@ .
denote [d'nout] v.

dense [dens] adj. ,


dense index [dens 'ndeks] .@ ,
. . master index
denseness ['densns] n.
density ['densit] n. ,

denumerable density [d'nju:mcrcbl 'denst]


deny [d'na] v. 1. ; 2.
().# to be denied , -.
depart [d'pa:t] v. 1. ; 2.
, (from); n.

department [d'pa:tmcnt] n. 1.
; ; ; 2. ,
( . .); 3. ; ; 4.
departure [d'pa:c] n.
( )
depend [d'pend] v. 1.
(on, upon); 2. (on,
upon).# depending on (upon)
dependable [d'pendcbl] adj.
dependence [d'pendcns] n. ;
dependency [d'pendcns] n. ;
dependency grammar [d'pendcns 'lrmc] .@ ,
,
()

162________________________________________________________________________________________
, . .
constituent grammar
dependent [d'pendcnt] adj. ,
dependent failure [d'pendcnt
'feljc]
dependent interrupt [d'pendcnt
/intc'r7pt]
dependent variable [d'pendcnt
'vcrcbl]
depict [d'pkt] v. 1. ,
; 2.
deplete [d'pli:t] v. ;
;
depletion (-mode) metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor
(D-MESFET) [d'pli:cn 'metl'semkcn'd7ktc fi:ld/'fekt /trn'zstc] -,

depletion [d'pli:cn] n. ,
deposit [d'p]zt] n. 1. , ; 2. ; 3. .@ -
.
depress [d'pres] v. 1.;
2. ; ; 3. ;
4. (, ); 5.

deprive [d'prav] v. -. (of)
depth [dep] n. 1. .@ 1.


. 2.

. 2. ,
depth sorting [dep 's]:t] .@

,
, .

.
depth-balanced [dep'blcnsd]

depth-balanced tree [dep'blcnsd tri:] .
. . balanced tree
depth-first search ['dep'fc:st
sc:t] ,
.@
, ,
,
. breath-first search
deque (double-ended queue)
[de'kju: ('d7bl'endd kju:)] n. , .@ ,
.
dequeue [de'kju:] v.
. . enqueue
deragement [d'renmcnt] n.
; ; ;
derate [di:'ret] v.
dereference [d'refrcns] v. .@
, .
dereferencing [d'refrcns] n.
;
derivation [/der'vecn] n. 1. .@
, . 2. ; 3. ; 4.

163

________________________________________________________________________________________

; ; 5.
derivation sequence [/der'vecn
'si:kwcns]
derivation step [/der'vecn step]
.@
.
derivation tree [/der'vecn tri:]
.@
,
.

, , - ,
.
derivative [d'rvctv] n.
derive [d'rav] v. 1. ; ; 2. ; ; 3. ; .# to derive benefit
derived data item [d'ravt 'detc
'atem] .@
,

.
derived field [d'ravt fi:ld] , . . . derived data
item
derived row [d'ravt rou]
derived type [d'ravt tap] .@ , (
) .
descend [d'send] v. 1. ; 2. (from)

descendant [d'sendcnt] n. .@ , .
descender [d'sendc] n. (). .
ascender
descending sequence [d'send
'si:kwcns] ,
descending sort [d'send s]:t]
.@ ,
. . ascending sort
describe [ds'krab] v. 1. , , ; 2.
()
description [ds'krpcn] n. , ,
descriptive [ds'krptv] adj. ;
descriptor [ds'krptc] n. .@ - , . 2. , .@ -
,
. 3. ,
deselect [ds'lekt] v.
. . select 2
deserve [d'zc:v] v.
design [d'zan] v. 1. , ; 2. ; n. 1. ; ; ; ; ; 2. ,

design automation (DA) [d'zan


/]:tc'mecn] -

164________________________________________________________________________________________
,
design data [d'zan 'detc] ()
design error failure [d'zan 'erc
'feljc]
design of experiments [d'zan
]v ks'periments]
design review [d'zan r'vju:]
design rule checker (DRC)
[d'zan ru:l 'tekc] ( )
design speed [d'zan spi:d] ()
designate ['dczlnet] v.
designation [dczl'necn] n. , ; ,
designator [dczl'netc] n. 1.
; ; 2.
designer [d'zanc] n. ;
designer choice logic (DCL) [d'zanc t]s 'l]k]

desirability [/dzacrc'blt] n.

desirable [d'zacbl] adj. ,


desire [d'zac] v. ; n.
desired value [d'zacd 'vlju:]
1. ; 2. ; 3.
desk [desk] n. , ,
,
desk calculation machine [desk
'klkjulecn mc'i:n]

desk check [desk tek] 1. .@


. 2.

desktop
computer
(DTC)
['deskt]p kcm'pju:tc]
()
desktop metaphore ['deskt]p
'metcfc] .
. . desktop system
desktop system ['deskt]p 'sstm]
,
.@
( ),
( ).
despite [ds'pat] prp.

despooling program [ds'poul


'proulrm] ()
.@
,
,
,
. . .
spooling
destination [/dest'necn] n. 1.
, ; .@ , . 2. .@ , . . source
destination address (AD) [/dest'necn c'dres]

165

________________________________________________________________________________________

destination address bus (ADB)


[/dest'necn c'dres b7s]

destination code [/dest'necn


koud] ()
destination field [/dest'necn
fi:ld] .@
,
.
destination file [/dest'necn fal]

destination station [/dest'necn
'stecn] ,
destroy [d'str]] v. ;

destroyed digit [d'str]d 'dt]


(
)
destruction [ds'tr7kcn] n. , ,
destructive [ds'tr7ktv] adj. 1.
; 2. , ; n. 1. ; 2.

destructive backspace [ds'tr7ktv 'bkspes] .@




() .
. nondestructive backspace
destructive memory [ds'tr7ktv
'memcr]
destructive readout (DRO)
[ds'tr7ktv ri:d7ut] .@

, .
. nondestructive read
detach [d'tt] v. ();

detachment [d'ttmcnt] n.
;
detail ['di:tel] n. ;
; v. , .# to detail .# in
considerable detail .# in full detail .#
in some detail .#
to go (enter) into details

detail design ['di:tel d'zan]


detail file ['di:tel fal] . . . change file
detail flowchart ['di:tel 'floua:t] -
detain ['di:ten] v. 1. ; 2.
detect [d'tekt] v. 1. , ; 2.
detectable [d'tektebl] adj.
detectable element [d'tektebl
'elmcnt] .
@
,
.
detected neighbourhood [d'tektd 'nebchud]
detectible [d'tektbl] adj.
detecting element [d'tekt 'elmcnt] () ,
detection [d'tekcn] n.
detector [d'tektc] n.
deteriorate [d'tcrcret] v. (); ();

166________________________________________________________________________________________
deterioration [d'tcrcrecn] n.
1. ; 2.
determinant [d'tc:rmncnt] .@ ,
.
determinant row [d'tc:rmncnt
rou] ,
determinantion [d'tc:rmncncn]
n.
determine [d'tc:rmn] v. 1. -

; 2.
deterministic

[d'tc:rmnstk]

adj. , .@ ,
. .,
.
deterministic language [d'tc:rmnstk 'llw] .@ , .
detrimental [/detr'mentl] adj.

1. ; 2.
de-update [d'7pdet] ( ).@
(, , )
.
develop [d'velcp] v. 1. (), ; 2. ; 3. ; , ; 4. (); 5. ; 6.

development [d'velcpmcnt] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
; ; 4. -
; 5. ; 6. , ; 7. pl. ;
.# under development ,
development system [d'velcpmcnt 'sstm]
. . . program development system
deviate ['di:vet] v. ;

deviation [/di:v'ecn] n. 1. ; 2.
deviation
reduction
factor
[/di:v'ecn r'd7kcn 'fktc]
device (dev) [d'vas] n. 1. . . . peripheral. 2. , , , , ,
; 3. ,
device adapter [d'vas c'dptc]
() .@

. . . device controller
device allocation [d'vas 'lckecn]
device control (DC) [d'vas kcn'troul] .@ , ,

. ASII
17, 18, 19 20. 2.
. . data communication
device control unit [d'vas kcn'troul 'ju:nt] ()
. . . device controller

167

________________________________________________________________________________________

device controller [d'vas kcn'troulc] () .@



. :
, ,

,


.
device coordinates [d'vas kou']:dnts] .@
- . . . normalized device coordinates, word coordinates
device driver [d'vas 'dravc]
.@ ,

.
,

.
device name [d'vas nem]
.@ 1. ,
. 2.
, , .
device number [d'vas 'n7mbc]
.@ ,
, .
device space [d'vas spes] .@ -

- .
device status word (DSW) [d'vas 'stetcs wc:d]
.@ - , .
device under test (DUT) [d'vas
'7ndc test]
device-dependent [d'vas/d'pendcnt] , .@ , ,
.
deviceindependence [d'vas/nd'pendcns] n.
() .@ . .
device-independent
device-independent [d'vas/nd'pendcnt] ()
.@ 1. , , .
2. , .
devise [d'vaz] v. ;

devoid [d'v]d] adj.


-. (of)
devote [d'vout] v. ;
.# to be devoted
-.;
dexterity [deks'tert] n. ;

168________________________________________________________________________________________
diagnosis [/dacl'nouss] n.
diagnostic [/dacl'n]stk] adj.

diagnostic check [/dacl'n]stk


tek]
diagnostic disk [/dacl'n]stk
dsk] ,
.@ , .
diagnostic function test (DFT)
[/dacl'n]stk 'f7kcn test]
diagnostic information system
(DIS) [/dacl'n]stk /nfc'mecn 'sstm]
diagnostic program [/dacl'n]stk 'proulrm] 1. , , ;
2. ,
. . . diagnostics
diagnostic routine [/dacl'n]stk
ru:'ti:n] , , . . . diagnostics
diagnostics [/dacl'n]stks] n. 1.
.@

. 2. .
diagnostor [/dacl'n]stc] n. ,
diagonal [da'lncl] n. ; adj.

diagonal matrix [da'lncl 'metrks]


diagonal method [da'lncl 'mecd]
diagonal
microprogramming
[da'lncl 'makrou'proulrm] .
@ ,
.
diagonal representation [da'lncl /reprzen'tecn]

diagonalization [da'lnclzecn]
.@ ,

.
diagonalize [da'lnclaz] v.
diagram ['daclrm] n. , , ; v.
, ,

diagrammatic representation
[/daclrc'mtk /reprzen'tecn]
diagrammatic(al) [/daclrc'mtk(cl)] adj.
dial [dacl] v. ;
( )
dial line [dacl lan]
dialectics ['daclktks]
dialog [dac'l]l] n. .@ ,

; ,

169

________________________________________________________________________________________

. . . interactive
Dialog Debug Technique (DDT)
[dac'l]l d'b7g tek'ni:k]
.@

, .
diamagnetic
[/dacml'netk]
adj.
diameter (diam.) [da'mtc] n.

diamond ['dacmcnd] n. 1. ;
2.
diaphragm['dacfrm] n. ,
diatomic [/dac't]mk] adj.
dichotomizing search [d'k]tcmz sc:t] ,
. . . binary
search
dichotomy method [d'k]tcm
'mecd]
dictate ['dktet] n. ,
( pl); v.
dictionary ['dkcnr] n. .
@ ,

.
dictionary order ['dkcnr ]:'dc]

dielectric [/da'elektrk] adj. ; n.
differ ['dfc] v. ;
difference ['dfrcns] n. 1. , , ; 2. , ; 3. .# it
makes all the difference (in the
word) -

; .# it makes no
difference ;

difference amplifier (DA) ['dfrcns 'mplfac]

difference equation ['dfrcns 'kwecn] , .@ . , , .



,

.
difference in depth of modulation (DDM) ['dfrcns n dep ]v /m]djulecn]

different ['dfrcnt] adj. 1. , ; 2. ,
differentiability [/dfc'rencblt]
n.
differential [/dfc'rencl] n. , , ; adj.
1. ; 2.
differential control [/dfc'rencl
kcn'troul]
differential equation [/dfc'rencl
'kwecn]
differential file (dif) [/dfc'rencl
fal] ; .@ , ,
.

170________________________________________________________________________________________
differential mode (symmetrical)
disturbances [/dfc'rencl moud (s'metrkcl)]
differential negative resistance
(DNR) [/dfc'rencl 'nelctv r'zstcns]

differential neighbourhood [/dfc'rencl 'nebchud]

differential operator [/dfc'rencl


']pcretc]
differential parameter [/dfc'rencl pc'rmtc]

differential phase-shift keying


(DPSK) [/dfc'rencl 'fez'ft ki:]

differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) [/dfc'rencl p7ls/coud
/m]djulecn] -
differential relay (DR) [/dfc'rencl 'ri:'le]
differential sing [/dfc'rencl s]
1. ; 2. ; 3.
differential synthesis algorithm
(DSA) [/dfc'rencl sn'ess 'll]/rcm]

differentially-coherent phaseshift keying (DCPSK) [/dfc'renclkou'hcrent 'fez'ft ki:] -


differentiate [/dfcren'e] v.

differentiation [/dfcren'ecn]
n. ,

differently ['dfrcntl] adv. , -


diffract [d'frkt] v.
diffraction [d'frkcn] n.
diffraction loss (DL) [d'frkcn
l]s] ,

diffuse [d'fju:z] v. 1. ;
2.
diffuseness [d'fju:zni:s] n.
diffusion [d'fju:cn] n. 1. ; 2. ,
diffusion equation [d'fju:cn
'kwecn]
digest ['daest] n. (); ;
digest ['dest] v. 1. (); 2. ; 3.
digimark ['dma:k]

digit ['dt] n. 1. ; ;
2. , ,
digit check ['dt tek]
digit code ['dt koud]
digit delay ['dt d'le]
digit delay element ['dt d'le
'elmcnt]
digit per word ['dt pc: wc:d]

171

________________________________________________________________________________________

digit period ['dt 'pcrcd]


digit position ['dt pc'zicn] 1.
; 2.
digit selector ['dt s'lektc]

digit symbol generator ['dt
'smbcl 'encretc] 1. ; 2.
digit time ['dt tam] 1. ; 2.

digit(al) capacity ['dt(l) k'pcst]


,
digital ['dtl] adj. ;
,
digital adder ['dtl 'dc]
digital analog decoder ['dtl
'ncl]l 'di:'koudc] -
digital approximation ['dtl
c/pr]ks'mecn]
digital automation ['dtl /]:tc'mecn]
digital calculations ['dtl 'klkjulecns]
digital cassette ['dtl 'ksctc]
. . . cassette tape
digital character ['dtl 'krktc]
digital communication (digicom) ['dtl kc'mju:n'kecn]
digital computation ['dtl /kcmpju:'tecn]

digital computing circuit ['dtl kcm'pju:t 'sc:kt]


digital control oscillator (DCO)
['dtl kcn'troul /]s'letc]

digital control system ['dtl
kcn'troul 'sstm]
()
digital coordinate(s) ['dtl
kou']:dnt(s)]
digital data ['dtl 'detc] ()
digital data receiver (DDR)
['dtl 'detc r'si:vc]
digital data transmitter (DDT)
['dtl 'detc trnz'mtc]

digital desing ['dtl d'zan]

digital desing language ['dtl
d'zan 'llw]
.@
, ,
,
.
digital device ['dtl d'vas]
()
digital differential analyzer
(DDA) ['dtl /dfc'rencl 'nclazc]

digital disk ['dtl dsk]
digital display (DD) ['dtl
ds'ple] 1. ; 2.

digital divider ['dtl d'vadc]

172________________________________________________________________________________________
digital drum ['dtl dr7m]
digital filtering ['dtl 'filtcr]
.@
.
digital form ['dtl f]:m] ()
digital indicator ['dtl 'ndketc]
digital information ['dtl /nfc'mecn] ()
digital information display
(DID) ['dtl /nfc'mecn ds'ple]

digital input module (DIM)
['dtl 'input 'm]dju:l]
digital logic ['dtl 'l]k] .@
, ( ).
digital machine ['dtl mc'i:n]

digital matched filter (DMF)
['dtl mt 'filtc]
digital microcircuit (DMC)
['dtl 'makrou'sc:kt]
digital
microprocessor-based
oscilloscope (DMO) ['dtl 'makrou'prousesc'best c'slcskoup]
digital module ['dtl 'm]dju:l]

digital multimeter (DMM)
['dtl 'm7ltmtc]

digital multiplexed interface


(DMI) ['dtl 'm7ltplekst /ntc'fes]

digital multiplier ['dtl 'm7ltplac]
,
digital network analyzer (dina)
['dtl 'netwc:k 'nclazc]

digital output ['dtl 'autput] 1.
; 2.
digital output module (DOM)
['dtl 'autput 'm]dju:l]
digital panel meter (DPM)
['dtl 'pnl 'mi:tc]
digital phase locked loop
(DPLL) ['dtl 'fez 'l]kt lu:p]
digital process ['dtl 'prouses]
()
digital processing unit ['dtl
'prouses 'ju:nt]
digital quantity ['dtl 'kw]ntt]
digital representation ['dtl
/reprzen'tecn]
digital signal ['dtl 'slncl]

digital signal processing (DSP)
['dtl 'slncl 'prouses]

digital sorting ['dtl 's]:t]

digital storage ['dtl 'st]:r]

173

________________________________________________________________________________________

digital storage unit (DSU)


['dtl 'st]:r 'ju:nt]
digital summation threshold
logic (DSTL) ['dtl s7'mecn
'rehould 'l]k]
digital switching system (DSS)
['dtl 'sw 'sstm]
digital system ['dtl 'sstm]
.@ ,
() .
digital system desing language
(DDL) ['dtl 'sstm d'zan 'llw]
digital technique ['dtl tek'ni:k]
digital variable ['dtl 'vcrcbl] ,
digital video recording (DVR)
['dtl 'vdcou 'rek]:d]

digital voltmeter (DVM) ['dtl


'voult'mi:tc]
digital wire ['dtl wac]

digital-coded information ['dtl koudd /nfc'mecn]

digitally controlled delta modulation (DCDM) ['dtl /kcn'trould


'deltc /m]djulecn] -

digital-operational multiplier
['dtl/]pc'recnl 'm7ltplac]
,

digital-to-analog(ue) (D-A, D/A)


['dtl'tu:'ncl]l] -
digital-to-analog(ue) conversion
(DAC) ['dtl'tu:'ncl]l kcn'vc:cn]
-
digital-to-analog(ue) converter
(DAC) ['dtl'tu:'ncl]l kcn'vc:tc]
-
digital-to-synchro
converter
(DAC) ['dtl'tu:/skrc kcn'vc:tc]


digital-to-voice
translation
(DIVOT) ['dtl'tu:'v]s trns'lecn]


digitization ['dtzecn] 1.
,
.@
. 2. ; 3.
; 4.

digitize ['dtz] v.
; .@ . .
digitizer ['dtzc] n. 1. . . . graphics digitizer; 2.
;
digitizing pad (tablet) ['dtz
pd ('tblt)] () . . . grap-hic tablet

174________________________________________________________________________________________
digits with like place values ['dts w lak ples 'vlju:s]

digram probability ['dalrm
/pr]bc'blt]

digraph ['dalra:f] n. ,
dimension [d'dmencn] n. 1.
.@ 1. ,
. 2.
; .
2. pl. , , ; 3.

dimensional [d'dmencnl] adj.

dimensionally [d'dmencnl] n.

dimensionless [d'dmencnles]
adj.
diminish [d'dmini] v. ();
diminished radix complement
[d'dminit 'redks 'k]mplmcnt] . . .
radix-minus-one complement
diminishing increment [d'mini 'nkrimcnt]
dint [dnt] n.
: by dint of
diode ac switch (diac) [daoud
ck sw]
,
diode-transistor logic (DTL)
['daoud'trn'zstc 'l]k] ,
-
diode-transistor logic Zener
(diode) (DTL) ['daoud'trn'zstc 'l]k zenc ('daoud)] --


()
diode-transistor
micrologic
(DT:L) ['daoud'trn'zstc 'makrou'l]k] -
dip [dp] v. (),
(); ; n.

dipole ['dapoul] n.
direct [d'rekt] v. ;
adj. 1. ; 2. ,
; 3. -
direct access [d'rekt 'kses] .@ ,
(, , )


. . sequential access
direct address [d'rekt c'dres]
.@
, ,
, .. .
direct addressing [d'rekt c'dres] .@ , ,
.
direct allocation [d'rekt 'lckecn] 1. ()
; 2.
direct coding [d'rekt 'koud]

direct consequence [d'rekt 'k]nskwcns]
direct coupling (DC) [d'rekt
'k7pl]

175

________________________________________________________________________________________

direct current (DC) [d'rekt 'k7rcnt]


direct current leakage (DCL)
[d'rekt 'k7rcnt 'li:k]
direct data capture [d'rekt 'detc
'kptc] () . .
. data capture
direct data entry (DDE) [d'rekt 'detc 'entr] -

direct data set [d'rekt 'detc set]


, . . . direct file
direct digital control (DDC) [d'rekt 'dtl kcn'troul]
direct display [d'rekt ds'ple]


(. )
direct electronic Fourier transform [d'rekt /lek'tr]nk f]:rcr trns'f]:m]
direct execution [d'rekt /eks'kju:cn] .@
.
direct file [d'rekt fal]
.@ ,
; . . sequential file
direct inserted subroutine [d'rekt 'nsctd scb/ru:'tn]
direct interpolation [d'rekt n/tc:pc'lecn]

direct inward dialing (DID)


[d'rekt 'nwcd dacl]
direct memory access (DMA)
[d'rekt 'memcr 'kses] , .@ ,
,
.
direct memory access controller
(DMAC) [d'rekt 'memcr 'kses kcn'troulc]
()
direct numerical control (DNC)
[d'rekt 'nju:mcrkcl kcn'troul]
direct outward dialing (DOD)
[d'rekt 'autwcd dacl]
direct product [d'rekt 'pr]dckt]
(
)
direct read after write (DRAW)
[d'rekt ri:d 'a:ftcr rat]

direct row [d'rekt rou]

direct storage allocation [d'rekt


'st]:r 'lckecn]

direct-access file [d'rekt'kses
fal] . . .
direct file
direct-access hashing [d'rekt'kses h] .
@ ,

. . . hashing

176________________________________________________________________________________________
direct-access library [d'rekt'kses 'labrcr] ()
direct-access method (DAM)
[d'rekt'kses 'mecd]
.@ ,

.
direct-access storage [d'rekt'kses 'st]:r]
direct-access storage device
(DASD) [d'rekt'kses 'st]:r d'vas]

, .@
, .

. ,
. . . direct access
direct-coupled field-transistor
logic (DCFL) [d'rekt'k7pld fi:ld/trn'zstc 'l]k]

direct-coupled logic (DCL) [d'rekt'k7pld 'l]k]

direct-coupled machines [d'rekt'k7pld mc'i:ns] .@ ,
.
direct-coupled transistor logic
(DCTL) [d'rekt'k7pld /trn'zstc 'l]k] -

,
directed edge [d'rektd e] , . . .
arc
directed graph (digraph) [d'rektd lrf] ,

directed set [d'rektd set]


directed tree [d'rektd tri:] ()
directed-beam display [d'rektdbi:m ds'ple] .
. . vector-mode display
direction [d'rekcn] n.
directional [d'rekcnl] adj.
directionally [d'rekcnl] adv.

direction-finding problem [d'rekcn'fand 'pr]blcm]


directive [d'rektv] n. ;
directory (DIR) [d'rectcr] n.
. @
( ),

.
directory device [d'rectcr d'vas] , .@
, ,
.

177

________________________________________________________________________________________

directory file [d'rectcr fal] .@ , .


. . directory
directory hierarchy [d'rectcr
'hacra:k]
directory routing [d'rectcr 'raut] .@


, .
dis- [ds-] pref.
, : to disagree

disable [ds'ebl] v. ;
();
disabled interrupt [ds'ebld /intc'r7pt] ; .@
,

c .
disadvantage [/dscd'va:nt] n.
1. , ; 2. , ;
disappear [/dsc'pc] v.
disappointing [/dsc'p]nt] adj.

disarm [ds'a:m]

disarmed interrupt [ds'a:md
/ntc'r7pt] ; .
. . disabled interrupt
disassembler [ds'csemblc] n.
.@ ,

, ,

.
discard [ds'ka:d] v. 1. ; 2. ;
discending continuied fraction
[d'send /k]nt'nju:d 'frkcn] ()

discern [d'sc:n] v. 1. ,
; 2. ,
.# to discern no difference

discernible [d'sc:ncbl] adj.
discerning [d'sc:n] adj. ;
discharge [ds'a:] v. 1. ; 2. ; ; 3.
; 4. ; n.
disciplinary ['dsplncr] adj. 1.
; 2.
discipline ['dspln] n. .@ . . strategy
disconcert [/dskcn'sc:t] v. ; ; ()
disconnect [ds'kcnekt] v. ;
disconnect graph [ds'kcnekt
lrf] . . connected graph
discontinuity ['ds/k]n'tnju:t] n.
1. ; 2. ;
discontinuous ['ds/kcn'tnju:cs]
adj. ; ;

discontinuous waves ['ds/kcn'tnju:cs 'wevs]

178________________________________________________________________________________________
discount ['dskaunt] v.
discourage [ds'k7r] v. , ;
discover [ds'k7vc] v. 1. , ; 2. ,
discrepancy [ds'krepcns] v. 1.
; 2.
discrete [ds'kri:t] adj. ; ;
discrete and components system
[ds'kri:t nd kcm'pouncnts 'sstm]
.
@ , ,
(. . )
(. . ).
discrete channel with memory
(DCM) [ds'kri:t 'nl w 'memcr]

discrete component [ds'kri:t
kcm'pouncnt] ()
discrete memoryless channel
(DMC) [ds'kri:t 'memcrles 'nl]

discrete process [ds'kri:t 'prouses]
discrete programming [ds'kri:t
'proulrm] . . . integer programming
discrete range [ds'kri:t ren]
.@
.

discrete representation [ds'kri:t


/reprzen'tecn]
discrete simulation [ds'kri:t /smju'lecn] .@ ,

. .continuous simulation
discrete structure [ds'kri:t 'str7ktc] .@ ,
. ,
,
,

.
discrete time [ds'kri:t tam]
discrete variable representation
[ds'kri:t 'vcrcbl /reprzen'tecn]

discretion [ds'krecn] n. 1. , ; 2. ; .# at the


discretion of -.
discretionary-routed
array
(DRA) [ds'krecncr'rautd c're]

discretization [ds'krezecn] n.
.@
, , [0, 1],
, -

179

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
nh: n = 0, 1, 2, ,N, h =1/N.
discretization error [ds'krezecn
'erc] ,
. . . truncation error
discriminant analysis [ds'krmnnt c'nlcsz]

discriminate [ds'krmnet] v.

discriminated union [ds'krmntd 'ju:njcn] .@



discrimination [ds/krm'necn]
n. 1. ; 2. ;
3.
discrimination instruction [ds/krm'necn n'str7kcn] ,
discriminattor [ds/krm'netc]
n. 1. ; 2.

discuss [ds'k7s] v. ,
.# under discussion
,
disease [d'zi:z] n. ; v.
;
disintegration [ds'ntlrecn] n.

disjoint [ds']nt] adj. .@ ,


.
disjunction [ds'7kcn] n.
,
disjunctive normal form [ds'7ktv n]:mcl f]:m]
disjunctive search [ds'7ktiv
sc:t] .@ ,


. . conjunctive search
disk (disc) [dsk] n. .@ 1.
. 2.
. 3.
. . . disk unit
disk cache [dsk kc] -, .@
, () ,
.
-.
disk cartridge [dsk 'ka:tr]
,
disk controller [dsk kcn'troulc]
,
. . . device controller
disk drive (DKD) [dsk draiv] 1.
.@ , . 2. ,
. . . disk
unit
disk dump [dsk d7mp]
()
disk file [dsk fal]
,
disk file memory [dsk fal 'memcr]

disk format [dsk 'f]:mt] 1.
, ; 2.
. . . format
disk formatter [dsk 'f]:mtc]
.@ .

180________________________________________________________________________________________
disk handler [dsk 'hndlc] ,
.
. . disk unit
disk interleaving [dsk /ntc'li:v] .@ ,
.


.
disk memory [dsk 'memcr]
disk operating system (DOS)
[dsk ']pcreit 'sstm]
disk pack [dsk 'pk] , .@
,
.
disk quota [dsk 'kwoutc] .@
,
.
disk sorting [dsk 's]:t] .@ ,
.
. . external sort
disk storage [dsk 'st]:r] 1.
, ;
2. , . . .
disk unit
disk unit [dsk 'ju:nt]
, .@ , -


-.
dislocation [ds/lou'kecn] n.

dismiss [ds'ms] v. 1. ;
; 2. ; ,

dismount . demount
disorder [ds']:dc] n.
disorderly close-down [ds']:dcl
klouz'daun]
. .orderly close-down
dispatch [ds'p] n.
dispatcher [ds'pc] n. . . . scheduler
dispel [ds'pel] v. ; .# to dispel doubts

dispense [ds'pens] v. 1. ; 2. -.
(with); 3. -.
(from)
disperse array [ds'pc:s c're]
;
.@ ( ), .
.
disperse matrix [ds'pc:s 'metrks] . .
. disperse array
dispersion [ds'pc:cn]
dispersion area [ds'pc:cn 'crc]
displace [ds'ples] v. ;
,

181

________________________________________________________________________________________

displacement [ds'plesmcnt] n.
1. .@
. .
. base and displacement; 2.
;
display [ds'ple] n. 1. ;
. 2. ; .@ . 3. ()
.@

, ,
. 4. ; 5. , , ; v. 1.
; ; 2. , ; 3. ,
; 4.

, () ,
display access [ds'ple 'kses]
,

display attribute [ds'ple 'tribju:t]


display capacity [ds'ple k'pcst] .@
( ),
.
display command [ds'ple kc'ma:nd] .@
,
.
display console [ds'ple kcn'soul] .@ ,
, ,
.

display controller [ds'ple kcn'troulc] ,


.@
,
.
display element [ds'ple 'elmcnt] , .@ , (, , , ).
. . graphical output primitive
display field [ds'ple fi:ld]
; . . .
window
display file [ds'ple fal] .@ ,

.
display group [ds'ple lru:p]
.
. .
display segment
display image [ds'ple 'm]
, .@
, . .
display lamp [ds'ple lmp]
display list [ds'ple lst] . . . display file
display processor [ds'ple 'prousesc]

182________________________________________________________________________________________
display scale [ds'ple skel]
display segment [ds'ple 'selmcnt] .@
(
),
.
display surface [ds'ple 'sc:fs]
.@ , (, ,
).
displayed
image
[ds'pled
'm] ()
displaying symbol [ds'ple 'smbcl] (.
)
display-oriented [ds'ple ']:rcntd]
disposal [ds'pouzcl] n. 1. , ; 2. ;
3. , .# at one's
disposal -.
dispose [ds'pouz] v. 1. ( ); 2. ;
; 3. ; 4. -.; , (of).# to dispose of some problems
disregard [ds/r'la:d] v.
disseminate [d'semnet] v. 1.
; 2. (, )
dissemination [d'semnecn] n.

dissimilar ['d'smlc] adj. 1. ; 2.


dissipate [/ds'pet] v.
dissipation [/ds'pecn] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
dissipation factor [/ds'pecn
'fktc] 1. ; 2.
dissociate [d'souet] v. 1. ; 2.
dissociation [d'sous'ecn] n.

dissociative [d'soujct 'v] adj.

dissolve [d'z]lv] v. 1. (), ; ; 2. ,


distance (DX, dx) ['dstcns] n.
1. ; 2. ;
distance axiom ['dstcns 'kscm]
distant ['dstcnt] adj. ,

distant reception (DX, dx) ['dstcnt r'sepcn]


distinct [ds'tkt] adj. 1. ; ; ; ; 2. , ; 3. , ; 4. .# as distinct from

distinction [ds'tkcn] n. 1. ; , ; 2. ; 3. ; ; 4. , ;
5.
distinctive [ds'tktv] adj.
distinguish [ds'tgw] v. 1.
; (be-

183

________________________________________________________________________________________

tween); 2. .# to distinguish
oneself by ,
distinguished [ds'tgwt] adj.
, .# as distinguished from .# to be
distinguished from
distort [ds't]:t] v.
distorted information [ds't]td
/nfc'mecn] ,
distorted message [ds't]td 'mes]
distortion [ds't]cn] n. ;
distortion factor [ds't]cn 'fktc]
distribute [ds'trbju:t] v. , ,
distributed processing [ds'trbju:td 'prouses]
.@ ,
.
distributed amplifier (DA) [ds'trbju:td 'mplfac]

distributed array processor
[ds'trbju:td c're 'prousesc] .@
,
, .
distributed constant [ds'trbju:td 'k]nstcnt]
distributed data base [ds'trbju:td 'detc bes]
.@ ,

.
distributed feedback (DFB)
[ds'trbju:td 'fi:d/bk]
distributed file system [ds'trbju:td fal 'sstm]
.@ , ,
()
, ,
.
distributed intelligence [ds'trbju:td n'telcns]
; .@ ,

,
. .
. distributed logic
distributed logic [ds'trbju:td
'l]k] .
@ ,
, .
distributed system (DS) [ds'trbju:td 'sstm] 1.
() .@ ,
,
. 2.

distributing routing [ds'trbju:t 'raut] .@
,
-

184________________________________________________________________________________________
,
.
.centralized routing
distribution [ds'trbju:cn] n.
, ,
distribution counting sort [ds'trbju:cn 'kaunt s]:t]
.@ ,
, .
,
.
distribution curve [ds'trbju:cn
kc:v]
distribution function [ds'trbju:cn 'f7kcn]
distribution kit [ds'trbju:cn
kt] , .@
, .
distribution of eigenvalues [ds'trbju:cn ]v 'cen'vlju:s]
distribution of zeros [ds'trbju:cn ]v 'zcrous]
distribution system [ds'trbju:cn 'sstm]
distribution tape [ds'trbju:cn
tep] , .@ ,
,
.
distributional
[ds'trbju:cnl]
adj.
distributive [ds'trbju:tv] adj.

distributive lattice [ds'trbju:tv


'lts] .@
,

.
distributive law [ds'trbju:tv
l]:]
distributive law of disjunction
over conjunction [ds'trbju:tv l]: ]v
ds'7kcn 'ouvc kcn'7kcn]

distributor [ds'trbju:tc] n. ,
disturb [ds'tc:b] v. 1. , ; 2.
disturbance [ds'tc:bcns] n. 1.
, , , . 2. . 3.
disturbance input [ds'tc:bcns
'input]
disturbed [ds'tc:bd] adj. ,
disturbed cell [ds'tc:bd si:l]

disuse ['ds'ju:s] n. .# to come (fall) in to disuse
diverge [da'vc:] v. ,
divergence [da'vc:ns] n.1. ; 2.
divergent [da'vc:nt] adj. 1.
; 2.
diverse [da'vc:s] adj. , ,

185

________________________________________________________________________________________

divert [da'vc:t] v. 1. ;
; 2.
divide [d'vad] v. 1. ();
2. ; 3.
divide and conquer sorting [d'vad nd 'k]kc 's]:t]

.@ , ,
,
.
divide stop light [d'vad st]p
'lat] .@
divide-by-two circuit [d'vad'ba'tu: 'sc:kt]
dividend [d'vadend] n.
divider (div) [d'vadc] n. , , ,

dividing circuit [d'vad 'sc:kt]



division [d'vcn] n. 1. .@ 1. .
2. ,
. 2. ;
3. ;
division header [d'vcn 'hedc]

division time [d'vcn tam]

divisor [d'vazc] n. 1.
; 2. ;
3.
divorse [d'v]:s] v. 1. ,
; 2. (); n. 1.
, ; 2.
DMA channel ['nl]

DMA controller [kcn'troulc]



do [du:] v. (did, done) 1. ;
2. (); 3.

, ; 4.
. ( ); 5.
(away with); 6. (without).# as it does (as
they do) , .# in doing so .#
to do away (with) ().#
to do one's best .# to do without
.# to have to do with
, .# to have
much to do with .# to have nothing to do with

DO loop [du: lu:p] DO.@

.
document ['d]kjumcnt] n. ; (
). . . electronic document
document compiler ['d]kjumct
kcm'palc] , .@ ,
.
document handling ['d]kjumct
'hndl]
document processing ['d]kjumcnt 'prouses] .@ -

186________________________________________________________________________________________
,
, .
document reader ['d]kjumcnt
'ri:dc] .@
, , , .
document scanner ['d]kjumcnt
'sknc]

document sorter ['d]kjumcnt


's]tc] .@ ,

.
documentation [/d]kjumcn'teicn] n.
,
domain [dc'men] n. 1. .@
1.
. 2.
, . 2. ; 3. . .
range; 4.
domain expert [dc'men 'ekspc:t]

domain knowledge [dc'men 'n]l] .@
,
.
domain of dependence [dc'men
]v d'pendcns]
domain of function [dc'men ]v
'f7kcn]

domain of integrity [dc'men ]v


n'telrt]
domain tip (DOT) [dc'men tp]

domain-specific [dc'men/sp'sfk] -
dominant ['d]mncnt] adj. ; ; ; n.
dominantor ['d]mncntc] n.
dominate ['d]mnet] v.
do-nothing instruction [du:'n7 n'str7kcn] ,

doorstep ['d]:step] n.
dope [doup] v. 1. ; 2.

dope vector [doup 'vektc] .@ , , .


doping [doup] n. 1. -; 2.
dormant ['d]:mcnt] adj. 1.
; ; 2. ; 3. ;
dormant task ['d]:mcnt ta:sk]
. . . suspended state
dose [dous] v. ; n.
;
dot [d]t] n.
dot mark [d]t ma:k] ( )
dot matrix [d]t 'metrks] ,
.@

187

________________________________________________________________________________________


.
dot pattern [d]t 'ptcn] ,
. . . dot matrix
dot type digital indicator [d]t
tap 'dtl 'ndketc]
dot-addressable [d]t/c'dres'ebl]
.@ ,

.
dot-matrix character generator
[d]t'metrks 'krktc 'encretc]
dot-matrix display [d]t'metrks
ds'ple] . .
. bit-mapped display
dot-matrix printer [d]t'metrks
'prntc] . . . matrix printer
dotted [d]td] adj.
dotted line[d]td lan]
dotted pair [d]td pc]

double calculation ['d7bl 'klkjulecn]


,
double ['d7blc] adj. ;
; v.
double buffering ['d7bl 'b7fcr]
.@ , .
double carry ['d7bl 'kr]
double complement ['d7bl 'k]mplmcnt] .@
.

double density recording ['d7bl


'denst 'rek]:d]

double frequency-shift keying


(DFSK) ['d7bl 'fri:kwcns'ft ki:]

double integral ['d7bl 'ntlrcl]

double length ['d7bl le]
double length arithmetic ['d7bl
le c'rmctk]

double length operation ['d7bl


le /]pc'recn]

double length word ['d7bl le
wc:d] ,

double negation ['d7bl n'lecn]

double precision ['d7bl pr'scn]
, .@ , , .
.
double precision arithmetic
['d7bl pr'scn c'rmctk] 1. ; 2.

double precision computation
['d7bl pr'scn /kcmpju:'tecn]
double precision hardware
['d7bl pr'scn 'ha:dwc] 1. -

188________________________________________________________________________________________
; 2.

double precision number ['d7bl
pr'scn 'n7mbc]
.@ ,
( 64 ).
double sampling ['d7bl 'sa:mpl] ,

double space ['d7bl spes] ,
double word ['d7bl wc:d]
double word-length arithmetic
['d7bl wc:d'le c'rmctk] 1.
; 2.


double-address instruction ['d7blc'dres n'str7kcn]
.@ , ,

.
double-density disk (DD) ['d7bl
'denst dsk]
double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (DMOS) ['d7bl/d'fju:zd
'metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc]
,

double-error correcting code
['d7bl'erc kc'rekt koud]
double-implanted metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor
(DIMOSFET) ['d7bl/m'pla:ntd 'metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc fi:ld/'fekt trn'zstc] () ,



double-level grammar ['d7bl'levl 'lrmc] , .
double-pole (DP) ['d7blc'poul]

double-pole
double-throw
(DPDT)
['d7blc'poul 'd7blc'rou]

double-pole
single-throw
(DPST) ['d7blc'poul 'sll'rou] ()
doubler (dblr) ['d7blc]
double-ranked register ['d7blrkt 'restc]

double-sideband (DSB) ['d7bl'sad'bnd]
double-sided disk ['d7bl'sadd
dsk] . .
single-sided disk
double-word instruction ['d7bl'wc:d n'str7kcn] 1. ; 2. ,

doubling circuit ['d7bl 'sc:kt]


,

doubly linked list ['d7bl lkt
lst] .@
,

.
doubt [daut] v. 1.
(in), ; 2. , ; 3. ,
; n.

189

________________________________________________________________________________________

do-while loop [du:'wal lu:p]


,
.@ , ,
,

.
down operation ['daun /]pc'recn] , (). . . semaphore
downline ['daunlan]
( )
downline loading ['daunlan 'loud] .@

.
download ['daunloud] v. , ( ).
. . downline loading
downtime ['dauntam] n.
,
downward bias ['daunw]:d 'bacs]

dozen ['d7zn] n. 1. ; 2.
pl.
draft [dra:ft] n. 1. , ; (); 2.
, ; , ; v. ;
draft report [dra:ft r'p]:t]
draft-quality [dra:ft'kw]lt] . . . printing quality
drag ['drl] n. 1. ; 2.
; v. , ,
drag-and-drop ['drl'nd'dr]p]

dragging ['drl] n. , .@


,
.
drain [dren] n.
dramatic [drc'mtk] adj. 1.
; 2. ;
;
drastic ['drstk] adj. 1. ; 2.
draw [dr]:] v. (drew, drawn) 1.
, ; 2. , ; 3. (up); 4. ,
(on, upon); 5.
().# to draw attention to
.# to draw a
conclusion ,
.# to draw a distinction
.# to draw to a
close
drawback [dr]:bk] n. 1. ; 2.
drawing [dr]:] n. ;
drift [dtft] n. 1. ; ; ; 2. ,
; v. ()
();
drift failure [dtft 'feljc] .@


drive [draiv] v. (drove, driven)
1. ();
2. ; n. 1. . .
. disk drive; 2.
; 3. ; 4. ; 5.
,
driver ['dravc] n. 1. .
. . device driver; 2. .@ ,

190________________________________________________________________________________________

. 3. ; 4.
driving frequency [draiv 'fri:kwcns] 1. ; 2.
droop [dru:p] n. ; v.

drop [dr]p] v. 1. ; 2. , ; .# drop in


; n. 1. ; 2.
drop shadow [dr]p 'dou] ,
drop-in ['dr]p'n]
,
drop-out ['dr]p'7ut]
,
dropped bit [dr]pt bt] ,

dropping ['dr]p] adj. ,


drum [dr7m] n. , ,
drum instruction [dr7m n'str7kcn] ,
,
drum plotter [dr7m 'pl]tc] .@ , , .
drum printer [dr7m 'prntc] .
. . barrel printer
drum storage [dr7m 'st]:r]
dry run [dra r7n] n. ()
dryer [drac] n. 1. ; ; 2.
dual ['dju:cl] adj. ;

dual coding ['dju:cl 'koud]


.@ ,


.
dual port memory ['dju:cl p]:t
'memcr] .@
, .
dual processing unit (DPU)
['dju:cl 'prouses 'ju:nt]
dual processor ['dju:cl 'prousesc]
.@ ,
,
.
dual-in-line (DIL) ['dju:cl'nlan]

dual-in-line package (DIP)


['dju:cl'n'lan 'pk]

dual-processor
configuration
['dju:l'prousesc kcn/flju'recn]
dualty ['dju:clt] n. .@ ,
, ,
, 0
1,
.

191

________________________________________________________________________________________

dubbing (dub) ['d7b] n. 1.


(); 2. ; 3. ; 4.
due [dju:] adj. 1. , ; 2. ; 3.
, .#
due to -, , ;
.# due to the fact that
, .# in due course
(time) .# to be due to
(,
-); , ,
-.; ,
dumb [d7m] adj. ;
dumb terminal [d7m 'tc:mnl]
-.@ ,

. . intelligent
terminal
dummy ['d7m] n. 1. ; 2.

; adj. 1. ; ; ; 2.
()
dummy argument ['d7m 'a:ljumcnt] . .
. formal parameter
dummy information ['d7m /nfc'mecn]
dummy instruction ['d7m n'str7kcn] , .@
,

, .
dummy order ['d7m ]:'dc]

dummy statement ['d7m 'stetmcnt]


dump [d7mp] n. 1. .@

, . 2. ,
.@
.
dump check [d7mp tek] .@
, .
dump point [d7mp 'p]nt]

dumping [d7mp] n. 1.
; 2. ,
duplex (DX, dx) ['dju:pleks] n.,
adj. , .@ ( ),
.
duplex calculator ['dju:pleks
'klkjuletc] ()
duplex channel ['dju:pleks 'nl]

duplex circuit ['dju:pleks 'sc:kt]
.@ ,
.
. half-duplex circuit, simplex circuit.
duplex communication ['dju:pleks kc'mju:n'kecn]

duplex computer system ['dju:pleks kcm'pju:tc 'sstm]


duplexer ['dju:pleksc] n.

192________________________________________________________________________________________
duplicate ['dju:plkt] v. ; ; n. ;
; adj. ;
duplicate-processor
check
['dju:plkt 'prousesc tek]

duplicates (dupes) ['dju:plkts]

durability ['djucrc'blt] n. 1.
; 2. ;
duration ['djuc'rccn] n. ,
during ['djucr] prp. , ; .# during
(in) the course of .# during
which time ()
duty ['dju:t] n. 1. ;
2. ; 3.
duty cycle ['dju:t 'sakl]
duty factor ['dju:t 'fktc]
Dvorak keyboard ['ki:b]:d] .@ , .
. AZERTY keyboard, QWERTY
keyboard
dwell [dwel] v. (dwelt) 1. ,
, ; 2.
, (on)
dyadic [da'dk] , .@
, .
dyadic operation [da'dk /]pc'recn] ,
. . . binary operation 1.
dyadic
processor
[da'dk
'prousesc]

dyadic relation [da'dk r'lecn]


dynamic [da'nmk] adj. .@ 1.
. . static. 2. . , .
dynamic address translation
(DAT) [da'nmk c'dres trns'lecn]

dynamic allocation [da'nmk
'lckecn] .@ ,

. . static allocation
dynamic area [da'nmk 'crc]
,
.@
, .
dynamic array [da'nmk c're]
;
dynamic buffering [da'nmk
'b7fcr] .
@ .
dynamic check [da'nmk tek]

dynamic data structure [da'nmk 'detc 'str7ktc]
.@ ,
.

193

________________________________________________________________________________________

dynamic
dump
[da'nmk
d7mp] ()
.@ ,
.
dynamic linking [da'nmk 'lk] , .@
,

;


. . static
linking
dynamic loading [da'nmk
'loud] . .
. dynamic program loading
dynamic memory [da'nmk
'memcr] .@
,
.
dynamic memory allocation
[da'nmk 'memcr 'lckecn] .@
,
.
. static memory allocation
dynamic model [da'nmk
'm]dl] .@ , , ;
,
dynamic multiplexing [da'nmk
'm7ltpleks] . . . . demand
multiplexing
dynamic program loading [da'nmk 'proulrm 'loud] -

.@
, ,
, .
dynamic programming [da'nmk 'proulrm] .@ ,
.
dynamic range (DR) [da'nmk
ren]
dynamic relocation [da'nmk
r'lou'kecn] .@

.
dynamic scattering (DS) [da'nmk 'sktcr]
dynamic scope [da'nmk skoup] , .@
, .

, ;


. . .
static scope
dynamic storage [da'nmk
'st]:r] -

194________________________________________________________________________________________
.@
,
.
dynamic switching (DS) [da'nmk 'sw] ;
dynamic track following (DTF)
[da'nmk trk 'f]lou] ()
dynamic tracking filter (DTF)
[da'nmk 'trk 'filtc]
dynamics [da'nmks] n.

E*
each [i:t] adj., pron. .#
each other
early ['c:l] adj. ; adv.
.# in early .# early in
.# as early as
earn [c:n] v. 1. ; 2.

earth [c:] n. ; v.
ease [i:z] n. 1. ; 2. , ; v. 1 ; 2.
easy axis (EA) ['i:z 'kss]

ebsue [n'sju:] v. 1.
, (from, on);
2.
ebsuing [n'sju:] adj. 1. , ; 2.
eccentricity [/ekscn'trst] n.
;
echo ['ekou] n. .@

.
echo suppression ['ekou sc'precn]
edge [e] n. 1. .@ () . . . arc;
2. , ; 3. ; 4.
edge board [e b]:d]

edge card [e ka:d]
edge connector [e 'kcnektc]

edge effect [e 'fekt]

edge injection (EI) [e n'ckcn]


edit ['edt] v. 1. .
. . editing; 2. ,
. . . link
edit session ['edt 'secn]
.@
.
editing ['edt] n. .@ 1.
,
,
. 2. ,

, .
editing character ['edt 'krktc]
editing key ['edt ki:]
.@ 1.
, . 2.

195

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
: ,
.
editing statement ['edt 'stetmcnt] 1. ;
2.
editing terminal ['edt 'tc:mnl]
, .@ ,


.
edition ['edcn] n.
editor (ED) ['edtc] n. ,

education [/edju:'kecn] n. ; ;
effect ['fekt] n. 1. , , ; 2. , ; 3. , ; v.
, .# in effect .# to the effect that , ; ,
; , .# to this effect
.# to put into effect ,
effect presents ['fekt prc'zents]

effective ['fektv] adj. 1. , ; 2. , (
. .); 3. .# to become
effective
effective address (EA) ['fektv
c'dres] .@
,

.

effective algorithm ['fektv


'll]/rcm] .@ , .

.
effective computability ['fektv
kcm'pju:tcblt]
effective enumeration ['fektv
'nju:mcrecn]
effective instruction ['fektv n'str7kcn]
effective perceived noise decibel
(epndB) ['fektv pc'si:vt n]z 'desbel]

effective procedure ['fektv
prou'si:c]
effective radiated power (ERP)
['fektv /red'etd 'pauc]
effective time ['fektv tam] . . . productive
time
effectively ['fektvl] adv.
effectiveness ['fektvns] n.
efficiency ['fcns] n. 1. ; 2. ,

efficiency factor ['fcns 'fktc]


()
effort ['efct] n. , ;
.# to exert (make) every effort
.# to make efforts

196________________________________________________________________________________________
egoless programming ['eloules
'proulrm] .@ ,


, .
eigen function ['alcn 'f7kcn]

eigenvalue ['alcn'vlju:] n. (,
)
eigenvalue problem ['alcn'vlju: 'pr]blcm]

eigenvector ['alcn'vektc] n.

eight's complement [eits 'k]mplmcnt] ()
. . . radix complement
either ['ac] pron. , ( ); adv. ( ).# either or
either-way circuit ['ac'we
'sc:kt] . .
. half-duplex circuit
eject [i:'ekt] v. 1. ,
; 2. , ,
ejection [i:'ektcn] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ,
elaborate [/lbcret] v. 1. ; 2.
( ..)
elaborate [/lbcrt] adj. ; ,

elaboration [/lbc'recn] n.
elapse [/lps] v. ,
( )
elapsed time [/lpst tam] () .@
. . CPU time
elastic [lstk] adj.
elastic medium [lstk 'mi:djcm]
elastic modulus [lstk 'm]dju:lcs]
electric ['lektrk] adj.
electrical ['lektkcl] adj.
electrical communication ['lektkcl kc'mju:n'kecn]
electrical rule checker (ERC)
['lektkcl ru:l 'tekc]
electrically ['lektrkcl] adj.

electrically alterable read-only


memory (EAROM) ['lektrkcl ']:ltcbl ri:d'ounl 'memcr]

electrically erasable programmable
read-only
memory
(EEPROM) ['lektrkcl 'rez'cbl
'proulrm'cbl ri:d'ounl 'memcr]
, .@ ,
, - .

