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Problem 2.1 a) Twelve equal charges, q are situated at the corners of a regular 12-sided polygon (for instance, one on each numeral of a clock face.) What is the net force on a test charge Q at the center? The force on Q must be 0 by symmetry. The x, y, and z components of the elds due to each charge cancel, so the force vanishes. b) Suppose one of the 12 qs is removed (the one at 6 oclock). What is the force on Q? Explain your reasoning carefully. Now it is like 10 of the charges cancel, the only one that doesnt cancel being the one directly opposite the missing charge. Thus, the force is F = 1 qQ 2 4 0 r2 (1)

pointing in the direction of the missing charge. Here, r is the distance from the center to each charge. c) Now 13 equal charges, q, are placed at the corners of a regular 13-sided polygon. What is the force on a test charge Q at the center. Again, by symmetry, the answer is still 0. d) If one of the 13 qs is removed, what is the force on Q? Explain your reasoning. The same answer as in part b, equation 1, and for the same reason. Problem 2.2 a) Find the electric eld (magnitude and direction) a distance z above the midpoint between two equal charges, q, a distance d apart. Check that your result is consistent with what youd expect when z d. The force would not have components in the y or x direction, if we put the charges in the x z plane, there is no y-component of the eld at the point in question, and the x-components cancel. The z-component of the eld is E= 1 2q 1 2qz sin() = z z 2 2 + (d/2)2 2 + (d/2)2 )3/2 4 0 z 4 0 (z (2)

where the factor of 2 comes from adding up the two charges. When z E= 1 2q z 4 0 z 2

which is what you would expect, since the system acts like a point charge of charge 2q. b) Repeat part (a), only this time make the right hand charge q instead of +q. Now the z-components cancel and the x-components dont. Mathematically, this means replacing sin() with cos(). E= 1 2q 1 qd cos() = z x 2 4 0 z 2 + (d/2)2 4 0 (z 2 + (d/2)2 )3/2 (4) d, then from far

where the 2 has canceled out with the d/2 that comes from the cosine. If z away it looks like a dipole, and the eld reduces to that of a dipole: E= 1 qd x 4 0 z 3

(5)

Problem 2.3 Find the electric eld a distance z above one end of a straight line segment of length L, which carries a uniform line charge . Check that your formula is consistent with what you would expect for the case z L. The electric eld is L dq L dq 1 1 E= cos() + x sin() z (6) 2 4 0 0 r 4 0 0 r2 replacing dq by dx, r2 by x2 + z 2 , cos() by x/ x2 + z 2 , and sin() by z/ x2 + z 2 , we get E= 1 4 0

L 0

L 0

(7)

The rst integral is a u-substitution, while the second can be evaluated using your favorite computer program. 1 1 1 L E= {( + ) + x z} 2 (8) 2 + z2 4 0 z L z L2 + z 2 In the limit z L, we obtain 1 L E= z (9) 4 0 z 2 which is what you would expect from a point charge q = L. Problem 2.5 Find the electric eld a distance z above the center of a circular loop of radius r, which carries a uniform line charge . E= 1 dq 4 0 R2 (10)

Now, dq = dl, where dl = rd, while R = r2 + z 2 is the distance from the edge of the loop to the point z. Furthermore, clearly the horizontal components will cancel out, leaving only a z component of the electric eld, meaning we need to include a factor of cos() = z/ r2 + z 2 . Thus,

L

E=

0

dl cos() = z 2 + z2) 4 0 (r

2 0

1 zrd z 2 4 0 (r + z 2 )3/2

(11)

0

(r2

rz z 2 + z 2 )3/2

(12)

Problem 2.6 Find the electric eld a distance z above the center of a at circular dis ok radius R, which carries a uniform surface charge . What does your formula give in the limit R ? Also, check the case z R. The method is the same as in problem 2.5, except that now dq = da = rdrd. Thus, the integral is R 2 R rzdrd 1 1 z z 1 E= z= z = ( ) 2 z (13) 2 + z 2 )3/2 2 + z 2 )1/2 2 + z2 4 0 0 2 0 (r 2 0 z R 0 (r 0 In the limit R , we recover the eld due to an innite conducting plane, Ez = /2 0 , while in the limit that z R, by Taylor expanding the square root, we recover the eld between two point charges: E = Q/4 0 z 2 , where Q = R2 .

