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Air Heater Performance Presentation Coverage Performance Indices & Assessment AH Performance Enhancement Options
Air Heater Performance
Presentation Coverage
Performance Indices & Assessment
AH Performance Enhancement Options
Calculation of Boiler Efficiency - Sample
Calculations
Air Heaters • Boiler efficiency and APC deteriorate with Air Heater performance degradation from O/H
Air Heaters
• Boiler efficiency and APC deteriorate with Air Heater
performance degradation from O/H to O/H.
• The symptoms include
Lower fan margins – (ID amperes 95 to 135A)
Lower gas exit temperatures due to high AH leakage
Increased flue gas volume - affects ESP performance
Boiler operation at less than optimum excess air - Specially
in units where in ID fans are running at maximum loading
Air Heater - Performance Indicators • Air-in-Leakage (~13%) • Gas Side Efficiency (~ 68 %)
Air Heater - Performance Indicators
• Air-in-Leakage (~13%)
• Gas Side Efficiency (~ 68 %)
• X – ratio (~ 0.76)
• Flue gas temperature drop (~220 C)
• Air side temperature rise (~260C)
• Gas & Air side pressure drops
(The indices are affected by changes in entering
air or gas temperatures, their flow quantities and
coal moisture)
AH Performance Monitoring • O 2 & CO 2 in FG at AH Inlet •
AH Performance Monitoring
• O 2 & CO 2 in FG at AH Inlet
• O 2 & CO 2 in FG at AH Outlet
• Temperature of gas entering / leaving air heater
• Temperature of air entering / leaving air heater
• Diff. Pressure across AH on air & gas side
(Above data is tracked to monitor AH performance)
Air heater Air-in-leakage All units that operate with a rotary type regenerative air heater experience
Air heater Air-in-leakage
All units that operate with a rotary type regenerative air
heater experience some degree of air leakage across the
air heater seals.
An increase in air leakage across the seals of an AH results
in increased ID and FD fan power and flow rate of flue gas.
Sometimes it can put limitations on unit loading as well.
Typically air heater starts with a baseline leakage of 6 to
10% after an overhaul.
Air Heater Leakage (%) The leakage of the high pressure air to the low pressure
Air Heater Leakage (%)
The leakage of the high pressure air to the low pressure flue
gas is due to the Differential Pressure between fluids,
increased seal clearances in hot condition, seal erosion /
improper seal settings.
Increased AH leakage leads to
• Reduced AH efficiency
• Increased fan power consumption
• Higher gas velocities that affect ESP performance
• Loss of fan margins leading to inefficient operation and at
times restricting unit loading
Air Heater Leakage (%) • Direct - Hot End / Cold End (60% through radial
Air Heater Leakage (%)
• Direct - Hot End / Cold End
(60% through radial seals + 30% through Circumferential
bypass)
Air leakage occurring at the hot end of the air
heater affects its thermal and hydraulic
performance while cold end leakage increases
fans loading.
• Entrained Leakage due to entrapped air between
the heating elements (depends on speed of rotation
& volume of rotor air space)
Rotary Air heater BYPASS SEAL RADIAL SEAL HOT END AXIAL SEAL COLD END HOT INTERMEDIATE
Rotary Air heater
BYPASS SEAL
RADIAL SEAL
HOT END
AXIAL
SEAL
COLD END
HOT INTERMEDIATE
SEALS ARRANGEMENT
SEALS ARRANGEMENT
Leakage Assessment • Leakage assessment must be done by a grid survey using a portable
Leakage Assessment
• Leakage assessment must be done by a grid survey using
a portable gas analyser.
• Calculation of leakage using CO 2 values is preferred
because of higher absolute values and lower errors.
• Method of determination of O 2 or CO 2 should be the same
at inlet and outlet - wet or dry (Orsat)
• Single point O 2 measurement feedback using orsat is on dry
basis while zirconia measurement is on wet basis.