197

________________________________________________________________________________________

electrically erased (EE) ['lektrkcl 'rezd]


electric-field strength (E) ['lektrk'fi:ld stre]
electricity [lek'trst] n.
electrify ['lektrfa] n.
electrode ['lektroud] n.
electrodynamic ['lektrouda'nmk] adj.
electrodynamics ['lektrouda'nmks] n.
electrographic printer [/lektr]'lrfk 'prntc]
.@ ,
,
.
electrolyte ['lektroulat] n.
electrolytical
[/lektrou'ltkcl]
adj.
electrolyze ['lektroulaz] v.
electromagnet ['lektrou'mlnt]
n.
electromagnetic (EM) [/lek'tr]ml'netk]
electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC) [/lek'tr]ml'netk kcm/ptc'blt]
electromagnetic
interference
filter (EMIFIL) [/lek'tr]ml'netk
/ntc'frcns 'filtc]

electromagnetic
interference
(EMI) [/lek'tr]ml'netk /ntc'frcns]

1. ; 2.
electromagnetic pulse (EMP)
[/lek'tr]ml'netk p7ls] ( )
electromagnetic
radiation
(EMR) [/lek'tr]ml'netk /red'ecn]

electromechanical relay (EMR)
[/lek'tr]m'knkcl 'ri:'le]
electromotive force (emf) [/lek'tr]'moutv f]:s]
,
electron [/lek'tr]n] n.
electron device (ED) [/lek'tr]n
d'vas]
electron-coupled
oscillator
(ECO) [/lek'tr]n'k7pld /]s'letc]
electronic [/lek'tr]nk] adj.
electronic calculator [/lek'tr]nk
'klkjuletc]
electronic circuit analysis program (ECAP) [/lek'tr]nk 'sc:kt
c'nlcsz 'proulrm]

electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) [/lek'tr]nk 'kauntc'kauntc'mecs]
,
electronic crosspoint (EXP)
[/lek'tr]nk kr]s'p]nt]
()

electronic
data
gathering
equipment (EDGE) [/lek'tr]nk 'detc

198________________________________________________________________________________________
'lcr 'kwpmcnt]


electronic
data
processing
(EDP) [/lek'tr]nk 'detc 'prouses]

electronic data processing machine (EDPM) [/lek'tr]nk 'detc
'prouses mc'i:n]

electronic data processing system (EDPS) [/lek'tr]nk 'detc 'prouses 'sstm]



electronic document [/lek'tr]nk
'd]kjumcnt] ;
.@

, . ,
, ;

.
electronic filing [/lek'tr]nk fl] .@ , , .
electronic funds transfer system
[/lek'tr]nk f7nds 'trnsfc 'sstm]
electronic mail [/lek'tr]nk mel]

electronic office [/lek'tr]nk ]fs]
.@
,
.

electronic
post-production
p]st'pr]dckcn]
(EPP) [/lek'tr]nk

electronic signal
monitoring
(ESM) [/lek'tr]nk 'slncl 'm]ntcr]
1. ; 2.
electronic space-division analog
network (ESDAN) [/lek'tr]nk spes/d'vcn 'ncl]l 'netwc:k]
electronic switching system
(ESS) [/lek'tr]nk 'sw 'sstm]

electronic vertical format unit
[/lek'tr]nk 'vc:tkcl 'f]:mt 'ju:nt]

electronically addressed light
modulator (EALM) [/lek'tr]nkcl
c'drest 'lat 'm]dju'letc]
-
electronically controlled (EC)
[/lek'tr]nkcl kcn'trould]
electronics [/lek'tr]nks] n.
electrooptic light modulator
(EOLM) [/lek'tr]']ptk 'lat 'm]dju'letc]

electrooptic modulator (EOM)


[/lek'tr]']ptk 'm]dju'letc]
electrooptic(al) (EO) [/lek'tr]']ptk(cl)]
electrostatic ['lektrou'sttk] adj.

199

________________________________________________________________________________________

electrostatic focusing (ESF)


['lektrou'sttk 'foukcs]
electrostatic plotter ['lektrou'sttk 'pl]tc]

electrostatic precipitator (ESP)


['lektrou'sttk pr'sptetc] ,
electrostatic printer ['lektrou'sttk 'prntc]

electrothermal printer ['lektrou'c:mcl 'prntc] , . . .
thermal
printer
element (elem) ['elmcnt] n. 1.
, , , , ; 2. pl. ( . .); 3.

element of a group ['elmcnt ]v


c lru:p] 1. ; 2.
; 3.

elemental ['elmcntcl] adj.
elementary [/el'mentcr] adj.

elementary action [/el'mentcr


'kcn]
elementary
digital network
(EDN) [/el'mentcr 'dtl 'netwc:k]

elementary function [/el'mentcr
'f7kcn]
elementary potential digital
computing component (EPDCC)
[/el'mentcr pc'tencl 'dtl kcm'pju:t kcm'pouncnt]

elevate ['elvet] v. ,

elicit ['lst] v. , ; .# to elicit a reply



eligible ['lcbl] adj.
. . ready(-to-run)
task
eliminate ['lm'net] v. 1. ; ; 2.
; 3. ; ; ; ; 4.
elimination [/lm'necn] n. ;
elimination factor [/lm'necn
'fktc] .@ -

.
elite face [e'li:t fes]
12 .
. pica face
elite group [e'li:t lru:p]

ellipse ['lps] n.
ellipsis ['lpsi:z] n. .@

.
ellipsoidal ['lps]dcl] adj.
elliptic integral ['lptk 'ntlrcl]

elliptic(al) ['lptk(cl)] adj.
elongate ['i:l]let] v. 1. (); 2. ()
eloquent ['elckwcnt] adj.
else [els] adv. , .# or
else ;

200________________________________________________________________________________________
elsewhere [els'wc] adv. ; ;
elucidate ['lu:sdet] v. , ,
elude ['lu:d] v. , ;
elusive ['lu:sv] adj. ;
emanate ['emcnet] v. 1. ; ; 2.
(from)
embark [m'ba:k] v. 1. (), ; 2.
; ,
embarrass [m'brcs] v. 1. ; ; 2. ,

embed [m'bed] v. 1. ;
; 2. ; 3. ; 4.
embedded [m'bedd] adj. 1.
.@ ,
. 2. .@
, .
embedded computer [m'bedd
kcm'pju:tc] .@
, .
embedded computer system
[m'bedd kcm'pju:tc 'sstm]
.@ ,
,
.
embedded interpreter ]m'bedd
n'tc:prtc]

embedded loops [m'bedd lu:ps]


,
embedded pointer [m'bedd
'p]ntc] .@
, , .
embedded procedures [m'bedd
prc'si:cs]
embedded scopes [m'bedd
skoups] .@
,
,
,
. , () . .
. scope
embedded servo [m'bedd 'sc:vou]
embedded software [m'bedd
's]ftwc]
.@ ( ) , .
embedding [m'bed] adj. . . . enclosing
embody [m'b]d] v. 1. ; ; 2.

embrace [m'bres] v. ;
emerge ['mc:] v. 1. ; ; ; 2. ; ( . .)
emergence ['mc:cns] , .@ 1. , ,

, ,

201

________________________________________________________________________________________

. 2.

emergency ['mc:cns] n. 1.
, ; 2.
;

emergency power supply (EPS)


['mc:cns 'pauc sc'pla]

eminent ['emncnt] adj. ,
emission ['mcn] n. ;
emissivity [c/m'svt] n.
emit ['mt] v. 1. , ; 2.
emittance ['mtcns] n. ,

emitter ['mtc] n.
emitter function logic (EFL)
['mtc 'f7kcn 'l]k]
emitter-coupled current-steering logic (ECCSL) ['mtc'k7pld
'k7rcnt'sti:r 'l]k]
emitter-coupled logic (ECL)
['mtc'k7pld 'l]k]
emitter-coupled logic-temperature compensated (ECL-TC) ['mtc'k7pld 'l]k'temprc 'k]mpcnsetd]
emitter-coupled transistor logic
(ECTL) ['mtc'k7pld trn'zstc 'l]k]
emitter-emitter coupled logic
2
(E CL) ['mtc/'mtc 'k7pld 'l]k]

-
emitter-follower current switch
(EFCS) ['mtc'f]louc 'k7rcnt sw]

emitter-follower logic (EFL)


['mtc'f]louc 'l]k]
emphasis ['emfcss] n. 1. , ; 2. .# to
lay (place) emphasis ,
,
emphasize ['emfcsaz] v. , ;
empirical [em'prccl] adj.
empirical approach [em'prccl
c'prou]
empirically [em'prccl] adv.

employ [m'pl]] v. ,

empty ['empt] adj.


empty class ['empt kla:s]
empty level ['empt 'levl]
empty list ['empt lst]

empty location ['empt lou'kecn] ()


empty loop ['empt lu:p]
.@ ,
empty medium ['empt 'mi:djcm]
()
empty set ['empt set]

empty string ['empt 'str] .@ .

202________________________________________________________________________________________
empty word ['empt wc:d]
emulate [/emju:'let] v. . . . emulation
emulation [/emju:'lecn] n. .@ ,
.
emulator [/emju:'letc] n. .@ 1. , . 2. , ,

.
emulsion ['m7lcn] n. ;

enable ['neibl] v. 1. ;
; ; 2.

enable enable ['neibl 'neibl]



enable realtime preview ['neibl
'rcl'tam pri:'vju:]

enabled interrupt ['neibld /ntc'r7pt] , .
.
disable interrupt
enabling a line ['neibl c lan]

enact ['nkt] v. 1. ; ; 2.
encapsulate [n'kpsju:let] v.

encapsulated type [n'kpsju:letd tap] ().@
, .

encapsulation [n'kpsju:lecn]
n. 1. .@ (, , ) .
2. .@ ,
,
.
encipher [en'safc] v.
enclose [n'klouz] v. 1. (. ),
enclosing [n'klouz] adj. .@ ,
.
enclosing
scope
[n'klouz
skoup]
encode [n'koud] v. ().@ 1.
,
. 2. , . . decode
encoder [n'koudc] 1. ; 2.
,
encoding [n'koud] n.
encoding format [n'koud
'f]:mt]
encounter [n'kauntc] v. 1.
(); 2. ; n.

encourage [n'k7r] v. 1. ; ; ; 2.
; .# to
encourage attention
encouraging [n'k7r] adj.
; ;

203

________________________________________________________________________________________

encryption [n'krpcn] n.
encryption key [n'krpcn ki:]

encumber [n'k7mbc] v. 1. ; ; 2.
end [end] n. 1. .@ , (
). 2. ,
( ); 3. ; 4.
; adj. , ;
v. (); ().# end
to end .# end-use testing
.# at
the end .# in the end .# to (towards) this end
.# with this end in view

end formula [end 'f]:mjulc]
()
end mark [end ma:k]
()
end of address (EOA) [end ]v
c'dres]
end of block (EOB) [end ]v
bl]k]
end of file indicator [end ]v fal

'ndketc]
()
end of volume (EOV) [end ]v
'v]ljum] ;

end point [end 'p]nt] 1. () ; 2.


; 3.
end user [end 'ju:zc]
.@ ,
.

end-around borrow [end/c'raund


'b]rou]
, . .
. borrow
end-around carry [end/c'raund
'kr] , .@

.
end-around shift [end/c'raund
ft] . . .
circular shift
endeavour [n'devc] v. ,

ending file label ['end fal


'lebl]
ending tape label ['end tep
'lebl]
endless loop ['endles lu:p]
end-of-data mark [end']v'detc
ma:k] ()
end-of-file mark [end']v'fal
ma:k] ()

end-of-tape marker [end']v'tep


'ma:kc] .@ ,

.
end-point control [end'p]nt
kcn'troul]

end-to-end ecryption [end'tu:'end 'ekrpcn] .


@
.
energetic [/enc'etk] adj.

204________________________________________________________________________________________
energetically [/enc'etkcl] adv.

energize ['enaz] v. ,

energizer ['enazc] n. .@ , - .

,

,
.
energy ['enc] n.
engage [n'le] v. 1. ;
2. , .# to be
engaged in -.
engine ['en'n] n. 1. ;
; ; 2. ,
engineer [/en'nc] n.
engineering [/en'ncr] n. 1.
, ( ); 2.
engineering time [/en'ncr
tam] 1. ; 2. ( )
enhance [n'ha:ns] v. , ,
enhanced [n'ha:nsd] adj. ;
enhancement [n'ha:nsment] n. 1.
.@

, . 2. ; 3.
enjoy [n']] v. 1.
, ; 2. ( . .); ( . .)

enlarge [n'la:] v. 1. (); 2. (); 3.


enormous ['n]:mcs] adj.
enough ['n7f] adj. ; adv. , .#
strangele enough
enqueue [n'kju:] v.
. . dequeue
enquire [n'kwac] . inquire
enquiry [n'kwacr] n. .@

- .
enquiry character (ENQ, enq)
[n'kwacr 'krktc] .@ . ASII - 5.
ensure [n'uc] v. 1. ; ; 2.
entail [n'tel] v. ;

enter ['entc] v. 1. ; 2. .@ . 3. ( ); 4. ;
enterprise ['entcpraz] n. 1.
; 2.
enterprise data base ['entcpraz
'detc bes] 1. ; 2.
entire [n'tac] adj. 1. ;
; ; 2.
entire rational function [n'tac
'rcnl 'f7kcn] ,

entirely [n'tacl] adv. , , ,

205

________________________________________________________________________________________

entitle [n'tatl] v. 1. ,
; 2.
-. (to)
entity ['entt] n. 1. ,
.@
,
. 2. ; ; 3.
; 4. ; 5. ;
; 6.
entity identifier ['entt a'dentfac] .@
, .

,
ISN,
, .
entity relationship ['entt r'lecnp]
entrance loss ['entrcns l]s] ()
entropy ['entrcp] n. .@

entry ['entr] n. 1. (, , );
(); 2. ; .@

. 3. ; 4.
entry conditions ['entr kcn'dcns] ; .@ ,
()
.
entry instruction ['entr n'str7kcn] ,
.@ ,


.
entry label ['entr 'lebl]
() . . . entry name
entry point ['entr p]nt]
, () .@
, .
entry time ['entr tam]

enumerate ['nju:mcret] v.
enumerated type ['nju:mcretd
tap] .@
, .
enumeration ['nju:mcrecn] n.
1. ; 2.
. . . enumerated type
envelop ['envlcp] v. 1. , ; 2.
envelope ['envloup] n. 1. .@ ,
. 2. ;

environment [n'vacrcnmcnt] n.
1. ( ).@ , , , .
2. . . .
user environment; 3. , .@ ,

. 4. ; 5. () . . .
command environment; 6. ;

206________________________________________________________________________________________
environment division [n'vacrcnmcnt d'vcn]
envisage [n'vz] v. 1. ; ; 2.
EOF (end of file) [end ]v fal]
.@
, . ASII 26.
EOT 1. (end of transmission)
[end ]v fal trnz'mcn] .@
ASII 4.
2. . . end-of-tape marker
equal (EQ) ['i:kwcl] v. , ; adj. , ;
equal order digits ['i:kwc ]:'dc
'dts]
equality ['i:kwclt] n.
equalizer (EQ) ['i:kwclazc] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3. ; 4.
equalizing ['i:kwclaz] adj.

equal-zero indicator ['i:kwc'zcrou 'ndketc] 1. ,


; 2.
equate ['kwet] v. ,
equation (eq., eqn.) ['kwecn]
n. ,
equi- ['i:kw] pref. -, : equiangular
equidistant [[/i:kw'dstcnt] adj.

equilibrium [/i:kw'lbrcm] n.

equilibrium condition [/i:kw'lbrcm kcn'dcn]

equilibrium state [/i:kw'lbrcm


stet] ,
equip ['kwp] v.
equipment ['kwpmcnt] n. 1.

; 2.
equipotent ['kwp]tent]
equipotential ['kwp]tencl] adj.

equiprobability curve [i:kw/pr]bc'blt kc:v]


equivalence ['kwvclcns] n. ( )
equivalence class ['kwvclcns
kla:s]
equivalence gate ['kwvclcns
'let]
equivalence relation ['kwvclcns r'lecn]
equivalencing ['kwvclcns] n.

equivalent ['kwvclcnt] n. ; adj.


equivalent binary digits ['kwvclcnt 'bancr 'dt]
.@
,

,
.
equivalent binary representation ['kwvclcnt 'bancr /reprzen'tecn]

207

________________________________________________________________________________________

equivalent noise bandwidth


(ENBW) ['kwvclcnt n]z 'bndwd]

equivalent noise generator
(ENG) ['kwvclcnt n]z 'encretc]

equivalent series resistance
(ESR) ['kwvclcnt 'scri:z r'zstcns]

equivalent table ['kwvclcnt
'tebl] .@

equivalent trees ['kwvclcnt
tri:s] .@ .
era ['crc] n. ,
erasable memory ['rez'cbl
'memcr]
erasable programmable readonly memory (EPROM) ['rez'cbl
'proulrm'cbl ri:d 'ounl 'memcr]
, .@
,
,
.
erasable storage ['rez'cbl 'st]:r]
erase ['rez] v. , ,
; n.
erase character (ERA) ['rez
'krktc] ,

erase head ['rez hed]

eraser ['rezc] n. 1. ; 2.

Eratosthenes sieve [era:t]sfens
sv] .@ ,
.
erect ['rekt] v.
ergodic process ['c:l]dk 'prouses]
ergodic source ['c:l]dk s]:s]
ergodicity ['c:l]dst] n.
errata [e'ra:tc] n. pl. erratum
erratic ['rtk] adj. 1. ; 2.
erratum [e'ra:tcm] n.
error (err) ['erc] n. 1. .
. . bug, fault; 2. ;
3. .# trial and error
method .# to be
in error
error analysis ['erc c'nlcsz]
.@ ,


.
error bound ['erc 'baund]
error burst ['erc bc:st]

error character ['erc 'krktc]



error code ['erc koud]
.@

error condition ['erc kcn'dcn]
,
. . . exception

208________________________________________________________________________________________
error control ['erc kcn'troul] 1.
; 2.
.@




() .
error detecting facility ['erc
di'tekt fc'slt]
error detecting system ['erc di'tekt 'sstm] 1. ; 2.
error detection and correction
(EDAC) ['erc d'tekcn nd kc'rekcn]

error detection ['erc d'tekcn]

error diagnosis ['erc /dacl'nouss] ()

error diagnostics ['erc /dacl'n]stks]
error estimate ['erc 'estmt]

error flag ['erc fll]

error free ['erc fri:] ,


error free operation ['erc fri:
/]pc'recn]
error free running period ['erc
fri: 'r7n 'pcrcd]
error function ['erc 'f7kcn] 1.
; 2.
error handling ['erc 'hndl]

error interrupt ['erc /intc'r7pt] 1.


; 2.

error list ['erc lst]
error log ['erc l]l] , .@
,
error management ['erc 'mnment]
error matrix ['erc 'metrks]

error message ['erc 'mes]
error method ['erc 'mecd]
error propagation ['erc /pr]pc'eicn] . .
. propagated error
error protection ['erc prc'tekcn]
.@

;

.
error rate ['erc ret] 1.
() ; 2. .@
,
.
error recovery ['erc r'k7vcr]
.@
.
error routine ['erc ru:'ti:n] 1.
; 2.

error sense light ['erc sens 'lat]

error-check ['erc'tek]

209

________________________________________________________________________________________

error-checking code ['erc'tek


koud]
error-correcting code (ECC)
['erc/kc'rekt koud]
error-correcting compiler ['erc /kc'rekt kcm'palc]
error-detecting code ['erc/di'tect koud]
error-free communication ['erc'fri: kc'mju:n'kecn]

error-prone ['erc'proun] ,
escape [s'kep] n. 1. .@

:
. 2. .@ . v. 1. ; 2. ; 3. , ; 4.
escape character (ESC) [s'kep
'krktc] 1. .@ , ,


. ASII
27. 2. .@ , ,
. .

escape code [s'kep koud] . . . escape


character
escape from N levels [s'kep
fr]m 'levls] N
escape key [s'kep ki:]
.@ ,
.
escape sequence [s'kep 'si:kwcns] .@ ,
.
especially [s'pecl] adv.
essay ['ese] n. 1. ,
; 2.
essential ['sencl] adj. 1. ; 2. ,
essential singular point ['sencl
'sljulc p]nt]

essential unit ['sencl 'ju:nt]


essentially ['sencl] adv. , ;
essentials ['senclz] n. 1. ; 2.
establish [s'tbl] v. 1. ; ; 2. ;
3.
establishment [s'tblmcnt] n.

estimate ['estmt] n. 1. .
@ ,
. v. 1.
; 2. ; .# as a conservative estimate

210________________________________________________________________________________________
estimated time ['estmtd tam]

estimation [est'mecn] n. 1. ; ; ; 2. ; 3. ,
estimator (est) ['estmtc] n.

ETB (end-of-transmission block) .@ ASII 23.
etc. (et cetera) [t'setrc]

ETX (end of text) .@ , . ASII


3.
evacuate ['vkjuet] v. ,
evacuation ['vkju'ecn] n. ,
evade ['ved] v.
evaluate ['vljuet] v. 1. ( ); 2.
; 3. .@

evaluation ['vljuecn] n.
evaluation function ['vljuecn
'f7kcn] .@

(, ) ,

.
evaporate ['vpcret] v. 1. ; 2.
evaporation ['vpcrecn] n. 1.
; 2.
eve [i:v] n. .# on the eve

even face ['i:vcn fes]



even ['i:vcn] adv. ; adj. 1.
, ; 2. ; 3. , ; v.
(out).# even so .#
even though
even integer ['i:vcn 'ntc]
even parity ['i:vcn 'prt] . . odd parity
even parity check ['i:vcn 'prt
tek] .
evenly ['i:vcnl] adv. 1. ,
; 2.
event ['vent] n. 1. .@
,

. 2. ;
3. ; 4. ; 5. , .# at all events
.# in any event .# in the event
event control block (ECB)
['i:vent kcn'troul bl]k]
event flag ['i:vent fll]
()
event input mode ['i:vent 'input
moud] , .@
, ,

. . request
input mode, sample input mode
event processor array (EPA)
['i:vent 'prousesc c're]

211

________________________________________________________________________________________

event trapping ['i:vent 'trp] 1.


; 2.

event-driven ['i:vent'drvn] , . . . interrupt-driven
eventual ['ventjucl] adj. 1. , ; 2. ,

eventually ['ventjucl] adv.


, ;

ever ['evc] adv. 1. -; 2.


.# ever increasing .# ever since .# ever
so .# for ever .# if ever
( ).#
hardly ever ;
every ['evr] pron. ; .# every now and again
.# every now and then

evidence ['evdcns] v.
; (); n. 1. ;
2. ; ; 3.
; 4. .# bas (is) evidenced by .#
in evidence .# to give evidence
evident ['evdcnt] adj. ,
evidently ['evdcntl] adv.
evoke ['vouk] v. , ( . .)
evolution [/i:vc'lu:cn] n. 1. , ; 2. ( . .)
evolutionary [/i:vc'lu:ncr] adj.

evolutionary system [/i:vc'lu:ncr 'sstm]


evolve ['v]lv] v. 1. ,
; 2. ;
; 3. (
. .)
ex- [eks-] pref. 1. ; -;
exact [g'zkt] v. (); adj. .# to be
more exact
exactness [g'zktns] n. ;
exaggerate [g'zcret] v.
examination [g/zm'necn] n.
;
examine [g'zmn] v. 1. ; , ; 2.
; 3. ; ()
example [g'za:mpl] n. .#
for example
exceed [k'si:d] v. 1. ;
2.
exceed capacity check [ik'si:d
k'pcst tek]
exceedingly [k'si:dl] adv.
;
excel [k'sel] v.
(in, at);
except [k'sept] v. ;
prp. , .# except (for,
that) , .# except in so far as ,
exception [k'sepcn] n. 1.
, .@ ), . 2. -

212________________________________________________________________________________________
.# with the exception

exception condition [k'sepcn


kcn'dcn] , . . . exception
exception handling [k'sepcn
'hndl] 1. ; 2. ,
excess [k'ses] n. .# in
excess of .# to be in excess of

excess factor [k'ses 'fktc] ,


excessive [k'sesv] adj. ;
excess-n notation [k'sescn nou'tecn] n,

excess-three binary code [k'ses'ri: 'bancr koud]

excess-three code [k'ses'ri:
koud]
exchange [ks'en] n. 1. ( ); 2.
(); 3. , ; 4.
; v.
exchange [ks'en] v. (); n.
exchange in a network [ks'en n c 'netwc:k]
exchange register [ks'en 'restc] ,
exchange selection [ks'en s'lekcn]
exchangeable disk [ks'encbl
dsk] , .
. fixed disk, Winchester disk

exchangeable disk store [ks'encbl dsk st]:]


exchanger [ks'enc] n.
excitation [/eks'tecn] n.
excite [k'sat] v.
excited state [k'satd stet]
exclude [ks'klu:d] v.
(from)
exclusive OR [ks'klu:sv ]:] ,
exclusive segments [ks'klu:sv
'selmcnts] .@ , .
exclusive usage mode [ks'klu:sv
'ju:z moud]
excursion [ks'kc:n] n. 1. , ; 2. ; 3.
EXE file [fal] , EXE. . . load
module
execute (EXE) [/eks'kjut] v. (, )
execute ['ekskju:t] v. 1. ; 2.
execute only program [/eks'kjut
'ounl 'proulrm]
execute phase [/eks'kjut 'fez]

execute step [/eks'kjut step]


.@

,

213

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
execution [/eks'kju:cn] n. , (,
)
execution cycle [/eks'kju:cn
'sakl]
execution environment [/eks'kju:cn n'vacrcnmcnt] ,
execution error detection [/eks'kju:cn 'erc d'tekcn]

execution states [/eks'kju:cn


stets] .@
,
.
execution time [/eks'kju:cn
tam] 1. . . . CPU
time, elapsed time; 2.
executive(-control)
language
[/eks'kjutv(kcn'troul) 'llw]

executive [/eks'kjutv] n. 1. ; .
. . supervisor; 2. . . . operating
system
executive communication [/eks'kjutv kc'mju:n'kecn]
executive directive [/eks'kjutv
d'rektv]
,
. . . supervisor call

executive instruction [/eks'kjutv


n'str7kcn]
.@ ,
.
executive mode [/eks'kjutv
moud] ,
.@
,
.
executive resident [/eks'kjutv
'rezidcnt]
.@ ,
.
executive routine [/eks'kjutv
ru:'ti:n] ,

executive state [/eks'kjutv stet]
,
executive supervisor [/eks'kjutv
'ju:pcvaizc]
; . . . operating
system, supervisor
executive system [/eks'kjutv 'sstm] . .
. operating system
executive system utility [/eks'kjutv 'sstm ju:'tlt]
exemplify [g'zemplfa] v. ; 2.
exercise ['ekscsaz] v. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
( . .); 4. .# to
exercise care .# to exercise caution

214________________________________________________________________________________________
exerciser ['ekscsazc] n. ;
exert [g'zc:t] v. 1.
( . .); ; 2. , ; ; 3. , (); 4. .# to exert every effort
exhaust [g'z]:st] v. ;
; n. ;
exhauster argument [l'z]:stc
'a:ljumcnt]
exhaustion process [l'z]:scn
'prouses]
exhaustive process [l'z]:stv
'prouses] (,
)
exhaustive search [l'z]:stv
sc:t]
exhibit [g'zbt] v. 1. ; ; 2. ; ; n.
exibition [/eks'bcn] n.
exist [g'zst] v. 1. ;
; ; 2. ,
existance [g'zstcns] n. 1. ; ; 2. .# in
existance
existence condition [l'zstcns
kcn'dcn]
existential quantifier [l'zstcncl 'kw]ntfac]
exit ['ekst] 1. .@ ()
. 2.
exit conditions ['ekst kcn'dcns]
1. ( ); 2. .@ , .

exit loss ['ekst l]s]

exit point ['ekst 'p]nt]


,
exjunction [ks'7kcn] v. . . XOR
expand [ks'pnd] v. 1. (); () ;
(); (); 2.
; 3. . @
,

expansion [ks'pncn] n. 1. ; ; 2.
expansion bus [ks'pncn b7s]
.@
expect [ks'pkt] v. 1. ;
2. ; 3.
expectation [/ekspek'tecn] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3. , ;
pl. .# expectation of
life

expend [ks'pend] v. ,

expendient [ks'pi:djcnt] adj. , ; n. ; ;


expense [ks'pens] n. , .# at the expense of
expensive [ks'pensv] adj. ,
experience [ks'pcrcns] n. 1.
(); 2. ; 3. ; 4. (pl.) (); 5.
; 6.
, ; v. -

215

________________________________________________________________________________________

, ; .#
as a matter of experience
.# to know something by
(from) experience -.
.# to pool the experience
experienced [ks'pcrcnsd] adj.
,
experiment [ks'permcnt] v. ; n. ,
experimental
[ks'permcntcl]
adj.
experimental design [ks'permcntcl d'zan] .@
,
.
experimental
development
(EDP) [ks'permcntcl d'velcpmcnt]

experimentally [ks'permcntcl]
adv.
experimenter [ks'permcntc] n.

expert methods ['ekspc:t 'mecds] .@


,

, , , , ,
.
expert system ['ekspc:t 'sstm]
.@
,
,
, ,


, .
expert systems ['ekspc:t 'sstms]
.@
,
.
expiration [/ekspac'recn] n.
, ()
explain [ks'plen] v. ;
,
explanation [/eksplc'necn] n. 1.
; 2.
explanation facilities [/eksplc'necn fc'slts] , .@ ,
,
.
explicit [ks'plst] adj. ;
; ;
explicit declaration [ks'plst
/deklc'recn]
explicit definition [ks'plst /def'ncn]
explicit function [ks'plst 'f7kcn]
explicit
program
[ks'plst
'proulrm] ,

explicitly [ks'plstl] adv. ,

explode [ks'ploud] v. ()
exploded view [ks'ploudd vju:]
,
exploit [ks'pl]t] v. ;

216________________________________________________________________________________________
exploratory [eks'pl]:rctcr] adj.
;
exploratory
data
analysis
(EDA) [eks'pl]:rctcr 'detc c'nlcsz]
.@
.
explore [ks'pl]:] v. 1. , ; 2.
1.
explosion [ks'ploucn] n.
; 2.
explosive [ks'plousv] n. ; adj.
exponent [eks'pouncnt] n. 1. .@
,
. 2. , ; 3. ;
4. ,
exponent arithmetic [eks'pouncnt c'rmctk] , ,
exponent counter [eks'pouncnt
'kauntc]
exponent form [eks'pouncnt
f]:m]

exponent(ial) function [eks'pouncn(t)(cl) 'f7kcn]
()
exponential [eks'pouncncl] adj.

exponential law [eks'pouncl l]:]



exponential
notation
[eks'pouncl nou'tecn]

exponential time (space) [eks'pouncncl tam (spes)] ()


exponential type distribution
[eks'pouncl tap ds'trbju:cn]
exponential waveform [eks'pouncncl 'wevf]:m]

exponentially
[eks'pouncncl]
adv.
exponentially bounded algorithm [eks'pouncncl baundd 'll]/rcm]

exponentiation [eks'pountecl]
.@ , n- x (xn).
exponent-plus N form [eks'pouncnt'pl7s en f]:m]
N
export list ['eksp:t lst]
.@
, .
export workspace ['eksp]:t 'wc:kspes]
exported ['eksp]:tid] adj. .@ , , ,
,
. . imported
expose [ks'pouz] v. 1. -.; ; 2. ; 3. ;
4.
exposed [ks'pouzd] adj. ;

217

________________________________________________________________________________________

exposition [/ekspc'zcn] n. 1.
, ; 2.
exposure [ks'pouc] n. ,
express [ks'pres] v. ;
adj. 1. , ; 2.
expression (exp) [ks'precn] n.
.@ ,
. .
. statement
expression of requirements [ks'precn ]v 'kwaments]

extend [ks'tend] v. 1. (); 2. (); 3. ; 4. , ; 5.


extended [ks'tendd] adj. 1.
; 2. ,
extended addressing [ks'tendd
c'dres] .@
, ,
, .
extended ASCII [ks'tendd] ASCII.@ ,
ASCII 32
127. . . ASCII
extended Backus-Naur form
(EBNF) [ks'tendd f]:m] -, .@
.

.
extended binary-coded decimal
interchange code (EBCDIC) [ks'tendd 'bancr'koudd 'ntc'ten
koud] - .@
.
extended calculus [ks'tendd
'klkjulcs]
extended-precision [ks'tendd/pr'scn] .
@ , ,

.
extensibility [ks'tenscblt] n.
.@ .
extensible [ks'tenscbl] adj. , .@ ,
,

, .
extensible addressing [ks'tenscbl c'dres] , .@
, ,

. . fixed-length addressing. . . hierarchical addressing
extensible language [ks'tenscbl
'llw] .@
, .

218________________________________________________________________________________________
extensible notation [ks'tenscbl
nou'tecn]
extensible syntax [ks'tenscbl
'sntks]
extension [ks'tencn] n. 1. , ; ; , ; 2. ; 3. ;
extension field [ks'tencn fi:ld]

extension of a source [ks'tencn
]v c s]:s] .@



.
extension register (E-register)
[ks'tencn 'restc] .@
, .
extensive [ks'tensiv] adj. , ,
extensively [ks'tensivl] adv. ;
extent [ks'tent] n. 1. ,
, ; 2. ; ; 3. .@ . 4. ; .# to the extent (of) ,
; .# to the extent
thet ,.# to a certain
extent ; .# to same extent .# to such an extent

exterior [eks'tcrc] n. 1. , ; , ; 2. ; 3.
; ; ; adj. 1. , ; 2.

exterior label [eks'tcrc 'lebl]


external [eks'tcnl] adj. 1. , ; 2. ; n.


pl. 1. ; , ; 2.
external arithmetic [eks'tcnl c'rmctk] ()
external decimal [eks'tcnl 'desmcl]
(). . . unpacked decimal
representation
external delay [eks'tcnl d'le]

external device [eks'tcnl d'vas]

external disturbance [eks'tcnl
ds'tc:bcns]
external environment [eks'tcnl
n'vacrcnmcnt]
external file [eks'tcnl fal] .@ , . . internal file
external fragmentation [eks'tcnl
/frmcn'tecn] () . . . fragmentation
external function [eks'tcnl 'f7kcn] .@ ,


external interrupt [eks'tcnl /intc'r7pt] ;
external key [eks'tcnl ki:] .@
,

219

________________________________________________________________________________________

. .
. entity identifier
external label [eks'tcnl 'lebl]
.@ , .
external memory [eks'tcnl 'memcr] , . . .
backing storage
external name [eks'tcnl nem]
. . . external
symbol
external node [eks'tcnl noud]

external path length [eks'tcnl
pa: le] .@

.
external performance [eks'tcnl
pc'f]mcns] .@
, ,
. . internal performance
external programming [eks'tcnl
'proulrm]
external reference (extrn) [eks'tcnl 'ref-rcns] .@
.
. . external symbol
external representation [eks'tcnl
/reprzen'tecn] .@
,
.
external schema [eks'tcnl ski:m]
.@ ,

.
external sort [eks'tcnl s]:t]
.@
. . internal
sort
external specification [eks'tcnl
/spesfi'kecn] . . . specification
external storage [eks'tcnl 'st]:r] , . . .
backing storage
external symbol [eks'tcnl 'smbcl] .@
, .
external symbol dictionary [eks'tcnl 'smbcl 'dkcnr] .@
, .
external-signal interrupt [eks'tcnl'slncl /intc'r7pt]
extinction [ks'tkcn] n.
extinguish [ks'tlw] v.
extra- [eks'trc-] pref. -;
-; -; adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
extra address ['ekstrc c'dres]

extra large-scale integration
(ELSI) [eks'trc 'la:/skel 'ntlrecn]
1. ; 2.

extra order ['ekstrc ]:'dc]

220________________________________________________________________________________________
extracode control register [/ekstrc'koud kcn'troul 'restc]

extracode instruction [/ekstrc'koud n'str7kcn]
extracode routine [/ekstrc'koud
ru:'ti:n]
extract ['ekstrkt] v. 1.
(, );
2. , ( )
extract [ks'trkt] v. ;

extract instruction ['ekstrkt


n'str7kcn] ,
extraction [ks'trkcn] n.
extractor [ks'trktc] n.
extra-high voltage (ehv) ['ekstrc'ha 'voult] ( 350 )
extraneous [eks'trenjcs] adj.
,
extraordinary
[ks'tr]:dncr]
adj. 1. , ; ; 2. , ;
extrapolate [/ekstrc'pclet] v.

extrapolation n. [/ekstrc'pclecn] .@ , ,
.
extreme [ks'tri:m] adj. ,

extremely low frequency (ELF)


[ks'tri:ml lou 'fri:kwcns]

extremely-high
frequency
(EHF) [ks'tri:ml'ha 'fri:kwcns]

extrinsic [eks'trnsk] adj. 1. ; 2. ; ; 3. ,
extrude [eks'tru:d]

F*
fabricate ['fbrket] v.
fabrication ['fbrkecn] n.
face [fes] n. 1.
. . . type face; 2. ( ); 3.
, , ,
, , ;
v. 1. , ; 2.
( ).# in the face of
-.; .# on the face of
it ; .# to face a problem

face-change character [fes'tein 'krktc] .@
,


.
facilitate [fc'sltet] v. ;
facilitics [fc'sltks] n.
facility [fc'slt] n. 1. ,
, , ; 2. ; 3. ; 4.
; 5. pl. ; ; ; -

221

________________________________________________________________________________________

; ; ; 6. pl. (); ;
facsimile (fax, facs) [fk'sml]
1. ;
2.

fact [fktc] n. .# the fact is


(that) ().# the fact that
, .# as a matter of the fact , .# due to the
fact , .# in addition to the fact that ,
.# in fact .#
in point of fact ,
factor ['fktc] n. 1. ; ; 2. ; v. 1. ; 2.
factor analysis ['fktc c'nlcsz]

factorable code ['fktcbl koud]
.@ ,
.
factorial designs [fk't]:rcl d'zans]
factorial notation [fk't]:rcl
nou'tecn]

factoring ['fktcr] n.
factorization [fk't]:rzecn] n.
1. ; ; 2.
faculty ['fkclt] n. 1. , ; 2.
fade [fed] v.
fail [fel] v. 1. ; ; 2. (

); 3.
( );
( ); 4.
; ;
; 5.
-.; ( .); 6.
.# without fail ,
fail soft [fel 's]ft] .@ , , , .
fail soft system [fel 's]ft 'sstm]
.@
,
.
fail-safe ['fel'sef] .@ ,

()
.
fail-safe system ['fel'sef 'sstm]
() , .@ ,
.
failure ['feljc] n. 1. ; ; ; . . . fatal error, fault; 2. ; ; ; ; 3. ,
failure access ['feljc 'kses]
failure density ['feljc 'denst]

222________________________________________________________________________________________
failure density function ['feljc
'denst 'f7kcn]

failure detection logic ['feljc


d'tekcn 'l]k]

failure in 109 component hours
(FIT) ['feljc n kcm'pouncnt 'aucs]

( 109 )
failure rate (FR) ['feljc ret]
,
failure recovery ['feljc ret r'k7vcr] .@
,


.
failures per million hours
(FPMH) ['feljcs 'pc: 'mlnjcn 'aucs]
106
faint [fent] adj.
fair [fc] adj. 1. ; 2.
; 3. ; 4.
; ; 5. ,
fairly ['fcl] adv. 1. ,
; 2.
faithful ['feful] adj. 1. ;
2.
fall [f]:l] v. (fell, fallen) 1. ; , ; 2. ( .) ; 3.
, (short);
(apart); 5.
(into); 6. , ,
; n. 1. , ; 2.
.# to fall into disuse
.# to fall short of

expectations
fallback [f]:l'bk] n. 1.
.@
. 2.

.@

.
fall-in ['f]:l'n] n.
falling ['f]:l] adj. 1. ;
2. ; n. 1. ; 2.

false [f]:ls] n. ( ); adj. ,


false coordinate [f]:ls kou']:dnt]

false statement [f]:ls 'stetmcnt]

falsehood ['f]:lshud] n.
familia ['fcmljc] adj.
familiar ['fcmljc] adj.
, ; .#
in the familiar way

.# to be familiar with
-.
family ['fml] n. 1. .@ 1. ,
. 2. , :
, ,
. 2. ,
fan-in ['fn'n]

fan-out ['fn'7ut]

far [fa:] adj. , ; adv. 1. ; 2.
.# far away ,
; .# far and away

223

________________________________________________________________________________________

; .# far and
by , .# far
cry ;
; .#
far from ( ingform).# far reaching , , , .# as far as ; ; .# as far as is concerned ,
.# as far as it goes
, .# as far back
as , .# by far ;
.# few and far between
.# (in)
so far as .# (in) so far as
is concerned ; ; .# so far .# thus far
.# this is far from being
the case ,
far plane [fa: plen] .@
, , . .
near plane
farad (F) ['frcd] ,
farther ['fa:c] adv. (.
far)
fashion ['fcn] n. 1. , ; 2. ; 3. , ; v.
().# after (in) a
fashion , .# after the fashion
; , .# in this fashion
fast (access) memory [fa:st 'kses 'memcr]
,
fast [fa:st] adj. 1. ; 2.
; ; adv. ,

fast automatic gain control


(FAGC) [fa:st /]:'tcmtk len kcn'troul]
fast core [fa:st k]:]
().@
,
,

fast digital processor (FDP)
[fa:st 'dtl 'prousesc]
fast drum [fa:st dr7m]
fast Fourier transform (FFT)
[fa:st f]:rcr trns'f]:m]

,
fast multiplier [fa:st 'm7ltplac]

fast parallel arithmetic unit
[fa:st 'prclel c'rmctk 'ju:nt]
fast response [fa:st ris'p]ns]
fast switching circuit [fa:st 'sw 'sc:kt] ,

fast-action [fa:st'kcn] n.
fast-operating (FO) [fa:st /]pc'ret]
fatal error ['fetl 'erc]
.@ ,

fate [fet] n. 1. , ; 2.

father file ['fa:c fal]


() ; . . . file updating

224________________________________________________________________________________________
father node ['fa:c noud] . . . parent
node
father tape ['fa:c tep]
fatigue [fc'ti:g] adj.
fatigue limit [fc'ti:l 'lmt] (, )
fault [f]:lt] n. 1. ; ;
.@

. fault
,
error . 2. , .# to a fault ,
.# to be at fault , .# to be in
fault
fault detection [f]:lt d'tekcn]

fault diagnosis [f]:lt /dacl'nouss] ()

fault selective relay (FSR) [f]:lt
s'lektv 'ri:'le]

fault simulator [f]:lt 'smjuletc]

faulted ['f]:ltd] adj.
fault-tolerant system [f]:lt't]lcrcnt 'sstm] , .@
, ,
. . fail-safe system, failsoft system
faulty ['f]:lt] adj. ,

favour ['fevc] v. 1. , ; 2.
; ; n.
,
;
.# in favour of ,
, ;
favourable ['fevcrcbl] adj. 1.
; ; ; 2. ,
feasibility ['fi:zcblt] n. -

feasibility condition ['fi:zcblt


kcn'dcn] ,

feasibility study ['fi:zcblt 'st7d] .@ ,
.
feasible ['fi:zcbl] adj. 1. ; 2.
feasible solution ['fi:zcbl sc'lu:cn] 1. , ; 2.

feature ['fi:tc] n. 1. , , ; 2.
feature extraction ['fi:tc 'ekstrkcn] (
)
feature input (FI) ['fi:tc 'nput]

feature output (FO) ['fi:tc 'autput]
feed [fi:d] n. 1. .@ ,
. 2.
; v. 1. ;
(into, to); -

225

________________________________________________________________________________________

(, ); 2. ()
feed control [fi:d kcn'troul] (.
)
feed pitch [fi:d pt]

feed system [fi:d 'sstm]

feed(-)forward ['fi:d /f]:wcd] n.



feedback ['fi:d/bk] n. 1. . 2.
feedback channel ['fi:d/bk
'nl]
feedback control ['fi:d/bk kcn'troul] ()

feedback control loop (FCL)
['fi:d/bk kcn'troul lu:p] ,
feedback control system (FCL)
['fi:d/bk kcn'troul 'sstm]
,

feedback factor ['fi:d/bk 'fktc]

feedback gain ['fi:d/bk lan]
,
feedback positive (FP) ['fi:d/bk
'p]zctiv]

feedback ratio ['fi:d/bk 'reou]



feedback register ['fi:d/bk 'restc]
feedback system ['fi:d/bk 'sstm] 1. ; 2.

feeder [fi:dc] n. . . . feed


feed-forward register ['fi:d/f]:wcd 'restc]
feel [fi:l] v. (felt) 1. ,
; ; 2. ,

fefer ['ffc:] v.
ferrite ['ferat]
ferroelectric (FE) ['ferou/'lektk]
n. ; adj.
ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FEFET) ['ferou/'lektk fi:ld/'fekt
trn'zstc]
ferroelectric picture (ferpic)
['ferou/'lektk 'pkc] ( )
ferroelectricity ['ferou/'lektkst]
n.
ferromagnetic ['ferou/ml'netk]
adj.
ferromagnetic
resonance
(FMR) ['ferou/ml'netk 'rezncns]

fetch [fet] v. .@


.
fetch cycle [fet 'sakl] .@
,


.
fetch execute cycle [fet /eks'kjut 'sakl] -

226________________________________________________________________________________________
fetch protect [fet prc'tekt] -

fetch time [fet tam] ,


few [fju:] adj. ; .#
a few , .# few
and far benween
Fibonacci numbers [fb]n7s
'n7mbcs] , .@ ,
, ,
.
Fibonacci search [fb]n7s sc:t]
.@ ,
,
, .
fibre (fiber) ['fabc] n. 1. ; 2.
fibre optic (link) (FO) ['fabc
']ptk (lnk)] -

fibre optics transmission system
['fabc ']ptks trnz'mcn 'sstm] -
fictitious variable [fk'tcs 'vcrcbl]
fidelity [f'delt] n. 1. ,
; 2.
field (F, FD) [fi:ld] n. 1. .@
1.
; . 2. , , , . 3. , -

,
. 2. , ; ;
field application [fi:ld pl'kecn]
field effect diode (FED) [fi:ld
'fekt daoud]
field effect tetrod transistor
(FETT) [fi:ld 'fekt 'tetroud trn'zstc]

field effect transistor (FET)
[fi:ld 'fekt trn'zstc]
field engineer [fi:ld /en'nc]

field extractor [fi:ld 'ekstrktc]


field intensity (FI) [fi:ld n'tenst]


field length [fi:ld le] 1.
, ; 2.

field mark [fi:ld ma:k]
, . . .
field 2.
field programmable devices
[fi:ld 'proulrmebl d'vass]

field programmable gate array


(FPGA) [fi:ld 'proulrmebl 'let
c're] ,

field programmable logic array


(FPLA) [fi:ld 'proulrmebl 'l]k
c're] ,
field strength meter (FSM) [fi:ld
stre 'mi:tc]

227

________________________________________________________________________________________

field-alterable control element


(FACE) [fi:ld']:ltcbl kcn'troul 'elmcnt]
field-effect [fi:ld/'fekt] adj.
field-intensity meter (FIM) ['fi:ld/n'tenst 'mi:tc]
FIFO algorithm ['ll]/rcm]
,
FIFO list [ lst] () . . . queue
figure (fig.) ['flc] n. 1. ,
; 2. ; ; ;
; 3. , ; v.
1. ; 2.
figure of merit ['flc ]v mert]

figure out (up) ['flc 7ut (7p)]


v. ,
figure reading device ['flc
ri:d d'vas] ,
figure shift ['flc ft]
filament (F) ['flcmcnt] n.
;
file activity [fal k'tvt] .@ , .
file activity ratio [fal k'tvt
'reou]
.@

.
file addressing [fal c'dres] . . . access method

file allocation [fal 'lckecn]


() .@
.
file attribute [fal 'tribju:t] .@ ,
: , ,
, .
file computer [fal kcm'pju:tc] 1.
- ; 2. -
file control block (FCB) [fal
ds'kpcn]
file description [fal ds'kpcn]
,
file description block (FDB)
[fal ds'kpcn bl]k]
.@ ,
.
file device (FD) [fal d'vas]
,
.@
,

.
file directory [fal d'rectcr] . . . directory
file disposition [fal dspc'zcn]
.@
, , : , , .
file drum [fal dr7m] 1.
; 2. ,
file editing [fal 'edt]

228________________________________________________________________________________________
file event [fal 'i:vent] ; ,

file identification block (FIB)


[fal a'dentf'kecn bl]k] . . . file description block
file integrity [fal n'telrt]
file label (mark) [fal 'lebl
(ma:k)] .@ ,
.
file locking [fal 'l]k]
.@
, .

. .
. record locking
file maintenance [fal 'mentncns] .@

.
file management system [fal
'mnment 'sstm]
file manager [fal 'mnc]
. . . file system
file memory [fal 'memcr]

file [fal] n. 1. .@ 1. ; 2.