Problem 2.9 Suppose the electric eld in some region is found to be E = kr3 , in spherical coordir nates (k is some constant). a) Find the charge density . This part is simple. =

0

E=

0 2 r

1 (r2 Er ) = r

0k 2 r

1 (r5 ) = 5 0 kr2 r

(14)

b) Find the total charge contained in a sphere of radius R, centered at the origin. (Do it in two dierent ways). Method 1:

2 R

Qenc =

V

dV =

0 0

d

0

d

0 0 kR 3

5 0 kr2 r2 dr = 4 0 kR5 2

(15) (16)

Qenc =

E ds =

4R2 = 4 0 kR5 2

Problem 2.10 A charge q sits at the back corner of a cube. What is the ux of E through one side? We need to surround the charge symmetrically, since otherwise it is unclear what fraction of the ux is going through each face. Naively, you might think that the ux through one face is 1/6 of the total ux, but this is an assumption that we cannot justify. For instance, no ux goes through the three faces adjacent to the charge, since they are parallel to the electric eld. However, if make a larger cube, one centered on the charge, we can determine the ux through each face by symmetry. If we center the cube on the charge, then we are eectively adding 7 cubes of the same dimensions as the original cube, yielding 8 total cubes. Now, the charge is centered in the cube, with the original face that we were examining being 1/4 of one face of this cube. Since the cube has six sides, the original face composes 1/24 of the cube. The ux is thus q/24 0 . 2 Problem 2.21 Find the potential inside and outside a uniformly charged solid sphere whose radius is R and whose total charge is q. Use innity as your reference point. Compute the gradient of V in each region, and check that it yields the correct result. Inside the sphere, the electric eld E da = 1

0

dV

E4r2 =

3q 4 0 R3

dV =

3q 4r3 4 0 R3 3

E=

qr r 4 0 R3

(17)

r R

q 4 0 r2

r R

(18)

E dl =

1 4 0

q 1 q dr = r r 2 r2 4 0 r q q qr2 1 q dr = r r + 2 3 r 8 0 R 8 0 R 4 0 R

(19) (20)

Vin =

r

E dl =

r

qr 1 dr + r r 3 4 0 R 4 0

Taking the gradient of equations 19 and 21 trivially yields in equation 18 and 17, respectively.

Problem 2.22 Find the potential a distance s from an innitely long straight wire that carries a uniform line charge . Compute the gradient of your potential, and check that it yields the correct eld. Lets calculate the electric eld for this wire: E da = E2sL = q

0

L

0

E=

s 2s 0

(22)

Now we integrate this over the path ds to nd the potential. We dont integrate from s to , s since the integral will blow up. Instead we integrate from s to some point a.

a a

V =

s

E dl =

s

a ds = ln 2 2s 0 2 0 s

(23)

Taking the gradient of -V trivially reproduces equation 22. Problem 2.31 a) Three charges are situated at the corners of a square (side a), as shown in Fig. 2.41. How much work does it take to bring in another charge +q, from far away and place it in the fourth corner? The potential at the corner is V = V1 + V2 + V3 = 1 q 1 q 1 q 1 1 q = + + (2 + ) 4 0 a 4 0 a 4 0 a 2 4 0 a 2 (24)

So then the work W = qV is, since the potential is zero at innity, W = 1 q2 1 (2 + ) 2 4 0 a 2 (25)

b) How much work does it take to assemble the whole conguration of four charges? It takes no work to bring in the rst charge. The second charge requires (supposing it is the negative charge) work W = qV = q 2 /4 0 a, since, once again, the potential is zero at innity. The third charge requires 1 q(q) 1 q(q) q2 1 W = + = ( 1) (26) 4 0 a 4 0 a 2 4 0 a 2 and we have already calculated the work required for the fourth charge. Therefore, the work for the total conguration is: W =0+ 1 q 2 q2 1 1 q2 1 q2 q2 + ( 1) + (2 + ) = 2 4 0 a 4 0 a 2 4 0 a 2 2 2 0 a 0 a (27)

Problem 2.35 A metal sphere of radius R, carrying charge q, is surrounded by a thick concentric metal shell (inner radius a, outer radius b, as in Fig. 2.48). The shell carries no net charge. a) Find the surface charge density at R, at a, and at b. All the charge has gone to the outer radius of the metal sphere, since it is a conductor, so at R, the surface charge density is R = q/A = q/4R2 . At a, there will be induced a charge -q, so the surface density is a = q/4a2 . In order to keep the shell neutral, the remaining charge +q will go to the outer edge of the shell, causing a surface charge density b = q/4b2 . 2 b) Find the potential at the center, using innity as the reference point. Well use V = 0 E dl.

R a

V =

0

E dl =

0

(0)dr +

R

1 q dr + 4 0 r2

(0)dr +

a b

1 q dr 4 0 r2

(28)

c) Now the outer surface is touched to a grounding wire, which lowers its potential to zero (same as at innity). How do your answers to (a) and (b) change? If the outer surface is grounded, the charge on the outer surface will go to ground, since it will go from a region of high potential to region of low potential. Thus, b = 0. As a result, the potential at the center will have no contribution from the outer part of the shell.