• Leakage assessment is impacted by air ingress from
expansion joints upstream of measurement sections.
Air Heater Leakage - Calculation This leakage is assumed to occur entirely between air inlet
Air Heater Leakage - Calculation
This leakage is assumed to occur entirely between air inlet
and gas outlet; Empirical relationship using the change in
concentration of O 2 or CO 2 in the flue gas
* 0.9 * 100
= CO 2in - CO 2out
CO 2out
*
0.9 * 100
= 5.7 – 2.8 *
90
= O 2out - O 2in
(21- O 2out )
(21-5.7)
= 17.1 %
CO 2 measurement is preferred due to high absolute values;
In case of any measurement errors, the resultant influence on
leakage calculation is small.
Gas Side Efficiency Ratio of Gas Temperature drop across the air heater, corrected for no
Gas Side Efficiency
Ratio of Gas Temperature drop across the air heater,
corrected for no leakage, to the temperature head.
= (Temp drop / Temperature head) * 100
where Temp drop = Tgas in -Tgas out (no leakage)
Temp head = Tgasin - T air in
Gas Side Efficiency = (333.5-150.5) / (333.5-36.1) = 61.5 %
Tgas out (no leakage) = The temperature at which the gas would have left the
Tgas out (no leakage) = The temperature at which the gas
would have left the air heater if there were no AH leakage
= AL * Cpa * (Tgas out - Tair in) + Tgas out
Cpg * 100
Say AH leakage – 17.1%, Gas In Temp – 333.5 C, Gas Out Temp –
133.8 C, Air In Temp – 36.1 C
Tgasnl = 17.1 * (133.8 – 36.1) + 133.8 = 150.5 C
100
X – Ratio Ratio of heat capacity of air passing through the air heater to
X – Ratio
Ratio of heat capacity of air passing through the air heater to
the heat capacity of flue gas passing through the air heater.
= Wair out * Cpa
Wgas in * Cpg
= Tgas in - Tgas out (no leakage)
Tair out - Tair in
Say AH leakage – 17.1%, Gas In Temp – 333.5 C, Gas Out Temp –
133.8 C , Air In Temp – 36.1 C, Air Out Temp – 288 C
X ratio = (333.5 – 150.5) / (288 –36.1) = 0.73
X-Ratio depends on • moisture in coal, air infiltration, air & gas mass flow rates
X-Ratio depends on
• moisture in coal, air infiltration, air & gas mass flow rates
• leakage from the setting
• specific heats of air & flue gas
X-ratio does not provide a measure of thermal performance
of the air heater, but is a measure of the operating
conditions.
A low X-ratio indicates either excessive gas weight through
the air heater or that air flow is bypassing the air heater.
A lower than design X-ratio leads to a higher than design
gas outlet temperature & can be used as an indication of
excessive tempering air to the mills or excessive boiler
setting infiltration.
Pressure drops across air heater • Air & gas side pressure drops change approximately in
Pressure drops across air heater
• Air & gas side pressure drops change approximately in
proportion to the square of the gas & air weights through
the air heaters.
• If excess air is greater than expected, the pressure drops
will be greater than expected.
• Deposits / choking of the basket elements would lead to an
increase in pressure drops
• Pressure drops also vary directly with the mean absolute
temperatures of the fluids passing through the air heaters
due to changes in density.