. 2. ,

file name [fal nem]



file organization [fal /]:lcna'zecn] .@ 1.
, . 2. .
file overflow area [fal 'ouvcflou
'crc] .@

,
.
file processor [fal 'prousesc]

file protection [fal prc'tekcn] 1.
.@ 1.
. 2. , ,
.
file qualifier [fal 'kw]lfac]
,

file recovery [fal r'k7vcr]


file search unit [fal sc:t 'ju:nt]


file security [fal s'kjucrt] ,
.@ ,

229

________________________________________________________________________________________


.
file server [fal 'sc:vc]
, .@
,

.
file store [fal st]:] ; .@
,
,
,
.
file system [fal 'sstm] .@ 1. , . 2.
UNIX
,
, .
UNIX
.
file unit [fal 'ju:nt]

file updating [fal 7p'det] .@


,
.
, . . . . . father file, son file

file variable [fal 'vcrcbl] ,

filer ['falc] n. 1. . . . file system; 2.


fill [fl] n. 1. , . . . character fill; 2. , .@
. v. 1. , ; 2.
; 3. ()
fill character [fl 'krktc] -.@ , . . . pad character
fill-area attribute [fl'crc 'tribju:t] .@
:
,
.
filled level [fild 'levl]
filler ['filc] n. -. . . fill character
filling [fl] n. ,
;
film [film] n.
film integrated circuit (FIC)
[film 'ntlretd 'sc:kt]
filter (F) ['filtc] n. 1. .@

UNIX ,

. . 2. ,
. @ , .
,

230________________________________________________________________________________________

. . . bridge,
gateway; v.
filter output (FO) ['filtc 'autput]

filtering ['filtcr] 1. .@ , ,
.
2.
fin and substrata (Finstrate)
[fn nd 's7b'stra:tc] -
final carry digit ['fanl 'kr 'dt]
final terminal ['fanl 'tc:mnl]
,
finally ['fancl] adv.
, ;
find [fand] .@
, , .
finding ['fand] n. 1. , .@
, . 2.
; ; 3. pl. 1. , ; ; 2.
fine [fan] adj. 1. , ; 2. ; 3. ; ; ; 4. ; ; adv. ,
;
fine index [fan 'ndeks] , . .
. secondary index

finish ['fn] v. 1. , ; 2. ; ; n. 1. , ; 2. ;
finish lamp ['fn lmp]
finitary ['fanater] adj.
finitary method ['fanater 'mecd]
finite ['fanat] adj. ;
finite automation ['fanat /]:tc'mecn]
finite difference ['fanat 'dfrcns]
finite field ['fanat fi:ld] ,
finite graph ['fanat lrf]
finite memory ['fanat 'memcr]

finite sequence ['fanat 'si:kwcns] ,

finite set ['fanat set]


.@ , .
finite state language ['fanat
stet 'llw]
finite-difference method ['fanat
'dfrcns 'mecd] , .
@
,
.
finite-element method ['fanat'elmcnt 'mecd]
.@

231

________________________________________________________________________________________

, .
finite-length arithmetic ['fanat
'le c'rmctk] .@
.
finite-state automation (FSA)
['fanat'stet /]:tc'mecn]
.@
. . . automation
finite-state grammar ['fanat'stet 'lrmc] ,
, .
. . regular gram-mar
finite-state machine ['fanat'stet
mc'i:n] . . .
finite-state automation
FINUFO
(First-In-Not-UsedFirst-Out) FINUFO. . .
least recently used removal
fire ['fac] n. 1. ; 2. ;
v. ()
Fire codes ['fac kouds]
.@ , .
firm [fc:m] adj. ; ; n.
firmware [fc:m'wc] n. 1. , ; 2. , , ; 3.
first [fc:st] adj. ; adv. 1.
; 2. .# first of all
.# at first .# for
the first time ,

.# in the first place ;


first difference [fc:st 'dfrcns] 1.
; 2.

first fit [fc:st ft]


.@ ,

,

. . best fit
first normal form [fc:st n]:mcl
f]:m]
( ).@ ,
;
,
,

.
first-generation computer [fc:st
'encrecn kcm'pju:tc] . . . computer
generation
first-in first-out (FIFO) [fc:st'n, fc:st'aut] ,
.
@ .
first-level address [fc:st'levl
c'dres] . . . direct address
first-order logic [fc:st/]:'dc 'l]k]
first-order subroutine [fc:st/]:'dc scb/ru:'tn] .@ ,

232________________________________________________________________________________________

first-remove subroutine [fc:st/r'mu:v scb/ru:'tn]
.@ ,

Gateway
fissile ['fsal] adj. 1. ;
2.
fission ['fcn] n.
fit [ft] v. 1. ;
; ; 2. (), (); ; 3. ; ,
; 4. ; n. .# to be fit for
fit text to path [ft tekst tu: pa:]

fix [fks] n. (
); v. 1. ; 2.
, .@
; . 3. ; ; 4. , (
. .); 5. ; ; 6.

fixed point [fkst 'p]nt]


fixed [fkst] adj. 1. .@ , .
2. . . . resident; 3.
; ;
fixed address [fkst c'dres]
fixed area [fkst 'crc] .@ ,
.

fixed base (radix) system [fkst


bes ('redks) 'sstm]
fixed cycle [fkst 'sakl]
fixed cycle operation [fkst
'sakl /]pc'recn]
fixed dick [fkst dsk] .@ 1. .;
2. .
fixed error [fkst 'erc] ()
fixed format [fkst 'f]:mt]

,
fixed memory [fkst 'memcr]

fixed point representation (notation) [fkst 'p]nt /reprzen'tecn
(nou'tecn)] ()
fixed point system [fkst 'p]nt
'sstm]

fixed program device [fkst


'proulrm d'vas]
fixed retention [fkst r'tencn]
. . .
retention
fixed routing [fkst 'raut] .@ ,

. . adaptive
routing
fixed-form [fkst'f]:m] . . . fixedformat

233

________________________________________________________________________________________

fixed-format [fkst'f]:mt] .@
,
.
fixed-head dick [fkst'hed dsk]
.@ ,
-; .
fixed-interconnection pattern
large-scale integration (FIPLSI)
[fkst/ntc'kcnekcn 'ptcn 'la:/skel
'ntlrecn]
()
fixed-length record file [fkst'le 'rek]:d fal]

fixed-length [fkst'le]
fixed-length addressing [fkst'le c'dres] .@
,
.
. . extensible addressing
fixed-length code [fkst'le
koud] .@ ,

. ,
.
-


.
fixed-length field [fkst'le
fi:ld]
fixed-length format [fkst'le
'f]:mt]

fixed-length record [fkst'le


'rek]:d] 1.
.@ ,
. 2. .@
, .
fixed-length record system [fkst
'le 'rek]:d 'sstm]
fixed-length word [fkst'le
w]:d]
()
fixed-point arithmetic [fkst'p]nt c'rmctk]

fixed-point calculation [fkst'p]nt 'klkjulecn]

fixed-point computation [fkst'p]nt /kcmpju:'tecn]

fixed-point computer [fkst'p]nt kcm'pju:tc]

fixed-point notation [fkst'p]nt
nou'tecn]
,
fixed-point number [fkst'p]nt
'n7mbc] ; . . . assumed decimal point
fixed-point representation [fkst
'p]nt /reprzen'tecn]

234________________________________________________________________________________________
.@

.
fixed-point theorem [fkst'p]nt
'crcm]
.@ ,
.
fixed-program computer [fkst'proulrm kcm'pju:tc]
fixed-radix notation [fkst'redks nou'tecn]

fixture ['fkstc] n.
flag [fll] n. 1. , .@
, . 2.
, . .
. flag sequence 3. v. ,

flag bit [fll bt] ;


flag check [fll tek]

flag field [fll fi:ld]


flag page [fll pe]
. . . banner page
flag register [fll 'restc] ,
flag sequence [fll 'si:kwcns]
,
.@
X. 25, SDLC HDLC
(01111110), -


.
flame [flem] n. ; pl.
flange [fln] n.
flare [flc]] n.
flash ['fl] n. ; v.

flashing ['fl] n. .
. . blinking
flash-over ['fl'ouvc] n.
flask ['fla:sk] n.
flat [flt] adj. 1. ; 2.
flat addressing [flt c'dres]
.@ ,
. . hierarchical addressing. . . fixedlength addressing
flat file [flt fal]
.@ ,
; ()
.
flat graph [flt lrf]
.@ , , , .
flat package (FP) [flt 'pk]

flat screen [flt skri:n]

flat wire [flt wac]

flatbed plotter ['fltbed 'pl]tc]


.@
, ,

235

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
flaw [fl]:] n. , ;
flexibility [/fleks'blt] n. 1. ; 2.

flexible ['flekscbl] adj. ,

flexible array ['flekscbl c're]



flexible disk ['flekscbl dsk] , . . . sloppy
dick
flexible manufacturing system
(FMS) ['flekscbl /mnju'fktcr 'sstm]

flicker ['flkc] n. 1. () ; 2.
flight [flat] n.
flip-flop ['flp'fl]p] n. ,

, ,
flip-flop circuit ['flp'fl]p 'sc:kt]

flip-flop counter ['flp'fl]p 'kauntc]
flippy dick ['flp dsk].@ ,

.
float ['flout] n. ,
(); v. 1. ;
2.
floating ['flout] adj. 1. , ; 2. ;

floating address ['flout c'dres]


()

floating decimal arithmetic


['flout 'desmcl c'rmctk] 1.
; 2.
()
floating input (FI) ['flout
'nput] 1. ; 2.

floating output (FO) ['flout
'autput] 1. ; 2.

floating point ['flout p]nt]
()
floating-gate avalanche-injection metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor (FAMOS) ['flout'let 'vcla:n/n'ckcn 'metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc trn'zstc] - -
floating-point accelerator (FPA)
['flout'p]nt ck'selcretc] ()

().@ ,
().
floating-point
accumulator
['flout'p]nt c'kju:mjuletc]
floating-point arithmetic ['flout'p]nt c'rmctk] 1.
.@
. 2.
(). .
. floating-point processor

236________________________________________________________________________________________
floating-point calculation ['flout'p]nt 'klkjulecn]
()
floating-point
computation
['flout'p]nt /kcmpju:'tecn] ()
floating-point computer ['flout
'p]nt kcm'pju:tc] 1.
(); 2.

floating-point instruction ['flout'p]nt n'str7kcn] ()
floating-point
multiplication
['flout'p]nt /m7ltpl'kecn] ()
floating-point notation ['flout/p]nt nou'tecn]
(). .
. scientific notation
floating-point number ['flout'p]nt 'n7mbc]
(). . . floatingpoint representation
floating-point operation ['flout
'p]nt /]pc'recn] () .@
(),
().
floating-point package ['flout'p]nt 'pk] ()
floating-point processor ['flout
'p]nt 'prousesc] ()

(), .@ -

. . . coprocessor
floating-point representation
['flout'p]nt /reprzen'tecn] ().@ : ;
,
.
floating-point routine ['flout/p]nt ru:'ti:n]
()
flooding ['fl7d] n.
.@ -
, ,
,
.
floor [fl]:] n. ; ,
floppy dick ['fl]p dsk]
, (), -.@

,

-. . hard disk
FLOPS (floating-point operations per second)
( )
flow ['flou] n. , ; v.

flow control [flou kcn'troul] .@

237

________________________________________________________________________________________


.
flow diagram [flou 'daclrm] 1.
-; 2. (. )
flowchart ['floua:t] n. ,

flowchart symbol ['floua:t 'smbcl] -.@ ,

(, , ).
flowcharting ['floua:t] n. -
flowing [flou] n.
fluctuation [/fl7ktju'ecn] n. 1.
; ; ; 2.
fluid [flu:d] n.
fluorencence [fluc'resns] n.
fluorencennt [fluc'resnt] adj.

flush [fl7] v.
flux [fl7ks] n. ,
FLX (file exchange utility [fal
ks'en ju:'tlt])

flyback ['flabk] adj.


focal ['foukcl] n. ,

foci ['fousa] pl. focus


focus ['foukcs] n. ; v.
focusing ['foukcs] n.
foil [f]l] n.

fold [fould] n. 1. , ;
2. suf.
, : tenfold ; ; twofold ,

folded tree ['fouldd tri:]


folder ['fouldc] n. .@ ,
, (,
).
folding ['fould] .@ ,
,
.
follow ['f]lou] v. 1. ;
2. ; 3. ; 4.
( . .); 5.
( . .).# followed by ; .# as
following from .# as follows ; .# it the following , .# in what follows ,
.# it follows
.# to follow suit

follower ['f]louc] n.

following ['f]lou] adj. ; prp. ,


following error ['f]lou 'erc] 1.
; 2.

font [f]nt] n.
font recticle [f]nt rek'tkl] .@
(

238________________________________________________________________________________________
), .
font-change character (FC)
[f]nt'ein 'krktc]

foolproof ['fu:l'pru:f] adj. , .@ , ,



(, ) .
foot ['fut] n. 1. ; 2.
footer ['fu:tc] n. . . . page footer
footing ['fut] n. ;
; .# on one footing
; .# on an equal footing ; .# on the same footing
;
foot-note ['futnout] n. ;

for [f]:] prp. 1. ; . . : 2. ;
3. ; 4. -, ;
; cj. ,
for list [f]: lst] .#
for all that .# for
all we know .# for a while .# for granted .# for lack of - , .# for one .#
for once .# for one's sake
-..# for one thing -, .# for the present
; .# for this reason
.# for which reason
.# for the sake of
-..# as for ,

forbidden [fc'bdn] adj. , .@ ,


.
forbidden region [fc'bdn 'ri:cn]
force [f]:s] n. ; v. , .# to come into force

forced ['f]:sd] adj. ,
forced angle ['f]:sd 'll]
fore- ['f]:] pref. -, ; adv.

forecast ['f]:k7st] v. (forecast,


forecasted) ; n. ,
foregoing [f]:'lou] adj. ;
foreground ['f]:lraund] adj. 1.
.@ . 2. n.
.@ ,

.
foreground color ['f]:lraund 'k7lc] .@ , ,
, .
foreground process ['f]:lraund
'prouses] . .
background process
foreground processing ['f]:lraund 'prouses]
.@ ,
, -

239

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
.
foreground program ['f]:lraund
'proulrm]
foreign ['f]rn] adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4.

foreign format ['f]rn 'f]:mt]


.@
,

.
foreign key ['f]rn ki:]

foremost ['f]:moust] adj. 1. ; ; 2. ; .# first and foremost


forerunner ['f]:r7nc] n.
forest ['f]rst] n. .@ ;
.
fork [f]:k] n. ,
form [f]:m] n. 1. ; ; 2. (
); 3. ; 4.
; v. 1.
; ,
, ; 2. (),
form factor [f]:m 'fktc] ,
form feed (FF) [f]:m fi:d] ;
form overlay [f]:m /ouvc'le]
.@ , , -

.
form stop [f]:m st]p]
formal axiomatic method ['f]:mcl 'ksc'mtik 'mecd]
formal inference ['f]:mcl 'nfcrcns]
formal language ['f]:mcl 'llw]
formal language theory ['f]:mcl
'llw 'cr]

formal logic ['f]:mcl 'l]k]



formal parameter ['f]:mcl pc'rmtc] .@

.
formal proof ['f]:mcl pru:f]

formal specification ['f]:mcl
/spesfi'kecn] , .@
,
.
.
formal theory ['f]:mcl 'cr]

formalism ['f]:mclzcm] n. ,
formalize ['f]:mclaz] v.
formalized language ['f]:mclazd 'llw]

240________________________________________________________________________________________
format (fmt) ['f]:mt] n. 1.
.@
,
. 2. , .@ ( ). 3.
.@ .
format ['f]:mt] v. 1. .@ . 2. , .@

,
(,
) ,
, .
format character ['f]:mt 'krktc]
format control ['f]:mt kcn'troul] ,

format disk ['f]:mt dsk]
format implication ['f]:mt /mpl'kecn]
formation ['f]:mecn] n. 1. , ; 2.
formation row ['f]:mecn rou]
,
formatted capacity ['f]:mtd
k'pcst] ( ) , . . unformatted capacity
formatter ['f]:mtc] .@ 1. -

, . . .
text formatting; 2.
.
. . disk formatter
formatting ['f]:mt] n. 1. . . . text formatting; 2. , .
. . format 5.
former ['f]:mc] adj. ,
.# the former (
)
formerly ['f]:mcl] adv. ,

form-feed character [f]:m'fi:d


'krktc] ;
.@ . ASII 12.
formidable ['f]:mdcbl] adj. 1.
, ; 2. ; 3. ,
formula ['f]:mjulc] n. ,

formulae ['f]:mjuli:] pl. formula
formulas ['f]:mjulcz] pl.
formula
formulate ['f]:mjulet] v.
formulation ['f]:mjulecn] n.

Forth .@ .
.
.

241

________________________________________________________________________________________

fortnight ['f]:tnat] n. .# this day fortnight


FORTRAN (formula translator)
fortuitous ['f]:tju:tcs] adj.
fortunate ['f]:tnt] adj. ; ;
fortunately ['f]:tntl] adv.

forward (type) cycle ['f]:wcd


(tap) 'sakl]
forward ['f]:wcd] adv. ;
v. 1. (); ; 2. , ; adj. ; , .# to put (set)
forward ,
forward declaration ['f]:wcd
/deklc'recn] .@ ( ), ,
.
forward error correction (FEC)
['f]:wcd 'erc kc'rekcn] .@ ,
, .
forward interpolation formula
['f]:wcd n/tc:pc'lecn 'f]:mjulc]
forward reference ['f]:wcd 'refrcns] .@ , . ,
, -

.
. backward reference
forward scatter (FS) ['f]:wcd
'sktc]
,
forward-chaining ['f]:wcd'te] . .
backward-chaining. . . beliefinvoked interpretation
forward-compatible
['f]:wcd/kcm'ptcbl]
.@ ,

,
. . .
upward compatibility
found [faund] v. ,

foundation [faun'decn] n. 1.
, ; 2. .# to lay foundation
;
founder [faundc] n. ,

fount . font
four address code [f] c'dres
koud]
four fundamental operations of
arithmetic [f] /f7ndc'mentl /]pc'recns ]v c'rmctk]

Fourier analysis [fu:rc c'nlcsz] ().@ .


Fourier inverse [fu:rc 'n'vc:z]

Fourier series [fu:rc 'scri:z]

242________________________________________________________________________________________
Fourier transform [fu:rc trns'f]:m] .@ ,


.
four-layer [f]'lec]
four-pole [f]'poul]
four-pole double-throw (4PDT)
[f]'poul 'd7bl'rou]

four-pole single-throw (FPST)
[f]'poul 'sll'rou]

four-quadranted [f]'k]wdrtd]

four-step row ['f]wac'step rou]



four-terminal field-effect transistor (FTFET) [f]'tc:mnl fi:ld/'fekt
trn'zstc]
fourth-generation
computer
[f]:'encrecn kcm'pju:tc]
. . .
computer generation
four-wire
channel
['f]wac
'nl]
fox message [f]ks 'mesi] .@
,
: a
quick brown fox jumps over the lazy
dog 1234567890.
fractal curve ['frktcl kc:v]

fractal geometry ['frktcl ']mtr] .@


,
1,
2. ,
. .
fraction ['frkcn] n. , ,
fractional ['frkcnl] adj.
fractional part ['frkcnl pa:t]
; . . .
floating-point representation
fragmentation [/frmcn'tecn] n.
.@
;
, ,
.
. . internal fragmentation
frame (FRM) [frem] n. 1.
.@ , .
( )
,
. 2.
.@
, . 3. . . . envelope. 4. (); 5. .@
Framework -

243

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
, ,
. 6. ; 7. ;
8. ; 9. .#
frame of reference
()
frame buffer [frem 'b7fc]
.@ ,
,
( ),
, . . .
refresh buffer
frame deletion [frem d'l:cn]

frame grabber [frem 'lrbc]


frame table [frem 'tebl] .@

,
.
framework ['fremwc:k] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
framing ['frem] n.

framing error ['frem 'erc]



free [fri:] adj. 1. , ; 2. , ; 3. ,
(from); v. .# free of
charge , .# to
set free
free language [fri: 'llw]

free list [fri: lst]

free path [fri: pa:]


free run [fri: r7n]

free semigroup [fri: 'semlru:p]



free space [fri: spes]
,
free space list [fri: spes lst]
.@

.
free union [fri: 'ju:jcn] .@ ,
,

.
free variable [fri: 'vcrcbl] .@
,
. .
bound variable
free-form [fri:'f]:m]
.@ ,

. . fixed-form
freehand ['fri:hnd] n.
free-hand drawing [fri:'hnd
'dr]:w]
free-running [fri:'r7n] adj.
,
free-running frequency [fri:'r7n 'fri:kwcns] ,

free-running mode [fri:'r7n
moud] .@
-

244________________________________________________________________________________________
,
;
.
. alternate mode
freeware ['fri:wc] n. @

,
;

,
,

.
free-wheeling ['fri:'wi:l] n. , adj.

frequency (F, freq) ['fri:kwcns]


n.
frequency adjustment (FA)
['fri:kwcns c'7stmcnt]

frequency analysis method ['fri:kwcns c'nlcsz 'mecd]


frequency and time-division
data link (FATDL) ['fri:kwcns nd
tam/d'vcn 'detc lk]

frequency array ['fri:kwcns
c're] ( )
frequency changer (FC) ['fri:kwcns 'tenc] 1.
; 2. ,
frequency channel ['fri:kwcns
'nl]

frequency converter ['fri:kwcns


kcn'vc:tc]
frequency distribution ['fri:kwcns ds'trbju:cn] .@
,
,
.
frequency divider (FD) ['fri:kwcns d'vadc]
frequency division (FD) ['fri:kwcns d'vcn]
frequency division multiplexing
(FDM) ['fri:kwcns d'vcn 'm7ltpleks] .@
,
.
frequency domain ['fri:kwcns
dc'men]
frequency doubler (FD) ['fri:kwcns 'd7blc]
frequency function ['fri:kwcns
'f7kcn]
frequency hopping (FH) ['fri:kwcnsn 'houp]
frequency meter (FRM) ['fri:kwcns 'mi:tc]
frequency modulation (FM)
['fri:kwcns /m]djulecn]

frequency monitoring and interference control (FMIC) ['fri:kwcns 'm]ntcr nd /ntc'frcns kcn'troul]

245

________________________________________________________________________________________

frequency
multiplex
(FM)
['fri:kwcns 'm7ltpleks]

frequency multiplier oscillator


(FMO) ['fri:kwcns 'm7ltplac /]s'letc]
frequency range ['fri:kwcns
ren]
frequency response (FR) ['fri:kwcns ris'p]ns]
frequency shift keying (FSK)
['fri:kwcns ft ki:] .@
, .
frequency shifting (FS) ['fri:kwcns 'ft] 1. ; 2.

frequency standart primary
(FSP) ['fri:kwcns 'stndcd 'pramcr]

frequency to number converter
['fri:kwcns tu: 'n7mbc kcn'vc:tc]
frequency tolerance (FT) ['fri:kwcns 't]lcrcns]
frequency-amplitude modulation (FAM) ['fri:kwcns'mpltju:d
/m]djulecn] -

frequency-dependent negative
conductance (FDNC) ['fri:kwcns/d'pendcnt 'nelctv kcn'd7ktcns] -
frequency-dependent negative
resistance (FDNR) ['fri:kwcns/d-

'pendcnt 'nelctv r'zstcns]


frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) ['fri:kwcns/d'vcn
'm7ltple 'kses]

frequency-identification
unit
(FIU) ['fri:kwcns/a'dentf'kecn 'ju:nt]
frequency-modulated transmitter (FMT) ['fri:kwcns/m]djuletd
trnz'mtc]
frequency-response
function
(FRF) ['fri:kwcns/ris'p]ns 'f7kcn]

frequency-selective
limiter
(FSL) ['fri:kwcns/s'lektv 'lmtc]
-
frequent ['fri:kwcnt] adj.
fresh information [fre /nfc'mecn] ()
friction ['frkcn] n.
friction feed ['frkcn fi:d]
friendly software ['frendl 's]ftwc]
.@ ,
,

.
from [fr]m] prp. ; ; ; ; ;
2. , .# from
above .# from afar .#
from below .# from of old .# from outside (without) -

246________________________________________________________________________________________
.# from over (the sea) -
().# as from
front [fr]nt] n. , ; adj. .# in front
;
front view [fr]nt vju:]
front-end [fr]nt'end] 1.
. . . front-end interface. 2. . . . front-end processor. 3. ; 4. ;
.@
, : , ,
,
.
front-end component [fr]nt'end
kcm'pouncnt] 1. .
. . front-end processor; 2.

(,
,
)
front-end interface [fr]nt'end
/ntc'fes] .@


(, )
. . back-end interface
front-end
processor
(FEP)
[fr]nt'end 'prousesc] 1.
; -.
@
(), ;

, . 2. .@ ( -), . 3.

frontier ['fr7ntjc] n. 1. ;
2. ( . .); adj.

fruitful ['fru:tful] adj.


FS (file separator) .@ ASII
28.
fuel [fjucl] n. ,
fulfil(l) [ful'fl] v. 1. ;
2. ,
full [fu:l] adj. , .#
in full detail .# in
full swing
full adder [fu:l 'dc]

full conjunctive normal form


[fu:l kcn'7ktv n]:mcl f]:m]

full disjunctive normal form


[fu:l ds'7ktiv n]:mcl f]:m]

full load condition [fu:l loud


kcn'dcn]
full pathname [fu:l pa:'nem]
. . . absolute pathname
full scale (FS) [fu:l skel] ,
( )
full stop [fu:l st]p]

247

________________________________________________________________________________________

full text retrieval [fu:l tekst


r'tri:vcl]
full tree [fu:l tri:]
full width at half maximum
(FWHM) [fu:l wd ct ha:f 'mksmcm] ( )
full word [fu:l wc:d] ()

full-duplex (FD, FDX) [fu:l'dju:pleks] , ,
full-duplex circuit [fu:l'dju:pleks 'sc:kt] . .
. duplex circuit
full-screen editor [fu:l'skri:n 'edtc] . . .
screen editor
full-wave [fu:l'wev] adj.
full-wave rectification (FWR)
[fu:l'wev 'rektf'kecn]
full-wave
rectifier
(FWR)
[fu:l'wev 'rektfac]
full-word buffer [fu:l'wc:d 'b7fc]
, ,

fully associative memory [fu:l
c/sous'etv 'memcr]
fully inverted file [fu:l n'vc:td
fal]
.@ , .
. . inverted file
function ['f7kcn] n. 1. .@ 1. , .
-

. 2. ,
3. ,


. 2. . 3. ; 4.
pl. ; v. ,
function button ['f7kcn 'b7tn]
. . function key
function calculator ['f7kcn
'klkjuletc]
function call ['f7kcn k]:l] 1.
; 2.
function digit ['f7kcn 'dt]

function generation ['f7kcn
'encrecn]
function key ['f7kcn ki:] .@ ,
, .
function keyboard ['f7kcn 'ki:b]:d]
function multiplier ['f7kcn
'm7ltplac]
function space ['f7kcn spes]
,
function table ['f7kcn 'tebl]

function table ['f7kcn 'tebl]
.@ , .
function theory ['f7kcn 'cr]

248________________________________________________________________________________________
functional (block) diagram
['f7kcnl (bl]k) 'daclrm] -,
functional ['f7kcnl] adj.
functional block ['f7kcnl bl]k]

functional boundary ['f7kcnl
'baundcr]
functional calculus ['f7kcnl
'klkjulcs]
functional counter ['f7kcnl
'kauntc]
functional dependence ['f7kcnl
d'pendcns] . @
,
.
functional design ['f7kcnl d'zan] 1. ; 2.
functional diagram ['f7kcnl
'daclrm]
functional electronic block
(FEB) ['f7kcnl /lek'tr]nk bl]k]

functional generator ['f7kcnl
'encretc]
functional language ['f7kcnl
'llw] ,
.@
,
,
.
.

,

. . object-oriented language, procedureoriented language, rule-oriented language
functional output ['f7kcnl 'autput]

functional partitioning ['f7kcnl pa:'tcn] .@ ,


,
,
,
.
functional simulator ['f7kcnl
'smjuletc] .
@ ,
, , ,
.
functional specification ['f7kcnl /spesfi'kecn]
,

.@ ,
,

, .

. . algebraic specification
functional symbol ['f7kcnl
'smbcl]
functional unit ['f7kcnl 'ju:nt]

249

________________________________________________________________________________________

functor ['f7ktc] n.
, .@ , .
fundamental [/f7ndc'mentl] adj.
; ;
fundamental type [/f7ndc'mentl
tap] .@ ,

.
fundamentals [/f7ndc'mentlz] n.

fundamentaly
[/f7ndc'mentl]
adv. ; ;
furnace ['fc:ns] n.
furnish ['fc:n] v. ,
;
further ['fc:c] adj. (.
far) ; ; v. ; adj. 1. ;
2. , ; .# further out
furthermore ['fc:c'm]] adv.
,
fusible link ['fu:zbl lk] .@ ,

.
fusible link logic array (FLLA)
['fu:zbl lk 'l]k c're]
,
futile ['fju:tal] adj. 1. , ; 2. ,
future ['fju:tc] n. ; adj.
.# for (in) the future
, .# to be left to the
future

fuzziness ['f7zni:s] n. .@ , . ; ,
fuzzy ['f7z] adj. 1. ; 2. ; ;
; ,
fuzzy logic ['f7z 'l]k] .@ ,
,
,
.
fuzzy set ['f7z set]
() .@ ,
, ,
(
).
,

[0, 1].

G*
gadget ['lt] n.
gage [la] . gauge
gain [len] n. 1. , ; 2. ,
; 3. ; v. 1. , ; 2. ;
3. .# one gains the impression .# to gain
(get, have) an (the) advantage over

250________________________________________________________________________________________
(of) ,
.# to gain an insight into -.;
gain control (GC) [len kcn'troul] 1. ; 2.

gain-bandwidth product (GBP)
[len'bndwd 'pr]dckt]
gallium ['lljcm] n.
gallon ['llcn] n. .@ .
galvanic [ll'vnk] adj.
galvanometer [/llvc'n]mtc] n.

galvanometric [/llvc'n]mtrk]
adj.
game theory [lem 'cr]

game theory problem [lem


'cr 'pr]blcm]
game tree [lem tri:] .@ ,
,
.
.
gap [lp] n. 1. , , , , ; 2.
; 3. ; 4. ; 5. .# to
bridge (close, fill) the gap

gap digit [lp 'dt]


( ,
)
garbage ['la:b] ,
garbage collect ['la:b kc'lekt]
, .
. . garbage collection

garbage collection ['la:b kc'lekcn] , .@ .


garbage collector ['la:b kc'lektc] ,
.@
, .
gas ['ls] n.
gaseous ['lezjcs] adj.
gasket ['lskt] n.
gas-plasma display [ls'plzmc ds'ple]
gate ['let] n. 1. , , ,
; 2. ,
-; 3. ; 4.
; v.

gate circuit ['let 'sc:kt] , ,



gate turn-off (GTO) ['let 'tc:n']:f]
, ,
gate unit ['let 'ju:nt]
gate-off ['let']:f] adj.
gate-pulse amplifier (GPA)
['let'p7ls 'mplfac] ()

251

________________________________________________________________________________________

gate-pulse generator (GPG)


['let'p7ls
'encretc]

-
gateway ['letwe] n. () .@ , . . .
bridge, filter
gateway server ['letwe 'sc:vc]
; .@
() ,
.
gather ['lc] v. 1. (); 2. ,
gather write ['lc rat]
.@
,
.
gauge ['le] n. 1. , ; 2. ; 3.
; 4.
Gauss [laus] n. .@
Gauss-Fourier
transform
(GFT) [trns'f]:m]
-
Gaussian distribution law [lausjcn ds'trbju:cn l]:] ,

Gaussian elimination [lausjcn


/lm'necn]
Gaussian integer [lausjcn 'ntc]
Gaussian noise (GN) [lausjcn
n]z] .@ , -


().
GE (greater or equal)
( )
gene pattern [/i:n 'ptcn]
general ['encrcl] adj. 1. ;
2. ; 3. .# in general
.# in a general way
; .# in general
terms
general locking (Genlock) ['encrcl 'l]k]
general postmortem routine
['encrcl 'poust'm]:tem ru:'ti:n] ,

general recursivness ['encrcl
r'kc:svni:s]
general routine ['encrcl ru:'ti:n]
general solution ['encrcl sc'lu:cn]
general theory of communication ['encrcl 'cr ]v kc/mju:n'kecn] 1. ; 2.
generality [/enc'rlt] n. 1.
; 2. ; pl. .# a
few generalities

generalization [/encrcla'zecn] n. .@ ,
. . aggregation
generalize ['encrclaz] v. 1.
; 2.

252________________________________________________________________________________________
generalized data base ['encrclazd 'detc bes]

generalized information system


(GIS) ['encrclazd /nfc'mecn 'sstm]

generalized sequential machine


['encrclazd s'kwencl mc'i:n]
generally ['encrcl] adv. 1. ; ; 2. , .# generally accepted .# generally acknowledged
.# generally speaking
general-purpose
amplifier
(GPA) ['encrcl'pc:pcs 'mplfac]

general-purpose computer ['encrcl'pc:pcs kcm'pju:tc] ()
general-purpose display system
(GPS) ['encrcl'pc:pcs ds'ple 'sstm]
general-purpose interface bus
(GPIB) ['encrcl'pc:pcs /ntc'fes b7s]

general-purpose memory ['encrcl'pc:pcs 'memcr]
()
general-purpose register (GPR)
['encrcl'pc:pcs 'restc] .@ ,
:
, .
general-purpose system ['encrcl'pc:pcs 'sstm]

generate ['encret] v. 1. , ; 2. ; 3.

generated address ['encretd


c'dres]
generating polynomial ['encret /p]l'noumjcl]

generating program ['encret 'proulrm] -,



generating routine ['encret
ru:'ti:n] ,
-
generation [/enc'recn] n. 1.
; ; 2. . . . computer generation;
3. . . . file updating; 4.
, , ; 5. ,
generation grammar ['encrecn 'lrmc] .@
.
generation information ['encrecn /nfc'mecn] ,

generation number ['encrecn


'n7mbc] (). .
. file updating
generative grammar ['encretv 'lrmc]
generative routine ['encretv
ru:'ti:n] ,
-
generator (gntr) ['encretc] n.
1. , ; 2.
; 3. ,
; 4. -

253

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
generator matrix ['encretc
'metrks]
generic ['nerk] n. .@
, , ,
-.
generic description ['nerk
ds'kpcn]
generic function ['nerk 'f7kcn] . . . generic
generic operation ['nerk
/]pc'recn] . .
. generic
generic package ['nerk 'pk] ,
. . . generic
generic subroutine ['nerk
scb/ru:'tn]
generic type ['nerk tap] , ,
.@ , , .


,
.
generous ['encrcs] adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ,
genesis ['encss] n. , ,
genuine ['enjn] adj. ,
geometric(al)
[c'metrk(cl)]
adj.

geometric(al) mean [c'metrk(cl) mi:n]

geometric(al) model [l'metrk(cl) 'm]dl]


geometric(al) series [c'metrk(cl) 'scri:z]
geometrical layout description
language (GLDL) [c'metrkcl 'leaut ds'kpcn 'llw]
geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) [c'metrkcl 'cr ]v
d'frkcn]

geometry [']mtr] n. ;
get [let] v. (got) 1. .@
,
. . put read; 2. ; 3.
; 3. .# to get
acquainted with , .# to get to know , .# to get rid of
-.
getter ['letc] v. ; n.

ghost effect [loust 'fekt]


gift [lft] n. 1. , ; 2.
, .# the gift of
the gab , .# the gift
of tomgues

gifted [lftd] adj. ,

giga- [llc] , .@ ,
.
gigacycle (GC) [llc'sakl] ,

254________________________________________________________________________________________
GIGO (garbage-in, garbageout ['la:b'n 'la:b'7ut])
, .@ , ,

.
Gilbert Varshamov bound
[llberd varamov 'baund]

Gilbert (Gb) ,
gist [st] n. ,
give [lv] v. (gave, given) 1. ; 2. , (in); 3.
(up); 4.
(off).# to give attention to
.# to give consideration
to .# to give credit for
.# to give place to
, .# to
give rise to , .#
to give way to ();

given [lvn] cj. ,


; ();
given accuracy ['lvn 'kjurcs]


glance [lla:ns] n. ().# at a glance .# with a
glance to
glass [lla:s] n.
glass teletype [lla:s 'teltap]
.@


.
glass/metal (GM) [lla:s 'metl]

global ['lloubcl] adj. .@ 1.


. 2.
. . local
global control (GC) ['lloubcl
kcn'troul]
global
discretization
error
['lloubcl ds'krezecn 'erc]
,

global identifier ['lloubcl a'dentfac] , . . local identifier
global optimization ['lloubcl ']ptmzecn] .
@ 1.
:
, , . 2.
. . local
optimization
global variable ['lloubcl 'vcrcbl] .@ ,
; ,
.
glow [llou] n. 1. ; 2.
go [lou] v. (went, gone) 1. ;
2. ; 3. (on).# to be
going + inf. + ..# it
goes like this .# it
goes without saying .# as far as it goes ,
goal [loul] n. ,
goal function [loul 'f7kcn] .@ ,

255

________________________________________________________________________________________


; .
goal-invoked
interpretation
[loul/n'voukt n/tc:pr'tecn] .@

,

.
. belief-invoked interpretation
goals thrashing [louls 'r]
( )
Golay codes [loule kouds]
.@ .

(23, 12) (11, 6)
.
golden section ['louldcn 'sekcn]

good time [lu:d tam]

goodness-of-fit test ['lu:d'ni:s']v'ft test] .@ , .


goods [lu:ds] n. ,
Goppa codes [lopa: kouds]
.@
.
(23, 12) .
GOTO ,

GOTO statement ['stetmcnt]


.@ ,
.
govern ['l7vcn] v. 1. ;
2. ; 3. .# to
be governed by ; ;
graceful ['lresful] adj. 1. , ; 2. ; 3.

graceful degradation ['lresful


/delrc'decn] 1. .
. . fail-soft system. 2.
grade [lred] n. 1. ; 2. , ; 3. ; , ;
v. 1. ; 2.
graded ['lredd] adj. ; 2. ; 3.
graded-base transistor (GBT)
['lredd'bes trn'zstc]

gradient ['lredjcnt] n. 1. ;
2.
gradual ['lrdjucl] adj.
gradually ['lrdjucl] adv.
graduate ['lrdjut] n.
grain [lren] n.
gram(me) ['lrm] n.
grammar ['lrmc] n. .@
grammatical [lrc'mtkcl] adj.
.@

256________________________________________________________________________________________
grammaticality [lrc'mtkclt]
n.
grammaticalli
[lrc'mtkcl]
adv. ,
grammatics [lrc'mtks] n.
( )
grand-scale integration (GSI)
['lra:nd'skel 'ntlrecn] 1.
; 2. ,

grant ['lra:nt] v. 1. ; ; ; 2. ,
; 3. , ; 4. ; n.
1. ; ; 2. ,
; 3. pl. ; 4. , , .# for
granted
.# to
take for (as) granted ; .# to take nothing for (as)
granted
granted ['lra:ntd] cj. ,
; , ()
granting ['lra:nt] cj. ,
; , ()
granularity ['lrnjulcrt] n. 1.
; 2. .@ ,
.
graph [lrf] n. 1. .@ , . 2. ; , , ,

graph follower [lrf 'f]louc]


graph plotter [lrf 'pl]tc]


graph theory [lrf 'cr]
graph(ic) data [l'rf(k) 'detc]

grapheme ['lrfem] n. .
@ (, ,
).
graphic
approach
[l'rfk
c'prou]
graphic calculation [l'rfk
'klkjulecn] ,

graphic character [l'rfk 'krktc] .@ ,

graphic display [l'rfk ds'ple]

graphic display unit [l'rfk ds'ple 'ju:nt]
graphic input device [l'rfk
'nput d'vas]
graphic interface [l'rfk /ntc'fes] ,
graphic pallet [l'rfk 'plt] .@ ,
graphic(al) display ['lrfk(cl)
ds'ple] 1. ; 2.

graphical ['lrfkcl] adj.
graphical output primitive
['lrfkcl 'autput 'prmtv] , , .@ -

257

________________________________________________________________________________________

(,
, , , ). . display element
graphically ['lrfkcl] adv.
graphics [l'rfks] n. .@
1. , . 2. , .
graphics digitizer [l'rfks 'dtzc] () .@ , , ,
.
. . scanner
graphics editor [l'rfks 'edtc]
,

graphics kernel system (GKS)


[l'rfks 'kc:nl 'sstm] .@

-.
graphics mode [l'rfks moud]
.@ ,
.
.

,
, ;

, ,
.

graphics pad [l'rfks pd]


() . . .
graphics tablet
graphics tablet [l'rfks 'tblt]
() .@ .
graphics terminal [l'rfks 'tc:mnl]
graphit ['lrfat] n.
grasp [lra:sp] v. 1. ;
2. .# within grasp
gratify ['lrtfa] v. ,
gratifying ['lrtfa] adj. ,
gravity ['lrvt] n.
Gray code [lre koud]
gray level [lre 'levl]
(- )
gray level array [lre 'levl c're]
.@
, .
gray(-)scale [lre'skel]

gray(-)scale image [lre'skel


'm]
graze ['lrez] v.
greatest bound ['lretst 'baund]

greatest common divisor (GCD)
['lretst 'k]mcn d'vazc]

greatly ['lretl] adv. ,
greedy method ['lri:d 'mecd]
.@

258________________________________________________________________________________________
,
,
.
grid [lrd] n. , ,

grid bias (GB) [lrd 'bacs]
grinding ['lrad] n.
grip [lrp] v. 1. ; ;
2. , ; 3. ; n. .# to come to grips

grit [lrt] n.
grommet ['lr]mt] n. 1. ;
2.
gross [lrous] adj. 1. ,
, ; 2. ,
; 3. , ; 4.

gross index [lrous 'ndeks] , . .


. master index
ground (gnd) [lraund] n. 1. ; 2. , ; 3. ; v. ; adj. .# on the ground that ,
grounded base (GB) ['lraundd
bes]
grounded collector (GC) ['lraundd kc'lektc]
grounded condenser (capacitor)
(GC) ['lraundd kcndensc (kc'pstc)]

grounded-capacitor ideal differentiator (GCID) ['lraundd/kc'pstc a'dcl /dfcrcn'etc]

grounded-capacitor ideal integrator (GCII) ['lraundd/kc'pstc a-

'dcl 'ntlretc]
grounded-capacitor
low-pass
filter (GCLPF) ['lraundd/kc'pstc
lou'pa:s 'filtc]

group [lru:p] n. .@
,

. v.
group choice [lru:p t]s]
group code [lru:p koud]
group code recording [lru:p
koud 'rek]:d]
group graph [lru:p lrf]

group mark [lru:p ma:k]


.@ ,
.
group(ing) theory [lru:p()
'cr]
grouping [lru:p] n.
grouping symbols [lru:p 'smbcls] (.
)
grow [lrou] v. (grew, grown) 1.
; 2. , ; 3.
.# to grow better (worse)
()
growler ['lroulc] n.

GS (group separator)

.@ ASII 29.

259

________________________________________________________________________________________

GT (greater then) ( )
guard [la:d] v. 1. ; 2.
; (against); n.

guard band [la:d bnd]
guard bit [la:d bt] , . . . guard
digit
guard digit [la:d 'dt]
.@
, .
guarded commands ['la:dd kc'ma:nds] .@
,
.
guard-ring avalanche photodiod (GRAPD) [la:d'r 'vcla:n
/foutc'daoud]

guard-ring isolated monolithic
integrated circuit (GIMIC) [la:d'r
'ascletd /m]noulk 'sc:kt]

guess [les] n. ,
; v.
guesswork ['leswc:k] n. ;
guidance [ladcns] n.
guide [lad] n. 1. ,
; 2. , ,
; 3. ;
4. ; 5. ; 6. , ; v. 1. ; 2. ,
guideline [lad'lan] n. ,

gun [l7n] n. ()
gyration [/ac'recn] n.

H*
hacker ['hkc] n.
half [ha:f] n.
half title [ha:f'tatl]
half-adder (HA) [ha:f/'dc]
half-amplitude duration (HAD)
[ha:f'mpltju:d dju:c'recn] 0,5
half-bridge ['ha:f'br]

half-cycle [ha:f'sakl] n.
half-duplex (HD, HDX) [ha:f'dju:pleks] 1. ,
; 2.
half-duplex circuit [ha:f'dju:pleks 'sc:kt] .
@ ,

. . duplex circuit,
simplex circuit
half-duplex operation [ha:f'dju:pleks /]pc'recn]
.@ ,
.
half-periodicity [ha:f/prc']dst]
half-power bandwidth (HPBW)
[ha:f'pauc 'bnd'wd]
;

260________________________________________________________________________________________
half-tone [ha:f'toun] 1. ;
2.
half-toning [ha:f'toun]
half-value [ha:f'vlju:] n. 1. ; 2.

half-wave [ha:f''wev] n. ; adj.


half-width [ha:f'wd] n. ,
half-word [ha:f'wc:d] .@ ,
half-word buffer [ha:f'wc:d 'b7fc] , ,

halt [h]:lt]
halt instruction [h]:lt n'str7kcn] .@
, ; .
halving circuit ['ha:v 'sc:kt]
,

Hamming bound [ha:m baund]


,
Hamming codes [ha:m kouds]
.@ -

, 1942 . .
.
.
,


().
Hamming distance (metric)
[ha:m 'dstcns] ()
Hamming radius [ha:m 'redjcs]
Hamming space [ha:m spes]
.@

,

.

,
. , ()
( ).
Hamming weight [ha:m wet]

hand [hnd] n. 1. ; 2. ; v. , .# at
hand ( ); .# in hand
( ); .# on hand ( ); .# to hand ( ); .#
by hand .# off hand
, .# on all hands
.# on the one (other)
hand ()
hand calculator [hnd 'klkjuletc]

261

________________________________________________________________________________________

hand computation [hnd /kcmpju:'tecn] , ,


hand-actuated (HA) [hnd'ktjuetd]
handbook ['hndbuk] n. ,
hand-held computer [hnd'held
kcm'pju:tc]
handicap ['hndkp] n. ; ; v.
handle [hndl] v. 1. , ; 2. ; 3.
; -.;
4. ; n. 1. ; 2.
handler ['hndlc] n. 1.
; ; 2.
, . . .
exception handler
handling ['hndl] n. 1. , ; 2. ,
hands off [hnds ]:f]
hands on [hnds ]n] .@ ,
.
handshake ['hndek] ()
.@
, .
handsharing ['hndcr] n.
.@ ,


.
handy ['hnd] adj. 1. ;
; 2. ;
3. () ,
hanging indent ['h n'dent]
, . . .
updent
hangup ['hl7p] n. .
@ ,

( ).
haphazard ['hp'hzcd] adj.

happen ['hpcn] v. 1. ,
; 2.
harbor ['ha:bc] n. (.) harbour
harbour ['ha:bc] n. 1. ,
; 2.
hard [ha:d] adj. 1. ,
.@ (, , )
. . soft; 2. ,
; adv. ;
hard copy [ha:d 'k]p] , .@ ,
.
hard disk [ha:d dsk]
.@

;

. . floppy disk
hard error [ha:d 'erc]

262________________________________________________________________________________________
hard page break [ha:d pe
brek] .@ ,

. . soft page
break
hard space [ha:d spes] .@ , .
hard-copy terminal [ha:d'k]p
'tc:mnl]
harden [ha:dn] v. ,
hardly [ha:dl] adv. 1. ; 2.
(),
hard-sectored disk [ha:d'sektct
dsk] .@
, ; , . . soft-sectored
disk
hardware (hdw) ['ha:dwc] n. 1.
, ,
; 2. ,
; 3.
hardware character generation
['ha:dwc 'krktc 'encrecn]
hardware check ['ha:dwc tek]

hardware circuitry ['ha:dwc
'sc:ktr]
hardware compatibility ['ha:dwc kcm/ptc'blt]

hardware compatible ['ha:dwc


kcm'ptcbl]
-.@ , . .software compatible
hardware component ['ha:dwc
kcm'pouncnt] ,
hardware description ['ha:dwc
ds'kpcn]

hardware division ['ha:dwc d'vcn] . . .


hardware multiplication
hardware environment ['ha:dwc n'vacrcnmcnt] .@ , .
hardware error ['ha:dwc 'erc]
,
hardware interrupt ['ha:dwc
/intc'r7pt] .@

.
hardware language ['ha:dwc
'llw] ,
()
hardware malfunction ['ha:dwc mcl'f7kcn] ,
hardware multiplication ['ha:dwc /m7ltpl'kecn]
hardware reliability ['ha:dwc
r/lac'blt] .
@

263

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
.
hardware representation ['ha:dwc /reprzen'tecn]
hardware security ['ha:dwc s'kjucrt] .@ ,

.
hardware
sprite
['ha:dwc
sprat] . . .
sprite
hardware stack ['ha:dwc stk]
. . . stack
hardware support ['ha:dwc
sc'p]:t] ;
hardwired ['ha:dwcd] adj. , .@ .
harm [ha:m] n. , ; v.
1. ; ; 2.
harmful ['ha:mful] adj.
harmonic (HAR) ['ha:m]nk] n.

harmonic component ['ha:m]nk


kcm'pouncnt]
harmonic distortion (HD) ['ha:m]nk ds't]cn] ()
harmonic generator (HG) [ha:m]nk 'encretc]
harmonic mean [ha:m]nk mi:n]

harmonic measure [ha:m]nk
'mec]
harmonic ratio [ha:m]nk 'reou] ,

harmonic series [ha:m]nk 'scri:z]


harness ['ha:n:s] v. 1. ;
2.
Hartley [ha:tl] .@ , ,
.
.
Shannon
hash addressing [h c'dres]
, . . . hashing
hash search [h sc:t]
hash table [h 'tebl] -. . . hashing
hash total [h 'toutl]
hash value [h 'vlju:] -
hash(ing) function ['h() 'f7kcn] , ; -.
. . hashing
hashing ['h] n. . @ (-), ; -
,


.
hashing
algorithm
['h
'll]/rcm]
have [hv] v. (had) .# to
have a bearing on (upon) ; .#
to have an effect on .# to
have im mind ; .# to have in view .#

264________________________________________________________________________________________
to have nothing to do with
.# to have recourse
to .# to have
regard to , .# to have to do with
; .# to have
+ inf. ,
(-. )
hazard ['hzcd] n. 1. ;
2. ; 2. ; v. ; , .# at all hazards
HDLC station ['stecn]
HDLC.@ ,
HDLC. . .
primary station, secondary station
head [hed] n. 1. ( ); 2. , ; 3.

head(er) label ['hed(c) 'lebl] ,


headend ['hedcnd]

header ['hedc] n. 1. .@
1. , ,
. 2.
, . .
body; 2. , ()
heading ['hed] n. ,
, . . . header
headline ['hedlan] n.
headphone ['hed/foun] n. ,
heap [hi:p] n. 1.
, , . . . dynamic area; 2. ,
heap manager [hi:p 'mnc]
-

,
heapsort ['hi:ps]:t]

heat [hi:t] n. ; v. ()
heat conduction equation [hi:t
kcn'd7kcn 'kwecn]
heat transfer [hi:t 'trnsfc] ,
heater ['hi:tc] n. ;
,
heating ['hi:t] n.
heavi ['hev] adj. 1. ; 2.
,
heavily ['hevl] adv. 1. ;
; 2.
heavy ['hev] adj. 1. ; 2.
, ; 3. ;

heavy loaded (HL) ['hev 'loudd]


height [hat] n.
height of tree [hat ]v tri:] .@ .
height-balanced tree [hat'blcnst tri:] ( ) . . . AVL-tree
help [help] n. 1. , ; 2. ; v.
.# one cannot help + ing.form + .
help library [help 'labrcr]
help line [help lan]
helpful ['helpful] adj.
hemisphere ['hemsfc] n.

265

________________________________________________________________________________________

hemispheric(al) [/hem'sferk(cl)]
n.
hence [hens] adv. 1. ; 2.
henceforth ['hens'f]:] adv. ;
henry (H) ['henr] ,
hereafter [hcr'a:ftc] adv. ,

hereditary process [h'redtcr


'prouses]
heretofore ['hctuf]:] adv.
,
herewith ['hcw] adv.
hertz (Hz) [hc:ts] ,
hesitation [/hez'tecn] .@

(, ).
heterogeneous ['hetcrou'njcs]
adj. ;
heterogeneous element processor (HEP) ['hetcrou'njcs 'elmcnt
'prousesc]
heterojunction diode (heterode)
['hetcrou'7kcn daoud] ,
heterostructure bipolar transistor (HBT) ['hetcrou'str7ktc ba'poulc
trn'zstc]
heuristic [hju'rstk] n. 1. , .@
, . adj.
1. ; 2.
heuristic approach [hju'rstk
c'prou]
heuristic method [hju'rstk 'mecd]

hex pad ['hek pd]


hexadecimal (hex.) ['hekscdesmcl] adj.
hexadecimal digit ['hekscdesmcl 'dt] ( 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C L E F)
hexadecimal format ['hekscdesmcl 'f]mt]
.@
.
hexadecimal multiplication ['hecdesmcl /m7ltpl'kecn]
( )
hexadecimal notation ['hekscdemcl nou'tecn]

hexagon ['heksclcn] n.
hexagonal [hek'sclnl] adj.
hibernating process ['habc:net 'prouses] , . . . suspended state
hibernating task ['habc:net
ta:sk] . .
. suspended state
hibernation ['habc:necn] n. . . . suspended state
hidden line ['hdn lan] .@ , ,
.
hidden surface ['hdn 'sc:fs] .@

266________________________________________________________________________________________
, , ,
.
hidden surface removal ['hdn
'sc:fs r'mu:vcl]
.@ ,
, .
hidden-line algorithm ['hdn'lan
'll]/rcm]

hidden-line removal ['hdn'lan
r'mu:vcl] , .@
,
,
.
hierarchical ['hacra:kkcl] adj.

hierarchical access method


['hacra:kkcl 'kses 'mecd] .@
, :
. .
hierarchical addressing ['haca:kkcl c'dres] .@

,

. .
flat addressing

hierarchical cluster analysis


['haca:kkcl 'kl7stc c'nlcsz]
hierarchical
communications
system ['hacra:kkcl kc/mju:n'kecns
'sstm]
hierarchical data base ['hacra:kkcl 'detc bes] .@
, .
hierarchical direct access method (HDAM) ['hacra:kkcl d'rekt
'kses 'mecd] .@ ,
;
.
hierarchical indexed sequential
access method (HISAM) ['hacra:kkcl 'ndekst s'kwencl 'kses 'mecd] - .@ ,

;

.
hierarchical memory system
['hacra:kkcl 'memcr 'sstm]
hierarchical network ['hacra:kkcl 'netwc:k] .@
,

,

. ,
-

267

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
.
hierarchical sequential access
method (HSAM) ['hacra:kkcl s'kwencl 'kses 'mecd] .@ ,
; .
hierarchical storage ['hacra:kkcl 'st]:r] .@
,
,
,
, .
, .
hierarchy ['hacra:k] n. 1. .@ 1. ,
, , , , . . 2.
.
:

();

( );

();
(-

); ();
();

( ), . 2.

hierarchy of functions ['hacra:k ]v 'f7kcns]


hierarchy of programs ['hacra:k ]v 'proulrms]
hierarchy of sets ['hacra:k ]v
sets]
hierarchy of storage ['hacra:k
]v 'st]:r]

high [ha] adj. 1. .@ 1.