R a

V =

0

E dl =

0

(0)dr +

R

1 q dr + 4 0 r2

(0)dr +

a b

(0)dr =

q 1 1 ( ) 2 4 0 R a

(30)

Problem 2.36 Two spherical cavities, of radii a and b, are hollowed out from the interior of a (neutral) conducting sphere of radius R (Fig. 2.49). At the center of each cavity a point charge is placed call these charges qa and qb . a) Find the surface charges a , b , and R . The charge at the middle of each cavity will induce an equal and opposite charge density on the cavity surface. Let the radii of the cavities be a and b, respectively. Then a = qa /4a2 , b = qb /4b2 (31)

Now, since the sphere is overall neutral, the remaining charge must be on the outer surface R. Therefore, R = (qa + qb )/4R2 (32) b) What is the eld outside the conductor? The eld outside a conductor is always E = / 0 n. Therefore, outside of R: E= qa + qb r 4 0 R2 (33)

Note that this is consistent with Gausss Law: E da = Qenc / 0 . c) What is the eld within each cavity? Once again, by Gausss law (or due to the boundary conditions, whichever you prefer), Ea = and Eb = 1 qa a r < a r 4 0 r2 1 qb b r < b r 4 0 r2 (34)

(35)

Note that these unit vectors are, in general, dierent from each other and the unit vector in r equation 33. d) What is the force on qa and qb ? The electric eld is due to the charges themselves, and the eld due to charge a does not inuence charge b, and vice versa. Therefore the force on each charge is 0. 2 e) Which of these answers would change if a third charge, qc , were brought near the conductor? R would be dierent, since the new charge would induce some more charge on the outer surface. Furthermore, it would aect ER , since the new charge contributes its own electric eld. Note that it would be dicult to apply Gausss law here, since we dont have the required symmetry. Problem 3.18 The potential at the surface of a sphere (radius R) is given by V0 = kcos3, where k

is a constant. Find the potential inside and outside the sphere, as well as the surface charge density () on the sphere. (Assume theres no charge inside or outside the sphere.) This potential can be decomposed into a linear combination of Legendre polynomials: V0 = kcos3 = k[4cos3 3cos] = k[xP3 (cos) + yP1 (cos)] (36)

I can tell immediately that it is some combination of P3 and P1 since the function is odd. So now I have the equality (if I replace P3 and P1 with the explicit forms of the polynomials): 4cos3 3cos = x and therefore we have 5x 2y 3x =4 = 3 2 2 8 x= , 5 y= 3 5 (38) 5cos3 3cos 5x 3 2y 3x + ycos() = cos + cos 2 2 2 (37)

So our potential, written in terms of the Legendre polynomials, is V0 = k [8P3 (cos) 3P1 (cos)] 5 (39)

V (r, ) =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos) +

Bl Pl (cos) rl+1

(40)

Inside the sphere, the Bl s must be 0, or we will have problems at the origin, while outside the sphere, the Al s must be 0, since otherwise we will have problems at innity:

Vin =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos),

Vout =

l=0

Bl Pl (cos) rl+1

(41)

Vin =

l=0

Al rl Pl (cos) =

A0 = 0, A2 = 0, Al = 0 l > 3

(42)

and so, at the surface of the sphere, Vin = k 3k 8k [8P3 (cos) 3P1 (cos)] = A1 RP1 (cos) + A3 R3 P3 (cos) A1 = , A3 = (43) 5 5R 5R3

while equating this with outside the surface yields (Bl=1,3 = 0): Vout = k B1 B3 3kR2 8kR4 [8P3 (cos) 3P1 (cos)] = 2 P1 (cos) + 4 P3 (cos) B1 = , B3 = (44) 5 R R 5 5

Thus, outside, we have, (plugging our A1 , A3 , B1 , B3 into the general solution, equation 40): Vin = Vout = 3k 8k 3 rP1 (cos) + r P3 (cos) 2 5R 5R3 (45)

3kR2 1 8kR4 1 P1 (cos) + P3 (cos) 2 (46) 5 r2 5 r4 To obtain , we use the fact that the discontinuity in the electric eld at the boundary is equal to the surface charge density:

0

= (

V n

out

V n

)=

in

Vin r

Vout R

(47)

R

R

(48)

Vout 32kR4 6kR2 P1 (cos) P3 (cos) = r 5r3 5r5 Subtracting one from the other yields: =

0

(49)

9k P1 (cos) + 5R

56k P3 (cos) 2 5R

(50)

Problem 3.25 Charge density () = asin5 (where a is a constant) is glued over the surface of an innite cylinder of radius R. Find the potential inside and outside the cylinder. Use the general solution to Laplaces equation with cylindrical symmetry:

V (s, ) = a0 + b0 ln(s) +

k=1

(51)