Air Heaters - Exit Gas Temperatures Factors affecting EGT include • Entering air temperature -
Air Heaters - Exit Gas Temperatures
Factors affecting EGT include
• Entering air temperature - Any changes would change gas temperature in
same direction. (10C rise in air temp ~ 10*0.7 = 7C rise in EGT)
• Entering Gas Temperature - Any changes would change exit gas
temperature in same direction (10C rise in gas temp ~ 10*0.3 = 3C rise in
EGT)
• X-ratio - An increase in X-ratio would decrease exit gas temperatures &
vice versa
• Gas Weight - Increase in gas weight would result in higher exit gas
temperatures
• AH leakage - An increase in AH leakage causes dilution of flue gas & a
drop in ‘As read’ exit gas temperatures
Air Heaters – Good Practices • AH sootblowing immediately after boiler light up • Monitoring
Air Heaters – Good Practices
• AH sootblowing immediately after boiler light up
• Monitoring of Lub oil of Guide & Support bearings
through Quarterly wear-debris analysis
• Hot water washing of air heaters after boiler
shutdown - flue gas temperature ~ 180 to 150 C
with draft fans in stopped condition. (Ideally pH
value can verify effective cleaning)
• Basket drying to be ensured by running draft fans
for atleast four hours after basket washing
Air Heaters – Good Practices …contd • Baskets cleaning with HP water jet during Overhauls
Air Heaters – Good Practices …contd
• Baskets cleaning with HP water jet during Overhauls
after removal from position
• Heating elements to be covered with templates during
maintenance of air heaters
• Gaps between diaphragms & baskets to be closed
for better heat recovery & lower erosion rate at edges
• Ensuring healthiness of flushing apparatus of Eco &
AH ash hoppers
Air Heaters – Good Practices …contd • Replacement of baskets recommended when Weight loss of
Air Heaters – Good Practices …contd
• Replacement of baskets recommended when
Weight loss of heating element baskets > 20-30 %
Thinning of element thickness > one-third
Erosion of heating elements is > 50 mm depth
Trends of Gas side and air side efficiency before and
after Overhaul may also supplement the replacement
decision.
• Reversal of baskets not recommended
O2 Stratification at AH Outlet FG Duct 8 Stratification in Gas ducts at AH outlet
O2 Stratification at AH Outlet FG Duct
8
Stratification in Gas
ducts at AH outlet
7
7-8
6
6-7
%
5
5-6
4
S3
3
4-5
F
S1
E
D
C
B
A
3-4
Probe
Temperature Stratification in AH Outlet
FG Duct (Trisector Air heater)
170
Grid sampling is needed for
correct assessment of gas
temperature & composition
at AH outlet due to
stratification in flue gas
160
150
140
160.0-170.0
150.0-160.0
130
S3
A
S2
B
C
140.0-150.0
D
S1
E
F
Probes
130.0-140.0
Temp C
Air Heaters • Thermocouples for flue gas temperatures at AH inlet as well as exit
Air Heaters
• Thermocouples for flue gas temperatures at AH inlet as well
as exit are generally clustered on one side.
• A grid survey is needed for representative values.
• Exit gas temperatures need to be corrected to a reference
ambient and to no leakage conditions for comparison.
• Thermocouples for SA temperature measurement at AH
outlet are mounted too close to air heaters and need to be
relocated downstream to avoid duct stratification.
• Additional mill or changes in coal quality change thermal
performance of a tri-sector air heater in a very major way;
performance evaluation is difficult.
It’s worthwhile to re-look at all the instrumentation around Air heaters for air temperatures /
It’s worthwhile to re-look at all the
instrumentation around Air heaters for air
temperatures / Flue gas composition &
temperature measurement.
The unit operation, equipment efficiency
assessments and maintenance decisions are
based on the same.