,

. 2.
. 2. ; adv. .# high in -..# as high
as ( ).#
half as high .# twice
as high
high bit [ha bt]
, . . low bit
high bound [ha baund]
()
high capacity memory [ha k'pcst 'memcr]
high conductivity (HC) [ha
kcn'd7ktvt]
high definition (HD) [ha /def'ncn]
high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) [ha /lek'tr]n mou'blt

268________________________________________________________________________________________
trn'zstc]

high fidelity (Hi-Fi) [ha f'delt] 1.
; 2.
Hi-Fi
high frequency (HF) [ha
'fri:kwcns]
high frequency waves [ha 'fri:kwcns 'wevs]
high gain operation [ha len
/]pc'recn]
high level (HL) [ha 'levl]
high order [ha ]:'dc]

high output [ha 'autput]


high power (HP, hp) [ha 'pauc]

high pressure (HP, hp) [ha
'prec]
high resolution [ha /rezc'lu:cn]

high speed input-output (HSIO)
[ha'spi:d 'nput'autput] -
high-accuracy data transmission system (HADTS) [ha'kjurcs
'detc trnz'mcn 'sstm]
high-capacity communication
(HICAPCOM) [ha/k'pcst kc/mju:n'kecn]

high-density (H) [ha'denst]
;
high-density
complementary
metal-oxide-semiconductor (HCMOS) [ha'denst 'k]mpl'mentcr 'metl-

']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc]

high-density digital recording
(HDDR) [ha'denst 'dtl 'rek]:d]

higher algebra ['hac 'lbrc]

higher predicate calculus ['hac
'predkt 'klkjulcs]
higher priority device ['hac
pra']rt d'vas]

highest order [hast ]:'dc]
highest priority first [hast pra']rt fc:st] .@ ,

.
highest order digit [hast ]:'dc
'dt] 1.
; 2.
high-frequency
amplifier
(HFA) [ha'fri:kwcns 'mplfac]

high-frequency choke (HFC)
[ha'fri:kwcns ouk]
high-frequency
correction
(HFC) [ha'fri:kwcns kc'rekcn]
high-frequency current (HFC)
[ha'fri:kwcns 'k7rcnt]

high-frequency
oscillator
(HFO) [ha'fri:kwcns /]s'letc]
high-information delta modulation (HIDM) [ha/nfc'mecn 'deltc

269

________________________________________________________________________________________

/m]djulecn] -


high-level data link control
(HDLC) [ha'levl 'detc lnk kcn'troul]
.@ ISO . . . open system interconnection, SDLC
high-level desing [ha'levl d'zan] ,

high-level goal [ha'levl loul]


(
)
high-level language [ha'levl
'llw]
high-level protocol [ha'levl
'proutck]l] .@ : ,
, . . . application (layer) protocol, presentation
(layer) protocol, session (layer) protocol
high-level scheduler [ha'levl
'cdju:lc]
high-level transistor- transistor
logic (HLTTL) [ha'levl trn'zstc/trn'zstc 'l]k] -
highlight ['halat] n. 1.
; 2. ,
highlighting ['halat] .@
,
.

highly ['hal] adv. ,


, ,
high-noise
immunity
logic
(HNIL) [ha/n]z 'mju:nt 'l]k]

high-noise-immunity
logic
(HiNIL) [ha'n]z/'mju:nt 'l]k]

high-order digit [ha/]:'dc 'dt]
. . . most significant digit
high-order equation [ha/]:'dc
'kwecn]
high-order position [ha/]:'dc
pc'zcn] .@
.
high-pass (HP, hp) [ha'pa:s]

high-pass filter [ha'pa:s 'filtc]

high-performance
[ha/pc'f]mcns]
high-performance
[ha'pc'f]mcns] n.

high-performance metal-oxidesemiconductor (HMOS) [ha'pc'f]mcns


'metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc]

high-resolution mode [ha/rezc'lu:cn moud]
. . .
graphics mode
high-speed adder [ha'spi:d
'dc]
high-speed calculator [ha'spi:d
'klkjuletc]

270________________________________________________________________________________________
high-speed carry [ ha'spi:d 'kr]
high-speed circuit [ha'spi:d 'sc:kt]
high-speed computer [ha'spi:d
kcm'pju:tc]
high-speed reader [ha'spi:d 'ri:dc]
high-speed response [ha'spi:d
ris'p]ns]
high-threshold logic (HTL) [ha'rehould 'l]k]

high-voltage electronic crosspoint (HVEXP) [ha'voult /lek'tr]nks kr]s'p]nt]

high-wave (HW, hw) [ha'wev]

high-wave rectifier (HWR)


[ha'wev 'rektfac]
highway ['hawe] n. , . . . bus
hinder ['hndc] v. 1. ,
; 2. ,
hinge [hn] v. 1. (
); 2. (on, upon); n.
; .# off the hinges
,
hire ['hac] v. 1. ; (out); 2.
()
histogram [hs't]lrm] .@ , , .

historical [hs't]rkcl] adj. ,


history ['hstcr] n. 1. ; 2.
; .# case history
.# previous history

history run ['hstcr r7n] .@ .


hit [ht] v. 1. ; 2. .# bin hit and miss fashion
hit rate [ht ret]
, .@

.
hitherto ['hc'tu:] adv.
,
HLS model
['m]dl]
.@

.

. . . HSV
model, RGB model
hold ['hould] v. (held) 1. ; 2. , ; 3. , ; 4. ,
(for); 5.
(, ); 6. .# to hold true (good)
().# to take hold of ,

HOLD ['hould]
hold acknowledge (HLDA)
['hould ck'n]l]
hold facility ['hould fc'slt]

271

________________________________________________________________________________________

hold relay ['hould 'ri:'le]



hold time ['hould tam]
.@ ,

,
.
holder ['houldc] n.
holding ['hould] n.
()
holding current ['hould 'k7rcnt]
hole [houl] n. 1. , , , ; 2. , ,
hollow ['h]lou] adj. , ; n.
holographic memory ['h]lc'lrfk 'memcr]
home [houm] n. 1. ().@
. 2. ; adj. 1. ; 2.
.# to bring home to -., .#
to feel at home
-.
home address [houm c'dres]
.@
, .
home block [houm bl]k] .@ ,
.
home computer [houm kcm'pju:tc] ,
. . . personal computer
home location [houm lou'kecn]
;
.@ -

- ,
. . overflow area
home position [houm pc'zcn]

home record [houm 'rek]:d] .@

homogeneous
[/h]mc'i:njcs]
adj.
homogeneous equation [/h]mc'i:njcs 'kwecn]
homological algebra [/h]m]'l]kcl 'lbrc]
hop [h]p] ,

hope [houp] v. ; n.
horizontal [/h]r'z]ntl] adj.
horizontal check [/h]r'z]ntl tek]
,

horizontal
microinstruction
[/h]r'z]ntl 'makroun'str7kcn]
horizontal microprogramming
[/h]r'z]ntl 'makrou'proulrm] .@ ,



.
horizontal parity [/h]r'z]ntl
'prt]
horizontal processor [/h]r'z]ntl
'prousesc] -

272________________________________________________________________________________________
. .
. horizontal microprogramming
horizontal recording [/h]r'z]ntl
'rek]:d]
horizontal redundancy check
[/h]r'z]ntl r'd7ndcns tek] .@
,
; , . . vertical redundancy check
horizontal window (HWindow)
[/h]r'z]ntl 'wndou]

horizontally [/h]r'z]ntl] adv.

Horn clause [h]rn kl]:z] . . . Prolog


horsepower ['h]:s/pauc] n. ( )
host [houst] n. ; agj. ; ;
host command facility (HCF)
[houst kc'ma:nd fc'slt]

host communications [houst kc/mju:n'kecns]
host computer [houst kcm'pju:tc] 1. , .@
,

. 2.
.@ , ,
. .
. user node, server; 3. .@
- , .

. target computer. . . crossdevelopment


host language [houst 'llw]
.@ , - .
host system [houst 'sstm] 1.
; 2.
, .
. . cross-development
hot backup [h]t 'bk'7p] . . .
warm back-up
hot potato routing [h]t pc'tetou
'raut] .
@
,

,

- .
hot spare [h]t spc]
. . . warm
standby
hot standby [h]t 'stndba] . . .
warm backup
house [hauz] v. ,
housekeeping routine [hauski:p ru:'ti:n] ,

housekeeping [hauski:p] n.
.@
: , ,
.

273

________________________________________________________________________________________

housekeeping information [hauski:p /nfc'mecn] ,


housekeeping overhead [hauski:p 'ouvched] .
@

.
housekeeping run [hauski:p
r7n]
however [hau'evc] cj. ;
adv. .# however much

HT (horizontal tab) () .@
ASCII 9.
hub polling [h7b 'poul]
()
hue [hju:] n. 1. ;
2.
Huffman code ['h7fmcn koud]
.@ ,
, .
.
, .
hum [h7m] n. ,
human ['hju:mcn] adj.
human being ['hju:mcn 'bi:] v.
,
human bias ['hju:mcn 'bacs] 1.
; 2. ,
human engineering ['hju:mcn
/en'ncr] ;

human failure ['hju:mcn 'feljc]


.@
human-computer
interface
['hju:mcn/kcm'pju:tc /ntc'fes] , .@

, , , -
.
humane ['hju:men] adj. 1. , ; 2. ( )
humanistic ['hju:mcnstk] adj.

humanity ['hju:mnt] n. 1. ; 2. , ; 3. pl.


human-system interface (HIS)
['hju:mcn'sstm /ntc'fes] , -
humidity [hju'mdt] n.
hunt-and-stick method [h7nt'nd'stk 'mecd]
hunting loss ['h7nt l]s]

hybrid computer ['habrd kcm'pju:tc] .@ ,
, .
hybrid integrated circuit (HIC)
['habrd 'ntlretd 'sc:kt]

hybrid large-scale integration
(HLSI) ['habrd 'la:/skel 'ntlrecn]

274________________________________________________________________________________________
hybrid
phase-locked
loop
(HPLL) ['habrd 'fez'l]kt lu:p]
hydrogen ['hadrcn] n.
hydrogen-like ['hadrcn'lak]
adj.
hydrogenous ['hadrcncs] agj.

hydromagnetic ['hadrou'ml'netk] agj.


hyperbola [/ha'pcbclc] n.
hyperbolic [/hapc'b]lk] adj.
hyperbolic equation [/hapc'b]lk 'kwecn]
hyperbolic function [/hapc'b]lk
'f7kcn]
hyperbolic logarithm [/hapc'b]lk 'l]lcrcm]
hyperbolic measure [/hapc'b]lk
'mec]
adj.
hyperfine
['hapc'fan]

hypergeometric ['hapc/c'metrk] adj.


hyphenation ['hafcnecn] n. ,
hypotheses ['ha'p]si:z] pl.
hypothesis
hypothesis ['ha'p]ss] n. , .@ 1.
. 2. ;
, .
hypothetical word [hapou'ctkcl wc:d] .@

, .
hysteresis [/hstc'ri:ss] n.
hysteresis loop [/hstc'ri:ss lu:p]
n.
hysteresis-band
[/hstc'ri:ss'bnd] n.

I*
I/O (input-output ['input'autput])
-
I/O bound task [baund ta:sk] ,
-
I/O buffering ['b7fcr] -.@
,
.
I/O bus [b7s] -.@
, -.
I/O channel ['nl] -
I/O control [kcn'troul] -.@
,
,

,
.
I/O conversion [kcn'vc:cn] 1.
-.@

275

________________________________________________________________________________________

. 2. -.
I/O device [d'vas]
-.@ ,
.
I/O file [fal] -.@ ,

-.
I/O instruction [n'str7kcn] -
I/O limited ['lmtd] .@ , .
I/O limited program ['lmtd
'proulrm] ,
I/O list [lst] .@
-
I/O mapping ['mp] -.@
,
-.
I/O port [p]:t] . . . Port
I/O processor (IOP) ['prousesc]
-
I/O register ['restc]
-
I/O supervisor ['sju:pc'vazc]
-
I/O switching ['sw] -

ICAI (Intelligent ComputerAssisted Instruction [n'telcnt kcm'pju:tc'sstd n'str7kcn]) .@ , .


icand ['aknd] n.
icon ['ak]n] n. .@

; ,
. . . desktop system
idea [a'dc] n. 1. , ;
2.
idea processor [a'dc 'prousesc]
; .
. . outline processor
ideal [a'dcl] adj. 1. ;
2.
idealize [a'dclaz] v.
ideally [a'dcl] adv.
identical [a'dentkcl] adj. ,
identification (ID, id) [a'dentf'ke-cn] n. 1. .@

. , . .
. user identification; 2. ,
(,

)

276________________________________________________________________________________________
identification [a'dentfkecn] n.
,
,
, ,
identifications division [a'dentf'kecns d'vcn] .
identifier [a'dentfac] n. 1.
.@ ,

. 2.
identifier list [a'dentfac lst]

identify [a'dentfa] v. 1. , . .
. identification 2. ,
, . .
. identifier; 3. ; n.
, ,
identity [a'dentt] n. 1. ; 2. , ; ; 3. ;
; adj. ,
identity burst [a'dentt bc:st]

identity element [a'dentt 'elmcnt]
identity function [a'dentt 'f7cn]
identity matrix [a'dentt 'metrks] .@ .
idle ['adl] adj. 1. ; ; 2. , ; 3. ,
( )
idle character ['adl 'krktc]
.@ , -

.
idle light ['adl 'lat]

idle time ['adl tam] ,


idler ['adlc] n.
idling ['adl] n.
IEEE 488 interface [/ntc'fes].@


:
, ,
.
ier [' ac] n.
if [f] cj. 1. ; 2.
.# as if
, .# if any (anything) (, . .).# if at all
(, . .).# if ever
( ).# if
for no other reason than
,
if and only if (statement) (iff)
([f nd 'ounl f ('stetmcnt)] 1.
; 2. .
. . equivalence
if then else statement [f en els
'stetmcnt] if then else
iF-statement [f'stetmcnt] . . . conditional statement
iF-THEN-ELSE . . . conditional statement
ignorance ['lncrcns] n. ,
ignorant ['lncrcnt] adj. , (of, in)

277

________________________________________________________________________________________

ignore [l'n]:] v. ,
;
ignore character [l'n]: 'krktc]
,
ignore instruction [l'n]: n'str7kcn]
ill-conditioned
[l/kcn'dcnd]
; .@ ()
,

.
ill-conditioned matrix [l/kcn'dcnd 'metrks]

illegal ['li:lcl] adj. 1. ; 2. ;


illegal character ['li:lcl 'krktc]
illegal instruction ['li:lcl n'str7kcn] .@ 1.
,
. 2. ,
.
. . privileged instruction
illegal operation ['li:lcl /]pc'recn] . .
. illegal inst-ruction
illegal symbol ['li:lcl 'smbcl]

illuminate [/lu:m'net] v.
illumination [/lu:m'necn] n. 1.
; 2.
illustrative ['lcstretv] adj. ;
im- [m-] pref.
, , : impossible

image ['m] n. 1. .@ , . . display


image. 2. .@
,
. 3. ; ; 4.
.# to speak in image
image file ['m fal] , .
. . task image
image generation ['m 'encrecn]
image graphics ['m l'rfks]
.@ . . coordinate
graphics
image memory ['m 'memcr]
.@
( ),
.
image processing ['m 'prouses] .@

, .
image regeneration ['m r'enc'recn] .@ ,

.
image response ['m ris'p]ns]

image understanding ['m
/7ndc'stnd]

278________________________________________________________________________________________
imaginary ['mncr] adj. 1.
; 2.
imaginary accumulator ['mncr c'kju:mjuletc]
imaginary axis ['mncr 'kss]
imaginary root ['mncr ru:t]

imagine ['mn] v. ,
imbed [m'bd] .embed
imbue [m'bju:] v. ,

immediate ['mi:djct] adj. 1. , ; 2. , ; 3.


immediate access memory (store) ['mi:djct 'kses 'memcr (st]:)] 1.

.@ ,

,
. 2.
immediate address(ing) ['mi:djct c'dres()] 1.
.@ ,



. 2. ()
immediate constituent grammar ['mi:djct kcn'sttjucnt 'lrmc]
, HC-
immediate data ['mi:djct 'detc]
.
.
. immediate addressing

immediate inference ['mi:djct


'nfcrcns]
immediate
mode
['mi:djct
moud] .@

,
,
.
immediate operand ['mi:djct
']pcrcnd] . . . immediate addressing
immense ['mens] adj.
immerse ['mc:s] v.
immobile ['moubal] adj.
immunity ['mju:nt] n. -

impact ['mpkt] n. 1. , ; ; 2. ; 3.
, ; adj.
impact avalanche and transit
time (IMPATT) ['mpkt 'vcla:n
nd 'trnst tam] -
impact printer ['mpkt 'prntc]

impair [m'pc] v.
impart [m'pa:t] v. 1. ;
2.
impedance [m'pi:dcns] n. ,
impede [m'pi:d] v. , ;
impel [m'pel] v. ,
(to)
imperative [m'perctv] adj. .@ -

279

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
imperative language [m'perctv
'llw] . .
decal-rative language. . .
procedure-oriented language
imperative statement [m'perctv 'stetmcnt] , .@
, . .
declarative statement
imperceptible
[mpc'septcbl]
adj. ,
imperfecte [m'pc:fkt] adj. 1.
; 2. ; 3. ; 4.
imperfection [m'pc:fkcn] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
impetus ['mptcs] n. , .# to give an impetus to
-.
impinge [m'pn] v. 1. ; ; 2. (
-. )
implement ['mplmcnt] v. ; ; ; n.

implementation [/mplmen'tecn] n. 1. ,
(); 2. , .@

.
implementation module [/mplmen'tecn 'm]dju:l]
implementation
specification
[/mplmen'tecn /spesfi'kecn] .@
, -

, ,
. . interface specification
implementator ['mplmentetc]
n.
implicant ['mplkent]
implicate ['mpl'ket] v. 1. , ; 2. (
),
implication [/mpl'kecn] n. 1.
.@ ,

, , ,
. 2.
, ; 3. , ; 4. (
pl.); 5. , .# by implication ;

implicative normal form [/mpl'ketv 'n]:mcl f]:m]



implicit [m'plst] adj. 1. ; , ; 2.
implicit definition [m'plst /def'ncn]
implicit function [m'plst 'f7kcn]
implicit function theorem [m'plst 'f7kcn 'crcm]
implied [m'plad] adj. -

implied address [m'plad c'dres]


. . . implied
addressing

280________________________________________________________________________________________
implied addressing [m'plad
c'dres] .@ ,

.
implied coercion [m'plad kou'c:cn] (). . . type coercion
implied declaration [m'plad
/deklc'recn]
imply [m'pla] v. 1. ; 2.
import list ['mp]:t lst]
.@
,
.
import workspace ['mp]:t 'wc:kspes]
importance [m'p]:tcns] n. , .# of importance
,
imported ['mp]:td] adj. .@ , , ,
, . . exported
impose [m'pouz] v. 1. ,
; 2. ; 3. ; 4.
impoverish [m'p]vcr] v. 1. ; 2. ;
impredicative definition [/mpri'dkctv /def'ncn]
impress [m'pres] v. 1. ; 2.

(); 3. ; 4.
()
impression [m'prescn] n. 1.
; 2. .# one has
the impression .# to convey the impression
impressive [m'presv] adj.
improper [m'pr]pc] adj. 1. ; 2. (
)
improper integral [m'pr]pc 'ntlrcl]
improve [m'pru:v] v. (), ()
improved standard electronic
module (ISEM) [m'pru:vd 'stndcd
/lek'tr]nk 'm]dju:l]

improvement [m'pru:vmcnt] n.
1. ; 2.
impulse-modulated telemetering (IMT) ['m7pls/m]djuletd t'lemtc]

impure [m'pjuc] adj.
impure data [m'pjuc 'detc] . . pure function
impurity [m'pjucrt] n. 1. ; 2.
in- [n-] pref. , , : inactive
in so far as [n sou fa: cz] adv.
.# in so far as is concerned ,

281

________________________________________________________________________________________

inaccuracy [n'kjurcs] n. 1. ; 2.
inaccurate [n'kjurt] adj. 1. ; 2. ,
inactive [n'ktv] adj. .@
,
.
inadequate [n'dkwt] adj. 1.
(); ; 2. ; 3.
inapplicable [n'plkcbl] adj.

inapplrecicable [n'plreskcbl]
adj.
inasmuch (as) [ncz'm7t] adv.
; ,
inaugurate ['n]:ljuret] v. 1. ; 2. (,
. .)
inauguration [/n]:lju'recn] n.
1. , ; 2.

incandescence [/nkn'desns] n.

incapable [n'kepcbl] adj.


inch [nt] n.
incidence ['nsdcns] n. 1.
; ; ;
; 2. , ; 3.

incidence matrix ['nsdcns 'metrk] .@


, : mij = 1,
j i,
mij = -1, j i, mij = 0 .
. adjacency matrix
incident ['nsdcnt] adj. 1. , (

); 2. ; ; 3. (to); 4.
(on, upon); 5. ; n. , ;

incidental [/ns'dentcl] adj. 1.


, ; 2. , ,
(to)
incidentally [/ns'dentcl] adv. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
;
incipient [n'spcnt] adj. , ;
in-circuit emulator (ICE) [n'sc:kt /emju:'letc]
.@ , ,


.
incline [n'klan] v. 1. (); 2. , -.
include [n'klud] v. ;
,
inclusion [n'klu:cn] n. ,
inclusive [n'klu:sv] adj. 1.
, ;
2. ;
inclusive circuit [n'klu:sv 'sc:kt]
inclusive OR circuit [n'klu:sv
]: 'sc:kt] . .
. OR
incoming ['n/k7m] n. 1. ;
2. ; adj. 1. , ; 2. ; ; 3.

282________________________________________________________________________________________
incoming data ['n/k7m 'detc]
incompatibility ['nkcm/ptc'blt] n.
incompatible
['nkcm/ptcbl]
adj. . . compatible
incomplete data ['nkcm'pli:t
'detc]
incomplete routine ['nkcm'pli:t
ru:'ti:n] ,
incompleteness theorems ['nkcm'pli:tens 'crcms]
inconsistency [/nkcn'sstcns] n.
;
; . .
consistency
inconsistent [/nkcn'sstcnt] adj.
1. , (with); 2. ,
; 3. ,
;
inconsistent complication [/nkcn'sstcnt /k]mpl'kecn] .@ , , . . consistent complication
inconsistent statements [/nkcn'sstcnt 'stetmcnts]
incorporate [n'k]:pcret] v. 1.
; 2. ()
incorrect [n'kcrekt] adj. ,
increase [n'kri:s] v. (), ; n. ,
increasingly [n'kri:sll] adv.

increment (incr) ['nkrimcnt] n.


1. , ; 2.
; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ; ;
(); 6.
; ; ; v. ()
increment operation ['nkrmcnt
/]pc'recn] ,

increment size ['nkrmcnt saz]
.@
.
incremental ['nkrmcntcl] adj.
;
incremental compiler ['nkrmcntcl kcm'palc] .@ ,


.
incremental computation ['nkrmcntcl /kcmpju:'tecn] ,


incremental computer ['nkrmcntcl kcm'pju:tc] ,
incremental converter ['nkrmcntcl kcn'vc:tc]

incremental coordinates ['nkrmcntcl kou']:dnts]


.@ ,

.
incremental display ['nkrmcntcl ds'ple] -

283

________________________________________________________________________________________

. . . incremental representation
incremental garbage collection
['nkrmcntcl 'la:b kc'lekcn] .@
, ;
.
incremental plotter ['nkrmcntcl 'pl]tc] .@

.
incremental ratio ['nkrmcntcl
'reou]
incremental refinement ['nkrmcntcl r'fanmcnt] , .@
.
incremental representation ['nkrmcntcl /reprzen'tecn] .@
.
incur [n'kc:] v.
-.; ; ( . .)
indeed [n'di:d] adv. ,
indefinite [n'defnt] adj. 1. ; 2.
indefinite integral [n'defnt 'ntlrcl]
indefinitely [n'defntl] adv. 1.
; 2.
indent [n'dent] n. , .@
(,
-

)
. v. ,
. . updent
indentation [/nden'tecn] n. , . . .
indent
indentifying information [a'dentfa /nfc'mecn]
independency [/nd'pendcns] n.

independent [/nd'pendcnt] adj.


, , (of)
independent control [/nd'pendcnt kcn'troul] ()
independent digit [/nd'pendcnt
'dt]
independent failure [/nd'pendcnt 'feljc]
independent sideband (ISB)
[/nd'pendcnt 'sad'bnd] ()
independent variable [/nd'pendcnt 'vcrcbl]
independently [/nd'pendcntl]
adv.
indeterminate system [/n'dtc:mnet 'sstm]
.@
.
index ['ndeks] n. 1. .@ 1.
,
. 2. , . 2.
( ). . . line feed. 3. ; 4. ; v. -

284________________________________________________________________________________________
, ,
,
index buffer ['ndeks 'b7fc] -
index mode ['ndeks moud] .@
.
index of a point to a curve
['ndeks ]v c p]nt tu: c kc:v]

index of a radical ['ndeks ]v c
'rdkcl]
index of dispersion ['ndeks ]v
ds'pc:cn] 1. ; 2.
index point ['ndeks p]nt]
index register ['ndeks 'restc]
.@ ,
.
index sequential access method
(ISAM) ['ndeks s'kwencl 'kses 'mecd]
-

index word ['ndeks wc:d]
indexed addressing ['ndekst
c'dres] .@
,

, .
indexed file ['ndekst fal] .@ ,
.
indexed sequential access method ['ndekst s'kwencl 'kses 'me-

cd]
-

indexed sequential file ['ndekst
s'kwencl fal] - .@ ,

.
indexed sequential processing
(ISP) ['ndekst s'kwencl 'prouses]
-

indexer ['ndeksc] n.
indexing ['ndeks] n. ,
indicate [n'dkct] v. 1. , ; ; ; 2. ; 3. ,
indicate ['ndket] v. ,
,
indicating ['ndket] adj. ,
indication ['ndkecn] n. 1. , , , , ; 2.
indication error ['ndkecn 'erc]
1. ; 2.
indicative [n'dkctv] adj. , , (of).# to be indicative of

indicative data [n'dkctv 'detc]
.@ ,


(, ).
indicator ['ndkctc] n. 1. , . . . flag; 2. -

285

________________________________________________________________________________________

, ,
indices ['ndsi:s] pl. index
indirect [/nd'rekt] adj. 1. ; 2. ;
indirect address [/nd'rekt c'dres] .@ , .
indirect addressing [/nd'rekt
c'dres] .@
, .
indirect file [/nd'rekt fal] . . . command
file
indirect proof [/nd'rekt pru:f]

indirect sampling [/nd'rekt 'sa:mpl]
indirect with autoincrement addressing [/nd'rekt w /]:tc'inkrmcnt
c'dres]
indirection [/nd'rekcn] n. ,

indirection level [/nd'rekcn


'levl] ,
.@ , , . . .
multilevel addressing
indirection operator [/nd'rekcn
']pcretc] .
@ ,
, .
indirectly [/nd'rektl] adv.

indispensable
[/nds'penscbl]
adj.
indium ['ndcm] n.
individual [/nd'vdjucl] adj. 1.
, ; 2. , ;
induce [n'dju:s] v. 1. ;
; 2. ; 3. ; 4.
induced [n'dju:sd] adj.
inductance (ind) [n'd7ktcns] n.
1. ; 2. ;
; 4.
induction [n'd7kcn] 1. . @
( ). 2. ,
induction heating [n'd7kcn
hi:t]
inductive [n'd7ktv] adj. ; ;
inductive definition [n'd7ktv
/def'ncn]
inductively
[n'd7ktvl] adv.

inductor [n'd7ktc] n.
industrial ['nd7strcl] adj.
industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) ['nd7strcl /sacn'tfk nd
'medkcl] ,

industry ['nd7str] n. 1. ; 2. pl. .# home industry
industry standard formatter interface ['nd7str 'stndcd 'f]:mtc

286________________________________________________________________________________________
/ntc'fes]

ineffective [/n'fektv] adj.
ineffective time [/n'fektv tam]
; ,

inefficient [/n'ficnt] adj.


inelastic [n'lstk] adj. ,
inequality [/ni:'kw]lt] n. ,
inequivalence [n'kwvclcns] n.
,
. . . XOR
inessential map ['n'sencl mp]
,
inestimable [n'estmbcl] adj.
, ;
inevitable [n'evtcbcl] adj.
inexpensive [/nks'pensv] adj.
,
infer ['nfc:] v. 1. , , ; 2. ,

inference ['nfcrcns] n. 1. () , ;
; 2. , .#
to daw an inference ,

inference chain ['nfcrcns ten]
.@ , .
inference engine ['nfcrcns 'en'n] .@

,

.
inference rules ['nfcrcns ru:ls]

inferential ['nfc'rcncl] adj. 1.
; .@
inferior [n'fcrc] adj. 1. ; 2. ; .# to be inferior (to) ,
inferior limit [n'fcrc 'lmt]

infinite ['nfnt] adj. 1. , ; 2. ,
infinite graph ['nfnt lrf]

infinite impulse response (IIR)
['nfnt 'm7pls rs'p]ns]

infinite product ['nfnt 'pr]dckt]
infinite sequence ['nfnt 'si:kwcns]
infinite series ['nfnt 'scri:z]

infinitely ['nfntl] adv. ,
infinitesimal [/nfin'tesmcl] adj.

infinitesimal
neighbourhood
[/nfn'tesmcl 'nebchud]

infinity [n'fnt] n. ;
infix notation ['nfks nou'tecn]
.@
() ,

287

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
. postfix notation, prefix notation
infix operator ['nfks ']pcretc]
.@
, . . postfix
notation, prefix notation
inflected language [n'flektd
'llw]
inflection [n'flekcn] n. 1. = inflecxion , ; (); ;
inflection point [n'flekcn p]nt]

influence ['nflucns] n. ;
v.
influx ['nfl7ks] n. ,

informatics [nfc'metks] n. .@ 1. , ,
.
. . . computer science; 2.

,
.
information (inf) [/nfc'mecn]
n. .@ 1. , . 2.
,
, , . .
3. - , .
4. , ,
. 2. , -

; 3. . . .
data
information bit [/nfc'mecn bt]

information capacity [/nfc'mecn k'pcst]
information carrier [/nfc'mecn
'krc]
information channel [/nfc'mecn 'nl] ,
information character [/nfc'mecn 'krktc]
, .@ ,
, .
information density [/nfc'mecn 'denst]
information destination [/nfc'mecn /dest'necn]
information display rate [/nfc'mecn ds'ple ret]
information exchange system
(IES) [/nfc'mecn ks'ten 'sstm]

information feedback system
[/nfc'mecn 'fi:d/bk 'sstm] .@


information gain [/nfc'mecn
len]
information generator [/nfc'mecn 'encretc] 1. ; 2.

288________________________________________________________________________________________
information handling [/nfc'mecn 'hndl]
information hiding [/nfc'mecn
'had] . .
. abstraction, encapsulation
information loss [/nfc'mecn
l]s]
Information Management System (IMS).@ , IBM.
information management system [/nfc'mecn 'mnment 'sstm]
1. ; 2. .
. . data-base management
system
information message [/nfc'mecn 'mesi] (
)
information processing [/nfc'mecn 'prouses] ()
information rate [/nfc'mecn
ret]
information register [/nfc'mecn 'restc]
information retrieval [/nfc'mecn r'tri:vcl]
,
information retrieval language
[/nfc'mecn r'tri:vcl 'llw] -
information retrieval problem
[/nfc'mecn r'tri:vcl 'pr]blcm] ()

information retrieval system


[/nfc'mecn r'tri:vcl 'sstm] -
information separator (IS) [/nfc'mecn 'sepcretc]
information source [/nfc'mecn
s]:s]
information storage and retrieval [/nfc'mecn 'st]:r nd
r'tri:vcl]
information structure [/nfc'mecn 'str7ktc]

information system [/nfc'mecn


'sstm] .@
,
.
information technology (IT)
[/nfc'mecn tek'n]lc] .@ , ,
.
information theory [/nfc'mecn
'cr] .@ ,

.
information transfer scheme
[/nfc'mecn 'trnsfc ski:m]

information unit [/nfc'mecn
'ju:nt]
information word [/nfc'mecn
wc:d]
information(al) language [/nfc'mecn(cl) 'llw]

289

________________________________________________________________________________________

information-logical
machine
[/nfc'mecn'l]kcl mc'i:n] -
information-processing machine [/nfc'mecn'prouses mc'i:n]
information-processing system
[/nfc'mecn'prouses 'sstm] 1.
; 2. ; 3.
informative [/nfc'metv] adj. 1.
, ,
; 2. ; 3.
infralow frequency (ILF) ['nfrc'lou 'fri:kwcns]
infra(-)red [/nfrc 'red] n. ; adj.
infra(-)red charge-coupled device (IRCCD) [/nfrc 'red a:c'k7pld
d'vas] -
infra(-)red keyboard [/nfrc 'red
'ki:b]:d] .@
,
.
infra(-)red sensing field-effect
transistor (IRFET) [/nfrc 'red 'sens fi:ld/'fekt trn'zstc] ()
-,
-
infra(-)red signal translator
(IRST) [/nfrc 'red 'slncl trns'letc]
-

infrequent [n'fri:kwcnt] adj.

infrequently [n'fri:kwcntl] adv.


.# not infrequently
infringe [n'frn] v.
ingenious [n'enjucs] adj. ,
ingenious [n'i:njcs] adj. 1.
, ; 2.

ingot ['lct] n.
inhabit [n'hbt] v. , ,
inhabitant [n'hbtcnt] n. ,
inherence [n'hcrcns] n. .@ 1.
;
. 2. ,
, .
inherent [n'hcrcnt] adj. ; ; ;

inherent addressing [n'hcrcnt


c'dres]
inherent bias [n'hcrcnt 'bacs]

inherent model [n'hcrcnt 'm]dl]
.@ , ,
,
inherently [n'hcrcntl] adv.
,
inherently ambiguous language
[n'hcrcntl m'bljucs 'llw]
.
@ ,
.

290________________________________________________________________________________________
inherit [n'hert] v. ;

inheritance [n'hertcns] n. ;
inheritance hierarchy [n'hertcns 'hacra:k] .@

,

.
inherited error [n'hertd 'erc] 1.
.@ ,


. 2.

inhibit [n'hbt] v. 1. ,
; 2. ; 3.
; ; ; n. .@
, ,
inhibit circuit [n'hbt 'sc:kt]

inhibit input (inh) [n'hbt 'nput]
inhibiting input [n'hbt 'nput]

inhibitory action [n'hbtcr 'kcn] , ,
inhomogeneity [n/hmoue'ni:t]
n. ,
inhomogeneous
[n/hmoue'njcs] adj.

in-house line [n'haus lan] ,



in-house software [n'haus 's]ftwc]

in-house training [n'haus 'tren]
initial ['ncl] adj. ;

initial address ['ncl c'dres]


initial algebra ['ncl 'lbrc]

initial conditions ['ncl kcn'dcns] 1. ; 2. ; 3.
initial data ['ncl 'detc]
initial input program ['ncl 'nput 'proulrm]
initial order ['ncl ]:'dc]
initial program load ['ncl
'proulrm loud]
.@
initial program load ['ncl
'proulrm loud] .
. bootstrap
initial program loader (IPL)
['ncl 'proulrm 'loudc]
, . . . bootstrap
initial state ['ncl stet]
initial value ['ncl 'vlju:]

291

________________________________________________________________________________________

initial value problem ['ncl 'vlju: 'pr]blcm]


,
initialization ['nclzecn] n.
.@ 1.

. 2. .
initialize ['nclaz] v. . . . initialization
initializer ['nclazc] n. .@ , .
initially ['ncl] adv. 1. ; 2. ;

initiate ['nct] v. 1.
; 2.
inject [n'ekt] v. ;

injection [n'ekcn] n. ,
injection laser diode (ILD)
[n'ckcn 'lesc daoud]
,
inking ['k] n. .@

.
ink-jet printer ['k'et 'prntc]

inlet ['nlet] n. 1. , ; 2.

in-line [n'lan] 1. ,
; 2. . .
. on-line
in-line check [n'lan tek] , . . . built-in check
in-line code [n'lan koud] .@ -

,
.
in-line data processing [n'lan
'detc 'prouses] 1. ; 2. ;
3. ; 4.
,
in-line program [n'lan 'proulrm] .@ , .
in-line subroutine [n'lan scb/ru:'tn] , .@ , , ..

.
in-line subroutine expansion
[n'lan scb/ru:'tn ks'pncn]

inner ['nc] adj.


inner code ['nc koud]
inner loop ['nc lu:p]
innovation [/n]'vecn] n. ,
innovations representation (IR)
[/n]'vecns /reprzen'tecn]
innumerable ['nju:mcrcbl] adj.

inoperative [n']pcrctv] adj.

292________________________________________________________________________________________
inorder traversal [n]:'dc 'trvc:sl] .@
.
inorganic [/n]:'lnk] adj.
in-out box [n'aut b]ks]
-
in-out parameter [n'aut pc'rmtc]
inparameter [npc'rmtc]
input ['nput] n. 1. (); 2. ;
; 3. , ; 4. ; v.
().@ 1.
.
2. .
input area ['nput 'crc]

input assertion ['nput c'sc:cn]



input backoff
(IBO) ['nput
'bk']f]
input block ['nput bl]k] , ,

input buffer ['nput 'b7fc] ,

input buffer register ['nput


'b7fc 'restc]
,
input circuit
['nput 'sc:kt]
, ,

input data ['nput 'detc] ,


input device ['nput d'vas]

input digit ['nput 'dt] ()
input file ['input fal]
,
input highway (IHW) ['input
ha'we]

input information ['input /nfc'mecn] ,
input instruction code ['input
n'str7kcn koud]

input inverse ['input 'n'vc:z]

input language ['input 'llw] . . . source
language
input level ['input 'levl]

input medium ['input 'mi:djcm]


1. ; 2.
input order ['input ]:'dc]
input potential ['nput pc'tencl]

input primitive ['nput 'prmtv]
.@
, .
input program ['nput 'proulrm]
input queue ['nput kju:]
, . . .
job queue
input record ['nput 'rek]:d] ,

293

________________________________________________________________________________________

input register ['nput 'restc]



input routine ['nput ru:'ti:n]
,
input section ['nput 'sekcn] 1.
, ; 2.

input speed ['nput spi:d]
input stream ['nput stri:m]
.@ .
input unit ['nput 'ju:nt]
,
input-bound task ['input'baund
ta:sk] ,

input-limited process ['input'lmtd 'prouses] , .@ ,
.
input-output (I/O) ['input'autput]
, -.@
.
- ,

;
input-output buffer ['input'autput 'b7fc] -, -


-
input-output channel ['input'autput 'nl] -.@

,

.
input-output control ['input'autput kcn'troul] 1. ; 2.
input-output control module
['input'autput kcn'troul 'm]dju:l] -
input-output control system
(IOCS) ['input'autput kcn'troul 'sstm]
-
input-output controller (IOC,
ioc) ['input'autput kcn'troulc] -,
. . . peripheral controller
input-output device ['input'autput d'vas]
input-output facilitys ['input'autput fc'slts]
input-output instruction ['input'autput n'str7kcn]
input-output interrupt ['input'autput /intc'r7pt] 1.
; 2.

input-output language ['input'autput 'llw]
input-output library ['input'autput 'labrcr]

294________________________________________________________________________________________
input-output register (IOR)
['input'autput 'restc] -
input-output specification ['nput'autput /spesfi'kecn] ,
. . . functional
specification
input-output unit ['nput'autput
'ju:nt] -
inquire [n'kwac] v. 1. ,
(of); 2.
(into)
inquiry [n'kwac] n. ; ;
inquiry and subscriber display
[n'kwac cnd scb'skraibc ds'ple]

inquiry buffer [n'kwac 'b7fc]



inquiry keyboard [n'kwac 'ki:b]:d]

inquiry station [n'kwac 'stecn]


.@ ,
.
inquiry terminal [n'kwac 'tc:mnl] 1. ; 2.
insensitive [n'senstv] n.
insert [n'sc:t] v. ; ;
insert ['nsct] n. 1. , ; 2.
insert mode ['nsct moud]
, .@
,

,
. .overtype
mode
insertion ['nsccn] n. ;

insertion loss (IL) ['nsccn l]s]



inset ['nset] n. , ,

inset ['n'set] v. 1. ; 2.

inside [n'sad] adj. ;


adv. ,
insight ['nsat] n. (into); , ; .# to gain ab insight
into -.;
.# to provide insight into

insist [n'sst] v. 1.
(on, upon); 2.
insomach [n'soum7t] adv. , (that)
inspect [n'spekt] v. ; ;
inspire [n'spac] v. 1. , ; 2.
( . .)
instability [/n'stc'blt] n.
install [n'st]:l] v. 1. , .@ . 2. , .@

. 3. , (
); 4. ; ( )

295

________________________________________________________________________________________

installation [/n'stc'lecn] n. 1.
, . . . install; 2. ,
. . . computer system; 3.
, , ,
installation and checkout phase
[/n'stc/lecn nd 'tekaut 'fez]
installed task [n'st]:ld ta:sk] ,
.@ ,
.

.
installer [n'st]:lc] n.
instance ['nstcns] n. 1. ( ); 2.
; , ; 3.
; ; v.
.# at the instance
of ; .# for
instance .# in the first instance ;
instant ['nstcnt] n. ,
; adj. 1. ; ; 2. , .# the instant ,
instantaneous
[/nstcn'tenjcs]
adj.
instantaneous automatic gain
control (IAGC) [/nstcn'tenjcs /]:'tcmtk len kcn'troul]
instantaneously [/nstcn'tenjcsl]
();
instantiate [/n'stcn'tet] v. ( )

instantiation [/n'stcn'tecn] n. 1.
, (
); ; 2. ( )
instead (of) [/n'sted(cv)] adv.
; ; ,

Institute of Electrical and Electronical Engineers (IEEE)


,
instruct [n'str7kt] v. , ,
instruction [n'str7kcn] n. ; .@

instruction address (IA) [n'str7kcn c'dres]

instruction address register
(IAR) [n'str7kcn c'dres 'restc] 1.
; 2.

instruction area [n'str7kcn 'crc] 1. ; 2.


instruction buffer [n'str7kcn
'b7fc] ,
instruction code [n'str7kcn
koud] 1. . . .
instruction set; 2. ,
instruction counter (IC) [n'str7kcn 'kauntc] .
. . program counter
instruction counting register
[n'str7kcn 'kaunt 'restc]
. . program counter
instruction cycle [n'str7kcn
'sakl]

296________________________________________________________________________________________
instruction decoder [n'str7kcn
d'koudc] .@
,
, .
instruction field [n'str7kcn
fi:ld] , .@ (
), .
instruction format [n'str7kcn
'f]mt] .@ 1. ,
, , . 2.
.
instruction frequency [n'str7kcn 'fri:kwcns]

instruction length [n'str7kcn


le] .@ , .
instruction mix [n'str7kcn
mks] .@ ,

,
.
instruction processor [n'str7kcn 'prousesc]
instruction register (IR) [n'str7kcn 'restc] .@
,
.

instruction sequencing [n'str7kcn 'si:kwcns]


.@ , ,
.
instruction set [n'str7kcn set]
.@
.
instruction set processor (ISP)
[n'str7kcn set 'prousesc]

instruction stream [n'str7kcn
stri:m] .@ , .
instruction time [n'str7kcn
tam] ()

instruction unit [n'str7kcn 'ju:nt]


instruction word [n'str7kcn
wc:d] ,
instructional constant [n'str7kcnl 'k]nstcnt] ,

instruction-count interrupt [n'str7kcn'kaunt /intc'r7pt]



instructive [n'str7ktv] adj. ,
instrument ['nstrumcnt] n. ,
instrumental ['nstrumcntcl] adj.
1. ; 2.
instrumention ['nstrumcncn] n.

insufficiency [/nsc'fcns] n.

297

________________________________________________________________________________________

insufficient [/nsc'fcnt] adj. ; ;


;
insulate ['nsjulet] v.
insulated gate (IG) ['nsjuletd
'let]
insulated-gate field-effect transistor (IGFET) ['nsjuletd'let fi:ld/'fekt trn'zstc]
,

insulation ['nsjulecn] n.
insulator ['nsjuletc] n.
insure [n'uc] v. 1. ; 2. (); 3. ,

inswap [/n'swp] ,
. . . swap in
intact [n'tkt] adj. ,
intake ['ntek] n.1. , , ; 2. , ; adj. ,
integer (INT) ['ntc] n. 1. (); 2.
integer multiple ['ntc 'm7ltpl] ()
integer multiplication and division ['ntc 'm7ltplkecn nd d'vcn]

integer programming ['ntc


'proulrm] .@ ,
.
integer variable ['ntc 'vcrcbl] .@ , .

integer-valued ['ntc'vlju:d]
.@
.
integral ['ntlrcl] n. ;
adj. 1. ; 2. ; ,
integral action ['ntlrcl 'kcn]
,

integral boundary ['ntlrcl 'baundcr]
integral control ['ntlrcl kcn'troul] 1.
(); 2. () ; 3. ()
integral convergence ['ntlrcl
kcn'vc:cns]
integral curve ['ntlrcl kc:v]
integral cycle control ['ntlrcl
sakl kcn'troul]
integral domain ['ntlrcl dc'men]
integral equation ['ntlrcl 'kwecn]
integral operator ['ntlrcl ']pcretc]
integral power ['ntlrcl 'pauc]

integral quantity ['ntlrcl 'kw]ntt]
integral table ['ntlrcl 'tebl]

integral type ['ntlrcl tap] .@
;
,
.

298________________________________________________________________________________________
integrand ['ntlrcnd] n. , ;

integrate ['ntlret] v. 1. , ; 2.
, ;
3. ; ;
adj. 1. ; 2. ,
integrated chopper (INCH)
['ntlretd ']pc]
integrated circuit (IC) ['ntlretd 'sc:kt] ,

integrated circuit calculator


['ntlretd 'sc:kt 'klkjuletc]

integrated
circuit
package
(ICP) ['ntlretd 'sc:kt 'pk] 1.
; 2.
integrated data base ['ntlretd
'detc bes]
.@ ,

integrated data processing


(IDP) ['ntlretd 'detc 'prouses]

integrated
digital
network
(IDN) ['ntlretd 'dtl 'netwc:k]
integrated environment ['ntlretd n'vacrcnmcnt] .@
,

.
integrated injection logic (IIL,
2
I L) ['ntlretd n'ckcn 'l]k] ,
2

integrated modem ['ntlretd


'moudcm]
integrated office system ['ntlretd ]fs 'sstm]

integrated package ['ntlretd
'pk] . .
. integrated system
integrated project support environment (IPSE) ['ntlretd 'prcekt sc'p]:t n'vacrcnmcnt] .@ ,

, -
.
integrated services digital network (ISDN) ['ntlretd 'sc:vss
'dtl 'netwc:k]

integrated software ['ntlretd
's]ftwc] ,
. . .
integrated system
integrated square error ['ntlretd skwcs 'erc]
integrated system ['ntlretd
'sstm] ;
.@ ,

;

,
. -

299

________________________________________________________________________________________


, , ,

.
integrated testing ['ntlretd
'test]
integrating device ['ntlret
d'vas]
()
integrating digital voltmeter
(IDVM) ['ntlret 'dtl 'voult'mi:tc ]

integrating unit ['ntlret 'ju:nt] ()


integration ['ntlrecn] n. 1. , ;
; 2.
integration by parts ['ntlrecn
ba pa:ts]
integration by substitution ['ntlrecn ba /s7bst'tju:cn]
integration technique ['ntlrecn tek'ni:k]
Integrational Classification of
Patents (ICP) ['ntlrecnl /klsf'kecn ]v 'petcnt]

integrator ['ntlretc] n. ,
integrity [n'telrt] n. , .@
. . . data integrity
integro-differential
equation
[n'telr]/dfc'rencl 'kwecn]

intellect ['ntlekt] n. 1. , , ; 2. .@
1. ; ;
. 2. (, , , ,
. .)
intelligence [n'telcns] n. 1.
. . . artificial intelligence; 2. .@ , . 3.

intelligent [n'telcnt] adj. 1.


.@ ,

; 2.
; 3. ; 4. ; 4.
intelligent control [n'telcnt
kcn'troul]
intelligent controller [n'telcnt
kcn'troulc] .@ , ,
, : , , .
intelligent copier [n'telcnt
'k]pc] .@
, (-

300________________________________________________________________________________________
, ,
,
)
.
intelligent data base [n'telcnt
'detc bes]
.@ ,

, , ;
, .
intelligent front end (IFE) [n'telcnt fr]nt end] 1. .@ ,
.

,
. 2.
,
intelligent knowledge-based system [n'telcnt 'n]l'best 'sstm]
, .@
.
intelligent machine [n'telcnt
mc'i:n]
intelligent peripheral interface
(IPI) [n'telcnt pc'rfcrcl /ntc'fes]

intelligent terminal [n'telcnt


'tc:mnl] , .@ 1.

,

, . 2. ,

. . dumb terminal
intelligibility [n'telc'blt] n.
; ;
intelligibility threshold [n'telc'blt 'rehould]
intend [n'tend] v. 1. , ; ;
2.
intend task [n'tend ta:sk]
intense [n'tens] adj.
intensitive [n'tenstv] adj.
intensity [n'tenst] n. 1. ; ; 2. ; 3.

intensity cuing [n'tenst 'kw]


.@

,
.
intensity level [n'tenst 'levl]

inter- ['ntcr-] pref. -; -; : internftional , interaction
interact [ntcr'kt] v.
interaction [ntcr'kcn] n. 1.
; 2. ;
3. ; 4.
interaction space [ntcr'kcn
spes]

301

________________________________________________________________________________________

interactive [ntcr'ktv] adj. ; .@ ,


.
interactive blend [ntcr'ktv
blend]
interactive connector [ntcr'ktv 'kcnektc]
interactive contour [ntcr'ktv
'k]ntuc]
interactive debugger [ntcr'ktv
d'b7lc] .@
, .
interactive design system (IDS)
[ntcr'ktv d'zan 'sstm]
interactive distortion [ntcr'ktv ds't]cn]
interactive drop shadow [ntcr'ktv dr]p 'dou]

interactive envelope [ntcr'ktv


'envloup]
interactive environment [ntcr'ktv n'vacrcnmcnt] 1.
; 2.
interactive extrude [ntcr'ktv
eks'tru:d]
interactive graphics [ntcr'ktv
l'rfks]
interactive graphics system
(IGS) [ntcr'ktv l'rfks 'sstm]
interactive mode [ntcr'ktv
moud] ; . . . interactive
interactive pattern analisis and
classification system (IPACS) [ntcr-

'ktv 'ptcn c'nlcsz nd /klsf'kecn 'sstm]


interactive processing [ntcr'ktv 'prouses]
interactive system [ntcr'ktv
'sstm] ; . . . interactive
interactive transparency [ntcr'ktv trns'pcrcns]

interactive utility [ntc'ktv ju:'tlt] ;


interatomic [ntc't]mk] adj.

interblock gap (inter-block) [ntc'bl]k lp] . . . block gap


interblock information [ntc'bl]k /nfc'mecn]
interblock space [ntc'bl]k spes]
(.
)
intercept [/ntc'sept] v. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
interception [/ntc'sepcn] n. 1.
; 2.
interchange ['ntc'ten] n. 1.
() ; 2. ,
; ; v. ()
intercomparison [ntc'kcm'prsn] n.
intercomputer communication
kc'mju:n'kecn]
[ntc'kcm'pju:tc

302________________________________________________________________________________________
intercourse ['ntck]s] n.
interdigital transducer (IDT)
['ntc'dtl trns'dju:sc] (-)

interelectrode ['ntc/'lektroud]
adj.
interest ['ntrst] n. 1. ; 2.
.# to be interested -.
interface [/ntc'fes] n. 1. , .@
, / . 2. ; 3. ; 4.
interface board [/ntc'fes b]:d]
. . . interface device
interface computer [/ntc'fes
kcm'pju:tc]
interface device [/ntc'fes d'vas] , ,
.@ ,
.
interface module [/ntc'fes 'm]dju:l] , . C. interface specification
interface specification [/ntc'fes
/spesfi'kecn] ,
.@ ,
, .
interface testing [/ntc'fes 'test] .@ -


.
interfacing [/ntc'fes] adj.

interfere [/ntc'fc] v. 1. ,
(with); 2 () (in)
interference [/ntc'frcns] n.
interference level [/ntc'frcns
'levl]
interior [n'tcrc] adj. ; n. 1. ; 2.

interior label [n'tcrc 'lebl]

interior map [n'tcrc mp]

interior node [n'tcrc noud]

interior path length [n'tcrc
pa: le] (
). @
() .
interleaving [/ntc'li:v] .@ .
interlock [/ntc'l]k] n. 1 () .@
,
; v. 1. (),
(); (); 2.
intermediate [/ntc'mi:djct] adj.
;

303

________________________________________________________________________________________

intermediate access store (IAS)


[/ntc'mi:djct 'kses st]:]

intermediate assertion [/ntc'mi:djct c'sc:cn]
intermediate frequency (IF)
[/ntc'mi:djct 'fri:kwcns]
intermediate information [/ntc'mi:djct /nfc'mecn]
,
intermediate language [/ntc'mi:djct 'llw]
.@ ,
.