Inside the cylinder, we must have b0 = ck = dk = 0, since otherwise the potential blows up at s = 0. Outside we require b0 = ak = bk = 0, since otherwise the potential blows up at innity. So,

Vin (s, ) = a0 +

k=1

(52)

Vout (s, ) = A0 +

k=1

(53)

0

= (

V n

out

V n

)=

in

Vin Vout s s

(54)

s=R

where is given by () = asin5. Taking the derivatives of equations 52 and 53 and subtracting yields asin5

0

=

k=1

(55)

0

(56)

In order to calculate b5 and d5 , we need a second equation. The second equation is the continuity of the potential inside and outside the cylinder Vin |R = Vout |R : a0 + R5 b5 sin(5) = A0 + R5 d5 sin(5) a0 = A0 , b5 = d5 R10 (57)

We can choose a0 = A0 = 0, and plugging this into equation 56 to solve for d5 asin5

0

= 5R4

d5 =

aR6 10 0

b5 =

a 10R4

(58)

0

Now we have everything we need to plug in to the potentials inside (equation 52) and outside (equation 53). If we note that all the coecients vanish except b5 and d5 : Vin = s5 a sin(5) 2 10R4 0 (59)

Vout = s5

aR6 sin(5) 2 10 0

(60)

Problem 3.26 A sphere of radius R, centered at the origin, carries charge density (r, ) = k R (R 2r)sin() r2 (61)

where k is a constant, and r, are the usual spherical coordinates. Find the approximate potential for points on the z axis, far from the sphere. For reference, the exact form of the multipole expansion potential is V (r) = 1 4 0

n=0

1 rn+1

rn Pn (cos)(r)dV

(62)

R

1 Q 4 0 r

(63)

Q=

dV = 2

0 0

R (R 2r)sin()r2 sin()drd = k 2 r2

R 0

(R2 2r)dr = 0

(64)

Thus the total charge on the sphere is 0, so there is no monopole term, Vmon = 0. The dipole term is Vdip (r) = 1 1 4 0 r2 rcos()dV = 1 2 4 0 r2

0 0 R

rcos()k

R (R 2r)sin()r2 sin()drd r2

(65)

and we can see immediately that the integral vanishes, so the dipole term is also zero, Vdip = 0. The quadruple term wont be zero: 1 (R 2r)sin()r2 drd r2 0 0 (66) This is not a dicult integral, and it equals k 2 R5 /48. Thus, the potential at a point on the z-axis is 1 k 2 R5 V (z) = 2 (67) 4 0 48z 3 where I have let the original r z. Vquad = r2 r2 (3cos2 1) Problem 3.27 Four particles are placed as follows: charge q at (0, 0, a), charges 2q at (0, a, 0) and (0, a, 0), and charge 3q at (0, 0, a). Find a simple approximate formula for the potential valid at points far from the origin. Express your answer in spherical coordinates. To rst order, (the monopole term) the potential vanishes, since the total charge is zero. Lets examine the dipole term: 1 p r Vdip = (68) 4 0 r2 But p = qi di , so the dipole moment is p = (3q)(a) + (q)(a) + (2q)(a) + (2q)(a) + 0 = 2qa z z y y x z So the dipole potential is Vdip = 1 2qa z r 1 2qacos = 2 2 4 0 r 4 0 r2 (70) (69) 1 1 4 0 r3 3cos2 1 2kR dV = 2 8 0 r3

R

Problem 3.30 Two point charges, 3q and q, are separated by a distance a. For each of the arrangements below, nd (i) the monopole moment, (ii) the dipole moment, and (iii) the approximate potential (in spherical coordinates) at large r (include both the monopole and dipole contributions). a) 3q at (0, 0, a), q at origin. The monopole moment is just the charge, Q = 3q + (q) = 2q. The dipole moment is p = qi di p = (q)(0) + (3q)(a) = 3qa 2 z z The approximate potential is the sum of the monopole and dipole terms: V = 1 Q p r 1 2q 3qacos ( + 2 )= ( + ) 2 4 0 r r 4 0 r r2 (72) (71)

r where I have replaced z with cos. b) 3q at origin, q at (0, 0, a). The monopole moment is that total charge, which is again 2q. The dipole moment is p = (3q)(0) + (q)(a) = qa 2 z z The approximate potential is V = 1 Q p r 1 2q qacos ( + 2 )= ( + ) 2 4 0 r r 4 0 r r2 (74) (73)