• High air temp rise • Low gas temp drop Case Study Air Heaters •
• High air temp rise
• Low gas temp drop
Case Study Air Heaters
• High AH leakages
• Low X-ratio
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Design
PGT
A
B
A
B
A
B
Air Temp Rise
C
230
228
228
221
222
217
219
222
Gas Temp Drop
C
200
185
165
162
166
155
155
158
Leakage
%
8.8
6.6
15.9
16.6
15.4
16.9
16.5
18.4
Gas Out Temp (NL)
C
146.8
164.5
190
188
182
195
185
188
X ratio
%
0.83
0.73
0.64
0.64
0.67
0.61
0.62
0.61
Gas Side Efficiency
%
62.6
56.1
49.1
49.1
50.2
45.4
47.9
47.5
• Increased air flows ~ better heat recovery across Air Heaters
• Constraint – ID fan margins -
reduction in AH leakage
boiler casing air-in-leakage
gas ducts’ air ingress
Air heater Performance Enhancement through Up gradations Double sealing retrofits with Fixed sealing plates Before
Air heater Performance Enhancement
through Up gradations
Double sealing retrofits with Fixed sealing plates
Before
After
Double Sealing
Double Sealing
Rotor modifications Before Typical 24 sector rotor design New axial seal carrying bars fitted After
Rotor modifications
Before
Typical 24 sector rotor design
New axial seal
carrying bars fitted
After
Rotor modified to 48 sectors
Flexible seal assembly - Cold Condition
Flexible seal assembly - Cold Condition
Flexible seal assembly - Hot Condition
Flexible seal assembly - Hot Condition
Heating Surface Element retrofits • All our air heaters have DU & NF profile at
Heating Surface Element retrofits
• All our air heaters have DU & NF profile at Hot
end & Cold end
• Potential for improvement by changing basket
profiles
• Reduction in Air heater exit gas temperatures
to 125C
Additional Surface area & 150mm height HE baskets Minimum Basket Hot End Hot Intermediate Cold
Additional Surface area & 150mm height HE baskets
Minimum Basket
Hot End
Hot Intermediate
Cold End
Boiler Performance Boiler Efficiency The % of heat input to the boiler absorbed by the
Boiler Performance
Boiler Efficiency
The % of heat input to the boiler absorbed by the
working fluid (Typically 85-88%)
Boiler Efficiency… Boiler Efficiency can be determined by a) Direct method or Input / Output
Boiler Efficiency…
Boiler Efficiency can be determined by
a) Direct method or Input / Output method
b) Indirect method or Loss method
Direct Method Flue Gas Fuel Boiler + Air Efficiency = Heat addition to Steam x
Direct Method
Flue
Gas
Fuel
Boiler
+ Air
Efficiency =
Heat addition to Steam x 100
Gross Heat in Fuel
Steam flow rate x (steam enthalpy
feed water enthalpy)
Boiler Efficiency
=
x 100
Fuel firing rate x Gross calorific value
mteaS
erWat
Boiler Efficiency… Direct method or Input / Output method measures the heat absorbed by water
Boiler Efficiency…
Direct method or Input / Output method measures the heat
absorbed by water & steam & compares it with the total
energy input based on HHV of fuel.
• Direct method is based on fuel flow, GCV, steam flow
pressure & temperature measurements. For coal
fired boilers, it’s difficult to accurately measure coal
flow and heating value on real time basis.
• Another problem with direct method is that the extent
and nature of the individual components losses is not
quantified.
Boiler Efficiency… Indirect method or Loss method For utility boilers efficiency is generally calculated by
Boiler Efficiency…
Indirect method or Loss method
For utility boilers efficiency is generally calculated by heat
loss method wherein the component losses are calculated
and subtracted from 100.
Boiler Efficiency = 100 - Losses in %
Indirect Method 1. Dry Flue gas loss 2. H 2 loss 6. Radiation 3. Moisture
Indirect Method
1.
Dry Flue gas loss
2.
H 2 loss
6. Radiation
3.
Moisture in fuel
4.
Moisture in air
5.
CO loss
7.
Fly ash loss
Fuel + Air
Boiler
Flue gas
8.
Bottom ash loss
Efficiency = 100 – (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8)
The unit of heat input is the higher heating value
per kg of fuel. Heat losses from various sources are
summed & expressed per kg of fuel fired.
teamS
retaW
Indirect or Loss method • This method also requires accurate determination of heating value, but
Indirect or Loss method
• This method also requires accurate determination of
heating value, but since the total losses make a relatively
small portion of the total heat input (~ 13 %), an error in
measurement does not appreciably affect the efficiency
calculations.