.
intermediate link [/ntc'mi:djct
lnk]
intermediate list [/ntc'mi:djct
lst]
intermediate memory (storage)
[/ntc'mi:djct 'memcr ('st]:r)] .@
,
.
intermediate power amplifier
(IPA) [/ntc'mi:djct 'pauc 'mplfac]

intermediate quantity [/ntc'mi:djct 'kw]ntt]
intermediate region [/ntc'mi:djct 'ri:cn]

intermediate state [/ntc'mi:djct


stet]
intermittent [/ntc'mtcnt] adj. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
intermittent error [/ntc'mtcnt
'erc] ,
intermittent failure [/ntc'mtcnt
'feljc] ,
intermodular reference [/ntc'm]dju:lc 'refrcns]
, .@ , . . internal
reference
intermodulation (IM) [/ntc'm]dju:lcn]
intermodulation
distortion
(IMD) [/ntc'm]dju:lcn ds't]cn]
intermodule optimization [/ntc'm]dju:l ']ptmzecn]
.@
, , ,
,
.
internal [n'tc:nl] adj. 1. ; 2.
internal connection (IC) [n'tc:nl]
internal evidence [n'tc:nl 'evdcns] ,

internal file [n'tc:nl fal] . . external file
internal fragmentation [n'tc:nl
/frmcn'tecn] .@ , -

304________________________________________________________________________________________
, ,
;
, , .
internal function [n'tc:nl 'f7kcn] .@ ,

internal interrupt [n'tc:nl /intc'r7pt] .@
,
. .external interrupt
internal language [n'tc:nl 'llw]
internal memory [n'tc:nl 'memcr] 1. .@ . 2. . .
. main memory
internal name [n'tc:nl nem]
.@ 1. , , . 2. , ,

.
internal number base [n'tc:nl
'n7mbc bes]

internal number system [n'tc:nl
'n7mbc 'sstm]

internal performance [n'tc:nl


pc'f]mcns] .@
.
internal reference [n'tc:nl 'refrcns] .@ -

,
. . intermodular
reference
internal representation [n'tc:nl
/reprzen'tecn] .@
,
. . external
representation
internal resistance (IR) [n'tc:nl
r'zstcns]
internal schema [n'tc:nl ski:m]
.@ ,
, .
internal shield (IS) [n'tc:nl
'i:ld]
internal sort(ing) [n'tc:nl s]:t()] .@ , . . external sort
internal specification [n'tc:nl
/spesfi'kecn] .
@
. .
. specification
Internal System Number (INS)
. . .
entity identifier
internal timer [n'tc:nl taimc]

internally [n'tc:ncl] adv. 1.
; 2.
internally stored program [n'tc:nl st]:d 'proulrm] ,

internals [n'tc:nls] n. ( )
International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) -

305

________________________________________________________________________________________


,
International Federation of
Automatic Control (IFAC)
International Standards Organization (ISO)
,

internet protocol [n'tc:net 'proutck]l] ,


internetting [n'tc:net] n. . . .
internetworking
internetworking [n'tc:net'wc:k] . @
C
.
interpolate [n/tc:pc'let] v.
interpolating [n/tc:pc'let] adj.
,
interpolation [n/tc:pc'lecn] n.
,
interpolation formula [n/tc:pc'lecn 'f]:mjulc]

interpolato [n/tc:pc'letc] n. , - ()
interpret [n'tc:prt] v. 1. , , ;
(); 2. (); 3. ,
interpretation [n'tc:prtecn] n.
, ,
, , -

interpretative
[n'tc:prtetv]
adj.
interpreter [n'tc:prtc] n. .@ (
), . . compiler
interpretive code [n'tc:prtv
koud]
interpretive execution [n'tc:prtv /eks'kju:cn] , .
. . interpreter
interpretive instruction [n'tc:prtv n'str7kcn]
interpretive language [n'tc:prtv 'llw]
.@ ,

.
. . interpreter
interpretive mode [n'tc:prtv
moud] . .
. interpreter
interpretive program [n'tc:prtv 'proulrm] , , -
interpretive routine [n'tc:prtv
ru:'ti:n] ,
, -
interprocess
communication
[ntc'prouses kc'mju:n'kecn] .@
,

306________________________________________________________________________________________
.
interquartile range [ntc'kw]:tal ren] .@
,
,
0,25 0,75. .
. standard deviation, variance
interrecord gap (inter-record)
[ntc'rek]:d lp]
interrogate [n'terclet] v. ,
interrogating unit [n'terclet
'ju:nt]
interrogation [n'terclecn] n.
. . . polling
interrogation system [n'terclecn 'sstm]
interrupt (INT, INTPT) [/intc'r7pt] n. .@

;
.
. v. . . . interrupt vector. v.

interrupt control register [/ntc'r7pt kcn'troul 'restc]


interrupt event [/intc'r7pt 'i:vent]
,
interrupt handler [/intc'r7pt 'hndlc] , . .
. interrupt vector

interrupt handling [/intc'r7pt


'hndl] ,
interrupt I/O [/intc'r7pt] ,
. . . interruptdriven
interrupt indicator [/intc'r7pt
'ndketc] ()

interrupt instruction [/intc'r7pt


n'str7kcn]
interrupt mask [/intc'r7pt ma:sk]
.@ ,
;
.
interrupt priority [/ntc'r7pt
pra']rt] .@
,
;

.
interrupt register [/ntc'r7pt 'restc]
interrupt routine [/ntc'r7pt ru:'ti:n]
interrupt service routine [/ntc'r7pt 'sc:vs ru:'ti:n] , . . . interrupt vector
interrupt software [/ntc'r7pt
's]ftwc] 1.
, ; 2. ,
.

307

________________________________________________________________________________________

interrupt status (register) (IS)


[/ntc'r7pt 'stetcs ('restc)]

interrupt technique [/ntc'r7pt


tek'ni:k]
interrupt trap [/ntc'r7pt trp] 1.
; 2.
interrupt vector [/ntc'r7pt 'vektc] .@
,
, , , ;
,
.
interrupt-driven
[/intc'r7pt'drvn] ,
.@ , .
interrupter [/intc'r7ptc] n. ,
interruptibility index (II) [/intc'r7ptblt 'ndeks]
interruption [/intc'r7pcn] n. , , ,
interruption
request block
(IRB) [/intc'r7pcn r'kwest bl]k]

interruptions per minute (imp)
[/intc'r7pcns 'pc: ma'nju:t]

intersect [/ntc'sekt] v. ; n.

intersection [/ntc'sekcn] n. 1.
.@ 1.
: ,
, . 2.
:
, , . 3.
, . . . AND
intersegment link [/ntc'selmcnt
lk]
intersegment linking [/ntc'selmcnt 'lk] .
@ () .
intersegment reference [/ntc'selmcnt 'refrcns] . . . termodular reference
interspace [/ntc'spes] n.
interstitial [/ntc'stcl] adj. ; n. 1. ;
2.
interstitially [/ntc'stcl] adv.

intersymbol interference (ISI)


[/ntc'smbcl /ntc'frcns]
intersystem communication [/ntc'sstm kc'mju:n'kecn] ,
intertask communication [/ntc'ta:sk kc'mju:n'kecn]
.@
, .
interval ['ntcvcl] n.

308________________________________________________________________________________________
interval timer ['ntcvcl 'tamc]
, .@
,
.
intervence [/ntc'vi:n] v. 1.
, ; 2.
intimate ['ntmt] adj. 1. ; ; ; 2.

intimately ['ntmtl] adv.


intra- ['ntrc-] pref. -, : intramuscular
intricate ['ntrkt] adj.
intrinsic [n'trnsk] adj. 1. , . . .
built-in; 2. ; 3. , -.;
intrinsic accuracy [n'trnsk 'kjurcs] ()

intrinsic call [n'trnsk k]:l]


intrinsic command [n'trnsk kc'ma:nd] .@ , . .
transient command
intrinsic function [n'trnsk 'f7kcn] ,
introduce [/ntrc'dju:s] v. 1. ; 2. ,
introduction [/ntrc'd7kcn] n.

intruder [n'tru:dc] n. .@ , -

.
invalid memory address (IMA)
[n'vld 'memcr c'dres]
invalid [n'vld] adj. ,
invalidate [n'vldet] v.
invaluable [n'vljucbl] adj. ,
invariabillity [n/vcrc'blt] n.
,
invariable [n'vcrcbl] adj. 1.
, ; 2. ; 3.
invariably [n'vcrcbl] adj. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
invariance [n'vcrcns] n.
invariant [n'vcrcnt] n. .@ ,
; , ;
,
. adj. ,
invent [n'vent] v.
invention [n'vencn] n.
inventory [n'vent]r] n.
inverse ['n'vc:z] n. 1. ,
; 2. , ; 3. ; adj. , ,
inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) ['n'vc:z ds'kri:t f]:rcr

309

________________________________________________________________________________________

trns'f]:m]

inverse function ['n'vc:z 'f7kcn]
inverse image ['n'vc:s 'm]

inverse matrix ['n'vc:s 'metrks]


.@
- ,

.
inverse probability ['n'vc:s /p]bc'blt]
inverse ratio ['n'vc:s 'reou] ,
inverse relation ['n'vc:s r'lecn]

inversely ['n'vc:sl] adv. 1. ; 2. ;
3.
inverse-time delay ['n'vc:s'tam
d'le] ,
inversion ['n'vc:cn] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4.
; 5.
inversion formula ['n'vc:cn 'f]:mjulc]
invert [n'vc:t] v. 1. ; 2. (); ; ();
inverted file [n'vc:td fal] .@ ,
. . . fully inverted file
inverted list [n'vc:td lst] , . .
. index

inverted output [n'vc:td 'autput]


inverter [n'vc:tc]
inverter with series and parallel
[n'vc:tc w 'scri:z nd 'prclel] -
invertible matrix [n'vc:tbl 'metrks]
inverting gate [n'vc:t 'let]

investigate [n'vcstlet] v.
investigation [n/vcst'lecn] n.
()
investigator [n'vcstletc] n.
invisible [/n'vzcbl] adg.
invocation [/nvou'kecn] n. (, )
involve [n'v]lv] v. 1. ;
; 2. ;
(in); 3. ; ;
; .# to be
involved , ;

involved [n'v]lvd] p.p.1. ; , ,


, ,
; ; 2.
;
iocs (i/o control system)
-,
-
ion ['acn] n.
ionic ['acnk] adj.
ionization [/acna'zecn] n.
ionize ['acnaz] v.
ionizer ['acnazc] n.
ion-metal-oxide-semiconductor
(IMOS)
['acn'metl']ksad'semkcn-

310________________________________________________________________________________________
'd7ktc] -,
ir- [r-] pref. , , : irregular ,
iron ['acn] n.
irradiate ['redet] v. 1. ; 2.
irrational ['rcnl] adj.
irrational equation ['rcnl 'kwecn]
irreducible [/r'dju:scbl] adj. ;
irreducible polynomial [/r'dju:scbl /p]l'noumjcl]

irreducible proof [/r'dju:scbl


pru:f] n.
irredundant [/r'd7ndcnt] adj.

irredundant form [/r'd7ndcnt


f]:m]
irreflexive relation ['ri:fleksv
r'lecn]
irregular ['reljulc] adj. 1. ; 2.
irregularity [/relju'lrt] n. 1.
,
(, ..); 2.
irrelevant [r'relvcnt] 1. , ;

irrespective [/rs'pektv]
adj.
, (of)
irreversible [/r'vc:scbl] adj. 1.
; 2. ; ; ;

irreversible encryption [/r'vc:scbl n'krpcn] .@


,
.
irreversible process [/r'vc:scbl
'prouses]
ISA .@

,
. . . abstract semantic
network
ISO code [koud] ISO.@ ASII.
isobar ['asouba:] n.
isolate ['asclet] v.
isolated location ['ascletd lou'kecn] .@
,
isolated point ['ascletd p]nt]

isolated word ['ascletd wc:d]
.@ ,
.
isolation ['asclecn] n. 1. .@


. 2.
isolator ['ascletc] n.
isomorphism ['asc'm]:fizm] n.
.@
isoplanar integrated injection
logic (I3L) ['asc'plnc 'ntlretd

311

________________________________________________________________________________________

n'ckcn 'l]k] 2
isothermal [/asou'c:mcl] adj.
isotope ['asoutoup] n.
isotopic [/asou't]pk] adj.
isotopically [/asou't]pkcl] adv.

issue ['sju:] v. 1. , ; 2. ,
(from); 3. , ; n. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
-.; 4. .# the
point at issue
().# to be at issue ()
italic ['tlk] adj. .#
in italic
item ['atem] n. 1. . . . data item; 2. ,
; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ; 6.
item design ['atem d'zan]

item size ['atem saz]
( ,
)
item value ['atem 'vlju:]
itention [n'tencn] n. ,

itentional [n'tencnl] adj. ,


itentionally [n'tencnl] adv. , ,
iterate [/tc'ret] v. ;

iterated [/tc'retd] adj.


iterated integral [/tc'retd 'ntlrcl]

iteration [/tc'recn] 1. .
@ , ; 2.
. . . loop
iteration body [/tc'recn 'b]d]
. . . loop body
iteration factor [/tc'recn 'fktc]
iteration method [/tc'recn 'mecd] ,
iteration methods for linear systems [/tc'recn 'mecds f]: 'lanc 'sstms]
iteration procedure [/tc'recn
prou'si:c] ,
iteration statement [/tc'recn
'stetmcnt]
iterative [/tc'retiv] adj.
iterative instruction [/tc'retiv
n'str7kcn] 1. ,
; 2.
iterative invariant [/tc'retiv n'vcrcnt]
iterative loop [/tc'retiv lu:p]

iterative process [/tc'retiv 'prouses] ()
. . . iteration
iterative routine [/tc'retiv ru:'ti:n]
iterator [/tc'retc] n. .@

.

312________________________________________________________________________________________
itself [t'self] prom. refl. 1. ,
, ; 2. , -, -.# by itself
.# in itself ,
.# of itself
,

J*
jack (J) [k] n. ;
jacket [kt] n.
jagging ['l] n. ,
.@
.
jam [m] n. (
)
jet [et] n. 1. ; 2. ; v. ,

jig [l] n. 1. ; 2. ;
3.
jitter ['tc] n.
job []b] n. 1. .@ ,
. . .
task; 2.
job batch []b bt]
job class []b kla:s] .@ ,
: ,
, .
job control []b kcn'troul] .@ ,
.
job control language []b
kcn'troul 'llw]

. . . command language, JCL


job control statement []b
kcn'troul 'stetmcnt]

job deck []b dek] ( )
job definition []b /def'ncn]
.@ , .
job description []b ds'kpcn]
. . . job
definition
job file []b fal] .@ ,
.
job input stream []b 'input
stri:m] . . . input stream
job library []b 'labrcr] .@ JCL , , .
job management []b 'mnment] . .
. job control
job mix []b mks] ,
.@ ,

.
job monitoring []b 'm]ntcr]

job name []b nem] .@ JCL , JOB.

313

________________________________________________________________________________________

job output stream []b 'autput


stri:m] . . .
output stream
job priority []b pra']rt]
job processing []b 'prouses]
,
job queue []b kju:]
.@ , .
job scheduling []b 'cdju:l]

job stacking []b 'stk] ;
JOB statement []b 'stetmcnt]
JOB.@
JCL,
, ,
.
job step []b step]
.@ .
job stream []b stri:m]
;
job-oriented language []b']:rcntd 'llw] -
job-oriented terminal []b']:rcntd 'tc:mnl] - ,
join []n] n. 1. .@
,
()
()

,
. v. (); ()

joint (J) []nt] n. ,


; adj. 1. ; 2.
joint distribution []nt ds'trbju:cn]
joint moment []nt 'moumcnt]

joint operator []nt ']pcretc]

joule (J) [u:l] n. ,
journal ['c:nl] n. .@
(
),
, ,
;
.


.
journal file ['c:nl fal] ,
. . . journal
journalizing ['c:nclaz] n.
.@ .
joystick [']stk] n. ,
judge [7] v. 1. . (by, from); 2. ; 3. , ; , ; 4. , .# as judged by
(from)
judicious [u:'dcs] adj. 1.
, ;
2.
jump (JMP) [7mp] n. , ; v. , ,

314________________________________________________________________________________________
jump address [7mp c'dres]
jump function [7mp 'f7kcn]

jump if not [7mp f n]t] -

,

jump instruction [7mp n'str7kcn] ,

jump on carry (JC) [7mp ]n
'kr]
jump on minus (JM) [7mp ]n
'mancs]
jump on no carry (JNC) [7mp
]n nou 'kr]

jump on overflow [7mp ]n


'ouvcflou]
jump on parity even (JPE)
[7mp ]n 'prt 'i:vcn]

jump on parity odd (JPE)


[7mp ]n 'prt ]d]
jump on positive (JP) [7mp
]n 'p]zctiv]
jump on zero (JZ) [7mp ]n
'zcrou]
jump operation [7mp /]pc'recn]
jump table [7mp 'tebl] ; . .
. switch
junction (J, jc) ['7kcn] n.
, ,
junction area ['7kcn 'crc]

junction region ['7kcn 'ri:cn]

juncture ['7k tc] n.


junior ['u:njc] adj.
just [7st] adv. 1. ;
; 2. ; 3. ; 4. , , , ;
adj. 1. ; 2. ; ; 3. , .# just as ,
justice [/7sts] n. 1. ; 2. ; .# to
do justice
justification [/7stf'kecn] n. 1.
, .@
,
( ) . 2. ; 3. ; ; 4. ;
justify ['7stfa] v. 1. .@ ,
, ,


. justification; 2. ; 3. ,

K*
Karnaugh map [karnau mp]

Kbit (Kb) , (1024
)
Kbyte (Kb) ,
(1024 )
k-connectivity [kc'nektvt] k
keen [ki:n] adj. 1. ; 2.

315

________________________________________________________________________________________

keep [ki:p] v. (kept) 1. ,


; 2. ; ; 3. (down); 4. (on); 5. -. (to); 6. (up).# in
keeping with .# to
keep a record .# to
keep in mind , ,
.# to keep in touch with
;
(, . .).# to keep
pace with ; .# to keep up with ;

Kelvin (K) [kelvn] ,
kernel ['kc:nl] n. .@ ,
.
kernel field ['kc:nl fi:ld]

kernel mode ['kc:nl moud] ,


( ).@
, .
kernel operation ['kc:nl /]pc'recn] .@
.
key [ki:] n. 1. .@
( ),
.
, . 2.
(); 3. .@
,

; .
adj.
key address [ki: c'dres]
key button [ki: 'b7tn] ,

key click [ki: klk]
(
)
key diagram [ki: 'daclrm]
, c
key distribution center (KDC)
[ki: ds'trbju:cn 'sentc] ( )
key field [ki: fi:ld] 1. ; 2. . . . field
key in [ki: n] ,

key sorting [ki: 's]:t] .@
.
key source [ki: s]:s]
key word [ki: wc:d]

keyboard (KB, KBD) ['ki:/b]:d]


n. 1. , ,
; 2.
,
keyboard encoder ['ki:/b]:d n'koudc]
keyboard input ['ki:/b]:d 'input]
1. () ; 2.
,
keyed access [ki:d 'kses] , .@
,

316________________________________________________________________________________________
.
keyed sequential access method
(KSAM) [ki:d s'kwencl 'kses 'mecd] , ,
.
keyed-access erasable programmable read-only memory (KEPROM) [ki:d'kses 'rez'cbl 'proulrm'cbl ri:d'ounl 'memcr]


keying-error rate [ki: 'erc ret]

keypad ['ki:pd] n. , .@

; .
keyset ['ki:/set] n.
keystroke ['ki:strouk] n.
keyword ['ki:wc:d] n.
.@ 1.
, . 2. ,
. 3.
,
.
keyword parameter ['ki:wc:d
pc'rmtc] .@
, -

.
. positional parameter
kill [kl] v. ,
( ,
)
killer ['klc] n. ,

kilo- (K) ['klou] , , 103


kilobits per second (KBS) ['klou'bts 'pc: 'sekcnd]
kind [kand] n. 1. ; 2. ;
; ; adj.
kinetic [ka'netk] adj.
kink [kk] n. ;

kinkless ['kkles] adj.


KISS (keep in simple stupid)principle ['prnspcl] KISS-.
@ , ,
. . . Occam razor
kit [kt] n. ;
k-lookahead [/lukc'hed] k
kludge ['kl7] n.@ , .
knee [kni:] n. 1. ; 2.
; 3.
knife [knaf] n.
knob [kn]b] n. 1. ; 2.

knock [kn]k] v. ()
knot [kn]t] n.
know-how ['nouhau] n. ;
; ;
knowledge ['n]l] n. 1. ;
; ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. .#
to the best of our knowledge .# to the au-

317

________________________________________________________________________________________

thor's knowledge .# it is common knowledge



knowledge acquisition ['n]l
/kw'zcn] ;
.@


.
knowledge base ['n]l bes] .@
,
,

. . . expert
system, knowledge representation
knowledge engineer ['n]l /en'nc] .@ ,
.
knowledge engineering ['n]l
/en'ncr]
knowledge representation ['n]l /reprzen'tecn]
.@
, ,
.
knowledge-based ['n]l'best]
;

known [noun] adj. .#


known as ; v.
()

L*
label ['lebl] n. 1. .@ 1.
, . 2.
( ),
: , ,
. . mark; 2. ,
, , ; v. ; ;
label block ['lebl bl]k] 1.
.@ ,
. 2.

label field ['lebl fi:ld] .@ ,


.
label identifier ['lebl a'dentfac] ,
label record ['lebl 'rek]:d]
labeled common ['lebld 'k]mcn]
. . .
common block
labelled ['lebld] adj. 1. ; 2.
labelling scheme ['lebl ski:m]
,
labelling ['lebl] n. , ,
labile ['leban] adj. ;
,

318________________________________________________________________________________________
labo(u)r ['lebc] n. 1. ; ; ; 2.
laboratory [lc'b]rctcr] n.
labyrinth ['lbcrn] n.
lack [lk] n. , -. (of); v. , ; .# for lack of - ,
-
lag [ll] n. , , ; v. ,
lagging ['ll] n. ,
lambda calculus ['lmdc 'klkjulcs] -.@ ,
.
lament [lc'ment] n. .@
. . . Prolog
lamp [lmp] n. , () ,
land ['lnd] n. 1. ; 2. ; v. 1. ; 2.

landing zone ['lnd zoun]


.@ ,
.
landscape ['lndskep] adj. .@
,

. . portrait

language ['llw] n. .@

.
language binding ['llw
'band] .@ , . .
. host language
language construct ['llw
kcn'str7kt] 1. .@
. 2.
.@
,

.
language converter ['llw
kcn'vc:tc] .@ ,

,
(,
).
language data ['llw 'detc]

language data processing ['llw 'detc 'prouses]

language processor ['llw
'prousesc] .@ , ( )
.
lap ['lp] v. 1. ; ; 2.
lapping ['lp] n. ,

laptop ['lpt]p] adj.


( )

319

________________________________________________________________________________________

laptop computer ['lpt]p kcm'pju:tc] . . portable computer


large (capacity) memory ['la:
(k'pcst) 'memcr]

large ['la:] adj. 1. , ; 2. ; ; 3. (


..).# as large as (
).# at large ; , ; , ; .# by and
large .# half as large
.# in large
() .# twice as large
large capacity storage (LCS)
['la: k'pcst 'st]:r]
large interactive surface (device) (LIS) ['la: ntcr'ktv 'sc:fs
(d'vas)]

(
)
largely ['la:l] adv.
;
large-scale computing system
['la:/skel kcm'pju:t 'sstm] .@

.
large-scale hybrid integration
(LSHI) ['la:/skel 'habrd 'ntlrecn]
large-scale hybrid integration
circuit (LSHIC) ['la:/skel 'habrd
'ntlrecn 'sc:kt]
large-scale integration (LSI)
['la:/skel 'ntlrecn]

large-scale integration circuit


(LSIC) ['la:/skel 'ntlrecn 'sc:kt]
,
large-scale integration circuit
metal-oxide-semiconductor (LSICMOS) ['la:/skel 'ntlrecn 'sc:kt
'metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc]

large-scale system ['la:/skel
'sstm] .@ ,

(,
,

).
large-signal operation ['la:'slncl /]pc'recn]

laser ['lesc] n. ; adj.


laser printer ['lesc 'prntc] ,
last [fa:st] v. ; adj.
1. ; 2. .# at last
.# last but one
last-in, first-out (LIFO) [fa:st'n,
fc:st'aut] .@
, ( ).
lastly ['fa:stl] adj. ( )
latch ['l] (-).@
,

(
).
latch wheel ['l wi:l]

320________________________________________________________________________________________
latching power circuit ['l
'pauc 'sc:kt]

late [let] adj. 1. ; 2. ; ; 3. .#
late in .# it the late .#
as late as , .# of late

lately ['letl] adv.
,
latency ['letcns] n. .@ ,
-.
latency time ['letcns tam]
latent ['letcnt] adj.
().# latent period
lateral ['ltcrcl] adj. ;

latitude ['lttju:d] n.
latter ['ltc] adj. (
).# the former
the latter
lattice ['lts] n. .@
, ,
.
lattice parameter ['lts pc'rmtc]
lattice sampling ['lts 'sa:mpl]

lattice theory ['lts 'cr] 1.
; 2.
launch [l]:nt] v. 1. ; 2.

law [l]:] n. ; ;
; ;

law of double negation [l]: ]v


'd7bl n'lecn]
law of absorption [l]: ]v cb's]:pcn]
law of averages [l]: ]v 'vcrs]

law of development [l]: ]v d'velcpmcnt]
law of excluded middle [l]: ]v
ks'klu:dd 'mdl]
law of identity [l]: ]v a'dentt]

law of large numbers [l]: ]v
'la: 'n7mbcs]
law of probability [l]: ]v /pr]bc'blt]
law of reductio ad absurdum
[l]: ]v r'd7kt] cd cb'sc:dm]

law of small numbers [l]: ]v
sm]:l 'n7mbcs] ,

law of thought [l]: ]v ]:t]

lay ['le] v. (laid) 1. , ; 2. ,


(down).# to lay (place) emphasis
, ,
.# to lay foundation ;
layer ['lec] n. 1. .@

,
. 2. , ,
layman ['lemcn] n. ,

layout ['leaut] n. 1. ,
; , ; 2. -

321

________________________________________________________________________________________

; 3. ()
layout character ['leaut 'krktc]
layout constant ['leaut 'k]nstcnt]
(.
)
layout design ['leaut d'zan] 1.

; 2.
; 3.

layout-rule check (LRC) ['leaut
'ru:l tek]
layout-versus-layout
(LVL)
['leaut'vc:scs'leaut]
layout-versus-schematic consistency checker (LVS) ['leaut'vc:scs'ski:mctk kcn'sstcns 'tekc]
lazy evaluation ['lez 'vljuecn] .@ ,
,
.
LCD display [ds'ple]

LE (less or equal [les c: 'i:kwcl])
( )
lead ['li:d] v. (led) 1. ; 2.
, ; n. pl. .# to lead to a blind alley
.# to take the lead , .# to be lead to

leader ['li:dc] n. 1.
, ; 2.
lead-in ['li:d] n.
lead-in wire ['li:d wac] ,
leading blanks ['li:d blks]
.@
, .
leading out terminal ['li:d aut
'tc:mnl] ,
leading zeros ['li:d 'zcrous]
.@ .
leadless ceramic chip carrier
(LCCC) ['li:dles s'rmk tp 'krc]


leaf node [li:f noud] .@
, .
leak [li:k] v.
leakage ['li:k] n. ,
leakage current ['li:k 'k7rcnt]

leak-through [li:k'ru:] n.
leaky ['li:k] adj.
leapfrog test ['li:pfr]l test]
.@ , ,
; , .
learn ['lc:n] v. (learnt
learnd) 1. ; -.; 2.

learning machine ['lc:n mc'i:n]


learning program ['lc:n 'proulrm]

322________________________________________________________________________________________
leased circuit [li:st 'sc:kt] ;
leased line [li:st lan] ;
least [li:st] adj. (. little) , .# at least .#
not in the least .# to say
the least
least common multiple [li:st 'k]mcn 'm7ltpl]

least frequently used removal


(LFU) [li:st 'fr:kwcntl ju:zd ri'mu:vcl] .
@
(), , . . least recently
used removal
least recently used removal
(LRU) [li:st 'ri:sntl ju:zd r'mu:vcl]
.@

(), , . . least frequently used
removal
least upper bound [li:st '7pc
'baund]
least wait programming [li:st
wet 'proulrm]
least-significant bit [li:st/sl'nfkcnt bt] ,
()

least-significant character [li:st


/sl'nfkcnt 'krktc]

least-significant digit (LSD)


[li:st/sl'nfkcnt 'dt] .
least-squares method [li:st'skwcs 'mecd]

least-squares procedure [li:st'skwcs prou'si:c] .@



ledger ['lec] n.
Lee distance [li: 'dstcns] .@ ,

.
left (first) member [left (fc:st)
'membc]
left [left] adj.
left hand adder [left 'hnd
'dc]
left shift [left ft]
left subtree [left s7b'tri:]

left-hand circularly polarized


(Ihcp) [left'hnd 'sc:kjulcl 'poulcrazd]
left-hand plane (LHP) [left'hnd
plen]
left-hand row [left'hnd rou]

left-justified [left'7stfad] ;
left-linear grammar [left'lanc
'lrmc]

323

________________________________________________________________________________________

left-recursive grammar [left/r'kc:sv 'lrmc]

left-to-right shift register [left'tu:'rat ft 'restc] ()


leg [lel] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
legend ['lecnd] n. 1. ;
2. ( . .)
legitimate [l'tmt] adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ,
legitimate value [l'tmt 'vlju:]
lend [lend] v. (lent) 1.
(); 2. , .#
to lend itself ; ; .# to lend (give)
support ;
length [le] n. 1. .@ ; 2. (), , ; 3. ; 4.
, .# at length ;
length increasing grammar
[le n'kri:s 'lrmc] ,

lengthy [le] adj. 1. , ; 2.
lens [lens] 1., ; 2.

lesion ['li:cn] n. ,
(, ),
less significant digit [les sl'nfkcnt 'dt]
lesser (. little) adj.
lest [lest] cj. ( )

let [let] v. (let) 1. , ; 2. , , :


let us go ().# let him do at
once .# let
alone
let through energy [let 'ru:
'enc]
letter ['letc] n. 1. ; ;
; 2. .# to the
letter ,
letter code ['letc koud]
letter distribution ['letc ds'trbju:cn]
letter shift ['letc ft]
letter-quality printer ['letc'kw]lt 'prntc] . . .
printing quality
level ['levl] n. 1. , ; 2. ; adj. ; v.
,
level of abstraction ['levl ]v 'bstrkcn]
level of addressing ['levl ]v
c'dres]
levelling off ['levl ']f] n. ;
level-sensitive
scan
design
(LSSD) ['levl'senstv skn d'zan]

lever ['levc] n.
lexeme ['leksmc] n.
lexer ['leksc] . lexical analyzer
lexical analyzer ['lekskcl 'nclazc] .@

324________________________________________________________________________________________
,

. . .
lexical scan
lexical scan ['lekskcl skn]
.@
, , ,
.
lexicographic order [/leks'klr]fk ]:'dc] .@ ,
.
lexicographic sort [/leks'klr]fk
s]:t] .@ ,
.
LF (line feed) .@ , - .
ASII 10.
liable ['lacbl] adj. 1. (for); 2. (to);
-. (to)
liason [li:ez]:] n. .
@ .
liberate ['lbcret] v. 1. ; 2.
liberation ['lbcrecn] n. 1. ; 2.
librarian ['labrcrcn] n. 1. .@ , , ,


. 2. . .
. project librarian
library ['labrcr] n. .@ , (, , ),

.
library facilitys ['labrcr fc'slts]
library function ['labrcr 'f7kcn] .@ ,

.
library maintenance routine
['labrcr 'mentncns ru:'ti:n]

library of subroutinness ['labrcr ]v scb/ru:'tns]

library program ['labrcr 'proulrm] .@


, .
library routine ['labrcr ru:'ti:n]
.@ ,
.
library software ['labrcr 's]ftwc]

library subroutine ['labrcr scb/ru:'tn] .


. . library program
lieu [lju:] n.
: in lieu of

325

________________________________________________________________________________________

life ['laf] n. 1. ; 2.
( . .).# life size
.# still life
life-cycle ['laf'sakl]

lifetime ['laf'tam] n.
.@
, (, ) .
LIFO processing ['prouses]

LIFO queue [kju:] , . . . stack
LIFO . last-in, first-out
lift [lft] v. ()
light ['lat] n. 1. ; ; ; adj. 1. ; 2.
; v. ().# to throw
(cast) light on (upon)
-.
light button ['lat 'b7tn]
.@

, .
light gun ['lat l7n] . . . light pen
light pen ['lat pen] .@ ,
, .

.
light pencil ['lat 'pensl] ,
light-activated programmable
unijunction transistor (LAPUT)
['lat'kt'vetd 'proulrmebl 'juni:'7kcn trn'zstc]

light-activated silicon controlled rectifier (LASCR) ['lat'kt'vetd kcn'trould 'rektfac]


light-activated silicon controlled switch (LASCS) ['lat'kt'vetd
kcn'trould sw]
light-activated switch (LAS)
['lat'kt'vetd sw] ,
light-dark ratio (LDR) ['lat'da:k 'reou]
light-dependent resistor (LDR)
['lat/dpendcnt r'zstc]
light-emitting diode (LED)
['lat/'mt 'daoud] ,
light-emitting
diode
array
(LEDA) ['lat/'mt 'daoud c're]
light-emitting film (LEF) ['lat/'mt flm]
like [lak] adj. , ; prp. , ; v. ,
.# and the like .# shold (would) like + inf. + .
likelihood ['laklhud] n. 1. ; 2. .# in all likelyhood
likelihood function ['laklhud
'f7kcn]
likelihood ratio ['laklhud 'reou]
likely ['lakl] adv. ; adj.

likewise ['lakwaz] adv. 1. ; 2.

326________________________________________________________________________________________
limit of accuracy ['lmt ]v 'kjurcs]
limit of range ['lmt ]v ren]

limit of tolerance ['lmt ]v 't]lcrcns] 1. ; 2.
limit switch (LS) ['lmt sw]

limit (lim) ['lmt] n. ;
; v. .# within the
limits .# to place a limit
on
limit in the mean ['lmt n i:
mi:n]
limit of error ['lmt ]v 'erc]
()
limit of integration ['lmt ]v
'ntlrecn]
limitation [/lm'tecn] n. 1. ; ; 2.
limited ['lmtd] adj. .@ ,

.
limiter ['lmtc] n.
limiting accuracy ['lmt 'kjurcs]
limiting condition ['lmt kcn'dcn]
limiting value ['lmt 'vlju:]

limit-type search ['lmt tap
sc:t] .@ ,
,
.
line commutated [lan /k]mju:'tetd]
line [lan] n. 1. (, , ); 2.

( ); 3.
; ; 4.
; ; v. 1.
; 2. .# along the
lines ; , .# on the lines ; , .#
in line with .#
dashed line .#
dotted line .# solid
line .# to be on the
right lines
line attribute [lan 'tribju:t] .@ (, ,
), .
line control block (LCB) [lan
kcn'troul bl]k] .@ ,
(, ,
)
.
line discipline [lan 'dspln]

line editor [lan 'edtc]
, .@ ,

. . context editor,
screen editor
line element [lan 'elmcnt]
line feed [lan fi:d]
.@ 1.

. 2. .
line folding [lan 'fould] .@
-

327

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
line integral [lan 'ntlrcl] ()
line number [lan 'n7mbc]
line of code [lan ]v koud] ()
line of communication (LC,
LOC) [lan ]v kc'mju:n'kecn]
line of position (LOP) [lan ]v
pc'zicn]
line printer (LP) [lan 'prntc]


line printer [lan 'prntc] ,
line protocol [lan 'proutck]l]
.@ ,

.
.
line relay (LR) [lan 'ri:'le]
line segment [lan 'selmcnt]
line spacing [lan 'speis]
line switching [lan 'sw] . . . circuit
switching
line terminal unit (LTU) [lan
'sw]
linear ['lanc] adj.
linear algebraic equation ['lanc
l'brek 'kwecn]

linear amplifier for various application (LAVA) ['lanc 'mplfac


f]: 'vcres pl'kecn]
linear approximation ['lanc
c/pr]ks'mecn]
linear array ['lanc c're]
linear channel ['lanc 'nl] .@ ,
.
linear codes ['lanc kouds] .@
,
. ,
,
.
.
linear delta modulation (LDM)
['lanc 'deltc /m]djulecn]
-
linear equation ['lanc 'kwecn]

linear function generator ['lanc
'f7kcn 'encretc] 1.
() ; 2.
linear grammar ['lanc 'lrmc]

linear independence ['lanc /nd'pendcns] .

328________________________________________________________________________________________
@ .
linear integrated circuit (LIC)
['lanc 'ntlretd 'sc:kt]

linear integrated network (LIN)


['lanc 'ntlretd 'netwc:k]

linear interpolation ['lanc n/tc:pc'lecn]


linear language ['lanc 'llw]
linear logic ['lanc 'l]k] .@
, ,
,


.
, .
linear manifold ['lanc 'mnfould]
linear multistep methods ['lanc
'm7lt'step 'mecd]
linear operator ['lanc ']pcretc]

linear predictive coding (LPC)
['lanc pr'dktv 'koud]

linear program ['lanc 'proulrm] .@ , .
linear programming (LP) ['lanc
'proulrm] .@ , .

linear recurrence ['lanc r'k7rcns] .@ , .


linear regression model ['lanc
r'lrecn 'm]dl]
linear relation ['lanc r'lecn]

linear restricted scattering matrix (LSM) ['lanc rs'trktd 'sktcr
'metrks]

linear search ['lanc sc:t]
linear space ['lanc spes]
linear staircase function generator ['lanc 'stckeis 'f7kcn 'encretc] 1. ; 2.
linear structure ['lanc 'str7ktc]
.@ ,
,
, ,
,
.
linear-bounded
automation
(LBA) ['lanc'baundd /]:tc'mecn] .@ (, ),

N kN, k ,

329

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
linearity ['lancrt] n.
linearly ['lancl] adv.
linearly dependent ['lancl d'pendcnt]
linear-programming language
['lanc'proulrm 'llw]

line-of-sight (LOS) ['lan']v'sat]

lines per inch (ipi) [lan pc: nt]

lines per minute (ipm) [lan pc:
ma'nju:t]
line-type modulation (LTM)
[lan'tap /m]djulecn]
linguistic data processing ['llwstk 'detc 'prouses]

linguistic level ['llwstk 'levl]

linguistic model ['llwstk
'm]dl] .@
,
. (, ; , . .)
linguistic research ['llwstk
r'sc:]
lining ['lan] n.

link [lk] n. 1. ; ; 2. . .
. return address;.@
. 2. , ; v. 1.

, , ;
2.
link edit [lk 'edt] , . . . link 1.
link editor [lk 'edtc] , . . .
linker
link encryption [lk n'krpcn]
.@
,

.
link file [lk fal]
.@ ,
, ,
.
link instruction [lk n'str7kcn]
,
link layer of network protocol
function [lk 'leic ]v 'netwc:k 'proutck]l 'f7kcn]

link loader [lk 'loudc]
link of chain [lk ]v ten]

link testing [lk 'test] .@
, .
linkable ['lkebl] adj. ,

linkage [lk] n. 1. ; 2. , .
. . link 1.

330________________________________________________________________________________________
linkage editor ['lk 'edtc]
. . . linker
linked [lkt] adj. ,

linked list [lkt lst]


,
.@ ,

.
linked subroutine [lkt scb/ru:'tn] 1. ; ; 2.

linker ['lkc] n. .@ , .
linking loader ['lk 'loudc]
, .@ ,

.
lips (logical inferences per second) .@

.
liquid ['lkwd] n. ; adj.

liquid crystal (LC) ['lkwd


'krstl]
liquid-crystal display (LCD)
['lkwd'krstl ds'ple]
liquid-crystal
light
valve
(LCLV) ['lkwd'krstl 'lat vlv]

list [lst] n. 1. .@ , ,
. 2. ; v. 1.
, ; 2.
list device [lst d'vas] () .@ , ; ,
.
list head [lst hed]
.@
, , ,
.
list insertion sort [lst 'nsccn
s]:t]

list of instructions [lst ]v n'str7kcns]


list of modifications [lst ]v /m]df'kecns]
()
list pointer [lst 'p]ntc]
list process [lst 'prouses]
list processing [lst 'prouses]
.@
()
,
.
list representation [lst /reprzen'tecn] ,

331

________________________________________________________________________________________

()
list sorting [lst 's]:t] .@ ,
,
.
.
list squares [lst skwcs]
.@


.
list squares approximations [lst
skwcs c/pr]ks'mecns]
list structure [lst 'str7ktc]
listen [lstn] v. ;

listing ['lst] n. ;
.@ ,
. v.
,
list-processing language [lst'prouses 'llw]

literal (lit) ['ltcrcl] n. ,


() .@ ,
, - . , .
.
literal equation ['ltcrcl 'kwecn]

literally ['ltcrcl] adv. ,


lithium ['ljcm] n.
litre (liter) ['ltc] n.
little [ltl] adj. ; adv.
.# little by little -,
.# little more than .
# little or no .# a
little .# as little as ;
( )
liveness ['lavns] , .@
. .
LL parsing ['pa:z]
LL(k) grammar ['lrmc]
, LL(k)-
load [loud] n. 1. (, ).@ . 2. ; v. 1. ().@ . 2. ( ).@ . 3. ( ).@

. 4. , ( ).@
. 5.
(
).# dead load
; .# pay load
load button [loud 'b7tn]
, ()

332________________________________________________________________________________________
load index register instruction
[loud 'ndeks 'restc n'str7kcn] , ,
load line (LL) [loud lan]
,
load map [loud mp]
() .@ ,
.
load module [loud 'm]dju:l] .@
, ;

.
load on call [loud ]n k]:l] . . . dynamic program loading
load point [loud p]nt]
, .@

, .
loadable driver ['loudebl 'dravc] , .@ ,

. . .
device driver
loadable font ['loudebl f]nt] .@
(
), .
loaded data base ['loudd 'detc
bes] .@
,
.

loader ['loudc] n. ,
, .@ (
),

, , , .
loading ['loud] n. 1.
(, ).@ . 2.
loading factor ['loud 'fktc]
.@

.
loading operation ['loud /]pc'recn]
loading order ['loud ]:'dc]
loading program ['loud 'proulrm]
loading routine ['loud ru:'ti:n]

local ['loukcl] adj. 1. .@ 1.

(, ) . . global; 2. ; 3.
,
. 2. ; 3.
local area network (LAN) ['loukcl 'crc 'netwc:k] () , .@ ,
-

333

________________________________________________________________________________________

,
.
local discretization error ['loukcl ds'krezecn 'erc]

local error ['loukcl 'erc] .@ , .
local identifier ['loukcl a'dentfac] ,
. . global identifier
local mode ['loukcl moud] . . . off-line
mode
local optimization ['loukcl ']ptmzecn] .@
1. . 2.
.
. global optimization
local oscillator (LO) ['loukcl
/]s'letc]
local parameter ['loukcl pc'rmtc]
local periodic structure (LPS)
['loukcl /prc']dk 'str7ktc]
local quantity ['loukcl 'kw]ntt]

local storage (LS, LSTOR)
['loukcl 'st]:r] ()
local storage address register
(LSAR) ['loukcl 'st]:r c'dres 'restc]
local variable ['loukcl 'vcrcbl]
.@ ,

.
. global variable
local-echo mode ['loukcl'ekou
moud]
localize ['loukclaz] v.
locat [lou'kct] v.
() , ,

locate [lou'ket] v. 1.
( ); 2. , ; 3. (
, );
4. ,
locating [lou'ket] n. ()
location (loc) [lou'kecn] n. 1.
, , , ; 2.
,
location counter [lou'kecn 'kauntc] ,
location operator [lou'kecn
']pc'retc] .@
, .
locator [lou'ketc] n. 1. ,
; 2. ,
loci ['lousa] pl. locus
lock [l]k] n. 1. .@ ,
,

. .
. memory lock; 2. .@

(, ) . . . file locking.

334________________________________________________________________________________________
monitor; 3. ().@ ;
.
locked file ['l]kt fal] . . . lock 2.
locking device ['l]k d'vas]
-
locking escape ['l]k s'kep] .@
,

. . nonlocking escape.
locking phase ['l]k 'fez]
,
locking shift character ['l]k
ft 'krktc]

lockout ['l]k7ut] n. , .@
. . .
critical section
lockout bit ['l]k7ut bt]
locks and keys [l]ks nd ki:s]
.@ , , .
lock-up ['l]k'7p] , .@ ,



. . .
deadlock

locus ['loukcs] n. ,
log [l]l] n. 1. , ; ; 2. .@

(). . . logarithm
log in [l]l n] ( ).@ ,
.
log off [l]l ]:f] n. (
). . . log out
log on [l]l ]n] v. (
). . . log in
log out [l]l aut] v. (
).@

.
logarithm ['l]lcrcm] n.
logarithmic ['l]lcrcmk] adj.

logarithmic amplifier (logafier,


logamp) ['l]lcrcmk 'mplfac]
logarithmic base ['l]lcrcmk
bes]
logarithmic calculator ['l]lcrcmk 'klkjuletc]

logarithmic computing instrument (LOCI) ['l]lcrcmk kcm'pju:t 'nstrumcnt]

logarithmic equation ['l]lcrcmk 'kwecn]

logarithmic multiplier ['l]lcrcmk 'm7ltplac]


335

________________________________________________________________________________________

logarithmic narrow-band amplifier (LNA) ['l]lcrcmk 'nrou'bnd 'mplfac]


logarithmic paper ['l]lcrcmk
'pepc]
logarithmic potential ['l]lcrcmk pc'tencl]

logarithmic scale ['l]lcrcmk


skel] ,
logarithmic search ['l]lcrcmk
sc:t] , . . . binary
search
logarithmic search algorithm
['l]lcrcmk sc:t 'll]/rcm]
logarithmics ['ll]/rmks] n.

logging in ['l]l n] (
). . . login
logging out ['l]l aut]
( ). . . logout
logic ['l]k] n. 1. , ; 2.
logic analyzer ['l]k 'nclazc]
.@ ,
.
logic card ['l]k ka:d]

logic chart ['l]k a:t] -
logic family ['l]k 'fml]
logic inverse ['l]k 'n'vc:z]

logic operation ['l]k /]pc'recn] .@ ,


.
logic research ['l]k r'sc:]

logic symbols ['l]k 'smbcls]
.@ , .
logic(al) circuit ['l]kcl 'sc:kt]

logic(al) computer ['l]k(cl)
kcm'pju:tc]
,
logic(al) design ['l]k(cl) d'zan] 1. ; 2.
; 3.

logic(al) diagram ['l]k(cl)


'daclrm] 1. , ; 2. -
logic(al) element ['l]k(cl) 'elmcnt] ,
logic(al) flowchart ['l]k(cl)
'floua:t] -
logic(al) function ['l]k(cl)
'f7kcn]
logic(al) gain ['l]k(cl) len]
.@ ,

()
logic(al) gate ['l]k(cl) 'let]

336________________________________________________________________________________________
logic(al) instruction ['l]k(cl)
n'str7kcn] 1. ; 2.

logic(al) level ['l]k(cl) 'levl]

logic(al) machine ['l]k(cl)
mc'i:n]
logic(al) probe ['l]kcl proub]

logical ['l]kcl] adj. 1. .@ 1. . . . Boolean;
2.
,
;
;
, . 2. ,
.@
.
logical action ['l]kcl 'kcn]
,

logical addition ['l]kcl c'dcn]


, .
. . OR
logical addition function ['l]kcl c'dcn 'f7kcn]
logical address ['l]kcl c'dres]
.@
,
,
.
logical axiom ['l]kcl 'kscm]

logical block ['l]kcl bl]k]


logical block number ['l]kcl
bl]k 'n7mbc] . . . block number
logical channel number ['l]kcl 'nl 'n7mbc]
.@ , , X.25 MKKTT,
.
logical check ['l]kcl tek]
logical component ['l]kcl
kcm'pouncnt]
logical connective ['l]kcl kc'nektv]
logical constant ['l]kcl 'k]nstcnt]
logical data base ['l]kcl 'detc
bes] .@

. .
. subschema
logical data type ['l]kcl 'detc
tap]
logical device ['l]kcl d'vas]
.@ (), -
.




. .

337

________________________________________________________________________________________

logical device name ['l]kcl d'vas nem] , .@


,
-. .
logical expression ['l]kcl ks'precn] .@
, ,
.
logical file ['l]kcl fal] .@
;

.
logical input device ['l]kcl
'input d'vas]
.@
,

.


, , ,

.
.
logical input/output
control
system (LIOCS) ['l]kcl 'input 'autput kcn'troul 'sstm] -
logical multiplication ['l]kcl
/m7ltpl'kecn] , . . . AND

logical multiplication function


['l]kcl /m7ltpl'kecn 'f7kcn]

logical name ['l]kcl nem] .@ ,

.
logical operation ['l]kcl /]pc'recn] 1. ; 2.

logical operator ['l]kcl ']pcretc]
logical paradox ['l]kcl 'prcd]ks]
logical product ['l]kcl 'pr]dckt] . .
. AND
logical program ['l]kcl 'proulrm]
logical programming ['l]kcl
'proulrm] . . . PROLOG, rule-oriented programming
logical programming language
['l]kcl 'proulrm 'llw] .
@
,
.
logical record ['l]kcl 'rek]:d]
.@
, .
logical section ['l]kcl 'sekcn]

logical shift ['l]kcl ft] .@

338________________________________________________________________________________________

;
.
logical symbol ['l]kcl 'smbcl]
()
logical test ['l]kcl test] ,
logical unit ['l]kcl 'ju:nt] ,

logical unit number ['l]kcl


'ju:nt 'n7mbc]
, .@ ,
.
logical value ['l]kcl 'vlju:]
. . . Boolean value. . . fuzzy logic,
multivalued logic
logical-active function ['l]kcl'ktv 'f7kcn]

logic-compatible
['l]k/kcm'ptcbl] adj.
login ['l]l] n. 1. ,
; 2. .@
.
logoff ['l]l]:f] n. ,
;
logon ['l]l]n] n. ,
;
logout ['l]laut] n. ,

long [l]] adj. 1. ; 2.


; ; adv. .#
long before ( ).#
an hour long
.# mile long -

.# any (no) longer .#


as long ago as ; .# at
long range , .# before long
, .# for long .# in
the long run .# in
long stading , ,
long word [l] wc:d]
;
longevity ['l]cvt] n.
,
long-indexed addressing []:t'ndekst c'dres]

longitudinal [/l]n'tju:dnl] adj.


1. ; 2.
longitudinal redundancy check
(LRC) [/l]n'tju:dnl r'd7ndcns
tek] , .
. . vertical redundancy check
long-term ['l]tc:m] adj. 1. ; ; 2.
long-time memory ['l]tam 'memcr]
look [luk] v. 1. (at); 2.
(after); 3. , (ahead); 4.
(for); 5. , (forward); 6. ,
(on, upon)
look ahead [luk c'hed] 1. .@
(,
, ;

, ). 2.
.@

339

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
lookahead [/lukc'hed]
lookahead unit [/lukc'hed 'ju:nt]

look-alike [luk/c'lak] .@ ,
, ,

. . . clone
look-aside registers [luk/c'sad
'restcs]
.@ ,

.
look-up ['luk'7p] v.

look-up operation ['luk'7p /]pc'recn]


look-up table ['luk'7p 'tebl] , ; .@
(), i-
, i.
loop [lu:p] n. 1. .@ , .