c) 3q at (0, a, 0), q at origin. The monopole moment is the total charge 2q, the dipole moment is p = (3q)(a) + (q)(0) = 3qa 2 y y meaning that the potent is V = r since y = sinsin. Problem 3.31 A pure dipole p is situated at the origin, pointing in the z direction. a) What is the force on a point charge q at (a, 0, 0) (Cartesian coordinates)? The potential on the x-axis due to a dipole is V = So the force is F = q V = q V q V q 2pcos 1 qpsin pq + r = r = z 3 3 r r 4 0 r 4 0 r 4 0 a3 r=a,=/2 (78) r 1 pcos 1 p = 2 4 0 r 4 0 r2 (77) 1 Q p r 1 2q 3qasinsin ( + 2 )= ( + ) 2 4 0 r r 4 0 r r2 (76) (75)

since for = /2, the unit vector is in the -z direction. By the way, = /2 since the point we are looking at is on the x axis, while the dipole moment is in the z direction. b) What is the force on q at (0, 0, a)? This time, = 0, so pq F= z (79) 2 0 a3 Since the sin kills the second term in equation 78 above, and the direction is in z. r c) How much work does it take to move q from (a, 0, 0) to (0, 0, a)?

This is just the dierence between the answers to parts a and b, multiplied by q, since W = qV . Thus, pq (80) W = 4 0 a2 Problem 3.32 Three point charges are located as shown in Fig. 3.38, each a distance a from the origin. Find the approximate electric eld at points far from the origin. Express your answer in spherical coordinates, and include the two lowest orders in the multipole expansion. The rst order term in the potential is V = q/4 0 r2 , since the net charge is -q. The dipole term is 1 p r 1 p r V = = (81) 2 2 4 0 r 4 0 r where the dipole moment is p= (r)rdV = q(y + a) + q(z a) q(y a)(x + y + z)dxdydz = x y z (82)

Thus the total potential, monopole and dipole terms included, is: V = The electric eld, therefore, is E= V = q 1 a [ 2 + 3 (2cos + sin)] 2 r r 4 0 r r (86) 1 qa 1 q + cos 2 4 0 r 4 0 r2 (85)

Problem 4.20 A sphere of linear dielectric material has embedded in it a uniform free charge density . Find the potential at the center of the sphere (relative to innity), if its radius is R and its dielectric constant is r . We need to nd the electric eld everywhere rst. Inside the sphere, D da = D4r2 = Qf = while outside the sphere, D da = D4r2 = Qf = Therefore, inside the sphere, Ein = Outside the sphere, the electric eld is Eout = D = D

0

4 dV = r3 3

1 Din = r r 3

(87)

4 dV = R3 3 D D

0 r

Dout =

1 R3 r 3r2

(88)

r 3

0 r

(89)

R3 r 3 0 r2

(90)

R R

V =

0

E dl =

0

Ein dl +

R

Eout dl =

0

r 3

0 r

dr +

R

R3 dr 3 0 r2

(91) (92)

R2 R2 R2 1 + = (1 + ) 2 6 0 r 3 0 3 0 2 r

Problem 4.23 Find the eld inside a sphere of linear dielectric material in an otherwise uniform electric eld E0 by the following method of successive approximations: First pretend the eld inside is just E0 , and use Eq. 4.30 to write down the resulting polarization P0 . This polarization generates a eld of its own, E1 (Ex. 4.2), which in turn modies the polarization by an amount P1 , which further changes the eld by an amount E2 , and so on. The resulting eld is E0 + E1 + E2 + .... Sum the series, and compare your answer with Eq. 4.49. The polarization due to the eld E0 is P0 = 0 e E0 . The eld resulting from this polarization is given by equation 4.18: E = P/3 0 . Thus, E1 = P0 e E0 0 e E 0 = = 3 0 3 0 3

0 e E1 ,

(93)

P1 e e E0 2 0 e E 1 = = ( ) = e E0 3 0 3 0 3 3 9

Etot = E0

n=0

E0 e n ) = 3 1 + e /3

(95)

Using e =

Problem 4.26 A spherical conductor, of radius a, carries a charge Q. It is surrounded by a linear dielectric material of susceptibility e , out to radius b. Find the energy of this conguration. We will use equation 4.58 in Griths: W = 1 2 D Ed (97)

It is evident that for r < a, both D and E are 0. Outside the conductor, using the fact that = 0 (1 + e ): Q r>a D= r (98) 4r2 Q a<r<b E= r (99) 4 r2 Q r>b E= r (100) 4 0 r2 Thus, the energy is W = 1 2

b a

Q 1 Q 4r2 dr + r r 2 2 4r 4 r 2

Q Q 4r2 dr r r 2 4r 4 0 r2

(101)

b a

dr Q2 + 2 r 8 0

dr Q2 1 1 Q2 = ( + ) 2 r 8 a b 8 0 b

(102)