• In addition to being more accurate for field testing, the
heat loss method identifies exactly where the heat
losses are occurring.
Boiler Efficiency… Commonly used standards for boiler performance testing are ASME PTC 4 (1998) BS
Boiler Efficiency…
Commonly used standards for boiler performance testing are
ASME PTC 4 (1998)
BS – 2885 (1974)
IS: 8753: 1977
DIN standards
Parameters required for computing Boiler Efficiency • AH flue gas outlet O 2 / CO
Parameters required for computing Boiler Efficiency
• AH flue gas outlet O 2 / CO 2 / CO
• AH flue gas inlet and outlet temp C
• Primary / Secondary air temp at AH inlet / outlet C
• Total Airflow / Secondary Air Flow t/hr
• Dry/Wet bulb temperatures C
• Ambient pressure bar a
• Proximate Analysis & GCV of Coal kcal / kg
• Combustibles in Bottom Ash and Flyash
Boiler Losses Typical values Dry Gas Loss 5.21 Unburnt Loss 0.63 Hydrogen Loss 4.22 Moisture
Boiler Losses
Typical values
Dry Gas Loss
5.21
Unburnt Loss
0.63
Hydrogen Loss
4.22
Moisture in Fuel Loss
2.00
Moisture in Air Loss
0.19
Carbon Monoxide Loss
0.11
Radiation/Unaccounted Loss
1.00
Boiler Efficiency
86.63
Dry Gas Loss (Controllable) • This is the heat carried away by flue gas at
Dry Gas Loss (Controllable)
• This is the heat carried away by flue gas at AH outlet
• It’s a function of flue gas quantity and the temperature difference
between air heater exit gas temperature and FD fan inlet air
temperature
• Typically 20 C increase in exit gas temperature ~ 1% reduction in
boiler efficiency.
Dry Gas Loss… Sensible Heat of flue gas (S h ) S h = Mass
Dry Gas Loss…
Sensible Heat of flue gas (S h )
S h = Mass of dry flue gas X Sp. Heat X (T fg – T air )
Dry Flue Gas Loss % = (S h / GCV of Fuel) * 100
Dry Gas loss reduction requires • Boiler operation at optimum excess air • Cleanliness of
Dry Gas loss reduction requires
• Boiler operation at optimum excess air
• Cleanliness of boiler surfaces
• Good combustion of fuel
• Reduction of tempering air to mill.
• Reduction in air ingress
• Cleaning of air heater surfaces and proper heating
elements / surface area
Unburnt Carbon Loss (Controllable) • The amount of unburnt is a measure of effectiveness of
Unburnt Carbon Loss (Controllable)
• The amount of unburnt is a measure of effectiveness of
combustion process in general and mills / burners in particular.
• Unburnt carbon includes the unburned constituents in flyash as
well as bottom ash.
• Ratio of Flyash to Bottom ash is around 80:20
• Focus to be on flyash due to uncertainty in repeatability and
representative ness of unburnt carbon in bottom ash
• +50 PF fineness fractions to be < 1-1.5%
Unburnt Carbon Loss (Controllable) Loss due to Unburnt Carbon = U * CVc * 100
Unburnt Carbon Loss (Controllable)
Loss due to Unburnt Carbon
= U * CVc * 100 / GCV of Coal
CVc – CV of Carbon 8077.8 kcal/kg
U
=
Carbon in ash / kg of coal
= Ash
*
C (Carbon in coal)
100
100 - C
Influencing Factors - Unburnt Carbon Loss • Type of mills and firing system • Furnace
Influencing Factors - Unburnt Carbon Loss
• Type of mills and firing system
• Furnace size
• Coal FC/VM ratio, coal reactivity
• Burners design / condition
• PF fineness (Pulveriser problems)
• Insufficient excess air in combustion zone
• Air damper / register settings
• Burner balance / worn orifices
• Primary Air Flow / Pressure
Moisture Loss Fuel Hydrogen Loss This loss is due to combustion of H present in
Moisture Loss
Fuel Hydrogen Loss
This loss is due to combustion of H present in fuel. H is
burnt and converted in water, which gets evaporated.