, . 2.
, , ; 3.

loop [lu:p] v.

loop body [lu:p 'b]d] .@ .


loop control [lu:p kcn'troul]
loop counter [lu:p 'kauntc]
loop gain ['lu:p len]
( )
loop header [lu:p 'hedc] .@ ,
, .
loop invariant [lu:p n'vcrcnt]
. . . invariant
loop termination [lu:p /tc:m'necn]
loop variable [lu:p 'vcrcbl]
loop-free ['lu:p'fri:] adj. , ,
looping ['lu:p] n. 1. ; 2. ,
loop-within-loop ['lu:p/w'n'lu:p] ,
loose ['lu:s] adj. 1. ; 2.
; ; 3. .#
in a loose sense
loose list ['lu:s lst]

loosely ['lu:sl] adv. 1. ;


; 2. ; ;
,
loosely-coupled
['lu:sl'k7pld]

loosely-coupled interface ['lu:sl'k7pld /ntc'fes]


lose [lu:z] v. (lost) 1. , ; ; 2. ,

340________________________________________________________________________________________
.# to lose sight of
;
loss [l]s] n. , ,

loss factor [l]s 'fktc]


loss function [l]s 'f7kcn] .@ , ,
, .
loss of accuracy [l]s ]v 'kjurcs]
loss of information [l]s ]v /nfc'mecn]
loss of significant figures [l]s ]v
sl'nfkcnt 'flcs]

lot [l]t] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
; 4. ().# a lot of
.# lots of
low [lou] adj. .@ 1.
,

. 2. .
low bit [lou bt] ,
. . high bit
low bound [lou baund]
()
low capacity memory [lou k'pcst 'memcr]
low frequency (LF) [lou 'fri:kwcns]
low frequency window (LFW)
[lou 'fri:kwcns 'wndou]
low level [lou 'levl] ()

low level logic (LLL) [lou 'levl


'l]k]

low level scheduler [lou 'levl
'cdju:lc]
low level signal operation [lou
'levl 'slncl /]pc'recn]
low order (LO) [lou ]:'dc]
low output [lou 'autput]

low-energy electron diffraction
(LEED) [lou 'enc /lek'tr]n d'frkcn]
lower [louc] v. ; adj. 1.
; 2.
lower bound [louc baund] ()
lower boundary class [louc
'baundcr kla:s] -

lower case (ls) [louc kes] , ( )


lower radical [louc 'rdkcl]

lower sideband (LSB) [louc
'sad'bnd]
lower-priority device [louc/pra']rt d'vas]
lowest common denominator
[loust 'k]mcn d'n]mnetc]
lowest common multiple [loust
'k]mcn 'm7ltpl]

low-insertion-force (connector)
(LIF) [lou'nsccn'f]:s ('kcektc)]

341

________________________________________________________________________________________

low-level implementation [lou'levl /mplmen'tecn]



low-level language [lou'levl 'llw] . .
. computer-oriented language
low-noise amplifier (LNA) [lou'n]z 'mplfac]
low-order digit [lou/]:'dc 'dt]

low-order(ed) add circuit [lou/]:'dc(t) 'd 'sc:kt]

low-pass filter (LPF) [lou'pa:s
'filtc]
low-power diode-transistor logic (LPDTL)
[lou'pauc 'daoud'trn'zstc l]k] -
low-power diode-transistor micrologic (LPD:L) [lou'pauc 'daoud'trn'zstc 'makrou'l]k] -
low-power
resistor-transistor
logic (LPRTL)
[lou'pauc r'zstc'trn'zstc 'l]k] -

low-power Schottky transistortransistor logic (LSTTL) [lou'pauc


s]tk 'trn'zstc'trn'zstc 'l]k]
low-priority [lou'pra']rt] ,

low-resolution mode [lou'/rezc'lu:cn moud]


. . .
graphics mode

low-temperature phase (LTP)


[lou'temprtc 'fez]
low-voltage electronic crosspoint (LVEXP) [lou'voult /lek'tr]nk kr]s'p]nt]

LR parsing ['pa:z] LR-
LT (less than) ( )
lucid ['lu:sd] adj. 1. ; ; ; 2.
Lukasiewicz notation [nou'tecn] . . . prefix notation
luminance ['lu:mncns] n.
luminescence [/lu:m'nescns] adj.

luminous ['lu:mncs] adj. 1. , ; 2. ; 3.

lump [l7mp] n. ;
;
lumped [l7mpt] adj.
lux (lx) [l7ks] ,
lvalue (leftside value) ['lvlju:]
1. .@ , .
2. .@
: . ,
, . . rvalue

342________________________________________________________________________________________

M*
machinable . machine-readable
machine [mc'i:n] n. 1. () , . .
computer; 2. . . . automaton
machine address [mc'i:n c'dres]
1. .@ . 2. .
. . physical address
machine arithmetic [mc'i:n c'rmctk]
machine check [mc'i:n tek]
machine code [mc'i:n koud] 1.
, .@
.
2. .@ , .
machine computation [mc'i:n
/kcmpju:'tecn]
machine cycle [mc'i:n 'sakl]

machine error [mc'i:n 'erc] .@ -

machine instruction [mc'i:n n'str7kcn] ,
machine instruction processor
(MIP) [mc'i:n n'str7kcn 'prousesc]

machine intelligence [mc'i:n n'telcns] .
. . artificial intelligence
machine language [mc'i:n 'llw] , .@

machine language instruction


[mc'i:n 'llw n'str7kcn]
machine learning [mc'i:n 'lc:n]
machine processible form [mc'i:n 'prousesbl f]:m] ,

machine register [mc'i:n 'restc] ,
machine run [mc'i:n r7n] 1. ; 2. ,

machine simulation [mc'i:n /smju'lecn] .@ , .
machine time [mc'i:n tam] .@ 1. ,
. .
. CPU time. 2. ,
.
machine translation [mc'i:n
trns'lecn]
machine word [mc'i:n wc:d]
. . . word
machine-dependent [mc'i:n/d'pendcnt] -.@
, ,


.
machine-independent [mc'i:n/nd'pendcnt]
-.@ , , -

343

________________________________________________________________________________________



.
machine-independent language
[mc'i:n/nd'pendcnt 'llw] -
machine-oriented
high-level
language [mc'i:n']:rcntd ha'levl
'llw] - .@

,
.
machine-oriented
language
[mc'i:n']:rcntd 'llw] - . . .
computer-oriented language
machine-readable
[mc'i:n'ri:debl]

machine-sensible [mc'i:n 'senscbl]

macro ['mkrou] n. 1. , . . . macro


command, macro instruction; 2.
, . . .
macro declaration; 3. . . . macro assembler
macro assembler ['mkrou c'semblc] .@ , .
macro call ['mkrou k]:l] , . . . macro instruction
macro command ['mkrou kc'ma:nd] .@ , -

.
macro declaration ['mkrou /deklc'recn] , .@
.

.
macro definition ['mkrou /def'ncn] , . . .
macro declaration
macro definition library ['mkrou /def'ncn 'labrcr]
,
macro expansion ['mkrou ks'pncn] 1. .@
, . 2. .
. . macro generation
macro generation ['mkrou 'encrecn] .@
, .
macro generator ['mkrou 'encretc] , .@ , .
macro instruction ['mkrou n'str7kcn] .@ 1. ,
,
. 2.
,
. .
. built-in macro instruction

344________________________________________________________________________________________
macro language ['mkrou 'llw] .@ , .
macro library ['mkrou 'labrcr] ,

macro parameter ['mkrou pc'rmtc]


macro processor ['mkrou 'prousesc] . . .
macro generator
macro
prototype
['mkrou
/proutc'tap] ;

macro substitution ['mkrou


/s7bst'tju:cn] . .
. macro generation
macrocode ['mkroukoud] n.
. . . macro instruction
macrocoding ['mkroukoud]

macroexerciser ['mkrou'ekscsaizc] n.
.@ ,

.
macroinstruction
language
['mkrou'nstr7kcn 'llw]

macroorder ['mkrou']:dc]
macroprogramming ['mkrou'proulrm] n.

macroprogramming language
['mkrou'proulrm 'llw]

macroscopic
[mkrou'sk]pk]
adj.

macrosystem ['mkrou'sstm]

magazine [mlc'zi:n] n.
magnesium [ml'ni:zjcm] n.

magnet ['mlnt] n.
magnetic [ml'netk] adj.
magnetic amplifier (magamp)
[ml'netk 'mplfac]

magnetic bias [ml'netk 'bacs]

magnetic card [ml'netk ka:d]



magnetic carrier [ml'netk
'krc] ,
,
()
magnetic cell [ml'netk si:l]
,
magnetic disk [ml'netk dsk]
.@ 1. . 2. .
magnetic
domain
storage
(mados) [ml'netk dc'men 'st]:r]

magnetic
drum
[ml'netk
dr7m]
magnetic encoding [ml'netk
n'koud] .@
.
magnetic head [ml'netk hed]

magnetic media [ml'netk 'mi:djc]

345

________________________________________________________________________________________

magnetic tape (magtape, MT)


[ml'netk tep]
magnetic tape group [ml'netk
tep lru:p]

magnetic tape head [ml'netk


tep hed]

magnetic tape transfer [ml'netk tep 'trnsfc] 1. ; 2.


magnetically [ml'netkl] adv.
1. ; 2.
magnetic-core circuit [ml'netk'k]: 'sc:kt]

magnetic-tape library [ml'netk'tep 'labrcr]


magnetic-tape reader [ml'netk'tep 'ri:dc]

magnetic-tape subsystem [ml'netk'tep s7b'sstm] 1. ;
2. .@
,



.
magnetic-tape transport [ml'netk'tep 'trnsp]:t]

magnetic-tape unit (MTU)


[ml'netk' tep 'ju:nt]
magnetization [/mlnat'zecn]
n. 1. ; 2.

magnetize [ml'netz] v.
magnetoconductivity [ml'ni:tou/kcn'd7ktvt] n.
magnetoconductor [ml'ni:tou
/kcn'd7ktc]
magnetomotive force (mmf)
[ml'ni:tou'moutv]
magnetoresistance [ml'ni:tour'zstcns] n.
magnetoresistor (MR) [ml'ni:tour'zstc]
magnetron ['mlntr]n] n.
magnification [/mlnf'kecn]
n. ,
magnify ['mlnfa] v. 1. ; 2.
magnitude ['mlntu:d] n. 1.
; 2.
mail box [mel b]ks]
.@
,
,
.
main ['men] adj. ; .# in the main
main control ['men kcn'troul]
()
main frame memory ['men
frem 'memcr] 1. ; 2.

main index ['men 'ndeks] , . .
. master index
main line ['men lan]

main loop ['men lu:p]


.@ .

346________________________________________________________________________________________
main memory ['men 'memcr]
, , .@ ,
, . . backing storage
main memory address register
(MMAR) ['men 'memcr c'dres 'restc]

main memory register (MMR)


['men 'memcr 'restc]
main program ['men 'proulrm] .@
, .
main routine ['men ru:'ti:n] .@ ,

.
main storage (MSTOR) ['men
'st]:r] . .
. main memory
main storage data register
(MDR) ['men 'st]:r 'detc 'restc]

main theorem ['men 'crcm]

main variable ['men 'vcrcbl]
()
mainframe ['menfrem] n. 1.
.@ ,
- - . ,
,
,
-

. 2. .@
,

.
mainly ['menl] adv. 1.
; 2.
maintain [men'ten] v. 1. ; ; 2. ;
; 3.
maintenance ['mentncns] n. 1.
,
.@

. 2. ; 3. ; ; 4.
maintenance bit ['mentncns
bt] ()

maintenance routine ['mentncns ru:'ti:n]
maintenance standby ['mentncns 'stndba]
major ['mee] adj. 1. ;
; 2. ; 3.
major control data ['mee kcn'troul 'detc]

major cycle ['mee 'sakl]
major failure ['mee 'feljc]

major heading ['mee 'hed]

major key ['mee ki:] 1. .@ ,

347

________________________________________________________________________________________

. 2.
. . . primary key
major product ['mee 'pr]dckt]

majority ['meert] n.
majority element (gate) ['meert 'elmcnt (det)]
.@
,
.
majority function ['meert
'f7kcn] ,

majority principle ['meert
'prnspcl] ,

majority rule ['meert ru:l]


make [mek] v. (made) 1. ; 2. ; 3. (for); 4. (up
for); 5. (up); n. ; .# in the making (, ).# it makes all the difference (in
the word)
; .# to make allowance for ; () -..# to make
a long story short .#
to makes itself felt
, .# to make appearance .# to make certain , .# to
make sure , .# to make comparisons
.# to make mention of
.# to make provision for
;
;
.# to make sense
.# to make the best of

-. .# to make use of
mal- [mcl-] pref.
,
maladjustment
['mlc'7stmcnt] n.
malfunction [mcl'f7kcn] n.
(), , ;
( ); v.
malfunction detection system
(MDS) [mcl'f7kcn d'tekcn 'sstm]

malfunction diagnosis [mcl'f7kcn /dacl'nouss] () ()
malfunction routine [mcl'f7kcn ru:'ti:n]
malignant [mc'llncnt] adj. 1.
; 2. ; 3. ;
manage ['mn] v. 1. ; ; 2. ; 3.

management ['mnment] n.
,
management control ['mnment kcn'troul] ,
management information system (MIS) ['mnment /nfc'mecn
'sstm] .@


.
.

348________________________________________________________________________________________
.
manager ['mnc] n. 1. ,
( ); 2. ,
Manchester code ['mncstc
koud] .@ ,
.
mandatory retention ['mndctcr r'tencn] .
. . retention
mandrel ['mndrcl] n. 1. ; 2.
manifest ['mnfest] v. (); adj. ;
manifest constant ['mnfest
'k]nstcnt] , ,
manifold ['mnfould] n. 1. ; ; 2. ; 3. ; adj. , ; adv.

manifold of class Cn ['mnfould


]v kla:s] Cn
manipulate
[mc/npju'let] v.

manipulation [mc/npju'lecn]
n. 1. ; ; 2.
man-machine communication
[mn/mc'i:n kc'mju:n'kecn]
-
man-machine interface [mn/mc'i:n /ntc'fes] - .@


.

man-machine system [mn/mc'i:n 'sstm] -.@



man-made ['mn'med] adj.
man-made system ['mn'med
'sstm] .@
,

.
manner ['mnc] n. 1. ,
; ; 2. ; ; 3. pl. , .# after
(in) the manner .# all
manner of .# in a
manner ; .# in a broad manner .# in such a manner ; ,
manoeurvre
(manoeurver)
['mcnu:vc] n.
mantissa [mn'tsc] n. . . . floating-point representation
man-to-machine (computer) language [mn'tu:'mc'i:n (kcm'pju:tc)
'llw] . @

manual ['mnjucl] n. 1. , ; ; adj.
;
manual computation ['mnjucl
/kcmpju:'tecn]
manual control ['mnjucl kcn'troul] .@ ,
,
, .

349

________________________________________________________________________________________

manual gain control (MGC)


['mnjucl len kcn'troul]
manual word generator ['mnjucl wc:d 'encretc]

manually ['mnjucl] adv.
manufactory [/mnju'fktcr] n.

manufacture [/mnju'ftc] v.
; ; n. 1. ; ; 2.
manufacturer [/mnju'ftcrc]
n. ,
manuscript ['mnjuskrpt] n.

many ['mn] adj. (more, most)


, , ; n.
, .# a good many
.# a greal
many , .# as many as ,
; ( .).#
not so many as ,
many-reel file ['mn'ri:l fal]
. . .
multivolume file
many-valued logic ['mn'vlju:d 'l]k]
map [mp] n. , ; v.
1. ; ; 2. ; 3.
, (out)
map of set [mp ]v set]
mapped system [mpt 'sstm]
.@
1. , . 2. ,
. .
. memory mapping

mapping ['mp] n. 1. ; ; ; 2.
mapping domain ['mp dc'men]
mapping mode ['mp moud]
. .
. memory mapping
margin ['ma:n] n. 1. , ; 2. , ,
; 3. ,
margin of error ['ma:n ]v
'erc]
margin of safety ['ma:n ]v
'seft] 1. ; 2. ; 3.
marginal ['ma:nl] adj. 1. ; 2.
(-.); 3. ; ; ; 4.
;
marginal check (test) ['ma:nl
tek (test)]
marginal component ['ma:nl
kcm'pouncnt] 1. ,
; 2.

marginal conditions ['ma:nl
kcn'dcns]
marginal error ['ma:nl 'erc]
, .
@
.
marginal operation ['ma:nl
/]pc'recn]
mark [ma:k] n. ,
( -

350________________________________________________________________________________________
). . label; v. ,

mark reading (scanning) [ma:k


ri:d ('skn)] ;

mark scan [ma:k skn]
( )
mark sensing [ma:k 'sens] ;
marked [ma:kt] adj.
marker ['ma:kc] n. 1. .@ , . .
. cursor; 2. , .@ .
marking pencil ['ma:k 'pensl]
Markov chain [mark]v ten]
, .@
, .
Markov source [mark]v s]:s]
.@ , ,
.
mark-space ratio ['ma:k'spes
'reou]
;
marphological ['ma:rf]'l]kcl]

marvellows ['ma:vlcs] adj. ,

maser ['mesc] n. .@

mask [ma:sk] n. 1. , ; 2. ,
. . . masking
maskable interrupt ['ma:keibl
/intc'r7pt] .
@ ,
.
masked interrupt [ma:skt /intc'r7pt] ,
. .
. disable interrupt
masking [ma:sk] n. .@ ,
.
masking effect [ma:sk 'fekt]

masking technique [ma:sk
tek'ni:k] 1. , ; 2. , ; 3.
mask-programmable
device
['ma:sk'proulrmebl d'vas]
mass [ms] n. ,
,
mass data [ms 'detc]

mass memory [ms 'memcr]

mass memory system [ms 'memcr 'sstm]


mass storage [ms 'st]:r] .@ -

351

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
mass storage facility (MSF)
[ms 'st]:r fc'slt]
mass storage volume control
(MSVC) [ms 'st]:r 'v]ljum kcn'troul]

massive ['msv] adj.


massively parallel processor
(MPP) ['msvl 'prclel 'prousesc]

master ['ma:stc] n. 1. ;
; 2. , ;
3. , ; 4. ( );
v.
master clock ['ma:stc kl]k] ;
master clock frequency ['ma:stc
kl]k 'fri:kwcns] 1.
() ; 2.

master clock-pulse generator
['ma:stc 'k]lk'p7ls 'encretc] 1. ;
2.
()
master control ['ma:stc kcn'troul] 1. ; 2.
master control center (MCC)
['ma:stc kcn'troul 'sentc]

master control routine ['ma:stc
kcn'troul ru:'ti:n] 1. ; 2.

master data ['ma:stc 'detc]

master file ['ma:stc fal] .@ , . . .


file updating
master frequency ['ma:stc 'fri:kwcns] 1. ; 2.

master index ['ma:stc 'ndeks]
, .@
, .
master interrupt ['ma:stc /intc'r7pt]
master mode ['ma:stc moud]
. .
. privileged instruction
master oscillator (MO) ['ma:stc
/]s'letc]
master oscillator-power amplifier (mopa) ['ma:stc /]s'letc'pauc
'mplfac] ( )

master program ['ma:stc 'proulrm]


master record ['ma:stc 'rek]:d]

master scheduler ['ma:stc 'cdju:lc]
master tape ['ma:stc tep] 1. .@ ,

. . . master file;
2. .@
,

.

352________________________________________________________________________________________
master-slave system ['ma:stc'slev 'sstm] ;
match [m] v. 1. ;
2. ().@

;
,


, , ,
, ,
,
. . . unification; 3. , ; ; 4. ; n. 1.
; ; 2. ; 3. ,
match indicator [m 'ndketc]
match merge operation [m
mc: /]pc'recn]
match(ed) condition [m(t)
kcn'dcn] 1. ;
2. ; 3.

match/mismatch register [m
ms'm 'restc]
match-all pattern [m']:l 'ptcn] .@ ,
. .
. wildcard matching

match-all symbol [m']:l 'smbcl] .@ ,


.
matched filter (MF) [mt
'filtc]
matched spatial filter (MSF)
[mt 'specl 'filtc]

matching ['m] n. 1. ; 2. ; ; 3. ,
matching components ['m
kcm'pouncnts]
matching parentheses ['m
pc'renss]
matching word ['m wc:d]

(
)
material [mc'tcrcl] adj. 1. ; 2. ; n.

material implication [mc'tcrcl


/mpl'kecn]
materialize [mc'tcrclaz] v.
()
math processor [m 'prousesc]
. .
. floating-point processor
mathematical [/m'mtkcl]
adj.
mathematical approach [/m'mtkcl c'prou]

mathematical check [/m'mtkcl tek]


mathematical logic [/m'mtkcl 'l]k]
mathematical model [/m'mtkcl 'm]dl] .

353

________________________________________________________________________________________

@ , (,
, , , . .)
mathematical problem [/m'mtkcl 'pr]blcm]
()
mathematical
programming
[/m'mtkcl 'proulrm] .@ ,
.
mathematically [/m'mtkcl]

adv.
mathematician [/m'mtcn]
n.
mathematics [/m'mtks] n.

matrix ['metrks] n. 1. .
@ ,
. 2. ; 3.
; 4. ; 5.
matrix adder ['metrks 'dc]

matrix address selection system
['metrks c'dres s'lekcn 'sstm]
matrix algebra ['metrks 'lbrc] ,
matrix calculation ['metrks
'klkjulecn] ,

matrix calculus ['metrks 'klkjulcs]
matrix computation ['metrks
/kcmpju:'tecn]
matrix formula ['metrks 'f]:mjulc]

matrix gate ['metrks 'let]


matrix grammar ['metrks 'lrmc]
matrix inversion ['metrks 'n'vc:cn] .@ . .
. inverse matrix
matrix iteration ['metrks /tc'recn]
matrix norm ['metrks n]:m]

matrix notation ['metrks nou'tecn]
matrix of coupling ['metrks ]v
'k7pl] ()
matrix of the coefficient ['metrks ]v i: /kou'ficnt]
matrix point ['metrks p]nt]

matrix power converter (MPC)
['metrks 'pauc kcn'vc:tc]
matrix printer ['metrks 'prntc]

matrix representation ['metrks
/reprzen'tecn] ,
matrix row ['metrks rou]
matrix technique ['metrks tek'ni:k]
matrix wire ['metrks wac]

matrix-updating methods ['metrks/7p'det 'mecds]
matter ['mtc] n. 1. ;
2. (.); 3. , , ; v. .# as a
matter of convenience -

354________________________________________________________________________________________
.# as a matter of course
.# as a
matter of exerience .# as a matter of fact ,
.# as a matter of record
.# as matters stand ().# for
that matter ,
; .# in
a matter of seconds (minutes) ().# it is a matter of common knowledge .# no matter
, .# subject matter , ;
( . .).# to put the
matter anather way
mature [mc'tjuc] adj. 1. ;
2. ; v. 1. ; 2.
maximal ['mksmcl] adj.
maximize ['mksmaz] v.
maximum ['mksmcm] n. , , ; adj.
maximum likelihood estimate
(MLE) ['mksmcm 'lakl/hud 'estmt]

maximum likelihood method


['mksmcm 'lakl/hud 'mecd]

maximum principle ['mksmcm 'prnspcl]
maximum usable frequency
(MUF) ['mksmcm 'ju:zcbl 'fri:kwcns]

maximum-length
sequence
['mksmcm'le 'si:kwcns]
maxterm (standard sum term)
[mk'tc:m ('stndcd s7m tc:m)] ,
maxwell (MX) [mk'wel] ,
M-code [mi:'koud] -.@
-.
. . P-code
meagre ['mi:lc] adj. 1. ,
; 2. ,
mean [mi:n] v. (meant) 1. , ; 2. , ; 3. (); 4.
(); n. 1.
(), ; 2. pl.
, ; adj. .#
by means of .# by all
means ; .# by any means
.# by no means , .# by
some means or other
.# by which means
mean deviation [mi:n /di:v'ecn]
.@ ,
.
mean free path [mi:n fri: pa:]

mean power (MP) [mi:n 'pauc]

mean time between errors
(MTBE) [mi:n tam b'twi:n 'ercs]

355

________________________________________________________________________________________

mean time between failures


(MTBF) [mi:n tam b'twi:n 'feljcs]

mean time between incident
[mi:n tam b'twi:n 'sdcnt]

mean time to failures (MTTF)
[mi:n tam tu: 'feljcs]
mean time to first failures
(MTTFF) [mi:n tam tu: fc:st 'feljcs]

mean time to repair (MTTR)
[mi:n tam tu r'pc]
mean value [mi:n 'vlju:] ,
mean value theorem [mi:n 'vlju: 'crcm]
meaning ['mi:n] n. ;
.# with meaning
meaningful ['mi:nful] adj.
meaningless ['mi:nlcs] adj.

means [mi:ns] n. ,
means and ends [mi:ns nd
ends]
meantime ['mi:n'tam] adv.
.# in the meantime

meanwhile ['mi:n'wal] adv.


,
measurable ['mecrabl] adj. 1.
; 2. ,
measure ['mec] n. 1. ,
; 2. ; 3. ;
v. 1. , ; 2. ,
; 3. .# in a
(some) measure , -

.# to take measures

measure of uncertainty ['mec
]v 7n'sc:tcnt]
measurement (MEAS) ['mecment] n. .@

; (
), .
measurement scales ['mecment
skels] .@
,
;
, ;

.
measurement unit (MU) ['mecment 'ju:nt] 1. ()
; 2. ;
measures of location ['mecs ]v
lou'kecn] .@ , .
measures of variation ['mecs
]v /vcri'ecn] .@ ,
.
measuring lag ['mecr ll]

356________________________________________________________________________________________
mechanical [m'knkcl] adj. 1.
; 2.
mechanical verifier [m'knkcl
'verfac] .@
.
mechanically [m'knkcl] adv.
1. ; 2.
mechanics [m'knks] n.
mechanism ['mekcnzm] n.
mechanization [/mekcna'zecn]
n.
median ['mi:djcn] n. .@
, x,

, x.
mediatate ['medtet] v. , (on, upon)
mediate ['mi:det] v. 1.
, ; 2.

medium ['mi:djcm] n. 1. (). . . data medium; 2. ; 3.
; 4. , ;
5. ; adj. , .# through the medium
,
medium frequency (MF) ['mi:djcm 'fri:kwcns]
medium-access control ['mi:djcm'kses kcn'troul] .@
,
( )
. -



. . . CSMA/CD protocol, time-division multiple access,
token passing
medium-scale integration (MSI)
['mi:djcm/skel 'ntlrecn] 1. ; 2.
medium-scale integration circuit (MSIC) ['mi:djcm/skel 'ntlrecn 'sc:kt]

meet [mi:t] v. (met) 1. (); 2. (, ); 3.


(); 4. .# to meet
the case

meet operation [mi:t /]pc'recn]



( )
mega- (M) [/melc] , ,
6
10
megabyte (Mbyte) [/melc'bat]
n. , (220 =
1048576 )
megacycle [/melc'sakl] n.
megohm ['meloum] n.
melt [melt] n.; v. ()
member ['membc] n. 1.
(, ); (); 2. ; 3.
, .# corresponding member -
member of class ['membc ]v
kla:s]
member type ['membc tap]
.@
,
.

357

________________________________________________________________________________________

membership function ['membcp 'f7kcn] .@ ,



[0, 1],

memorize ['memcraz] v. , ,
memory ['memcr] n. ;
;

memory
access
controller
(MAC) ['memcr 'kses kcn'troulc]

memory address ['memcr c'dres]
memory address register ['memcr c'dres 'restc]

memory address test (MAT)


['memcr c'dres test]

memory allocation ['memcr


'lckecn] .@
() .
memory array ['memcr c're]
, .@
, . . . array
memory bank ['memcr bk]
.@ , .

memory capacity ['memcr k'pcst] . . . capacity


memory cell ['memcr si:l] 1.
. . . cell; 2.
memory compaction ['memcr
'k]mpkcn] .@

. . .
compacting garbage collection
memory cycle ['memcr 'sakl]
,
memory cycle stealing ['memcr
'sakl 'sti:l] .
@ .
memory data register (MDR)
['memcr 'detc 'restc]
memory device ['memcr d'vas]
,
memory dump ['memcr d7mp]

memory element ['memcr 'elmcnt] , ,
memory expansion card ['memcr ks'pncn ka:d] ,

memory fill ['memcr fil] , . .


. character fill. zero fill

358________________________________________________________________________________________
memory guard ['memcr la:d]
. . . memory
protection
memory hierarchy ['memcr
'hacra:k] . .
. hierarchical storage
memory interface (MI) ['memcr
/ntc'fes]
memory interleaving ['memcr
/ntc'li:v] .@
.
memory key ['memcr ki:]
() .
memory location ['memcr lou'kecn] 1. . . .
Cell; 2.
memory lock ['memcr l]k] .@

,

; ,
.
memory lockout register ['memcr 'l]kaut 'restc]
memory management ['memcr
'mnment] 1. . . . dynamic memory allocation; 2. .
. . memory mapping
memory management unit
(MMU) ['memcr 'mnment 'ju:nt]
,
memory map ['memcr mp]
() . .
. load map

memory mapping ['memcr mp] .@ , ,



; .
memory matrix ['memcr 'metrks] ,
memory module ['memcr 'm]dju:l] ()
memory operation ['memcr
/]pc'recn]
memory page ['memcr pe]
, . .
. page
memory pair ['memcr pc]
memory paragraph ['memcr
'prclra:f] .@ , ;
16 .
memory plane ['memcr plen]

memory protection ['memcr
prc'tekcn] .@


.
memory protection interrupt
['memcr prc'tekcn /intc'r7pt]
memory register ['memcr 'restc]
memory selection register ['memcr s'lekcn 'restc] 1. -

359

________________________________________________________________________________________

() ; 2.
memory speed ['memcr spi:d]

memory stored control ['memcr
st]:d kcn'troul] ,
memory test computer (MTC)
['memcr test kcm'pju:tc]
()
memory unit ['memcr 'ju:nt] 1.
; 2.
memory upgrade ['memcr 7p'lred]
memoryless ['memcrles] adj.

memory-map list ['memcr/mp
lst]
memory-reference instruction
['memcr'refrcns n'str7kcn]

memory-to-memory instruction
['memcr'tu:'memcr n'str7kcn] . .
. storage-to-storage instruction
memory-to-memory move instruction (MOV) ['memcr'tu:'memcr
mu:v n'str7kcn]

mental [mentl] adj. 1. ; 2.
mention [mencn] v. ;
; -..#
not to mention .# to
mention (name) only (but) a few
.# to
make mention of
menu ['menju:] n. .@ , -

,

.
menu bar ['menju: ba:]
.@
, . . .
scroll bar, title bar.
menu selection ['menju: s'lekcn]

menu-driven ['menju:'drvn]
menu-driven program ['menju:'drvn 'proulrm] , .@ ,
,

.
mercury ['mc:kjur] n.
mere [me] adj. ; ;
.# the mere (fat etc.)
( . .)
merely [mel] adv. ,
;
merge [mc:] v. 1. ,
().
. . collate; 2.
merge exchange sort [mc:
ks'en s]:t] .@
,
(N*log(N)).
merge sort [mc: s]:t] .@ ,

;

. . .
balanced merge sort

360________________________________________________________________________________________
mergeable heap ['mc:cbl hi:p]
.@ ,

.
merged transistor logic (MTL)
[mc:d trn'zstc 'l]k] , , 2-
merit ['mert] n. 1. ;
2. ( pl.); 3. ;
v. .# the figure merit
()
merit function ['mert 'f7kcn]
. . . evaluation function
mesh [me] n. 1. ; 2.
.@
mesh ratio [me 'reou]
mesh-emitter transistor [me'mtc trn'zstc]
meson ['mi:z]n] n.
mess [mes] .@
, , , .
,
,

message ['mes] n. 1. .@ , .
2. .@ --


;
. 3. ,
message authentication code
(MAC) ['mes ]:'entkecn koud]

message beginning character
['mes b'ln 'krktc]

message digit ['mes 'dt]
() ,

message exchange ['mes ks'en] 1. ; 2.
message header ['mes 'hedc]
.@
,
: ,
, .
message passing ['mes 'pa:s]
message queuing ['mes 'kju:] .@

.
message source ['mes s]:s]

message switching ['mes 'sw] .@
,
.

361

________________________________________________________________________________________

message trailer ['mes 'trelc]


.@
,
(, )
message transmission rate ['mes trnz'mcn ret]
message waiting (MSG/WTG)
['mes wet]
metaassembler [/metc'csemblc]
.@ ,
-.
metacompiler [/metc'kcmpalc]
n. . . .
compiler-compiler
metadata [/metc'detc] n. .@ ,
(, ).
metaknowledge [/metc'n]l] n.
.@ ,

.
metal ['metl] n. ; adj.
metal-(silicon)-nitride-semiconductor
field-effect
transistor
(MNSFET) ['metl'('slkcn)natrad'semkcn'd7ktc fi:ld/'fekt trn'zstc]

()
metal-alumina-oxide-semicondactor (MAOS) ['metl/c'lju:mnc']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc] -


metal-alumina-semicondactor
(MAS) ['metl/c'lju:mnc'semkcn'd7ktc]
metalanguage [/metc'llw]
.@ .
metal-base transistor (MBT)
['metl'bes trn'zstc]

metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor transistor (MFST) ['metl'ferou/'lektk'semkcn'd7ktc trn'zstc]

metal-gate transistor (MGT)
['metl'let trn'zstc]
metalinguistic formula [/metc'llwstk 'f]:mjulc]
metalinguistic variable [/metc'llwstk 'vcrcbl] .@ .
metal-insulator-metal-insulator
semiconductor (MIMIS) ['metl'nsjuletc'metl'nsjuletc
'semkcn'd7ktc]
- -
metal-insulator-metal
(MIM)
['metl'nsjuletc'metl]
metal-insulator-piezoelectric semiconductor (MIPS) ['metl'nsjuletc/pa'i:zou'lektrc 'semkcn'd7ktc] -
metal-insulator-semiconductor
field-effect transistor
(MISFET)

362________________________________________________________________________________________
['metl'nsjuletc'semkcn'd7ktc fi:ld/'fekt trn'zstc]
, ()
metal-insulator-semiconductor
-insulator-semiconductor (MISIS)
['metl'nsjuletc'semkcn'd7ktc'nsjulet
c'semkcn'd7ktc]
-
metallic [m'tlk] adj.
metallic
crosspoint
(MXP)
[m'tlk kr]s'p]nt]

metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) ['metl'natrad']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc]
-
metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor transistor (MNOS) ['metl'natrad']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc
trn'zstc] -
metal-nitride-semiconductor
(MNS) ['metl'natrad'semkcn'd7ktc]

metal-oxide-metal (MOM) ['metl']ksad'metl]

metal-oxide--semiconductor
(MOS) ['metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc]

metal-oxide-semiconductor and
bipolar (MOSbip) ['metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc nd ba'poulc]
-

metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSC) ['metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc k'pcst]


- , -
metal-oxide-semiconductor electrically-alterable read-only memory (MOS EAROM) ['metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc 'lektrkcl']:ltcbl ri:d'ounl 'memcr]
metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)
['metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc fi:ld/'fekt
trn'zstc]

metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit (MOSIC) ['metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc 'ntlretd 'sc:kt]

,
metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated large-scale circuit (MOSLSIC) ['metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc 'ntlretd 'la:/skel 'sc:kt]
,
metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor (MOST) ['metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc trn'zstc]
,
metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor logic (MOSTL) ['metl']ksad'semkcn'd7ktc trn'zstc 'l]k] -
metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) ['metl']ksad'slkcn]

363

________________________________________________________________________________________

metal-Schottky gate field-effect


transistor (MBT) ['metl's]tk 'let
fi:ld/'fekt trn'zstc]
metaphore ['metcfc] n. .@

.
metarule [/metc'ru:l] n. .@ , .
metastable [/metc'stebl] n. ; adj.
meter ['mi:tc] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
method ['mecd] n. 1. ; 2.
.@ Smalltalk
- ,
. 3. , ; 4.
method of comparison ['mecd
]v kcm'prsn]
method of elimination ['mecd
]v /lm'necn]

method of equivalent currents


(MEC) ['mecd ]v 'kwvclcnt 'k7rcnts]
method of images ['mecd ]v
'ms]
method of least squares ['mecd
]v li:st skwcs]

method of selected point ['mecd ]v s'lektid p]nt] .@


.

method of steepest descent ['mecd ]v sti:pst d'sent]


method of successive approximations ['mecd ]v sck'sesv c/pr]ks'mecns]
,
method of successive correction
['mecd ]v sck'sesv kc'rekcn]
()
method of successive substitutions ['mecd ]v sck'sesv /s7bst'tju:cns]
method of undetermined coefficients ['mecd ]v 7n'dtc:mnd /kou'fcnts]
methodology [/mec'd]lc] n.

micro nudge ['makrou n7]

micro- (:) ['makrou] ,


, 10-6
micro code engine (MCE) ['makrou 'koud /en'n]
()
microampere [/makrou'mpc]
n.
microassembler ['makrouc'semblc] n. .@ .
microcircuit (MC) ['makrou'sc:kt] ,
microcode ['makrou'koud] n. 1.
. . . microprogram; 2. ;

microcoding ['makrou'koud]
n. . .
. microprogramming

364________________________________________________________________________________________
microcomponent ['makrou/kcm'pouncnt] n.
microcomputer ['makroukcm'pju:tc] n.
microcontroller ['makrou'kcn'troulc] n. .@ 1.
. 2. .
microelectronic-modular assembly (MEMA, MMA) ['makrou'/lek'tr]nk'm]djulc c'sembl]
microfloppy disk ['makrou'fl]p
dsk]
microinstruction
['makroun'str7kcn] n. . . .
microprogram
micrologic
circuits
(:LC)
['makrou'l]k 'sc:kts]

micromainframe
['makrou'menfrem] n. - .@
, ,


. . . mainframe
microminiaturization (micromin) ['makrou/mnjccra'zecn]
micron ['makr]n] n.
microohm (:S) ['makrou'oum]
,
microphone ['makrcfoun] n.

microprocessor (unit) (MPU,


:P) ['makrou'prousesc ('ju:nt)] n.
.@ (),


.
microprocessor control unit
(MCU) ['makrou'prousesc kcn'troul
'ju:nt]
microprocessor
development
system (MDS) ['makrou'prousesc
d'velcpmcnt 'sstm] ()

microprocessor sensing and


automatic
regulation
(MISAR)
['makrou'prousesc 'sens nd /]:'tcmtk /relju'lecn]

microprogram ['makrou'proulrm] n. .@ (
)
microprogram sequencer ['makrou'proulrm 'si:kwcnsc] .@ , , .
microprogram store ['makrou'proulrm st]:] ,
microprogramming ['makrou'proulrm] n. .@ 1. , . 2. .
microscopic [/makrc'sk]pk] n.

microscopy [/makrc'sk]p] n.

365

________________________________________________________________________________________

microsecond ['makrc'seknd] n.

microstrip ['makrc'strp] n.
microvolter ['makrc'voultc] n.

microwave (MW) ['makrou'wev] adj. ;


n.
middle ['mdl] n. ; adj.
; v.
middleware ['mdlwc] n. , . . . firmware
MIDI (musical instrument device interface) .@ , .
midinfrared (MIF) ['md/nfrc'red]

midpoint ['md/p]nt] n.
;
midway ['md/we] adj.
migrate [ma'ret] v.
migration [ma'recn] n. .@



,
.
. . hierarchical storage
mil [ml] n. 1.@
, 0,025 . 2.@ 1/6400 360
.
mile [mal] n.

milestone ['malstoun] n.
militery ['mltcr] adj. ,

milli- (m) ['ml] , ,


3
10
milliampere (ma, mA) ['ml'mpc] n.
millimeter ['ml'mtc] n.
millimeter waves (MMW) ['ml'mtc wevs]
million electron-volt (Mev)
['mlnjcn /lek'tr]n'voult] n. ()
millisecond ['ml'sekcnd] n.

millivolt (mv) ['ml'voult] n.

milliwatt ['ml'w]t] n.
MIMD (Multiple Instruction
Multiple Data) architecture ['a:ktekc] ()
.@ ,
.
mind [mand] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; v. .# to
bear (to have, to keep) in mind , , .# to
my mind .# with
this in mind
mini ['mn] n. -. .
. minicomputer
miniassembler ['mnc'semblc]
n. .@ , -

366________________________________________________________________________________________
(, ).
miniature ['mnjctc] adj.
miniature component ['mnjctc
kcm'pouncnt] (, )
minicomputer ['mn kcm'pju:tc]
n. -
minifloppy dick ['mn dsk]
minimal access program(ming)
['mnmcl 'kses 'proulrm()]

minimax ['mnmks] .@ , ,
.
minimax approximation ['mnmks c/pr]ks'mecn]
,
minimax procedure ['mnmks
prou'si:c] .
@ ,
( ),
, .
minimax theorem ['mnmks
'crcm]
minimization ['mnmecn] n.
,
minimize ['mnmaz] v. ,
minimum ['mnmcm] n. , , ; adj.

minimum detectable signal


(MDS) ['mnmcm 'dtektebl 'slncl]

minimum discernible signal
(MDS) ['mnmcm d'sc:ncbl 'slncl]

minimum latency program
(ming) ['mnmcm 'letcns 'proulrm()]

minimum shift keying (MSK)
['mnmcm 'ft ki:]

minimum-access code ['mnmcm'kses koud]
.@ ,

. 50-

.
minimum-access programming
['mnmcm'kses 'proulrm] . . . minimum-access
code
minimum-distance code ['mnmcm'dstcns koud]
minimum-error decoding ['mnmcm'erc 'di:'koud] .@
,
,
.

367

________________________________________________________________________________________

, ,
.
minimum-likelihood decoding
['mnmcm'laklhud 'di:'koud] .@
,
,

minimum-mean-square error
(MMSE) ['mnmcm'mi:n'skwc 'erc]

minimum-redundance
code
['mnmcm/r'd7ndcns koud]
minor ['manc] adj. 1. , ; 2.
minor cycle ['manc 'sakl] ,
minor definite matrix ['manc
/def'nt 'metrks]
minor failure ['manc 'feljc]
minor product ['manc 'pr]dckt]

minority ['man]rt] n.
minterm (standard product
term) [mn'tc:m ('stndcd 'pr]dckt
tc:m)] .@ n
,
. n
2n . .
minus ['mancs] n.

minute [ma'nju:t] adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4.


mips (million instructions per
second) .@ .
mirror ['mrc] n. ; -

mirror fill ['mrc fl] -


mirroring ['mrcr] n. () (
)
mis- [ms-] pref. 1.
, , : misprint ; 2. , : mistrust

misalignment [msc'lainmcnt]
. . . address alignment
miscellanea ['ms'lenc] n. pl. 1.
; 2. ,

miscellaneous [/ms'lenjcs] adj.


;
MISD (Multiple Instruction
Single Data) architecture ['a:ktekc] ()
.@
,

( )
misfit ['msft] n.
mishap ['mshp] n. 1. ,
; 2.
misinteretation ['msn/tc:pr'tecn] n.

368________________________________________________________________________________________
misinterpret ['msntc:prt] v.

mislead [ms'li:d] v.

mismatch [ms'm] n. 1. ; 2. .@
. . . match
mismatch condition [ms'm
kcn'dcn] 1. ; 2. ; 3.

mismatching factor [ms'm
'fktc]
miss [ms] v. ,

missile ['msal] n. ;
mission success rate [mcn sck'ses ret]
mistake [ms'tek] n. ; v.
1. ; 2. (for).#
to be mistaken
mix [mks] v. 1. ; (); 2. .# to mix up
; ,
mixed base notation (system)
['mkst bes nou'tecn ('sstm)] ,

mixed connection ['mkst kc'nekcn]


mixed logic ['mkst 'l]k] .@ , , .
mixed radix notation (system)
['mkst 'redks nou'tecn ('sstm)] -

mixed strategy ['mkst 'strt]



mixed-numerical
procedure
['mkst'nju:mcrkcl prou'si:c] ,
mixer ['mksc] n.
mixture ['mkstc] n. 1. ; 2.
MKS (meter, kilogram, second)

mnemonic
code
[n:'m]nk
koud]
mnemonic diagram [n:'m]nk
'daclrm] ()
mnemonic symbol [n:'m]nk
'smbcl] ()
mobile ['moubal] adj.
mobillity [mou'blt] n.
mod [m]d] n. ,
.@ ,
15 mod 4 3.
mode [moud] n. 1. (); 2. .@
,
. 3. , ; 4.
, ; 5.
model ['m]dl] n. , .@ : ; ,
; ; , , -

369

________________________________________________________________________________________

;
-, -
;
model of calculation ['m]dl ]v
'klkjulecn]
model of economy ['m]dl ]v
i:'k]ncm]
model of functioning ['m]dl ]v
'f7kcn] .
@ , ,

, .
, ..
model of language ['m]dl ]v
'llw]
model of models ['m]dl ]v 'm]dls] .@
; ;
.
model reference adaptive system (MRAS) ['m]dl 'refrcns c'dptv
'sstm]
modeless command ['moudles
kc'ma:nd] ,
.@
,
(
) .
modeless system ['moudles 'sstm] .@ ,
,
,
.

modeling ['m]dl] n. .@
.
modem (modulator and demodulator) ['moudcm] (['m]dju'letc
nd di:'m]dju'letc]) n. , -.@ ,


, , .
moderate ['m]dcrt] adj. 1. ; 2. , ;
modern ['m]dcn] adj. ;
modification [/m]df'kecn] n.
(), ,
modified binary code ['m]dfad
'bancr koud]

modified frequency modulation
(MFM) ['m]dfad 'fri:kwcns /m]djulecn]

modified modified frequency


modulation (M2FM) ['m]dfad 'm]dfad 'fri:kwcns /m]djulecn]

modifier ['m]dfac] n. 1. . . . index


register; 2. , ( ); 3.
modifier bits ['m]dfac bts] .@
( ) ,

370________________________________________________________________________________________
, .
modifier register ['m]dfac 'restc] 1. . .
. index register; 2. , ( )
modify ['m]dfa] v.
(),
modul parity check ['m]djul
'prt tek]

modular ['m]djulc] adj.
modular arithmetic ['m]djulc
c'rmctk]
modular block (MB) ['m]djulc
bl]k] ;
modular concept ['m]djulc 'k]nsept] 1. () ; 2.
modular design ['m]djulc d'zan] ()
modular hardware ['m]djulc
'ha:dwc] 1. ; 2.
modular programming ['m]djulc 'proulrm] .@
;
.
modularity ['m]djulcrt] n. .@ ;

,
.
modulate [/m]dju'let] v. -

modulation [/m]dju'lecn] n.
.@
, , .
modulation factor [/m]dju'lecn
'fktc]
modulation transfer function
(MTF) [/m]dju'lecn 'trnsfc 'f7kcn] 1.
( ); 2.
-
modulation/demodulation
(mod/demod) [/m]djulecn di:/m]djulecn] -
modulator (MOD) ['m]dju'letc]
n.
modulator-demodulator (modem) ['m]dju'letc'di:'m]dju'letc] , -
module (unit) testing ['m]dju:l
('ju:nt) test]
module ['m]dju:l] n. .@
1.
. . .modular programming; 2. , .
module invariant ['m]dju:l n'vcrcnt] . .
. invariant
module specification ['m]dju:l
/spesfi'kecn]
,

module
strength
['m]dju:l
stre]

371

________________________________________________________________________________________

module test mode (MTM)


['m]dju:l test moud]
module under test (MUT)
['m]dju:l '7ndc test]
modulo n arithmetic ['m]dju:l]
cn c'rmctk] n
modulo n check ['m]dju:l] cn
tek] n
modulo n counter ['m]dju:l] cn
'kauntc] n
modulo n divider ['m]dju:l] cn
d'vadc] n
modulo operation ['m]dju:l]
/]pc'recn] .@
,

.
modulo product ['m]dju:l] 'pr]dckt]
modulus ['m]dju:lcs] n. ,
, ,
modulus of a complex number
['m]dju:lcs ]v c 'k]mpleks 'n7mbc]

modulus of a congruence ['m]dju:lcs ]v c 'k]lrucns]
modulus of continuity ['m]dju:lcs ]v /k]nt'nju:t]
modulus of natural logarithms
['m]dju:lcs ]v 'nrcl 'l]lcrcms]

moisture ['m]stc] n. , ;
molar ['moulc] adj. ,

molecular [mou'lekjulc] adj.


molecular computer [mou'lekjulc kcm'pju:tc] ,

molecular statement [mou'lekjulc 'stetmcnt] 1. ;


2.
molecule ['m]lkju:l] n.
molybdenum [mc'lbdncm] n.

moment ['moumcnt] n. 1. , ; 2. , .#
of great moment
; .# of little moment
; .# the moment ,

moment of a force ['moumcnt ]v


c 'f]:s]
moment of a frequency distribution ['moumcnt ]v c 'fri:kwcns
ds'trbju:cn]
momentary ['moumcntcr] adj.

momentous [mou'mcntcs] adj.


;
momentum [mou'mcntcm] n.
(pl. momenta) 1. ;
2. ; ; ;
3. ; 4. ( ); 5. .# becase of momentum ; .# to gain momentum ; .# to gtow in momentum
;
monadic ['m]ndk] .@

372________________________________________________________________________________________
monadic operation ['m]ndk
/]pc'recn] , . . . unary
operation
monatomic [m]nc't]mk] adj.

monitor ['m]ntc] n. 1. , ; 2.
; 3. .@

,
.
,
. ,
, ,
. 4. ,

monitor counter ['m]ntc 'kauntc]


monitor program ['m]ntc 'proulrm]
monitored instruction ['m]ntct
n'str7kcn]
-
monochromatic [/m]nckrou'm-

tk]
monochromator

[/m]nckrou-

'mtc] n.
monochrome ['m]nckroum] adj.

monochrome display ['m]nckroum ds'ple]


monoclinic ['m]nc'klnk] adj.

monocrystal ['m]nc'krsl] n.
monoid ['m]ncd] n. .@

monostable (one-stop) ['m]ncstebl (w7n'st]p)] ,

monostable circuit ['m]ncstebl
'sc:kt]

monostable
multivibrator
(MSMV) ['m]ncstebl 'm7lt/va'bretc] () ,
monotone convergence ['m]nctoun kcn'vc:cns]
monotonic [mc'n]tnk] adj.
monotonic reasoning [mc'n]tnk
'ri:zn] .@ ,
. . nonmonotonic reasoning
monotonically
[mc'n]tnkcl]
adv.
Monte Carlo calculation [m]ntc ka:rl] 'klkjulecn] -,

Monte Carlo method (MCM)
[m]ntc ka:rl] 'mecd]
more [m]:] adj. (. much, many) 1. ; 2.
; adv. 1. ; 2. .# more often that got .# more recently
.# more than once
, .# all the more
.# any (no) more

373

________________________________________________________________________________________

.# once more .# (all) the


more so ().# so much
the more ()
moreover [m]:'rouvc] adv.
morphological analysis [/m]:fc'l]kcl c'nlcsz]
.@

most [moust] adj. (. much, many) ;
adv. ; ; n. ; .# most directly .# most probably
.# a most interesting book ()
.# at most ;

most significant bit (MSB)
[moust sl'nfkcnt bt] ,
()
most
significant
character
[moust sl'nfkcnt 'krktc]

most significant digit [moust
sl'nfkcnt 'dt] .@
.
mostly ['moustl] adv.

mother board ['m7c b]:d]


mother node ['m7c noud] . . . parent node
motion ['moucn] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ( ).# to bring (put)
forward a motion .# to earry the motion -

.# to reject the
motion
motivation ['moutvecn] n. ,
motor ['moutc] n. ,
motory ['moutcr] adj.
mount [maunt] v. 1. ; 2. ; n. 1. ;
; 2. , ;
3.
mouse [maus] n.
movable (moveable) ['mu:vcbl]
adj.
movable object block ['mu:vcbl
']bkt bl]k]
movable point ['mu:vcbl p]nt]

move [mu:v] v. 1.
().@
. .
. transfer; 2. (), ; 2. ; 3.

move mode [mu:v moud]


.@ ,

-
.
movement (transaction) file
['mu:vmcnt (trn'zkcn) fal]
;
movement ['mu:vmcnt] n. 1.
; ; 2.
(, )
moving average disturbance
[mu:v 'vcr ds'tc:bcns]

374________________________________________________________________________________________
moving average method [mu:v
'vcr 'mecd]

mu operator ['mju: ']pcretc]


,
much [m7] adj. (more; most)
; adv. 1. , ; 2. .# much (about) the
same ; .# much as
; ... .# much of
( ) ..# much of a size (a hight etc.)
(
. .).# much more likely
.# as much
.# as much as (
); , .# as much as to say
, .# however much
.# in as much as ; , .# so much
for (the theory) , ().# so much the better
.# so much the more ().# so much the worse

multi declaration ['m7lt /deklcrecn] . .


. multiple definition
multiaccess ['m7ltkses] n. .@
. . . multiaccess
system
multiaccess computer ['m7ltkses kcm'pju:tc]
multiaccess system ['m7ltkses
'sstm] .@ . ,

, , . .
. time sharing
multiaddress
asynchronous
communication system (MAACS)
['m7ltc'dres e'skrcncs kc'mju:n'kecn 'sstm]
multiaddress computer ['m7ltc'dres kcm'pju:tc]
multiaddress instruction ['m7ltc'dres n'str7kcn]
.@ , .
Multibus.@ Intel , 8- 16- 1
.
multicast address ['m7ltka:st
c'dres] .@ , .
multi-channel ['m7lt'nl]
multichannel analyzer (MCA)
['m7lt'nl 'nclazc] 1.
, ; 2. ,
multichannel communication
['m7lt'nl kc'mju:n'kecn]
multichannel field-effect transistor (MUCH FET) ['m7lt'nl fi:ld
/'fekt trn'zstc]

375

________________________________________________________________________________________

multicomputer system ['m7lt'kcm'pju:tc 'sstm]



multicriterial ['m7lt'kra'tcrcl]

multidigit shift ['m7lt'dt ft]


.@

multi-dimensional
['m7lt-di'mencnl] adj.
multi-dimensional array ['m7ltdi'mencnl c're] .@ ,
.
multi-directory device ['m7lt/d'rectcr d'vas] . . . directory device
multidrop line ['m7ltdr]p lan]
; .@
,
. ,
. . . medium access control
multiemitter transistor logic
['m7lt'mtc trn'zstc 'l]k]

multifunction board ['m7lt'f7kcn b]:d] , .@


,
: ,
, .
multifunctional module (MFM)
['m7lt'f7kcnl 'm]dju:l]

multifunctionality ['m7lt'f7kcnclt] n.
multigrade equation ['m7lt'lred 'kwecn]
multigrid methods ['m7lt'lrd
'mecds] .@

.
multi-input ['m7lt'input] adj.

multilateral ['m7lt'ltcrcl] adj.

multilayer ['m7lt'leic] adj. 1.