Problem 4.31 A dielectric cube of side a, centered at the origin, carries a frozen-in polarization P = kr, where k is a constant. Find all the bound charges, and check that they add up to zero. The polarization can be rewritten in Cartesian coordinates, P = k(x + y + z) x y z We also know that P = b and P n = b . Lets nd the bound volume charge rst: b = P = k(1 + 1 + 1) = 3k (105) (104)

z=a/2

ka 2

(106)

Thus, since there are six sides to a cube, the total bound surface charge is b = 3ka. Now we need to nd the total charge: Qtot = b dV + b da = 3k(a3 ) + 3ka(a2 ) = 0 2 (107)

Problem 4.32 A point charge q is imbedded at the center of a sphere of linear dielectric material (with susceptibility e and radius R). Find the electric eld, the polarization, and the bound charge densities b and b . What is the total bound charge on the surface? Where is the compensating negative bound charge located? The displacement eld D is easily found to be D = q/4r2 . The electric eld, written in terms of r the susceptibility, dened such that = 0 (1 + e ), is E= The polarization is P =

0 e E,

(108)

so P=

(109)

The bound volume charge is b = where I have used the fact that P= e q 4(1 + e ) (110)

R

e q 4(1 + e )R2

(111)

Thus the total bound charge on the surface is Qsurf ace = b da = e q e 4R2 = q 2 4(1 + e )R 1 + e (112)

The compensating negative charge is located at the origin (in the b term): Qcomp = b dV = e q (1 + e ) 3 (r) = e q (1 + e ) (113)

which exactly cancels the surface charge in equation 112. Problem 5.4 Suppose that the magnetic eld in some region has the form B = kz . (where k is a x constant). Find the force on a square loop (side a), lying in the yz plane and centered at the origin, if it carries a current I, owing counterclockwise, when you look down the x axis. The force is F = Idl B. The force on the two horizontal segments in z will cancel out, since the eld ips sign. a 1 dz kz = Ika2 z y x F = I dl B = I (114) 2 0 But that was only for one edge of the loop. The force on both edges will conspire, so the total force is F = Ika2 z 2 (115) Problem 5.5 A current I ows down a wire of radius a. a) If it is uniformly distributed over the surface, what is the surface current density K? K = dI/dl , so I = Kdl = K2a, since the length perpendicular to the ow is the circumference (not the surface area, which has a component parallel to the ow). Thus, K = I/2a 2 b) If it is distributed in such a way that the volume current density is inversely proportional to the distance from the axis, what is J? We have that J 1/s, or more precisely J = /s, with some constant. Thus,

a

I= and therefore

JdS =

0

2s ds = 2a s I 2 2sa

I 2a

(116)

J=

(117)

Problem 5.9 Find the magnetic eld at point P for each of the steady current congurations shown in Fig. 5.23 We will try to use the Biot Savart law: a) B= 0 4 Idl r 0 I = 2 r 4

/2 0

r ad 0 I + a2 4

0 /2

r bd b2

(118)

where I have used that dl = rd, for r = a and r = b. There is clearly no contribution from the straight sides, since here dl = 0. Thus, r B= 0 I 0 I 0 I 1 1 () + z ()( ) = z ( ) 2 z 4a 2 4b 2 8 a b (119)

b) Here, the Biot Savart integral becomes (for the semicircular side): B= 0 I 4

/2 /2

Rd() r 0 I = z 2 R 4R

(120)

For the two straight lines, the Biot Savart integral is awkward and dicult to compute, so we will refer to Griths example 5, in which he states that the magnetic eld between these two wires is going to be B = 0 I/2s, so the total eld at s = R is: B = ( 0 I 0 I + ) z 4R 2R (121)

Problem 5.12 Suppose you have two innite straight line charges , a distance d apart, moving along at a constant speed v. How great would v have to be in order for the magnetic attraction to balance the electric repulsion? A line charge traveling at velocity v constitutes a current I = v. The magnetic eld at a distance d due to the rst (second) wire is 0 B= I1 (I2 ) (122) 2d There is an attractive force between the wires, since the current is in the same direction. The magnitude of the force is F = ILB, where L is the length of the wire. Now, the total force is innite, but the force per unit length is f = IB, so the force per unit length between these two wires is, substituting I = v, 0 I1 I2 0 2 v 2 fB = = (123) 2d 2d Meanwhile, we need to nd the electric eld due to a wire of charge density : E dl = E2d = L

0

E=

L , 2 0 d

(124)

meaning that the force per unit length between the wires is fe = E 2 = L 2 0 d (125)