Fuel Moisture Loss
This loss is due to evaporation and heating of inherent
and surface moisture present in fuel. (Can be reduced
by judicious sprays in coal yards)
Computation - Moisture Loss Total Moisture Loss = (9H+M) * Sw / GCV of Coal
Computation - Moisture Loss
Total Moisture Loss
= (9H+M) * Sw / GCV of Coal
Sw – Sensible Heat of water vapour
= 1.88 (Tgo – 25) + 2442 + 4.2 (25 - Trai)
The moisture in flue gases (along with Sulphur in fuel) limits the
temperature to which the flue gases may be cooled due to corrosion
considerations in the cold end of air heater, gas ducts etc.
Other Losses 1. Sensible Heat Loss of ash • Bottom Ash Hoppers • Eco Hoppers
Other Losses
1. Sensible Heat Loss of ash
• Bottom Ash Hoppers
• Eco Hoppers
• AH Hoppers
• ESP hoppers
Sensible Heat Loss (%) = (X / GCV) *100
(~0.5-0.6 %)
X =
[{Ash * Pflyash * C
* (T
- T rai )}
pash
go
+ {Ash * Pahash * C
* (T go
- T rai )}
pash
+ {Ash * Peash * C
* (T
-T rai )}
pash
gi
+ {Ash * Pba * C pash
* (T ba - T rai )}]
Other Losses 2. Radiation Loss through Bottom Ash Hopper • Coal Flow Rate 135 Tons/Hr
Other Losses
2. Radiation Loss through Bottom Ash Hopper
• Coal Flow Rate 135 Tons/Hr
• GCV of Coal 3300 Kcal/Kg
• Eqv. Heat Flux thro’ Bottom opening 27090 Kcal/hr/m 2
• Bottom opening area of S-Panel 15.85 m 2
Radiation Loss through Bottom Ash Hopper =
[H BOTTOM * A S-PANEL *100 ] / [Coal Flow * GCV * 1000]
= 0.096 %
Other Losses 3. Coal Mill Reject Loss • Coal Flow • Coal Mill Rejects •
Other Losses
3. Coal Mill Reject Loss
• Coal Flow
• Coal Mill Rejects
• GCV of Coal
• CV of Rejects
• Mill Outlet Temp T millout
• Reference Temperature T rai
• Specific Heat of Rejects Cp REJECT
135 T/hr
200 kg/hr
3300 kcal/Kg
900 kcal/Kg
90 C
30 C
0.16 kcal/Kg/C
Loss due to Mill Rejects = X / (Coal Flow * GCV * 1000)
X = [Rejects * (CV REJECT + Cp REJECT (T millout – T rai ))* 100 ]
= (0.0408 %)
Other Losses 4. Radiation Loss Actual radiation and convection losses are difficult to assess because
Other Losses
4. Radiation Loss
Actual radiation and convection losses are difficult to
assess because of particular emissivity of various
surfaces.
HEAT CREDIT Heat Credit due to Coal Mill Power = [MP * 859.86 * 100]
HEAT CREDIT
Heat Credit due to Coal Mill Power
= [MP * 859.86
* 100] / [Coal Flow * GCV * 1000]
Coal Flow Rate Coal FLOW Tons/Hr
Total Coal Mill Power MP kWh
GCV of Coal Kcal/Kg
Computations • Two Excel spreadsheets for determination of Boiler and Air Heater performance indices are
Computations
• Two Excel spreadsheets for determination of Boiler
and Air Heater performance indices are being
provided with this presentation.
• These also include methodology for correcting these
indices for deviation in coal quality and ambient
temperature from design.
• The operating equipment performance should be
corrected for boundary conditions before comparison
with design parameters.
THANKS
THANKS