; 2. ;
n.
multilayer device ['m7lt'leic
d'vas]
multi-level ['m7lt'levl] adj.
multilevel addressing ['m7lt'levl
c'dres] () .@ ,

.
multilevel frequencyshift keying (MFSK) ['m7lt'levl 'fri:kwcns'ft ki:]

multilevel memory ['m7lt'levl


'memcr] .@
,

.
multilevel phaseshift keying
(MPSK) ['m7lt'levl 'fez'ft ki:]

376________________________________________________________________________________________
multilevel programming ['m7ltlevl 'proulrm]
()
multilevel security ['m7lt'levl
s'kjucrt] .@
,

,
.
multilinear form ['m7lt'lanc
f]:m]
multilinked ['m7ltlkt] .@ .
multilist ['m7ltlst] n. .@ , , (,
,
).
, .
multiloop ['m7ltlu:p] adj.
multimedia ['m7lt'mi:djc] adj.
; n.
multimedia mail ['m7lt'mi:djc
mel]
,
multimode counter ['m7lt'moud
'kauntc]
multi-objective problem ['m7lt]b'cktv 'pr]blcm] , .@
,

.
multipart stationery ['m7ltpa:t
'stencr] ,
multipass ['m7ltpa:s] adj. .@ , .
multiphase ['m7lt'fez] adj.

multiphonon ['m7lt'f]n]n] adj.

multiple ['m7ltpl] n.
(); adj. 1. ; 2.
; 3. ;
4. ; ; 5.
multiple access ['m7ltpl 'kses]
1. . . .
multi-access; 2.
(
)
multiple address code ['m7ltpl
c'dres koud]
multiple address instruction
['m7ltpl c'dres n'str7kcn]
multiple address machine ['m7ltpl c'dres mc'i:n]
.@ ,
( )
.
multiple application ['m7ltpl
pl'kecn]
multiple assignment ['m7ltpl
c'samcnt] .@ , -

377

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
multiple chain ['m7ltpl ten]

multiple connected ['m7ltpl kc'nektd]
multiple definition ['m7ltpl /def'ncn] .@

,
() .
multiple edges ['m7ltpl es]
.@
.
multiple error correcting code
['m7ltpl 'erc 'kcrekt koud]
multiple input ['m7ltpl 'input]

multiple iterated integral ['m7ltpl /tc'retd 'ntlrcl] ()
multiple length ['m7ltpl le]

multiple output ['m7ltpl 'autput]
()
multiple output circuit ['m7ltpl
'autput 'sc:kt]

multiple position shift ['m7ltpl


pc'zicn ft] .
@
multiple precision (multiprecision) ['m7ltpl pr'scn ('m7ltpr'scn)]
multiple processing ['m7ltpl
'prouses] , . .
. multitasking

multiple regression model ['m7ltpl r'lrecn 'm]dl]


multiple resource ['m7ltpl r's]:s]
multiple root ['m7ltpl ru:t]
,
multiple valued logic ['m7ltpl
'vlju:d 'l]k] () .@ ,
,
.
multiple-access discrete-address
system
(MADA)
['m7ltpl'kses
ds'kri:t/c'dres 'sstm] -
multiple-key retrieval ['m7ltpl
ki: r'tri:vcl]
,
multiplex (MPX, Mux, mux)
['m7ltpleks] n. 1. (, ); (); v. 1. (, ); (, );
(, ); adj.

multiplex channel ['m7ltpleks


'nl] .@ ,

.
multiplexed bus ['m7ltplekst
b7s] .@ ,
, .
multiplexer (MUX, mux, MPX)
['m7ltpleksc] n. ; .@ , -

378________________________________________________________________________________________
()
,


. , . .
multiplexing ['m7ltpleks] n.
, .
@
()
.
multiplexor channel ['m7ltpleksc 'nl]
multiplicand [/m7ltpl'knd] n.

multiplicand gate [/m7ltpl'knd 'let]


multiplicand register [/m7ltpl'knd 'restc]
multiplicand() [/m7ltpl'knd]

multiplication [/m7ltpl'kecn]
n. 1. ; 2.
multiplication algebra of an algebra [/m7ltpl'kecn 'lbrc ]v cn
'lbrc]
multiplication by constant [/m7ltpl'kecn ba 'k]nstcnt]

multiplication factor [/m7ltpl'kecn 'fktc] 1. ; 2.
multiplication of series [/m7ltpl'kecn ]v 'scri:z]

multiplication time [/m7ltpl'kecn tam] .@


, .
multiplicator [/m7ltpl'ketc] n.

multiplicity [/m7lt'plst] n. , , ,

multiplier ['m7ltplac] n. 1.
, ; 2.
multiplier quotient register
['m7ltplac 'kwoucnt 'restc]
multiplier register ['m7ltplac
'restc]
multiply ['m7ltpla] v. 1. , ; 2. ; 3.
(by)
multiply connected ['m7ltpla
kc'nektd] .@ ,
, ( ). -
,
.
multiply defined identifier ['m7ltpla d'fand a'dentfac] .
. . multiply definition multipoint line
multiplying ['m7ltpla] n. ; adj. ,
multiplying circuit ['m7ltpla
'sc:kt]
multiplying
digital-to-analog
converter (MDAC) ['m7ltpla 'dtl'tu:'ncl]l kcn'vc:tc] -

379

________________________________________________________________________________________

-
multiplying instruction ['m7ltpla n'str7kcn]
multiplying order ['m7ltpla
]:'dc]
multipoint connection ['m7ltp]nt kc'nekcn] .@ .
multipoint line ['m7ltp]nt lan]
, .
. . multidrop line.@
,
(,
. .).
multiprocessing system ['m7lt'prouses 'sstm] 1.
; 2.
multiprocessing efficiency ['m7lt'prouses 'fcns]

multiprocessing system (miltiprocessor) ['m7lt'prouses 'sstm
('m7lt'prouesc)]

multiprogramming
['m7lt'proulrm] n. 1. , .
. multitasking; 2. .@ ,

.
multiprogramming efficiency
['m7lt'proulrm 'fcns]
multiprogramming system ['m7lt'proulrm 'sstm] -

(, ).@ ,
.
multiprogramming with variable tasks (MVS) ['m7lt'proulrm
w 'vcrcbl ta:sks]

multiprogramming with virtual


storage (MVS) ['m7lt'proulrm
w 'vc:tjucl 'st]:r]
multireel file ['m7ltri:l fal] . . . multivolume file
multiset ['m7ltset] n. . . . bag
multispectral scanner subsystem (MSS) ['m7lt'spektrcl 'sknc
s7b'sstm]
multistable circuit ['m7ltstebl
'sc:kt]
multistage sample (sampling)
['m7ltste 'sa:mpl ('sa:mpl)] . . .
sample 2.
multistep accessible data ['m7lt'step k'sesbl 'detc] ,
multitasking ['m7ltta:sk] n.
, .@
, ,

.

380________________________________________________________________________________________
multitasking support ['m7ltta:sk sc'p]:t]
multitasking system ['m7ltta:sk 'sstm]
multithreaded list ['m7lt'redd
lst] . . . multilist
multithreading
['m7lt'red]

multitude ['m7lttju:d] n.
multiunit processor ['m7ltju:nt
'prousesc]
multiuser ['m7ltju:zc] adj.
multi-user system ['m7lt'ju:zc
'sstm] . . . time-sharing system
multivalued logic ['m7lt'vlju:d
'l]k]
multivariate analysis ['m7lt'vcret c'nlcsz] .
@
,
.
multivariate moment ['m7lt'vcret 'moumcnt]
multivibrator ['m7lt/va'bretc]
n.
multivolume file ['m7lt'v]ljum
fal] .@ ().
multiway search tree ['m7ltwe
sc:t tri:]
.@ -


2 n.
muscle ['m7sl] n. ;
mutual ['mju:tjucl] adj.
mutual exclusion ['mju:tjucl ks'klu:cn] .@
, , , ,
.

N*
(n, k) code n, k ; ; ;

(non)slack inequality [(n]n)slk
/ni:'kw]lt] ()
naive [na:'i:v] adj. 1. ,
; 2.
NAK (negative acknowledgement)
, .@
,
. ASCII 21. . ACK
naked machine ['nekd mc'i:n]
. . . bare machine
name [nem] n. 1. .@
, : , , , ,
, , , . 2. ,
, ; v. .# to name (mention) only a few

381

________________________________________________________________________________________

name space [nem spes]


namely [neml] adj.
names conflict [nems 'k]nflkt]
.@ ,


.
names table ['nems 'tebl] .@
, .
naming class [nem kla:s]
.@



; , , ,
.
NAND -.@
.
nano- (n) ['nnou] -.@ , (10-9).
nanosecond ['nnou'sekcnd] n.

narrow ['nrou] adj. 1. ; 2.


; 3. , ,
narrow pulse ['nrou p7ls]
narrow-band ['nrou'bnd] adj.

narrow-band data line (NBDL)


['nrou'bnd 'detc 'lan]
narrow-band frequency modulation (NBFM, NFM) ['nrou'bnd
'detc 'fri:kwcns /m]djulecn]

native mode ['netv moud]


. . compatibility mode
native-mode compiler ['netv'moud kcm'palc] .@ ,
, . .
cross compiler
native-mode language ['netv'moud 'llw] ,
natural ['nrcl] adj. 1. , ; 2. , .# natural enouhg

natural binary code ['nrcl
'bancr koud]

natural binary coded decimal


(NBCD) ['nrcl 'bancr koudd 'desmcl] -
natural frequency ['nrcl 'fri:kwcns]
natural language ['nrcl 'llw] .@ ,
.
natural language front-end
['nrcl 'llw fr]nt'end] - . .
. natural language interface
natural language interface
['nrcl 'llw /ntc'fes] - .@

.
natural language understanding ['nrcl 'llw /7ndc'stnd]
.@
,
-

382________________________________________________________________________________________

.
natural logarithm ['nrcl 'l]lcrcm]
natural number ['nrcl 'n7mbc]
natural sampling ['nrcl 'sa:mpl]
natural selection ['nrcl s'lekcn]
natural system ['nrcl 'sstm]
.@
(. . ,
),

naturally ['nrcl] adv. 1. ; 2.
naturally commutating inverter
['nrcl /k]mju:'tet n'vc:tc]
nature ['nec] n. 1. ; 2.
; 3. ; 4. ; 5.
, , .#by nature ; .# in (of) the nature
, ,
; .# in the nature of things
; , .# in
the coutse of nature .# true to nature
; .# to be
of a similar nature
nautical ['n]:tkcl] adj.
N-dimensional array [en/d'mencnl c're] N- .@ , N .
near [nc] adv., prp. ,
; adj. .# near by ,

near plane [nc plan]


.@
,

. . far
plane
nearly ['ncl] adv. ,
neat [ni:t] adj. 1. , ;
2. ; 3. ,
necessarily ['nesscrl] adv. ,
necessary ['nesscr] adj. 1. , ; 2.
necessitate [n'sestet] v. 1. , ;
2.
necessity [n'sest] n. 1. ; 2. .# of necessity , ;
need [ni:d] n. 1. , ; 2. ; v. ;
2.
needle [ni:dl] n. 1. ; 2.
; 3.
negated symbol [n'letd 'smbcl]
negation [n'lecn] n. . . . NOT
negative ['nelctv] adj.
negative acknowledgement ['nelctv ck'n]lmcnt] , .@
, . . positive acknowledgement

383

________________________________________________________________________________________

negative balance ['nelctv 'blcns] ,


negative computer zero ['nelctv kcm'pju:tc 'zcrou]

negative differential conductivity (NDC) ['nelctv dfc'rencl kcn'd7ktvt]
negative electron affinity (NEA)
['nelctv /lek'tr]n c'fnt]
negative feedback (NFB) ['nelctv 'fi:d/bk]

negative input, positive output


(NIPO) ['nelctv 'nput 'p]zctiv 'autput] ()

negative integer ['nelctv 'ntc]
negative number representation
['nelctv
'n7mbc
/reprzen'tecn]

negative resistance (NR) ['nelctv r'zstcns]
negative resistance diode (NRD)
['nelctv r'zstcns daoud] 1.
; 2.

negative resistance effect (NRE)
['nelctv r'zstcns 'fekt]
negative resistance element
(NRE) ['nelctv r'zstcns 'elmcnt]

negative sing ['nelctv s] ,

negative temperature coefficient (NTC) ['nelctv 'temprtc /kou'ficnt]


negative zero ['nelctv 'zcrou]
.@ (,
) :
, .
neglect [n'llekt] v. , ; n.
negligence ['nellcns] n. ;
negligent ['nellcnt] adj.
negligible ['nellcbl] adj. ,
negligibly ['nellcbl] adv.
negotiation [n/lou'ecn] n. .@


, .
neighbor(u)r ['nebc] n.
neighbor(u)ring ['nebcr] adj.

neighbourhood ['nebchud] n.
, , .#
in the neighbourhood of ,
neighbourhood of zero ['nebchud ]v 'zcrou]
neither ['nac] adj. ,
(); , ; adv.
.# neither nor
neon ['ni:cn] n.

384________________________________________________________________________________________
neon indicating light (NIIL)
['ni:cn 'ndket 'lat]
neon indicator tube (NIT)
['ni:cn 'ndketc tju:b]
neper (Np) ['ni:pc] (8,686
)
nerve cell [nc:v si:l]
,
nervous system ['nc:vcs 'sstm]

nested [nestd] adj.
nested blocks ['nestd bl]k]
nested loops ['nestd lu:ps] ,
nested macros ['nestd 'mkrous]
.@
.
nested scopes ['nestd skoups]

nesting ['nest] .@
, .
nesting hierarchy ['nest 'hacra:k]
nesting level ['nest 'levl] ,
nesting loop ['nest lu:p]
nesting memory ['nest 'memcr]
nesting storage ['nest 'st]:r]
. . . stack
nesting store ['nest 'st]:]

nesting subroutine ['nest scb/ru:'tn]


net [net] n. ; ; adj. 1.
( , ); 2.
net effect [net 'fekt]
net efficiency [net 'fcns]
net gain [net lan]

net method [net 'mecd]

network (layer) protocol ['netwc:k ('leic) 'proutck]l] , .@



,
()
. . .
network layer, open system interconnection
network (NET, net) ['netwc:k] n.
1. .@ 1. , .

, . 2.
. 2.

network address ['netwc:k c'dres] .@ .


network architecture ['netwc:k
'a:ktekc] ;
.@ , , ,
. . . network topology

385

________________________________________________________________________________________

network calculator ['netwc:k


'klkjuletc]
network control protocol ['netwc:k kcn'troul 'proutck]l]

network data base ['netwc:k
'detc bes] .@
,
-,
. ,
. . relational data base
network data base system ['netwc:k 'detc bes 'sstm]
()
network delay ['netwc:k d'le]
.@
.
network description language
(NDL) ['netwc:k ds'krpcn 'llw]

network file system (NFS) ['netwc:k fal 'sstm]

network front-end ['netwc:k end


fr]nt] .@ ,
.
network generation ['netwc:k
'encrecn]
( )
network interconnection ['netwc:k /ntc'kcnekcn]
network layer ['netwc:k 'leic] .@

, ()
. , , 100 50
. , .
,
.
. open system interconnection
network processor ['netwc:k
'prousesc] . .
. network front-end
network protocol ['netwc:k
'proutck]l] .@ , .
. .network (layer) protocol
network structure ['netwc:k
'str7ktc] .@ ,

.
network topology ['netwc:k tc'p]l]] , .@ .
network virtual ['netwc:k 'vc:tjucl]
neural loop ['ncjurcl lu:p]
neutral ['nju:trcl] n. ;
adj.
neutral-density (filter) (ND)
['nju:trcl'denst ('filtc)]
()
neutrality ['nju:trclt] n.
neutralization ['nju:trcl'zecn]
n.

386________________________________________________________________________________________
neutralize ['nju:trclaz] v.
neutron ['nju:tr]n] n.
never ['nevc] adv. .# never before .# never more
nevertheless [/nevcc'les] adv.
,
new [nju:] adj. 1. ; 2.
, ; adv. -, -,
, (
).# new-born ;
.# new-built

newadays ['naucdez] adv. ,


newton (N) ['nju:t]n] ,
Newton's method ['nju:t]ns 'mecd] , .@


.
next [nekst] adj. ,
; adv. ; prp. .#
next but one .# next to
nothing .# next to the
last
N-fold multiple integral [en/fould 'm7ltpl 'ntlrcl] N-

N-gram probability [cn'lrm


/pr]bc'blt]
N-
nibble ['nbl] n. , .@ ,
.
nichrom [ni:'kroum] n. ,

nickel [nkl] n. ; v.
nil radical [nl 'rdkcl]

nine's compliment [nans 'k]mplmcnt] ()


. .
. radix-minus-one compliment
nine's compliment representation [nans 'k]mplmcnt /reprzen'tecn]
,

nitrogen ['natrccn] n.
N-level program [cn'levl 'proulrm] N-,
N-
no [nou] adj. .# no
longer .# no more
.# no matter , .# no sooner than
no connection (NC) [nou 'kcnekcn]
no detect (ND) [nou d'tekt]
no inspection verification (NIV)
[nou n'spekcn /verf'kecn]
no message (NM) [nou 'mes]

no operation (NOP) [nou /]pc'recn]
no-address computer [nou/c'dres
kcm'pju:tc] (-)
no-address instruction [nou/c'dres n'str7kcn]
node [noud] n. 1. ( ); 2. ( )
node computer [noud kcm'pju:tc]
node splitting [noud 'splt]
nodule ['n]djul] n. ,

387

________________________________________________________________________________________

no-failure operation [nou'feljc


/]pc'recn]
noise [n]z] n. , .@
,
.
noise digit [n]z 'dt]

noise diode (NODE) [n]z daoud]
noise factor (NF) [n]z 'fktc]

noise generator (NSGN) [n]z
'encretc]
noise immunity [n]z 'mju:nt]

noise limiter (NL, NLT) [n]z


'lmtc]
noise margin ['n]z 'ma:n]
noise meter (NM) [n]z 'mi:tc]

noise mode ['n]z moud] .@ , .


noise pattern [n]z 'ptcn]
noise power ratio (NPR) ['n]z
'pauc 'reou]
noise reduction (NR) ['n]z
r'd7kcn]
noise reduction system (NRS)
['n]z r'd7kcn 'sstm]
noise sequence ['n]z 'si:kwcns]
;

noise source ['n]z s]:s]


noise suppression circuit (NSC)
['n]z sc'precn 'sc:kt]
noise-equivalent power (NEP)
[n]z/'kwvclcnt 'pauc]
noise-equivalent temperature
(NET) [n]z/'kwvclcnt 'temprtc]
noiseless channel ['n]zles 'nl]

noiseless coding ['n]zles 'koud]
noise-to-signal ratio (NSR)
['n]z'tu:'slncl 'reou]
-
noisy channel ['n]z 'nl]
nomenclature (nomen) [nou'menklcc] 1. ; 2. ; ; 3.
nominal ['n]mncl] n. :
adj.
nominally ['n]mncl] adv.
non- ['n]n-] pref.
, : non-conductor
non von Neumann architecture
['n]n v]n neman 'a:ktekc] - .@ ,

- .
--
:
,
.

388________________________________________________________________________________________
. . dataflow machine, reduction machine
non von Neumann computer
['n]n v]n neman kcm'pju:tc] - . . . non
von Neumann architecture
nonalgebraic adder ['n]n/l'brek 'dc]
non-arithmetic shift ['n]n/c'rmctk ft]
non-arithmetic statement ['n]n/c'rmctk 'stetmcnt]
non-associative algebra ['n]nc/sous'etv 'lbrc]
nonbinary logic [n]n'bancr 'l]k] ,
noncoherent ['n]n/kou'hcrent]
adj.
noncoherent
frequency-shift
keying (NCFSK] ['n]n/kou'hcrent
'fri:kwcns'ft ki:]

nonconducting ['n]n/kcn'd7kt]
adj.
nonconsistently based code
['n]nkcn'sstcns best koud]

non-contiguous ['n]n/kcn'tljucs] . . contiguous
nondeformed ['n]n/d'f]:md] adj.

nondegenerate
['n]n/d'encrct] adj.
nondelay (ND) ['n]n/d'le]

nondestructive backspace ['n]ndstr7ktv 'bkspes] -

.@




. .destructive backspace
nondestructive check ['n]ndstr7ktv tek]
nondestructive memory ['n]ndstr7ktv 'memcr]
nondestructive read(ing) ['n]ndstr7ktv ri:d()]
.@

, . . destructive read
nondestructive
read-out
(NDRO) ['n]ndstr7ktv 'ri:d7ut]
nondestructive test (NDT) ['n]ndstr7ktv test] ;
nondeterminism ['n]nd'tc:mnzcm] n. .@
, .


.
nondirectional (ND) ['n]n/d'rekcnl]
none [n7n] pron. , ;
; adj. ; adv. , .# none but .# none the less
nonequilibrium ['n]n/i:kw'lbrcm] adj.

389

________________________________________________________________________________________

nonequivalence
['n]n'kwvclcns] n. , . . . XOR
nonessential singular point
['n]n'sencl 'sljulc p]nt] 1. ; 2.
non-failure operating
time
['n]n'feljc /]pc'ret tam]

non-homogeneous-differential
equation ['n]n/h]mc'i:njcs/dfc'rencl 'kwecn]
non-impact printer ['n]n'impkt 'prntc] , . . . ink-jet
printer, laser printer, thermal
printer
non-indexed command ['n]n'ndekst kc'ma:nd]
()
noninductive (NI) ['n]n/n'd7ktv]
noninteracting ['n]n/ntcr'kt]
adj.
nonlinear ['n]n'lanc] adj.
nonlinear capacitance (NC)
['n]n'lanc k'pcstcns]

nonlinear capacitor (NLC)


['n]n'lanc kc'pstc]

nonlinear charge-storage element (NLCSE) ['n]n'lanc a:c'st]:r 'elmcnt]
nonlinear distortion factor
(NDF) ['n]n'lanc ds't]cn 'fktc]
nonlinear element (NLE) ['n]n'lanc 'elmcnt]

nonlinear equation ['n]n'lanc


'kwecn]
nonlinear interpolating (NLI)
['n]n'lanc n/tc:pc'let]

nonlinear interpolator (NLI)


['n]n'lanc n/tc:pc'letc]

nonlinear programming (NLP)


['n]n'lanc 'proulrm]

nonlinear regression model


['n]n'lanc r'lrecn 'm]dl]

nonlinear resistance (NLR, NR)
['n]n'lanc r'zstcns]
nonlinear resistor (NLR) ['n]n'lanc r'zstc]
nonlinear system (NLS) ['n]n'lanc 'sstm]
nonlinearity ['n]n'lancrt] n.

nonlocal entity ['n]n'loukcl 'entt]


nonlocal identifier ['n]n'loukcl
a'dentfac]
nonlocking escape ['n]n'l]k
s'kep] .@
, . . locking escape
nonlocking
shift
character
['n]n'l]k ft 'krktc]

nonmagnetic (NM, nomag)
['n]n'ml'netk] adj.
nonmaskable interrupt (NMI)
['n]n'ma:keibl /intc'r7pt] -

390________________________________________________________________________________________
. . maskable
interrupt
nonmemory reference instruction ['n]n'memcr 'refrcns n'str7kcn]
,
.@ ,
.
.
nonmetallic ['n]n/m'tlk] adj.

nonmonotonic reasoning ['n]nmc'n]tnk 'ri:zn]


.@ , (, ,
,
). . monotonic reasoning
nonnumeric character ['n]n'nju:mcrk 'krktc]
non-numerical
information
['n]n'nju:mcrkcl /nfc'mecn]
non-parametric ['n]n/pc'rmtrk] adj.
non-parametric
techniques
['n]n/pc'rmtrk tek'ni:ks] .@ ,
-
, .
nonpreemptive allocation ['n]n'pri:'emptv 'lckecn]
.@ -

, , ,
.
nonprint run ['n]n'prnt r7n]

nonprinting character ['n]n'prnt 'krktc] .
@ ,
.
nonprocedural language ['n]nprc'scrcl 'llw] . . . declarative language
nonprocess run ['n]n'prouses
r7n]

non-programmer user ['n]n'proulrmc 'ju:zc] -


non-random access ['n]n'rndcm 'kses]
nonreactive (NR) ['n]n/ri:'ktv]

nonregenerative ['n]n/r'encrtv] adj.


nonrelativistic ['n]n/relct'vstk]
n.
nonresident routine ['n]n'rezdcnt ru:'ti:n] .@ .
nonreturn to zero (NRZ) ['n]n'rtc:n tu: 'zcrou]
.@ ,
.
nonreturn to zero inverted
(NRZI) ['n]n'rtc:n tu: 'zcrou n'vc:td]

391

________________________________________________________________________________________

nonreversible (NR) ['n]n/r'vc:sbl]


nonserial ['n]n'scrcl] adj.
nonsignificant digit ['n]nsl'nfkcnt 'dt] , .@ 1. ,

. 2. ,
, . . significant digit
nonsignificant zero ['n]nsl'nfkcnt 'zcrou]
non-singular matrix ['n]n'sljulc 'metrks] ()
nonswappable
['n]n'sw]pebl]
adj. .@
,

.
. .
. swapping
nonterminal node [n]n'tc:mnl
noud] .@ ,
(. .
)
.
nonterminal symbol [n]n'tc:mnl 'smbcl] .@
.
nonuniform [n]n'ju:nf]:m]
nonuniform convergence [n]n'ju:nf]:m kcn'vc:cns]

nonuniform transmission line


(NTL, NUTL) [n]n'ju:nf]:m trnz'mcn lan]
nonvanishing [n]n'vn] adj.
1. ; 2.
nonvolatile memory [n]n'v]lctal 'memcr] .@ ,
().
nonwrap mode ['n]n'rp moud]
.@ ,


.
nonzero ['n]n'zcrou] n. ;
adj.
nonzero digit ['n]n'zcrou 'dt]

no-op instruction ['nou']p n'str7kcn] ,
no-operation
[nou/]pc'recn]
,
nor [n]:] cj. 1. ; 2. ,
( ).# neither
nor
NOR -.@

N-order logic [en/]:'dc 'l]k]


N- .@ ,
N 1. , .
norm [n]:m] n.

392________________________________________________________________________________________
norm axiom [n]:m 'kscm]
norm of vector [n]:m ]v 'vektc]

normal ['n]:mcl] adj. , ; n. ,
normal conditions ['n]:mcl kcn'dcns] 1. ; 2.

normal distribution ['n]:mcl
ds'trbju:cn] ,
normal form ['n]:mcl f]:m]
normalization [/n]mcla'zecn]
n. 1. .@ 1. ( ). 2.
,
,
. 2. , ,
normalization transformation
[/n]:mcla'zecn /trnsfc'mecn] . .
. viewing transformation
normalization of frequency
function [/n]mcla'zecn ]v 'fri:k
wcns 'f7kcn]

normalize ['n]:mclaz] v.
normalized device coordinates
['n]:mclazd d'vas kou']:dnts] .@
, -

,
0 1. ,
,
.
normalized form ['n]:mclazd
f]:m] 1. ; 2.

normalized instruction ['n]:mclazd n'str7kcn]
normally [n]:mcl] adv.
normally closed (NC) [n]:mcl
klouzd] , ()
normally open (NO) [n]:mcl
'oupcn]
normally open contact (NOC)
[n]:mcl 'oupcn 'k]ntkt]
normal-mode rejection ratio
(NMRR) ['n]:mcl'moud r'ekcn 'reou]
NOT [n]t] .@

notable ['noutcbl] adj. 1. ; , ( ); 2. ( )
notably ['noutcbl] adv.
notation [nou'tecn] n. 1. ; 2. , , ,
notationally [nou'tecl] adv.

not-busy interrupt [n]t'bz /ntc'r7pt]

393

________________________________________________________________________________________

notch [n]] n. , ;
v. 1. ; 2.
note [nout] v. 1. ;
; 2. ; .# of note , .# it will be noted .# worthy of note .# to be noted for
-..# to take
note of -.
noteworthy ['nout/wc:] adj.

nothing ['n7] pron. ,
.# nothing but .#
nothing else than .#
to have nothing to do with

notice ['nouts] v. ; ; ; n. , ; ;
.# on a shjrt notice
, .# to bring to
one's notice .#
to take notice of -.
noticeable ['noutscbl] adj.
notion ['noucn] n. ,
,
notwithstanding [/notw'stnd]
prp. ,
nought [n]:t] n. ,
nought = naught
nought check [n]:t tek]
noughts complement [n]:ts
'k]mplmcnt] .
. . radix co-mplement
novel ['n]vcl] adj. ,
now [nau] adv. 1. ,
; 2. ; cj. , .# now
and again , -

.# now and then ,


.# now that
,
.# by nowb on .#
just now .# up to now
.# up till now
N-phases pulse-shift keying (NPSK) [cn'fezs 'p7ls'ft ki:] N
N-plus-a-half loop [en'p7ls'c'ha:f
lu:p] N ,
.@ ,
;

, .
n-segment numeric display module [en'selmcnt nju:'mcrk ds'ple
'm]dju:l] n-

n-tuple [t7pl] n
nuclear ['nju:klc] adj.
nuclei ['nju:kla] pl. nucleus
nucleon ['nju:kl]n] n.
nucleus ['nju:klcs] n. 1. .@
(, ). . . kernel; 2.
nudge [n7] n.
()
nuisance ['nju:sns] n. 1. , ; 2. ,
null (empty) list [n7l ('empt)
lst]
null (zero) matrix [n7l ('zcrou)
'metrks] .@ ,
null [n7l] adj. 1. , ; 2. .@
-

394________________________________________________________________________________________
, ,
.
null attribute [n7l 'tribju:t]
null character [n7l 'krktc]

null circuit [n7l 'sc:kt]

null information [n7l /nfc'mecn]


null instruction [n7l n'str7kcn]
()
null link [n7l lnk]
,
null representation [n7l /reprzen'tecn]

null statement [n7l 'stetmcnt]



null string [n7l str]
.@ .
nullify ['n7lfa] v. ;
nullity of a graph ['n7lt ]v c
lrf]
num lock [n7m l]k] .@

.
number ['n7mbc] n. 1. ,
; 2. ; v. .# a number of (
); .# the number of , .# quite a
number
number address code ['n7mbc
c'dres koud]
number code ['n7mbc koud]

number converter ['n7mbc kcn'vc:tc]

number cruncher ['n7mbc kr7ntc] ,


-
number designation ['n7mbc dczl'necn] .@ ,
;
.
number generator ['n7mbc 'encretc]
number language ['n7mbc 'll]
number normalization ['n7mbc
/n]mcla'zecn]
number of primary turns (NP)
['n7mbc ]v 'pramcr 'tc:ns]

number of secondary turns
(NP) ['n7mbc ]v 'sekcndcr 'tc:ns]

number of turns (NOT, not)
['n7mbc ]v 'tc:ns]
number range ['n7mbc ren]

number register ['n7mbc 'restc]
number representation ['n7mbc
/reprzen'tecn] ,

number sequence ['n7mbc 'si:kwcns]
number system ['n7mbc 'sstm]
.@
.
number system base ['n7mbc
'sstm bes]
number theory ['n7mbc 'cr]

395

________________________________________________________________________________________

number to frequency converter


['n7mbc tu: 'fri:kwcns kcn'vc:tc]

number to position converter
['n7mbc tu: pc'zicn kcn'vc:tc]
numeral ['nju:mcrcl] n. 1.
; 2. () ; adj.
;
numeral analysis ['nju:mcrcl
c'ncsz] .@ ,
,
numeral system ['nju:mcrcl 'sstm] (. )
numeration [/nju:mc'recn] n. 1.
; 2.
numeration system [/nju:mc'recn 'sstm] .
. . number system
numerator register ['nju:mcretc 'restc]
numeric character [nju:'mcrk
'krktc]
numeric concept [nju:'mcrk 'k]sept] 1. ; 2.

numeric field [nju:'mcrk fi:ld]

numeric keypad [nju:'mcrk 'ki:pd] ,
.@ .
numeric word [nju:'mcrk wc:d]
1. ,
; 2.
numerical [nju:'mcrkcl] adj. .@ , ,

. .
analytical
numerical analysis [nju:'mcrkcl
c'nlcsz] .@ ,
,

.

.
numerical aperture (NA) [nju:'mcrkcl 'pctjuc]
numerical code [nju:'mcrkcl
koud] .@ ,

.
numerical computation [nju:'mcrkcl /kcmpju:'tecn]

numerical constant [nju:'mcrkcl
'k]nstcnt]
numerical control (NC) [nju:'mcrkcl kcn'troul]
numerical data [nju:'mcrkcl
'detc]
numerical differentiation [nju:'mcrkcl /dfcren'ecn]

numerical information [nju:'mcrkcl /nfc'mecn]

numerical integration [nju:'mcrkcl 'ntlrecn]


numerical linear algebra [nju:'mcrkcl 'lanc 'lbrc]

numerical method [nju:'mcrkcl
'mecd]

396________________________________________________________________________________________
numerical position [nju:'mcrkcl
pc'zicn]
numerical representation [nju:'mcrkcl /reprzen'tecn]
numerical stability [nju:'mcrkcl
stc'blt]

numerical system [nju:'mcrkcl


'sstm] (.
)
numerical value [nju:'mcrkcl
'vlju:]
numerically [nju:'mcrkcl] adv.

numerous ['nju:mcrcs] adj.
n-unit code [en'ju:nt koud] n
n-unit space [en'ju:nt spes]
n-

O*
obey [c'be] v. ,
object [']bkt] n. 1. .
. . object-oriented language;
2. , . . .
target; 3. , . .
source; 4. ; 5. .# the object in view ; v.

object code [']bkt koud] 1.


, .@ ,
. 2. ,

object computer [']bkt kcm'pju:tc] ,


. . . target computer
object data [']bkt 'detc]
object file [']bkt fal] .@ , .
object language [']bkt 'llw] ,
.@ , . . source language
object library [']bkt 'labrcr]
,

object manager [']bkt 'mnc]
object module [']bkt 'm]dju:l]
.@
,


.
object program [']bkt 'proulrm] .@ . .
. object code
object(-oriented) architecture
[']bkt(']:rcntd) 'a:ktekc] - .@ , , , - .
objection [cb'ckcn] n. .# open to objection ;

397

________________________________________________________________________________________

objectionable [cb'ckncbl] adj.

objective []b'cktv] n. ,
;
objective function []b'cktv
'f7kcn]
objective parameter []b'cktv
pc'rmtc]
object-oriented language [']bkt']:rcntd 'llw] .@ ,
.
;
,
,
.
- , . - Smalltalk.
object-oriented programming
[']bkt']:rcntd 'proulrm] - . . . object-oriented
language
object-space methods [']bkt'spes 'mecds]
.@

,
.
object-store [']bkt'st]:] -
.@

, ;
.
object-time [']bkt'tam]

object-to-be-tested (OtbT) [']bkt'tu:'bi:'testd]


object-verb syntax [']bkt'vc:b
'sntks] .@ ,
. ,

, ,
. . verbobject syntax
obligatory [c'bllctcr] adj. 1.
; 2.
oblique coordinate(s) [c'bli:k
kou']:dnt(s)]
oblong [']bl]] adj.
obscure [cb'skjuc] adj. 1. ; 2. ; ; v. 1. ; 2.
observable []bzc:'vebl] adj.
observation [/]bzc:'/vecn] n. 1.
; 2. ;
3. ,
observe [cb'zc:v] v. 1. , ; 2. ; 3. ( . .)

398________________________________________________________________________________________
observer [cb'zc:vc] v.
obsolescence [/]bsc'lesns] n.
obsolescent [/]bsc'lesnt] adj. ,
obsolete [']bscli:t] adj. 1. , ;

obstacle [']bstckl] n.
obstruct [cb'str7kt] v. 1. ; 2.
obtain [cb'ten] v. 1. ;
; 2. , ; 3.
obtainable [cb'tencbl] adj. ,
obviate [']bvet] v.
obvious [']bvcs] adj. , ,
Occam [']kcm].@ , INMOS,

.
,
.
Occam razor [']kcm 'rezc]
.@ , .
occasion [c'kecn] n. 1. ;
2. ; 3. .# on
occasion .# on the occasion of

occasional [c'kecnl] adj. 1. ; 2. , -

, ; 3.

occasionally [c'kecnl] adv.
,
occlude []'klu:d] v. 1. , ; 2. ()
occupational [/]kju'pecnl] adj.

occupied
bandwidth
(OB)
[']kjupad 'bndwd] ()
occupy [']kjupa] v. 1. ,
; 2. -.
occur [c'kc:] v. 1. ,
; 2. ; ; 3.
occurrence [c'k7rcns] n. 1. ; ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ; ; 6.
octal (oct) [']ktcl] adj. 1. ; 2.
octal multiplication [']ktcl /m7ltpl'kecn] ( )
octal notation [']ktcl nou'tecn]
.@
octal representation [']ktcl /reprzen'tecn]
octave (oct) [']ktv]
octet []k'tet] n. .@ .
.
octree []k'tri:] n. , 8-.@
-

399

________________________________________________________________________________________

,

. . . quadtree
odd []d] adj. 1. ; 2.
; 3. , ;
4. ; 5. .# oddly to say .# twenty
odd
odd discrete Fourier transform
(ODFT) []d ds'kri:t f]:rcr trns'f]:m]
odd face []d fes]

odd function []d 'f7kcn]
odd integer []d 'ntc]
odd parity []d 'prt]
.@ .
. even parity
odd-even check []d 'i:vcn tek]
-
odd-time odd-frequency discrete Fourier transform (O2DFT)
[]d'tam ]d'fri:kwcns ds'kri:t f]:rcr
trns'f]:m] - -
of []v, cv] prp. 1. ; 2. ; 3. , , ; 4. ; -; ; .# to be of (importance, interest etc.) , (, . .)
off []f, ]:f] adv.
, ,
, ,
. ., : some
distance off .# off and on ,

.# off hand , .# off the point


.# far off .# to
give off .# to put off .# to read off .# to take off .# to turn
(switch) off
off position []:f pc'zicn]
off time []:f tam] ,
off-bit []:f'bt] , . . on-bit
offer [']fc] v. 1. ; ; ; 2.
( . .)
office []fs] n. 1. ; ; ; 2. ; ;
office automation []fs /]:tc'mecn] ,
off-line []:f'lan] 1. .@ . . on-line; 2.
( )
off-line control []:f'lan kcn'troul]
off-line data processing []:f'lan
'detc 'prouses]
off-line equipment []:f'lan 'kwpmcnt] ,
off-line mode []:f'lan moud] .@

.
off-line operation []:f'lan /]pc'recn]
off-line printer []:f'lan 'prntc]

400________________________________________________________________________________________
off-line processor []:f'lan 'prousesc] ,

off-line storage []:f'lan 'st]:r]
().@
, -.
offset [']:fset] n. . .
. displacement; v. 1. ,
; 2. ;
offspring [']:fspr] n. 1. , ; 2. ,
offspring task [']:fspr ta:sk]
, .@
,
.
off-the-shelf []:f'i:'elf] 1. ; 2.
often [']:fn] adv. ,

ohm [oum] n. .@

ohmic ['oumk] adj.
oil [']l] n. ,
omission [ou'mcn] n.
omit [ou'mt] v. ,

on position []n pc'zicn]


on time []n tam] ,
on-bit []n'bt] n.
, . .off-bit
once [w7ns] cj. , , ; ; ; adv. 1.
() ; 2. , -; .# once again , .# once and again ,

; .# once (and)
for all () .# once in a
while (way) , .# once
more .# all at once .# at once , .#
for once .# more than
once ,
on-circuit emulation (ONCE)
[w7n'sc:kt /emju:'lecn]
one state [w7n 'stet]
1 ()
one [w7n] num. ; pron.
. :
One must jbserve rules. ; n.
.# one
another .# one of
.# for one .# for one
thing -, .# to
be at one ,

one column adder [w7n 'k]lcm


'dc]
one digit adder [w7n 'dt
'dc]
one digit delay [w7n 'dt d'le]

one-address code [w7n'cdres
koud]
one-address instruction [w7n'cdres n'str7kcn]
one-dimensional array [w7n/d'mencnl c're] ;

one-for-one translation [w7n'f]:


'w7n trns'lecn] -, --
one-level address [w7n'levl
c'dres] . . . direct address

401

________________________________________________________________________________________

one-level store [w7n'levl st]:]


.@ ,
.
one-level subroutine [w7n'levl
scb/ru:'tn]
one-pass computer [w7n'pa:s
kcm'pju:tc] .@ ,
. , ,

, .
one-pass program [w7n'pa:s
'proulrm] .@ , .
one-plus-one-address [w7n'pl7s'w7n/c'dres]
one-pulse time delay [w7n'p7ls
tam d'le]

one's complement [w7ns 'k]mplmcnt] .@ .
. . radix-minus-one complement
oneself [w7n'self] pron. 1. ;
; 2. (), ; ()

one-time-programmable ROM
(OTPROM)
[w7n'tam'proulrmebl]

one-to-many relation [w7n'tu:'mn r'lecn] -.@


R(x, y) -, x0

y1, , yn, ,
R(x0, y1), R(x0, y2) ,
, R(x0, yn).
one-to-one assembler [w7n'tu:'w7n c'semblc] 1. .@ ,
. 2.
one-to-one relation [w7n'tu:'w7n r'lecn]
,
one-to-zero ratio [w7n'tu:'zcrou 'reou]
on-line (OL) []n'lan] 1. ; ; .@ , . 2.
.@ , .
.off-line. 3. .
on-line circuit analysis (OLCA)
[]n'lan 'sc:kt c'nlcsz]

on-line control []n'lan kcn'troul]
1. ; 2.
,

on-line data []n'lan 'detc] ; ,
on-line data base []n'lan 'detc
bes]
on-line data processing []n'lan
'detc 'prouses] ,

402________________________________________________________________________________________

on-line design []n'lan d'zan]

on-line diagnostics []n'lan /dacl'n]stks] , . . . diagnostics


on-line entry []n'lan 'entr] ()
on-line operation []n'lan /]pc'recn] 1. ; 2. ; 3.

on-line printer []n'lan 'prntc]



on-line processing []n'lan 'prouses] 1. ()
, ; 2.

on-line processor []n'lan 'prousesc] ; ;

on-line programming []n'lan


'proulrm]

on-line tutorial []n'lan tju:'t]:rcl] , .@
, , ,
.

on-line unit []n'lan 'ju:nt]


only ['ounl] adj. ;
adv. , ; cj. .#
only that , .# if only

on-screen formatting []n'skri:n
'f]:mt] , .@
,

. .
. text formatting
onset [']nset] n. 1. ; 2. .# at the first onset

on-the-fly []n'i:'fla] , .@ ,
.
on-the-fly error recovery []n'i:
'fla 'erc r'k7vcr]
on-the-fly garbage collection
[]n'i:'fla 'la:b kc'lekcn] , . . . incremental garbage collection
on-the-fly printer []n'i:'fla
'prntc] .@
,

.
onwards [']nw]dz] adv.
opaque ['ou'pek] adj. ,
opcode []p'koud] n.

403

________________________________________________________________________________________

open ['oupcn] v. 1.
(); 2. (); adj. , . . . extensible. n. .# to be open to
criticism (question, speculation) ; ,

open a file ['oupcn c fal] .@ , .
,
. . close a
file
open circuit (OC) ['oupcn 'sc:kt] ;
open function ['oupcn 'f7kcn]
.@ ,

open loop (OL) ['oupcn lu:p] 1.
.@
,
. 2.
; ; 3.
open loop control ['oupcn lu:p
kcn'troul] ()
open loop transfer function
(OLTF) ['oupcn lu:p 'trnsfc: 'f7kcn]
open shop ['oupcn ]p] . . closed shop
open subroutine ['oupcn scb/ru:'tn] , -

. . .
in-line subroutine
open system ['oupcn 'sstm] ; . . . extensible open systems interconnection
open
systems
architecture
(OSA) ['oupcn 'sstms 'a:ktekc] . .
. open systems interconnection
open systems interconnection
(OSI) ['oupcn 'sstms /ntc'kcnekcn]
.@
ISO ,
: , , , , , . ,

.
open-collector device ['oupcn/kc'lektc d'vas]

open-ended ['oupcn'endd] , .@ , ,
.
opening ['oupcn] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ,
operand (OPND) [']pcrcnd] n.

operand address [']pcrcnd c'dres] ,

404________________________________________________________________________________________
operand field [']pcrcnd fi:ld]
. . . argument
field
operand register [']pcrcnd 'restc]
operate [/]pc'ret] v. 1. ; ; ; , ; 2. ; 3.
operated [/]pc'retd] adj. ,
operated circuit [/]pc'retd 'sc:kt]
operating [/]pc'ret] adj. 1.
, ; 2. , ; .
operating characteristic [']pcreit /krktc'rstk] ()
operating circuit [/]pc'ret
'sc:kt]
operating delay [']pcreit d'le]

operating level [']pcreit 'levl]
()
operating personnel [']pcreit
'pc:snl]
operating range (OR) [']pcreit
ren]
operating rate [']pcreit ret]
,
operating ratio [']pcreit 'reou] .@

operating speed [']pcreit spi:d]


1. ; 2.

operating system (OS) [']pcreit 'sstm] .@


, ,
. : , -,
,
, , ,
, .
,

.
operating system generation
[']pcreit 'sstm 'encrecn] . .
. system generation
operating system kernel [']pcreit 'sstm 'kc:nl] .@
,

.
operating system resident [']pcreit 'sstm 'rezidcnt] .@ , .
operating time [']pcreit tam]
,

405

________________________________________________________________________________________

operation [/]pc'recn] n. 1. ( ),
.@ , . 2. . .
operator ; 3. ; ;
operation and maintenance
phase [/]pc'recn nd 'mentncns
'fez]
operation code (Op Cd) [/]pc'recn koud] ; , .@ 1.
,
. 2.


, .
operation declaration [/]pc'recn /deklc'recn]
operation decoder [/]pc'recn
di'koudc] . .
. instruction decoder
operation field [/]pc'recn fi:ld]
, .
. . instruction field
operation on sets [/]pc'recn ]n
sets] .@
, :
, , , .
operation per minute (OPM)
[/]pc'recn pc: ma'nju:t]
operation register [/]pc'recn
'restc] 1. ; 2.

operation testing [/]pc'recn test] ;



operation time [/]pc'recn tam]

operation(al) table [/]pc'recn(l)
'tebl] ;
operation-address
register
[/]pcrecn/c'dres 'restc]
operational [/]pc'recnl] adj. 1.
; ; 2.
operational amplifier (op-amp,
OA) [/]pc'recnl 'mplfac]
operational calculus [/]pc'recnl
'klkjulcs]
operational characteristic [/]pc'recnl /krktc'rstk]
operational decoder [/]pc'recnl
'di:'koudc]
operational factor [/]pc'recnl
'fktc] ()
(),
operational failure [/]pc'recnl
'feljc]
operational grammar [/]pc'recnl 'lrmc]
operational label [/]pc'recnl
'lebl] ,

operational method [/]pc'recnl
'mecd]

406________________________________________________________________________________________
operational multiplier [/]pc'recnl 'm7ltplac]

operational order [/]pc'recnl


]:'dc]
operational readiness and reliability test (ORRT) [/]pc'recnl 'redns nd r/lac'blt test]

operational research [/]pc'recnl r'sc:] .
. . operations research
operational semantics [/]pc'recnl si'mntiks] .@
, .
operational symbol [/]pc'recnl
'smbcl]
operational system (OS) [/]pc'recnl 'sstm]
operations analysis [/]pc'recns
c'nlcsz] .
. . operations research
operations manager [/]pc'recns
'mnc] () ;

operations on sets [/]pc'recns


]n sets] .@
, :
, , .
operations research [/]pc'recns
r'sc:] .@
, -

.
operative [/]pc'retv] adj. 1.
; 2.
operator (op) [']pcretc] n. 1.
; .@
, . 2. .@ ,
. 3. . . . statement
operator command [']pcretc
kc'ma:nd] .@ ,
operator error [']pcretc 'erc]

operator routine [']pcretc ru:'ti:n] ,
operator variable [']pcretc 'vcrcbl]
operator-indicator light [']pcretc'ndkctc 'lat] ()
operator-oriented
language
[']pcretc']:rcntd 'llw] ,

opinion [c'pnjcn] n.
opportunity [']pc'tjunt] n. ; .# to take
the opportunity

oppose [c'pouz] v. 1. (with, against); 2. ; 3. ,


, ; 4. , .# as opposed
to

407

________________________________________________________________________________________

opposed [c'pouzd] adj. 1. , ; 2.


opposing connection [c'pouz
kc'nekcn]
opposite [']pczt] adj. ,
optic (opt) [']ptks] n. ;
adj.
optical [']ptkcl] adj.
optical character recognition
(OCR) [']ptkcl 'krktc r'k]lncn]
.@

optical communication (opcom)
[']ptkcl kc'mju:n'kecn]

optical data card [']ptkcl 'detc


ka:d]
.@ , ,
.
optical delay line (ODL)
[']ptkcl d'le lan]

optical font [']ptkcl f]nt]



optical mark reading [']ptkcl
ma:k ri:d]

optical
mark
recognition
(OMR) [']ptkcl ma:k r'k]lncn]
optical parametric oscillator
(OPO) [']ptkcl pc'rmtrk /]s'letc]

optical reading [']ptkcl ri:d]



optical store [']ptkcl st]:]
optical tape reader [']ptkcl tep
'ri:dc]
optical transfer function (OTF)
[']ptkcl 'trnsfc: 'f7kcn]
optically [']ptkcl] adv.
opticals [']ptkcl] n.
optimal [']ptmel] adj. .@
.
,
.

optimal binary search tree [']ptmel 'bancr sc:t tri:]


.@ ,

.
optimal design [']ptmel d'zan]

optimization [']ptmzecn] n.
.@ 1.
, ,
. . .
code removal, common subexpressions. 2. , .
optimized code [']ptmzd koud]

408________________________________________________________________________________________
optimizer [']ptmzc] n. 1. .@ . . optimizing computer; 2. , .@ ,
.
optimizing computer [']ptmz
kcm'pju:tc] .@ ,
,
. ,
, .
optimum (opt) [']ptmcm] n.
;
adj.
optimum allocation [']ptmcm
'lckecn]
optimum programming [']ptmcm 'proulrm]
optimum scale integration [']ptmcm/skel 'ntlrecn] 1.
; 2.
option [']pcn] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
; 4. ()
option list [']pcn lst]

optional [']pcnl] adj. ;


optional information [']pcnl /nfc'mecn] ()

optional interrupt [']pcnl /ntc'r7pt]


optional label [']pcnl 'lebl]
optional parameter [']pcnl pc'rmtc]
optional product [']pcnl 'pr]dckt]
optional retention [']pcnl r'tencn]
optional word [']pcnl wc:d] (
)
optoelectronic multiplex switch
(OMS) [']ptou/lek'tr]nk 'm7ltpleks
sw]
optoelectronic pulse amplifier
(OPA) [']ptou/lek'tr]nk 'p7ls 'mplfac]
or []:] cj. ;
, ; ( );
( ).# or else
.# or so .# and/or

OR .@
orbit []:'bt] n.
orbital []:'btl] n. ; adj.

order []:'dc] n. 1. , ; ; 2. , ; 3. ;
4. ; 5. ; 6. ; 7. ; 8. ; 9. ; 11.
; ; 12. ;
13. ; 14. ; 15. ; 16. ;
17. ; 18. ;
v. 1. ; 2. ;
3. ; 4. -

409

________________________________________________________________________________________

.@
.#
in order , .# in order
that , .# in order to
, .# to be in order
;
order code []:'dc koud] ,
order modification []:'dc /m]df'kecn] ,
order of accuracy []:'dc ]v 'kjurcs]
order of convergence []:'dc ]v
kcn'vc:cns]
order of differential equation
[]:'dc ]v /dfc'rencl 'kwecn]
order of pole []:'dc ]v poul]
order of precedence []:'dc ]v
pri:'si:dcnts]
order of stationarity []:'dc ]v
'stencrt]
order range []:'dc ren]
order register []:'dc 'restc]

order statistics []:'dc 'sttks]
.@ ,

,
.
ordered []:'dct] adj.
ordered list []:'dct lst]
ordered pair []:'dct pc] .@ , .

ordered retrieval []:'dct r'tri:vcl]


ordering []:'dcr] n. , , , ,
ordering register (OR) []:'dcr
'restc]
ordering relation []:'dctr r'lecn] ; .@ , ,
.
orderly []:'dcl] adj. 1. ; 2. ; ; 3.
orderly close-down [']:dcl klouz
'daun]
ordinal [']:dnl] adj. ; n.
ordinal relation [']:dnl r'lecn]

ordinal type [']dnl tap] . . . enumerated type
ordinary [']:dnr] adj. ,

ordinary differential equation


[']:dnr /dfc'rencl 'kwecn]
ordinate [']:dnt] n.
ORG (origin [']rn]) ,

organic []:'lnk] adj.
organization [/]:lcna'zecn]

410________________________________________________________________________________________
organizational information system [/]:lcna'zecncl /nfc'mecn 'sstm]
organizational
instruction
[/]:lcna'zecncl n'str7kcn]
organize [/]:'lcnaz] v.
orient [']:rcnt] v.
origin [']rn] n. 1.
(
); 2. .@
, . 3.
. . . root; 4.
; 5. , , ; 6.

origin coordinate(s) [']rn


kou']:dnt(s)] 1. ; 2.
origin of coordinates [']rn ]v
kou']:dnts]
original [c'rcnl] n. ,
; adj. ; ; ;
original equipment manufacturer (OEM) [c'rcnl 'kwpmcnt
/mnju'fktcrc] .@ , .
originate [c'rnet] v. 1. ; 2. , ; 3. ; ; (from,
in, with)
orphan [']:fcn] n. .@ , , .,


. . window
orthogonal []:']lcncl] adj. ,
orthogonal list []:']lcncl lst]
.@ ,

.