Thus the electric force per unit length fe Fe /L can be set equal to the magnetic force per unit length: 2 1 0 2 v 2 = v= =c 2 (126) fB = fe 2d 2 0 d 0 0 Thus you could never get the wires moving fast enough the electric force will always dominate over the magnetic force, and the wires will repel. Problem 5.15 Two long coaxial solenoids each carry current I, but in opposite directions, as shown in Fig. 5.42. The inner solenoid (radius a) has n1 turns per unit length, and the outer one (radius b) has n2 . Find B in each of the three regions: (i) inside the inner solenoid, (ii) between them, and (iii) outside both. The eld inside a solenoid is B = 0 nI. Outside, the eld is zero. Thus, in region (i), we have contributions from both the larger and the smaller solenoid. The eld in region (i) is B(i) = 0 n1 I + 0 n2 I() = 0 I(n1 n2 ) 2 z z z (127)

where the minus sign comes from the fact that the current is being carried in the opposite direction in the larger solenoid. In region (ii), the only contribution to the magnetic eld is from the larger solenoid. The region is outside the smaller solenoid, so the magnetic eld due to the smaller one is zero. Thus, the eld in region (ii) is B(ii) = 0 n2 I() = 0 n2 I 2 z z (128)

Outside both solenoids, the eld is zero. Thus, in region (iii), B(iii) = 0 2 (129)

Problem 5.16 A large parallel-plate capacitor with uniform surface charge on the upper plate and on the lower is moving with a constant speed v, as shown in Fig. 5.43. a) Find the magnetic eld between the plates and also above and below them. We consider each moving plate to be a surface current K, where K = v. According to example 5.8, the magnetic eld due to such a surface current is B = 0 K/2, where the + is below the plane and the is above the plane. How is this derived? Well, use Amperes law: B dl = 2BL = 0 Ienc = 0 KL B = 0 K/2. Thus, above and below the capacitor, the eld is zero, since the surface current K is pointed in opposite direction due to the opposite charge on the plates. In between the capacitor plates, the eld adds: Bbetween = 0 0 v (v) = 0 v (in) 2 2 2 (130)

b) Find the magnetic force per unit area on the upper plate, including its direction. The force per unit area is f = K B, so we obtain, for theupperplate f = v 0 2 v 2 0 v = 2 2 (131)

Doing the right hand rule will convince you that the force is up. c) At what speed v would the magnetic force balance the electrical force? The electric eld of the bottom plate is E = /2 0 , so the force on the upper plate is F = 2 A/2 0 . The force per unit area is, thus, f = 2 /2 0 . Equating this force with the force per unit area in part (b) yields: 0 2 v 2 2 1 = v= 2 (132) 2 2 0 0 0 So the plates would have to move at the speed of light. Thus, the forces would never balance. Problem 5.22 Find the magnetic vector potential of a nite segment of a straight wire, carrying a current I. [Put the wire on the z axis, from z1 to z2 , and use equation 5.64: A= 0 4 Idl |r r | (133)

Check that your answer is consistent with equation 5.35: B= 0 I (sin2 sin1 ) 4s (134)

The distance between the wire and any point s o the wire is z 2 + s2 , and, letting I = I, and z dl = dz, 2 s 2 + z 2 + z2 0 I z2 zdz 0 I A= = ln z 2 (135) 4 z1 4 2 z 2 + s2 s 2 + z 1 + z1 To conrm whether this matches equation 5.35, we take the curl of A: B= A= Az s (136)

2 But recall that sinj = zj / zj + s2 , so

z2

2 z2 + s 2

2 z1 2 z1 + s2

(137)

0 I (sin2 sin1 ) 2 B= 4s

(138)

Problem 6.1 Calculate the torque exerted on the square loop shown in Fig. 6.6, due to the circular loop (assume r is much larger than a or b. If the square loop is free to rotate, what will its equilibrium orientation be? Torque is given by N = m B. The dipole moment of the circular loop is m = Ia2 z. The magnetic eld due to the circular loop is given by everyones favorite formula for the magnetic eld due to a dipole: 0 Ia2 0 1 [3(m ) m] = rr z (139) B= 4 r3 4 r3 since m = 0. The m in the torque equation, however, refers to the dipole moment of the square r loop, which is m = Ib2 x. Thus, N = Ib2 x 0 Ia2 I 2 a2 b2 0 z= y 4 r3 4r3 (140)

The nal orientation of the square loop will be when there is no torque on it. Since the magnetic eld is in the z direction, the loop will rotate until it points in -. Why minus? Since the torque z is in - , the loop is spinning in the direction of negative z, so it will anti align with the other loop. y Problem 6.7 An innitely long circular cylinder carries a uniform magnetization M parallel to its axis. Find the magnetic eld (due to M) inside and outside the cylinder. If the magnetization is parallel to the axis then we can write M = M z. Then, Jb = s M = 0, Kb = M n = M z = M (141)