.
orthogonal matrix []:']lcncl
'metrks]
orthogonal memory []:']lcncl
'memcr]
orthogonality []:']lcnclt] n.
.@
,
.
orthonormal analysis []']'n]:mcl c'nlcsz]

orthonormal basis []']'n]:mcl


'bess] .@
, ,

.
orthonormal functions []']'n]:mcl 'f7kcns]
orthorhombic []:']'rombk] adj.

oscillate [/]s'let] v.

411

________________________________________________________________________________________

oscillation (osc) [/]s'lecn] n.


, ,
oscillation of a function [/]s'lecn ]v c 'f7kcn]
oscillator (osc) [/]s'letc] n. 1.
; 2. ;
3. ; 4. ,
oscillatory [/]s'letcr] adj.
oscillogram [c'slcla:m] n.
oscillograph (oscilloscope) (osc)
[c'slcla:f (c'slcskoup)] n.
oscillographic [c'slcla:fk] adj.

oscilloscope [c'slcskoup] n.
osculating interpolation [/skju'let /ntc'pclecn]
other ['7c] adj. , ;
pron. ; adv. .# other
than , ; ;
; .# other things
(conditions) being equal
.# the other way
(round) .# each other
.# on the other hand
.# somehow or other
.# some time or other
-,
otherwise ['7cwaz] adv. 1.
, ; 2. ,
; 3. ,
, ; 4. , , : the presence or
otherwise of -

.# except when otherwise


stade (specified, indicated etc.)
,
.# unless (if) otherwise stated (indicated, mentioned,
noted, specified)
() .# under otherwise
equel (identical) conditions
ought []:t] v.

out [aut] adv. , ; pref.
1. .
-, : outrun ;
2. ,
: output (); outlying
out device [aut d'vas]
,
outburst ['out/bc:st] n.
outcome ['autk7m] n. 1. , ; 2. ()
outdated [aut'detd] adj.
outdegree [aut'dlri:]
outer ['autc] adj. ,
outer code ['autc koud]

outer loop ['autc lu:p]

outgoing [aut'lou] adj. 1. ; 2. ;


; 3. ; n.

outgoing data [aut'lou 'detc]



outgrowth ['autlrou] n. 1. ; ; 2.
outlet ['autlet] n.

412________________________________________________________________________________________
outline ['autlan] n. 1. , .@ ( , ,
)
. .
. outline processor; 2. ,
( pl.); v. (
).# in outline

outline flowchart ['autlan 'floua:t] -


outline processor ['autlan 'prousesc] .@ , ()
,
,

.
outlook ['autluk] n. 1. , ; 2. ,

outmatch [aut'm] v.
outnumber [aut'n7mbc] v.
out-of-date ['aut']v'det] adj.
outperform [/autpc:'f]m] 1.
; 2.
, ; 3.
output ['autput] n. 1. ; 2. , ; 3. , ; 4. ; 5. .@
,
.
output area ['autput 'crc]

output assertion ['autput c'sc:cn]


output backoff (OBO) ['autput
'bk']f ]
output block ['autput bl]k]
output buffer (OB) ['autput
'b7fc]
output buffer register ['autput
'b7fc 'restc]
,
output data ['autput 'detc] ,
output file ['autput fal] ,
output format ['autput 'f]mt]
.@ .
output generator (OG) ['autput
'encretc]
output highway (OHW) ['autput
'hawe]

output information ['autput /nfc'mecn] ,



output listing ['autput 'lst]
,

output medium ['autput 'mi:djcm] 1.


; 2.
output order ['autput ]:'dc]
output parameter ['autput pc'rmtc] , -
output potential ['autput pc'tencl]
output primitive ['autput 'prmtv] ,

413

________________________________________________________________________________________

, .
. . graphical output primitive
output program ['autput 'proulrm]
output queue ['autput kju:] .@
, .
output register ['autput 'restc]

output routine ['autput ru:'ti:n]

output routine ['autput ru:'ti:n]

output section ['autput 'sekcn]

output stream ['autput stri:m]
.@ , .
output subroutine ['autput scb/ru:'tn] .@

output unit ['autput 'ju:nt] ,
output variable ['autput 'vcrcbl]
output-bound task ['autput'baund ta:sk] ,
output-limited process ['autput'lmtd 'prouses]
.@ , .
outset ['autset] n. .# at the
outset .# from the outset

outside ['autsad] adj. , ; adv. 1. , ;
2.

outstanding [aut'stnd] adj. 1.


( ); 2.
outswap ['autswp] v. , . . . swap
out
outward ['autwcd] adj. 1. , ; ; 2.
outwardly ['autwcdl] adv. 1.
, ; 2.
outweigh [aut'we] v. 1.
; 2. ; . .
over ['ouvc] pref.
-, -, -;
prep. 1. , ; ; 2. ; 3.
; ; 4. ; adv. 1. ; 2. , ; 3. ; 4. .# over and
above , ;
.# over much of
-..# over and
over again , , .# over (within) the range , .# well
over ().#
to be over
overall ['ouvcr]:l] adj. ,

overall length ['ouvcr]:l le]



overall resistance (OR) ['ouvcr]:l]
overall
system
attenuation
(OSA) ['ouvcr]:l 'sstm c'tenjucn]

overbading ['ouvc'bd] n.
()

overbalance [/ouvc'blcns] v. 1.
; 2. ,

414________________________________________________________________________________________
overcome [/ouvc'k7m] v. (overcame, overcome) 1. ,
; 2. , (by)
overcurrent ['ouvc/k7rcnt] n.

overdraft ['ouvcdra:ft] n.
overdraw ['ouvcdr]:] v.
overestimate ['ouvc'estmet] n.
; v.
overexcite ['ouvc/k'sat] n.
overfall ['ouvcf]:l] n.
overflow ['ouvcflou] n. .@ 1.
. 2.
, .
3.

. v. ()
overflow area ['ouvcflou 'crc]
.@ -
,
, .

. . home
location
overflow check ['ouvcflou tek]

overflow digit position ['ouvcflou 'dt pc'zicn]
overflow indicator ['ouvcflou
'ndketc]

overflow jump instruction ['ouvcflou 7mp n'str7kcn]


overflow pointer ['ouvcflou
'p]ntc]
overflow record ['ouvcflou 'rek]:d] ,

overhead ['ouvchcd] adj. 1.


, ; 2. (
)
overlap ['ouvclp] v. 1. (); () ( ); 2. ; 3. ; n.
, ,
overlapping events ['ouvclp
'i:vents] .
@ ,
:
, , , .
overlay [/ouvc'le] n. 1. , .@
,
, . ( ), . 2. , ; 3. ; 4.
overlay
program
[/ouvc'le
'proulrm] ,

415

________________________________________________________________________________________

overlay segment [/ouvc'le selmcnt] , . . . overlay


overlay supervisor [/ouvc'le
'sju:pc'vaizc]
.@ ,

.
overlay transistor (OT) [/ouvc'le trn'zstc]

overlay tree [/ouvc'le tri:] ,


overload (OL, ovld) [/ouvc'loud]
n. ; v.
overload level [/ouvc'loud 'levl]

overload light [/ouvc'loud 'lat]

overload relay (OR) [/ouvc'loud
'ri:'le]
overloading [/ouvc'loud] n. .@

.

.
overlook [/ouvc'luk] v. 1. , ; ; 2.
( )
overnight [/ouvc'nat] adv. 1.
( ); (); 2. ;
(.)
override ['ouvcrad] v.(overrode,
overridden) 1. ; .
@ ,
-

. 2. ; ; 3.
, .# to be overridden with difficulties
overriding [/ouvc'rad] adj.
,
overrun ['ouvcr7n] v.
(, )
overtype mode ['ouvc'tap moud]
, .
@ ,

, . . insert mode
overvalue ['ouvc'vlju:] n. ; v. ,
;
overvoltage (ovv) ['ouvc'voult]
overwrite ['ouvcrat] v. ,
.@ ,
.
owe [ou] v. ,

owing to ['ou tu] prp. , , -


own [oun] adj. ; v.
, .# in one's own
(right) ; .# on
one's own (account) ; .# it stands on its own
.# to come
into one's (right)
owner ['ounc] n. 1. .@
- ,
. 2.
. . . set 1.
owner type ['ounc tap] .@

416________________________________________________________________________________________
,
.
oxidation [/]ks'decn] n.
oxide [']ksad] n.
oxide-isolated monolith (OXIM)
[']ksad'ascletd /m]noul]
oxidize [']ksdaz] . ()
oxigen [']kscn] n.
ozoun ['ouzoun] n.
. .);

P*
pace [pes] n. 1. ; 2. , .# to keep pace with
;
pack ['pk] v. .@
,
;
.
package ['pk] n. 1. .@
, . 2.
; 3. ; 4.
package body ['pk 'b]d] .@
. . . implementation
specification
package generator ['pk 'encretc] .@ ,
.

package specification ['pk


/spesfi'kecn] , .@ . . . interface
specification
packaged electronic circuit
(PEC) ['pkd /lek'tr]nk 'sc:kt]

packed ['pkt] adj. .@ , .
packed decimal ['pkt 'desmcl]
().@
,
.
packet interleaving ['pkt /ntc'li:v] .@ ,

.
packet ['pkt] n. 1. .@
, , .

.
100 500 . 2. ; 3.
packet assembler/disassembler
['pkt c'semblc /ds'semblc]
packet assembly ['pkt c'sembl] . . .
packet switching network
packet
disassembly
['pkt
/ds'sembla] . .
. packet switching network

417

________________________________________________________________________________________

packet switched data service


['pkt 'swt 'detc 'sc:vs]

packet switching ['pkt 'sw]
.@
.
packet
switching
network
(PSN) ['pkt 'sw 'netwc:k]
.@ ,
, .
packet-mode terminal ['pkt'moud 'tc:mnl] .
@ ,
.
packing density ['pk 'denst]
1. .@
. 2. .@
.
packing factor ['pk 'fktc]

PAD (packet assembly and disassembly)
. . . packet switching
network
pad [pd] n. 1.
. . . keypad; 2.
() . . .
graphics pad; v. .@ , , (, ).

pad character [pd 'krktc]


-.@ ,
. . . fill
character, pad
padding [pd] .@ ,
.
page [pe] n. 1. , .@
, ,
. 2.
.@ .
v.
page address [pe c'dres]
page fault [pe f]:lt] , . . . page
fault interrupt
page fault interrupt [pe f]:lt
/intc'r7pt]
.@ ,
, , .
page footer [pe 'futc]
.@ ,
. .page header
page frame [pe frem] , .@

.

418________________________________________________________________________________________


, ,

.
page header [pe 'hedc] , ().@
,
. .
page footer
page heading [pe 'hed]
page locking [pe 'l]k] .@ .
page pool [pe pu:l]
page printer [pe 'prntc]

page sorter view [pe 's]tc
vju:]
page system [pe 'sstm] , ()
. . . virtual storage
page table [pe 'tebl]
.@ ,

,
.
paging ['pe] n.
, .@
-


. . . swapping
paging policy ['pe 'p]ls]
, .@ , , .
. . least frequently used removal, least recently used removal
pain ['pen] n. 1. ; 2. pl. , .# to take pains .# to be at pains
painful ['penful] adj. 1. ; ; 2. ,
; 3.
painstaking ['penz'stak] adj.
, ; 2. ,
paintbrush ['pcnt'br7] n.
paintbrush program ['pcnt'br7
'proulrm] .@
,

, , . ,
.
painter's algorithm ['pcntcs
'll]/rcm] ,
. . .
depth sorting
painting ['pcnt] n. , . . . fill 2.
pair [pc] n. ; adj. .#
pairwise
pair ['pcr] n.
palladium [pc'ledjcm] n.

419

________________________________________________________________________________________

pan [pn] n. 1. ; 2.
pan scrolling [pn 'skroul]

pane [pen] n. , .@ , . . .
window
panel ['pnl] n. ,
, , ,
panning ['pen] n. , .@ , . . . scrolling
paper ['pepc] n. 1. ; 2.
; ; 3.
paper feed ['pepc fi:d]
; ( )
paper slew ['pepc slu:]
( )
paper tape ['pepc tep] ()
paper tape punch ['pepc tep
p7n] .@ 1.
.
2.
.
paper tape reader ['pepc tep
'ri:dc] ,
.@

.
paper throw ['pepc rou] ( )
paperless office ['pepcles ]fs]

par [pa:] n. .# at par
.# on a
par with , .# par example .# par

excellence ,
parabola [p]'rbclc] n.
parabolic [p]'rbclk] adj.
parabolic-partial
differential
equation [p]'rbclk'pa:cl /dfc'rencl
'kwecn]

parabolize [p]'rbclz] v.
paraboloid [p]'rbcl]d] n.
paradox ['prcd]ks] n.
paradoxical ['prcd]kskcl] adj.

paragraph ['prclra:f] n. ,

parallel ['prclel] adj. 1. .@ 1. , . . concurrent; 2.


,
. v. 1. .@


. 2. ;
3. ;
(with)
parallel access ['prclel 'kses]

parallel accumulator ['prclel
c'kju:mjuletc] ,
parallel adder ['prclel 'dc]
.@ -

420________________________________________________________________________________________
,
.
parallel algorithm ['prclel 'll]rcm] .@
,
.
parallel arithmetic ['prclel c'rmctk] .
@ ,


.
parallel arithmetic unit ['prclel
c'rmctk 'ju:nt]
parallel circuit ['prclel 'sc:kt]
,
parallel communication link
(PCL) ['prclel kc'mju:n'kecn lnk]

parallel computer ['prclel
kcm'pju:tc] .@
,
. . . MIMD
architecture, SIMD architecture
parallel connection ['prclel kc'nekcn] ,

parallel data controller (PDC)
['prclel 'detc kcn'troulc]
parallel in parallel out (PIPO)
['prclel n 'prclel aut] .@ ,
,
. , -

,
.
parallel in serial out (PISO)
['prclel n 'scrcl aut]
.@ ,
,
n- n .
parallel input-output (PIO)
['prclel 'nput'autput]
-
parallel instruction execution
['prclel n'str7kcn /eks'kju:cn]
parallel interface ['prclel /ntc'fes] .@

.
parallel multiplier ['prclel
'm7ltplac]
parallel operation ['prclel /]pc'recn]
parallel processing ['prclel
'prouses] ;

parallel rewriting system ['prclel r'rat 'sstm]
parallel running ['prclel 'r7n]

parallel search ['prclel sc:t]
.@ 1.
,
.
2. ,
. . serial search

421

________________________________________________________________________________________

parallel system ['prclel 'sstm]



parallel transfer ['prclel 'trnsfc]
parallel/series (P/S) ['prclel
'scri:z] -
paralleling ['prclel] adj. 1.
; 2.
paramagnetic ['prc/ml'netk]
adj.
parameter [pc'rmtc] n. 1. .@ , . 2. ,
parameter mismatch [pc'rmtc
ms'm] .@
.
parameter passing [pc'rmtc
'pa:s] .@ ,

,
.
parameter passing by name [pc'rmtc 'pa:s ba nem] .@ , ,

,

.

parameter passing by reference


[pc'rmtc 'pa:s ba 'refrcns] .@ , ;

.

.
parameter passing by value [pc'rmtc 'pa:s ba 'vlju:]
.@
,

;

.

.
parameter qualifier [pc'rmtc
'kw]lfac]
parameter specification [pc'rmtc /spesfi'kecn] , .@ , , ,
.
parametric [pc'rmtrk] adj.

parametric amplifier (PA, paramp) [pc'rmtrk 'mplfac]


parametric device [pc'rmtrk
d'vas]
parametric equation [pc'rmtrk 'kwecn]
parametric representation [pc'rmtrk /reprzen'tecn]

422________________________________________________________________________________________
parametric subharmonic oscillator (PSO) [pc'rmtrk scb'ha:m]nk /]s'letc]
parametric techniques [pc'rmtrk tek'ni:ks]
parametron [pc'rmtr]n] n.
paramount ['prcmaunt] adj.
;
parent ['pcrcnt] n. 1. ;
adj. 1. ; ;
2. , ; 3.
parent node ['pcrcnt noud] .@ , . . child node
parent process ['pcrcnt 'prouses] .@ ,
parentheses [pc'renss] n. (pl.
parenthesis) .#
parenthetically
parentheses-free notation [pc'renss'fri: nou'tecn]
. . . postfix notation,
prefix notation
parent-offspring tasking ['pcrcnt']:fspr 'ta:sk] . . . offspring
task
parity ['prt] n. 1. ; 2.
; 3. ; 4.
;
parity bit ['prt bt] 1. , ; 2.

parity check ['prt tek] . . . even parity, odd parity

parity check alphabet ['prt


tek 'lfcbt]

parity check(ing ) code ['prt


'tek() koud]

parity control (PC) ['prt kcn'troul]


parity digit ['prt 'dt]
parity error ['prt 'erc] .@

.
parity failure ['prt 'feljc] 1.
; 2.

parity formation (PF) ['prt
fc'mecn]
parity interrupt ['prt /ntc'r7pt]
parser ['pa:zc] n. ;
parser generator ['pa:zc 'encretc]
.@ , .
parsing ['pa:z] n. ; ,
part [pa:t] n. 1. ; ;
2. , ; ; v.
().# in part ;
.# in large part .# on the part of -..# to play part
.# to take part

partake ['pa:tek] v. (partook,


partaken)

423

________________________________________________________________________________________

partial ['pa:cl] adj. ;


; .# partial
equation
partial correctness ['pa:cl kc'rektns]
partial differential equation
['pa:cl /dfc'rencl 'kwecn]

partial evaluation ['pa:cl 'vljuecn] .@



.
partial fraction ['pa:cl 'frkcn]

partial function ['pa:cl 'f7kcn]

partial matching ['pa:cl m]
;

partial order(ing) ['pa:cl ]:'dc


(r)] ; .@ , .
partial pathname ['pa:cl pa:'nem] ,
. . . relative pathname
partial recursive function ['pa:cl r'kc:sv 'f7kcn] .@ ,
: , .
partial recursive scheme ['pa:cl
r'kc:sv ski:m]

partial solution ['pa:cl sc'lu:cn]



partial sum register ['pa:cl s7m
'restc]
partially ['pa:cl] adv.
partially ordered set ['pa:cl
]:'dct set]

partially selected cell ['pa:cl


s'lektd si:l]
partially selected output ['pa:cl
s'lektd 'autput]

participate [pa'tspet] v. 1. ; (in); 2.
(in, with)
particle [pa:'tkl] n.
particular [pc'tkjulc] adj. 1.
; ; 2. ,
; ; ; pl. 1.
; 2. .# in
particular , .# to go into particulars
particular solution [pc'tkjulc
sc'lu: cn]
particular value [pc'tkjulc 'vlju:]
particularly [pc'tkjulcl] adv. 1.
; 2.
partition [pa:'tcn] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3. .@
, . v.
partition model [pa:'tcn 'm]dl]
.@ ,
,
.
partitioned
access
method
(PAM) [pa:'ticnd 'kses 'mecd] -

424________________________________________________________________________________________
. . .
basic partitioned access method
partitioned adaptive control
(PAC) [pa:'ticnd c'dptv kcn'troul]

partitioning [pa:'tcn] ,
pascal (Pa) [pa:s'ka:l] ,

pass [pa:s] n. .@

;
. v. 1.
(, ). . .
parameter passing; 2. ; 2.
; 3. ; 4. (on); 5. (, . .).# in passing ; .# it is a matter of passing interest ,
pass instruction [pa:s n'str7kcn]
pass key [pa:s ki:] . .
. password
passband [pa:s'bnd]

passive ['pa:sv] adj.


passive graphics ['pa:sv l'rfks] .@ ,


. . interactive graphics
passive star ['pa:sv sta:] .@ ,

, , . . active star
password ['pa:swc:d] n. .
@ ,

- .
password authentification ['pa:swc:d ]:'entkecn] ;
. . . authentification of
user
password protection ['pa:swc:d
prc'tekcn]

past [pa:st] prp. 1. , ; 2.


; adj. ;
paste [pest] v. 1. .@


; 2.
; n.
paste buffer [pest 'b7fc] .@ ,

. . clipboard
patch [p] n. 1. .@
, ,
. 2.

patchy [p] adj.


patent ['petcnt] adj. 1. ,
; 2. ; n.
path [pa:] n. 1. .
. . access path; 2.
.@

, , .

425

________________________________________________________________________________________

, .
. . pathname; 3. .@ ,
. 4. .@
,
.
5. , , , ,
,
path of integration [pa: ]v
'ntlrecn]
pathname [pa:'nem] n. , .@
, ,
, , ,
.
patient ['pecnt] n. ; adj.
1. ; 2.
patrol [pc'troul] n.
pattern ['ptcn] n. 1. ,
. . . match; 2. ,
; ; 3. ,
, , (.

); 4. ; ;
5. , ; 6.
pattern analysis ['ptcn c'nlcsz]
pattern inventory ['ptcn n'vent]r] ; ,

pattern matching ['ptcn m] ,
pattern of recognition ['ptcn
]v r'k]lncn] . @ -



.
pattern recognition programming ['ptcn r'k]lncn 'proulrm]

paucity ['p]:st] n. , ;
pay [pe] v. (paid) 1. ; 2.
, ; n. .# it pays , .# to
pay (turn) attention to

payable [pecbl] adj. 1. ; 2. ; ,
payment matrix ['pemcnt 'metrks]
pay-off function ['pe']f 'f7kcn]
( )
pay-off matrix ['pe']f 'metrks]

P-code [pi:'koud] 1. ,
-.@ . 2. -.@ 1. -. 2.
,
,

. .
PC-relative address [pi:si:'relctv c'dres] . . . PC-relative
addressing
PC-relative addressing [pi:si:'relctv c'dres] .@

426________________________________________________________________________________________
,
, ;
.
peak [pi:k] n. ; v.

peak envelope power (PEP)


[pi:k 'envloup 'pauc]

peak factor [pi:k 'fktc]
peak inverse voltage (PIV) [pi:k
'n'vc:z 'voult]
peak load [pi:k loud]
()
peak program meter (PPM)
[pi:k 'proulrm mtc]
peak pulse power (PPP) [pi:k
p7ls 'pauc]

peak rectified current (PRC)


[pi:k 'rektfacd 'k7rcnt]
peak reverse voltage (PRV)
[pi:k r'vc:s 'voult]

peak value [pi:k 'vlju:] , ()
peak-to-peak (p-p) [pi:k'tu:'pi:k]
,
peculiar [p'kju:lc] adj. 1. ; ; ;
2. (to).# to be peculiar

peculiarity [p/kju:l'rt] n. 1.
; 2. ;
3.

peek [pi:k]
peep-hole optimization ['pi:p'houl ']ptmzecn] (). . . local
optimization
pen [pen] n.
pen plotter [pen 'pl]tc]

pencil ['pensl] n. 1. ; 2.
;
pending ['pend] adj. , ; prp. 1.
, ; 2. ,

pending interrupt ['pend /intc'r7pt]


pending job ['pend ]b] , .@
, , ,

(,
). . . deadlock
pending request ['pend r'kwest] ;
.@ .
pendulum ['pendjulcm] n.
penetrate ['pentret] v.
penetration ['pentrecn] 1. ; 2. ; 3.
.@

pentagrid [/pentc'lrd] n. ,
pentode ['pentoud] n.

427

________________________________________________________________________________________

per ['pc:] prp. , , .# per annum .# per capita ,


.# per centum
, .# per hour
.# per se , .# as per
perceive [pc'si:v] v. ;

perceived noise decibel (PndB)


[pc'si:vt n]z 'desbel]
percent (per cent) [pc'sent] n.

percentage
[pc'sent] n. 1.
; 2. ;
3.
perceptible [pc'septcbl] adj. ,
perfect ['pc:fkt] adj. 1. , ; 2.
perfect codes ['pc:fkt kouds] .@ 1.
,


, . e
(. . e
), ( ) (2e + 1);
(. .
),
, . 2.


100% ,
, ,



.
.
perfect shape ['pc:fkt ep]
perfection of means ['pc:fkcn
]v mi:ns]
perforate ['pc:fcret] v.
perforation skip ['pc:fc'recn
skp]

perforator [pc:fc'retc] n. ( )
perform [pc'f]m] v. ,

performance [pc'f]mcns] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3. ; ;
4. ; 5.
performance analysis and evaluation [pc'f]mcns c'nlcsz nd
'vljuecn] .@

.
performance characteristic [pc'f]mcns /krktc'rstk]
performance monitoring [pc'f]mcns 'm]ntcr] .@

,
.
performance specification [pc'f]mcns /spesfi'kecn]

428________________________________________________________________________________________
(). . .
specification
perhaps [pc'hps] adv.
,
period ['pcrcd] n. , ( )
period of group element ['pcrcd ]v lru:p 'elmcnt]
period of repeating decimal
['pcrcd ]v r'pi:t 'desmcl]

periodic(al) ['pcrcdk(cl)] adj.

periodically ['pcrcdkcl] adv.

peripheral [pc'rfcrcl] n. , ; adj.


peripheral buffer [pc'rfcrcl 'b7fc] ,

peripheral computer [pc'rfcrcl
kcm'pju:tc] ,

peripheral control unit (PCU)


[pc'rfcrcl kcn'troul 'ju:nt] , -. . . peripheral controller
peripheral
controller
(PC)
[pc'rfcrcl kcn'troulc]
,
-.@ ,
.
peripheral device [pc'rfcrcl d'vas] , . . . peripheral

peripheral interchange program (PIP) [pc'rfcrcl 'ntc'ten


'proulrm]
peripheral interrupt [pc'rfcrcl
/intc'r7pt]
,
peripheral limited [pc'rfcrcl 'lmtd] . . .
peripheral-bound program
peripheral processor [pc'rfcrcl
'prousesc]
peripheral processor unit (PPU)
[pc'rfcrcl 'prousesc 'ju:nt]
peripheral routine [pc'rfcrcl
ru:'ti:n]
peripheral storage [pc'rfcrcl
'st]:r] ,
. . .
backing storage
peripheral transaction server
(PTS) [pc'rfcrcl transaction 'sc:vc]

peripheral transfer [pc'rfcrcl
'trnsfc]

peripheral unit [pc'rfcrcl 'ju:nt] , . . . peripheral
peripheral-bound program [pc'rfcrcl'baund 'proulrm] ,

peripherical [pc'rfcrkcl] adj.

429

________________________________________________________________________________________

peripherical interface adapter


(PIA) [pc'rfcrkcl /ntc'fes 'c'dptc]

, .@ ,
.
peripherical interface channel
(PIC) [pc'rfcrkcl /ntc'fes 'nl]

peripherical
interface
unit
(PIU) [pc'rfcrkcl /ntc'fes 'ju:nt]
perish ['per] v.
permanence ['pc:mcncns] n. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
permanence relation ['pc:mcncns r'lecn]
permanent ['pc:mcnt] adj.1. ; ; 2.
permanent error ['pc:mcnt 'erc]

permanent magnet (PM) ['pc:mcnt ml'net]
permeability [/pc:mjc'blt] n.

permeance (P) [/pc:mjcns]


permissible [pc'mscbl] adj. ,
permissible limit [pc'mscbl 'lmt]
permit [pc'mt] v. 1. ,
; 2. (of); n. ,

permut [/pc:'mju:t] v. ,
permutation [/pc:mju:'tecn] .@ .
permutation code [/pc:mju:'tecn koud]
permutation group [/pc:mju:'tecn lru:p] .@
, Sn n

.
permutation matrix [/pc:mju:'tecn 'metrks]
permuted code [/pc:'mju:td
koud]
perpendicular [/pc:pcn'dkjulc]
adj. ; n.
persist ['pc'sst] v. 1. , (in); 2. ,
,
persistence ['pc'sstcns] n. 1. ; 2.
persistent ['pc'sstcnt] adj. 1.
; 2. , ;
3.
person [pc:sn] n. , ,
;
personal applications manager
(PAM) ['pc:snl pl'kecns 'mnc]

personal computer (PC) ['pc:snl
kcm'pju:tc] ,
. . . home computer,
workstation
personal computer network
(PCN) ['pc:snl kcm'pju:tc 'netwc:k]

430________________________________________________________________________________________
. . .
local area network
personal data base ['pc:snl 'detc
bes] .@
,

. . private
data base
personal library ['pc:snl 'labrcr] ,
persuade [pc'swed] v. 1. (of, that); 2. (into); 3.
(from, out of)
persue [pc'sju:] v. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
PERT network ['netwc:k]
pertain [pc:'ten] v. ,
-.; (to)
pertaining [pc:'ten] prp. , ,
pertinent ['pc:tncnt] adj. 1. ; ; 2.
, (to); .# to be pertinent to
;
perturb [/pc:'tc:b] v. 1. , ; 2. ; ;
perturbation theory [/pc:tc:'becn 'cr]
pervade [pc:'ved] v. ; ;
per-word error probability
[/pc:'wc:d 'erc /pr]bc'blt]
petal printer ['petl 'prntc]
Petry-net ['petri/net] .@


,

, .

, .
phase ['fez] n. 1. ; 2. , .# phasing out
phase angle ['fez 'll] , ,
phase delay ['fez d'le]
phase difference ['fez 'dfrcns]
()
phase encoding (PE) ['fez n'koud]
phase factor ['fez 'fktc]
phase lag ['fez ll]
phase modulation (PM) ['fez
/m]djulecn]
phase resource ['fez r's]:s]
phase selection ['fez s'lekcn]

phase shift keying (PSK) ['fez
ft ki:] .@



.
phase space ['fez spes]

phase-frequency characteristic
(PFC) ['fez'fri:kwcns /krktc'rstk]
-

431

________________________________________________________________________________________

phase-locked
demodulator
(PLD) ['fez'l]kt d'm]dju'letc]

phase-locked loop (PLL) ['fez'l]kt lu:p]


phase-locked oscillator (PLO)
['fez'l]kt /]s'letc]
phasemeter ['fez'mtc] n.
phase-reversal keying (PRK)
['fez/r'vc:scl ki:]
phase-sensitive detector (PSD)
['fez'senstv d'tektc]
phasor ['fezc] n. (
),
phenomena [f'n]mnc] n. pl.
phenomenon
phenomenological [f'n]mn]'l]kcl] adj.
phenomenologically [f'n]mn]'l]kcl] adv.
phenomenon [f'n]mncn] n.
philologist [f'l]lcst] n. ,
philology [f'l]lc] n.
philosopher [f'l]scfc] n.
philosophy [f'l]scf] n. 1. ; 2. , ; 3.
phone [foun] n.
phosphor ['f]sfc] n.
phosphorescence [/f]sfc'resns] n.

phosphorus ['f]sfcrcs] n.
photo ['fout]] n. ; adj.
photocathode ['fout]'koud] n.

photoconductive ['fout]/kcn'd7ktv] adj.


photoconductivity ['fout]/kcn'd7ktvt] n.
photocurrent ['fout]'k7rcnt] n.

photodiode (PD) ['fout]'daoud]

photoelectric (PE) ['fout]''lektrk] adj.


photoelectric cell (PEC) ['fout]'lektrk si:l] 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ()
photoelectric memory (PEM)
['fout]''lektrk 'memcr] adj.
photoelectromagnetic
(PEM)
['fout]''lektrc/ml'netk]
photoemission ['fout]/'mcn] n.

photoemissive
['fout]/'msv]
adj.
photoemitter ['fout]/'mtc] n.

photograph ['fout]'lrf] n.
photographic ['fout]'lrfk] adj.

photography ['fout]'lrf] n.

photomagnetoelectric
(PME)
['fout]'ml'ni:tou/'lektrk] adj.

432________________________________________________________________________________________
photomultiplier tube (PMT)
['fout]'m7ltplac tju:b]
photon ['fout]n] n.
photon-coupled isolator (PCI)
['fout]n'k7pld 'ascletc] ,

photon-coupled
transistor
(PCI) ['fout]n'k7pld trn'zstc]
photon-enhanced
diffusion
(PED) ['fout]n'n'ha:nsd d'fju:cn]
,
photoproduced
['fout]'prc'dju:st] adj.
photoproduction ['fout]'pr]dckcn] n.
phototube ['fout]'tju:b] n.
photovoltage ['fout]'voult] n.

photovoltaic
['fout]'voultek]
adj.
phrase-structure grammar [frez'str7ktc 'lrmc] ,
phrase-structure language [frez
'str7ktc 'llw] , -
physical (layer) protocol ['fzkcl
('leic) 'proutck]l] .@ ,
, ,
, , .
physical ['fzkcl] adj. .@

,
.
physical address ['fzkcl c'dres]
.@ 1. ,
. 2. ,
.
(
, ,
).
physical block ['fzkcl bl]k] .@ ( ); , .
physical block number ['fzkcl
bl]k 'n7mbc] . . . block number, physical
address
physical data base ['fzkcl 'detc
bes] .@ ( ).
physical device ['fzkcl d'vas]
. . .
logical device
physical interface ['fzkcl /ntc'fes] 1. . .
. interface; 2. , .@
.
physical layer ['fzkcl 'leic] .@ ,

, , . . .
open systems interconnection

433

________________________________________________________________________________________

physical record ['fzkcl 'rek]:d]


.@ .
, . . . block.
physical storage ['fzkcl 'st]:r] .@
, . . virtual storage
physical theory of diffraction
(PTD) ['fzkcl 'cr ]v d'frkcn]

physically ['fzkcl] adv.
physician [f'zcn] n. ,
physicist [f'zsst] n.
physics ['fzks] n.
pica face ['pakc fes]
11
pick [pk] v. 1. ; 2. (up)
pick device [pk d'vas] ,
.@ . , , ,
.
pick identifier [pk a'dentfac]
,
pickup ['pk/7p] n. 1. ; 2.
; 3.
(); 4. ; 5.
pico- (p) [pk]] -.@ , -

(10-12).
pictorial [pk't]:rcl] n. 1. , ; 2. ; ; 3. ,
( )
pictorial information [pk't]:rcl
/nfc'mecn] ()
picture (image) processing ['pkc ('m) 'prouses] .@
, .
picture ['pkc] n. 1. ; 2. .@ . 3. , ;
v. 1. ; 2.
picture element (pel) ['pkc
'elmcnt]
picture generation ['pkc 'encrecn]
picture plane ['pkc plen]
pictures per second (pps) ['pkc pc: 'sekcnd]
piece [pi:s] n. 1. ; ;
; 2. ;
; 3. , , ; 4. .# piece by piece
; .# all of a piece
, .# to be of
a piece
piece linear function [pi:s 'lanc
'f7kcn] -
piece regular function [pi:s
'reljulc 'f7kcn] -

434________________________________________________________________________________________
piecemeal ['pi:smi:l] adv. 1.
, ; 2. ; 3.

piecewise ['pi:swaz] adj. -


piecewise continuous function
['pi:swaz kcn'tnjucs 'f7kcn] -
piecewise-linear function generator ['pi:swaz'lanc 'f7kcn 'encretc] 1. - ; 2. -
piecewise-linear
interpolator
(PLI) ['pi:swaz'lanc n/tc:pc'letc]
-
pierce [pcs] v. 1. ;
2. ; 3.
Pierce operation [pcrs /]pc'recn] , -. .
. NOR
piezoelectric [/pa'i:zou'lektrk]
adj.
piezoelectric transducer (PZT)
[/pa'i:zou'lektrk trns'dju:sc]
piezoelectricity [/pa'i:zou'lektrst] n.
piezoresistance [/pa'i:zou/r'zstcns] n.
piezothermal [/pa'i:zou'c:mcl]
adj.
piggyback
acknowledgement
['plbk ck'n]lmcnt]
.@
,
, .
piggyback card ['plbk ka:d]
.
@ , -



.
pile [pal] n. 1. , ;
2. ;
pilot ['palct] adj. , ; ; ; n. 1. ;
2. ; v. ,
pilot lamp ['palct lmp] ()
pilot system ['palct 'sstm] 1.
;
; 2. .@
, .
piloting ['palct] n.
,
pin ['pn] n.
pinch-off ['pnt/]:f] n. ,

pinhole ['pn/houl] n. 1. ;
2.
pinpoint accuracy ['pnp]nt
'kjurcs]
pipe [pap] n. , .@ .
, .
,

.

UNIX
.
pipeline ['paplan] n. .@ , ,

435

________________________________________________________________________________________

.
,
( ,
, , , );

, . ,

.
pipeline processing ['paplan
'prouses]
pipelining ['paplan] n. ,
pit [pt] n.
pitch [pt] n. 1. .@
, . 2. (, . .); ,
, ; 3.
pitch-off ['pt/]:f] n. ,

pitfall ['ptf]:l] n.
pixel (picture element) ['pkscl]
, .@

, .
place ['ples] n. ; v. .# in place of .# in the
first (second etc.) place -
(- . .).# in the next
place .# out of place , .# to place (lay)
emphasis on ,

, .# to place
hope on .# to
place (set) the limit ; .# to place (put)
a premium .# to place reliance on(upon) .# to
place restriction -, .# to give place to
.# to take place

placeholder ['pleshouldc] n.
-.@
, .
plain [plen] adj. 1. ; 2.
; 3.
plain language message [plen
'llw 'mes] ,
plain text [plen tekst]
.@ .
plan [pln] n. , ; v.

planar ['plnc] adj.


()
planar graph ['plnc lrf] ()
plane [plen] n. 1. ,
, ; 2.
plane wave [plen 'wev]

plan-position indicator (PPI)


['pln/pc'zicn 'ndketc]

plant [pla:nt] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5.
6.
plasma ['plzmc] n.

436________________________________________________________________________________________
plasma-panel display ['plzmc'pnl ds'ple]
plasmon ['plzm]n] n.
plastic ['plstk] n.
plastic embedded circuit ['plstk m'bedd 'sc:kt] ,
plate (p) [plet] n. 1. ; 2.
; 3. ; v.
plateau characteristic ['pltou
/krktc'rstk] n.
plateau ['pltou] n.
plated-through hole (PTH)
[pletd'ru: houl]

platinum ['pltncm] n.
plausible ['pl]:zbl] adj.
play [ple] v. 1. ; 2. , ; 3.
; n. 1. ; 2. .# to
bring (call) into play
, .# to came
into play
playback ['plebk] n. 1. ; 2.

plenty ['plent] n. ;
.# plenty of
plexiglass ['plekslla:s] n.
plot ['pl]t] n. 1. , ,
( ); 2. ; 3.
; ; 4. ; 5.
; v. ,
ploting ['pl]t] n. , ,
plotomat ['pl]t]mt] n.

plotter ['pl]tc] n. ,
plotter step size ['pl]tc step saz]
,

plotting ['pl]t] n.

plotting device ['pl]t d'vas]


,
plotting paper ['pl]t 'pepc]
,

plotting speed ['pl]t spi:d]
()
plotting table ['pl]t 'tebl] ,
plug [pl7l] n. ; v. ,
plug up [pl7l 7p] v.
plug wire [pl7l wac]
plug-compatible [pl7l/kcm'ptcbl]
plugged control [pl7ld kcn'troul]

plugged program computer
[pl7ld 'proulrm kcm'pju:tc]
plug-in card [pl7l'n ka:d]
,
;
plus [pl7s] n.
plus zone [pl7s zoun]

pneumatic [nju:'mtk] adj.

point [p]nt] n. 1. , ,
; 2. , ; 3. ,
, ; 4. ; 5.

437

________________________________________________________________________________________

; 6. ; v. , , (out).# point by
point , .# point of view .#
the point at issue ().# the point is
, .# at all points .# at this point
; .# from the point of view
of .# in point .# in point of .# in point of fact , .# off the point
, .# on the
point of -..# to the
point .# to the point of
, .# to the point
that , .# up to
this point .# yield point
.# to be on the
point of + -..# to make a point of + -.;
.# to serve one's
point
point of accumulation [p]nt ]v
c'kju:mjulecn] 1. ;
2.
point of discontinuity [p]nt ]v
ds/k]n'tnju:t]
point of entry (POE) [p]nt ]v
'entr] ;
point of infinity [p]nt ]v n'fnt] ,

point of intersection [p]nt ]v
/ntc'sekcn]
point of natural commutation
[p]nt ]v 'nrcl /k]mju:'tecn]

pointer ['p]ntc] n. ,
,

pointer arithmetic ['p]ntc c'rmctk]



pointer array ['p]ntc c're]
pointer-threaded code ['p]ntc'redd koud] . . .
threaded code
pointless ['p]ntles] adj. ;
point-spread function (PSF)
[p]nt'spred 'f7kcn]

point-to-pointline [p]nt'tu:'p]nt
lan] . .
. multipoint line
pointwise ['p]ntwaz] adv.
poison ['p]zn] n.
Poisson's distribution [/pwa:'s]nz ds'trbju:cn]

Poisson's
distribution
law
[/pwa:'s]nz ds'trbju:cn l]:]

polar ['poulcr] adj.
polar axis ['poulcr 'kss]
polar coordinate(s) ['poulcr kou']:dnt(s)]
polarity ['poulcrt] n.
polarization ['poulcr'zecn] n.

polarize ['poulcraz] v. ()
polarized relay (PR) ['poulcrazd 'ri:'le]
pole [poul] n.
policy ['p]ls] n.
polish ['p]l] v.

438________________________________________________________________________________________
Polish notation ['p]l nou'tecn]
, .
. . prefix notation.@ , . ,

poll [poul] v. 1. ; 2.
; n. 1. ; 2. .# to poll the experience , .# to poll (the) interests
,
polled network [pould 'netwc:k]
.@
, .
polling ['poul] n. .@

,

,

.
.
polling character ['poul 'krktc]
polling interval ['poul 'ntcvcl]
.@
. .
. polling
polyadic operation ['p]ledk
/]pc'recn]

polycrystal isolation (PCI) ['p]l'krstl 'asclecn]

polycrystalline ['p]l'krstllan]
adj.
polygon ['p]llcn]
polygon surface ['p]llcn 'sc:fs]
,
polygonization ['p]llc'nazecn] n.
polyline ['p]llan] n.
.@
,

.
polymarker ['p]l'ma:kc] n. .@
,
.
polymorphic function ['p]lm]:fjck 'f7kcn] .@ ,

.
polymorphic operator ['p]lm]:fjck ']pcretc]
.@ ,

.
polynomial [/p]l'noumjcl] -

,
polynomial approximation [/p]l'noumjcl c/pr]ks'mecn]
polynomial codes [/p]l'noumjcl
koud] .@ 1.
,

439

________________________________________________________________________________________

. 2. ,



.
polynomial computer [/p]l'noumjcl kcm'pju:tc]
polynomial equation [/p]l'noumjcl 'kwecn]

polynomial interpolation [/p]l'noumjcl n/tc:pc'lecn] ,


polynomial number [/p]l'noumjcl 'n7mbc]
polynomial space [/p]l'noumjcl
spes] .@
.
polynomial time [/p]l'noumjcl
tam] .@
.
polyphase system [/p]l'fez 'sstm]
pool [pu:l] n. 1.
, , .@
: , . . . dynamic area. 2.
pooling block ['pu:l bl]k] , .@

, ,
,

.
poor [puc] adj. 1. ; 2.

pop [p]p] v. , .@
.
. push
P-operation [pi:/]pc'recn] , ().
. . semaphore
popular ['p]pjulc] adj. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ;
popularly ['p]pjulcl] adv.
populated data base ['p]pjuletd
'detc bes] .
. . loaded data base
populating ['p]pjulet] ( )
population ['p]pjulecn] n. 1.
() ; 2. ; ; 3. ;
population mean ['p]pjulecn
mi:n] ,

pop-up menu [p]p'7p 'menju:]
.@ , . .
. pull-down menu
port [p]:t] n. 1. .@

; -

440________________________________________________________________________________________

. 2. , ; 3. ; v.
port page [p]:t pe]
.@ ,
. , , .
portability [/p]:tc'biliti] n. , .@
.
portable ['p]:tcbl] .
@ 1. . 2. , ,

, .
portable computer ['p]:tcbl
kcm'pju:tc] . .
laptop com-puter
portable software ['p]:tcbl 's]ftwc] ,
. . . portability
portrait ['p]:trt] adj. .@
,
.
. landscape
portray [pc:'tre] v. 1. ; 2.
POS terminal (point-of-sale
terminal [p]nt ]v sel 'tc:mnl])
pose [pouz] v. (
. .)

poset [pc'set]
position [pc'zicn] n. 1. ,
, ; 2. ; ; v. 1.
; 2. .# to be in a position ;
position code [pc'zicn koud]
position indicator (PI) [pc'zicn
'ndketc]
position tree [pc'zicn tri:]
positional [pc'zicnl] adj.
positional notation [pc'zicnl
nou'tecn] , , , ().@
, .
positional parameter [pc'zicnl
pc'rmtc] .
@ , . . keyword parameter
positional representation [pc'zicncl /reprzen'tecn]

positional system [pc'zicncl


'sstm]
positional-independent [pc'zicnl/nd'pendcnt] .@
,


. . relocatable
positional-independent
code
[pc'zicnl/nd'pendcnt koud] 1. -

441

________________________________________________________________________________________

.@
,
,

. 2. .@ ,

.
positioning [pc'zicn] n.
positioning device [pc'zicn
d'vas] , .
position-sensitive
detector
(PSD) [pc'zicn'senstv d'tektc] -
positive ['p]zctiv] adj.
positive acknowledgement ['p]zctiv ck'n]lmcnt]
, .@
, , . .negative
acknowledgement
positive acknowledgement and
retransmission ['p]zctiv ck'n]lmcnt nd r'trnz'mcn]
positive balance ['p]zctiv 'blcns] ,
positive computer zero ['p]zctiv
kcm'pju:tc 'zcrou]
. . . negative
zero
positive electron affinity (PEA)
['p]zctiv /lek'tr]n c'fnt]
positive input, negative output
(PINO) ['p]zctiv 'nput 'nelctv 'aut-

put]

positive integer ['p]zctiv 'ntc]

positive jump ['p]zctiv 7mp]

positive logic ['p]zctiv 'l]k]
.@
, .
positive temperature coefficient
(PTC) ['p]zctv 'temprtc /kou'ficnt]

positive zero ['p]zctv 'zcrou]
. . .
negative zero
possess [pc'zcs] v. ,
;
possibility [/p]sc'blt] n. ,
possible ['p]scbl] adj. ,
post [poust] n. ,
post- [poust-] pref. -, -,
: postwar
post-amplifier [poust'mplfac]
n.
postcondition [poust'kcndicn]
; .@

,
, . . . invariant

442________________________________________________________________________________________
postdecrement addressing [poust'dekrmcnt c'dres] .@ ,
. . predecrement addressing
postedit(ing) [poust'edt()] n.
.@


(, ).
posterior [p]s'tcrc] adj. 1. ; 2. ;
postfix notation ['poustfks nou'tecn] , , .@
, ; . . prefix
notation
postfix operator ['poustfks ']pcretc] .@ ,
. . infix operator,
prefix operator
postgraduate [poust'lrdjut] n.

postmortem ['poustm]:tcm] ; .@ ,
,
, .
postmortem
dump
(PMD)
['poust'm]:tcm d7mp]
, .@
.

postmortem routine ['poustm]:tcm ru:'ti:n] ,


postorder traversal [poust']:dc
'trvc:sl] .@
, .
postorder tree search [poust']:dc tri: sc:t] , . . . depthfirst search
postpone [poust'poun] v. ,
postprocessor [poust'prousesc] n.
.@ ,
.
postulate ['p]stjult] v. 1. ; 2. ; 3. ,
potassium [pc'tsjcm] n.
potent ['poutcnt] adj. 1. ; ; 2. ; 3.
potential (pot) [pc'tencl] n. , ; adj.
potential difference (PD) [pc'tencl 'dfrcns] () , ()

potential theory [pc'tencl 'cr]



potentiality [pc'tenlt] n.
potentiometer (pot) [pc'ten']mtc] 1. ; 2.
pour [p]:] v. ()

443

________________________________________________________________________________________

powder ['paudc] n. ; v.

power ['pauc] n. 1. , ; 2. (p, pwr) , ; 3. , ; 4. ; 5. ; 6.


; 7. (.); adj.
, ; v. .# to the ninth (tenth
etc.) power ( .
.) .# to the power nine
(tenth etc.) ( .
.) .# resolving power .# to raise to
the power
power exchange ['pauc ks'en]
power factor ['pauc 'fktc]
power factor corrector (PFC)
['pauc 'fktc kc'rektc]
power failure ['pauc 'feljc]
power flux density (PFD) ['pauc
fl7ks 'denst]
power gain (PG) ['pauc len] 1.
; 2.
power interruption ['pauc /intc'r7pcn]
power mean ['pauc mi:n]
power output (PO) ['pauc
'autput]
power routing ['pauc 'raut]
,

power series ['pauc 'scri:z]


power set ['pauc set] .@

S,

2N (N S).
power signal-to-noise ratio
(PSNR) ['pauc 'slncl'tu:'n]z 'reou]

power spectrum density (PSD)
['pauc 'spektrcm 'denst]
power supply (PS) ['pauc sc'pla] 1. (),

; 2. (); ()
power supply unit (PSU) ['pauc
sc'pla 'ju:nt] ()-

power tools ['pauc tu:ls]


powerclip ['paucklp] n.
power-fail interrupt ['pauc'fal
/ntc'r7pt]
()
power-fail recovery ['pauc'fal
r'k7vcr]
practicable ['prktkcbl] adj. 1.
; 2.
practical ['prktkcl] adj. 1.
, ; 2. ; ;
3. ; .#
by practical consideration
,
practically ['prktkcl] adv. 1.
; 2. ; 3.
practice ['prkts] n. 1. ; ; ; ; 2. ;
; -

444________________________________________________________________________________________
.# in practice ;
.# to put into practice ;
practise ['prkts] v. 1. ; ; 2.
-.,
pragma ['prmc] n. ,
pragmatic model ['prmctk
'm]dl] .@
,
; ,
(, ) (, )
pre- [pri:-] pref.
. . -,
-, , : predetermine , prehistoric
preacaution [pr'k]:cn] n. ,
preamplifier [pri:'mplfac] n.

preanalysis [pri:c'nlcsz] n.
,
prebreakdown [pr'brekdaun] n.

precede [pri:'si:d] v.
precedence [pri:'si:dcnts] n. , .@
:
.
precedence grammar [pri:'si:dcnts 'lrmc] -

.@ -
,
,

,
.
precedence parsing [pri:'si:dcnts
'pa:z] .@
,
,
.
precedence row [pri:'si:dcnts
rou] 1. ; 2.

preceding [pri:'si:d] adj.
precessed information [pr'sest
/nfc'mecn] ,
precession [pr'secn] n.
precise [pr'sas] adj. 1. ;
; 2.
precise information [pr'sas /nfc'mecn] ,
precision [pr'scn] n. ;
.@ .
adj. , .# to a
precision of
preclude [pr'klu:d] v. 1. , ; 2.
(from)
precondition [pri:kcn'dcn] n.
; . .
. postcondition

445

________________________________________________________________________________________

precursor [pri:'kc:sc] n. 1. ; 2. ; 3.
predecessor ['pri:dsesc] n. 1.
; 2.
predecrement addressing [pri:'dekrmcnt c'dres]
.@ ,
.
. postdecrement addressing
predefined [pri:d'fand] n. , . .
. built-in
predefined type [pri:d'fand
tap] , . . built-in type
predetermine [pri:/d'tc:rmn]
predicate ['predkt] n. .@ 1. ; 2.
, .
predicate calculus ['predkt 'klkjulcs] .@
,

.
predicate transformer ['predkt
trns'f]:mc] .@ .
predicate variable ['predkt
'vcrcbl]
predicative arithmetic ['predkctv c'rmctk]
predicative pulse code modulation (PCM) ['predkctv p7ls koud

/m]djulecn]
predict ['predkt] v. ,
predictable ['predktebl] adj.
predicted value ['predktd 'vlju:]
prediction ['predkcn] n. ,
prediction-correction method
['predkcn/kc'rekcn 'mecd]
,

prediction-error filter (PEF)
['predkcn'erc 'filtc]
()
predictive [pr'dktv] n.
predictor ['predktc] n. 1. ; ; 2. ; 3. ;
predictor-corrector
methods
['predktc/kc'rektc 'mecds]
,
.@

.
predominant [pr'd]mncnt] adj.
,
predominantly [pr'd]mncntl]
adv.
predominate [pr'd]mnct] v.
, ,
preempt ['pri:'empt] v. 1. , . . . preemption; 2.
preemptible program ['pri:'emptabl 'proulrm] -

446________________________________________________________________________________________
.@ , . . nonswappable. . . swapping
preemption ['pri:'empcn] n. , .@


. .
. swapping, swap out, checkpointing
preemptive allocation ['pri:'e