So the cylinder acts like a solenoid, since it carries a surface current in the azimuthal direction. When that happens, the magnetic eld is B = 0 nI, where n is the number of turns per unit length. But n = N/L, and I = Kb L, thus the product nI = N Kb , and, since N = 1 for this cylinder, B = 0 Kb z = 0 M z = 0 M 2 Outside the cylinder, where the magnetization is zero, the eld is also zero. Problem 6.8 A long circular cylinder of radius R carries a magnetization M = ks2 , where k is a constant, s is the distance from the axis, and is the usual azimuthal unit vector (Fig. 6.13). Find the magnetic eld due to M, for points inside and outside the cylinder. The easiest way to do this is to calculate the bound currents: Jb = M= 1 (sM ) z = 3ks, Kb = M n = ks2 z z s s = kR2 z

s=R

(142)

(143)

Now we can get the magnetic eld inside the cylinder by using Amperes law. Since the surface current is... on the surface, the only contribution to Ienc is from Jb :

s

B dl = B2s = 0 Ienc = 0

Jb da = 0

3ks sd = 20 ks3 z z

B = 0 ks2 (144)

Inside the cylinder, the magnetic eld is zero since the total current enclosed by an Amperian loop is zero. Lets check that:

R

Ienc =

Jb da +

Kb dl =

3ks sd kR2 z z

dl = 2kR3 kR2 2R = 0

(146)

Problem 6.12 An innitely long cylinder, of radius R, carries a frozen-in magnetization, parallel to the axis, M = ks, where k is constant and s is the distance from the axis; there is no z free current anywhere. Find the magnetic eld inside and outside the cylinder by two dierent methods: a) As in Sect. 6.2, locate all the bound currents. and calculate the eld they produce. The bound volume current is Jb = M and the bound surface current is Kb = M n. Lets calculate these: dMz Jb = = k , Kb = M s = kR (147) ds s=R Thus, the total current through a square Amperian loop of side length l, placed a distance R s into the cylinder is Ienc = Jb da + Kb dl = k(R s)l + kR(l) = ksl (148)

It is in the z direction, since the magnetization is in that direction and the surface and volume currents are in the directions. Meanwhile, outside, there is no current through the Amperian loop outside, so Bout = 0. b) Use Amperes law (in the form of Eq. 6.20) to nd H, and the get B from Eq. 6.18. (Notice that the second method is much faster, and avoids any explicit reference to the bound currents.) Amperes law is H dl = If ree,enc . Since there is no free current anywhere, H = 0. Therefore, since H = B/0 M, we can immediately nd the magnetic eld. Outside, where M = 0, B = 0 also. Inside, B = 0 M, so B = 0 ks 2 z (150) Problem 6.16 A coaxial cable consists of two very long cylindrical tubes, separated by linear insulating material of magnetic susceptibility chim . A current I ows down the inner conductor and returns along the outer one; in each case the current distributes itself uniformly over the surface (Fig. 6.24). Find the magnetic eld in the region between the tubes. As a check, calculate the magnetization and the bound currents, and conrm that (together, of course, with the free currents) they generate the correct eld. Using Amperes law: H dl = If ree H = If ree/2s. Therefore, since B = H = 0 (1 + m )H, we obtain I (151) B = 0 (1 + m ) 2s Magnetization is given by M = m H, so M= Im 2s (152)

Therefore, J= Ka = M n

s=a

M=

(153) (154)

and Ka = M n

s=b

(155)

Thus, the total current is Itot = I + Thus, B dl = 0 Ienc B2s = 0 I(1 + m ) B= 0 I(1 + m ) 2 2s (157) Kdl = I + Im Im z dl = I + z 2a = I(1 + m ) 2a 2a (156)

Problem 6.17 A current I ows down a long straight wire of radius a. If the wire is made of linear material (copper, say, or aluminum) with susceptibility m , and the current is distributed uniformly, what is the magnetic eld a distance s from the axis? Find all the bound currents. What is the net bound current owing down the wire. At a distance s < a from the center of the wire, H dl = 2sH = If ree . Since the current is distributed uniformly, the current at that distance is Is2 /a2 . Thus, Hin = I s 2a2 (158)

Meanwhile, outside the wire, the enclosed current is just I. Thus, Hout = Now, B = H = 0 (1 + m )H. Thus, Bin = I and Bout = 0 (1 + m )s 2a2 I0 2s (160) I 2s (159)

(161)

since the susceptibility of free space vanishes. The free current is Jf = I/a2 and Jb = m Jf , so Jb = while K b = M n = m H n

s=a

I m z a2 = m I () z 2a

(162)

(163)

Problem 7.7 A metal bar of mass m slides frictionlessly on two parallel conducting rails a distance l apart. A resistor R is connected across the rails and a uniform magnetic eld B, pointing into the page, lls the entire region. a) If the bar moves to the right at speed v, what is the current in the resistor? In

what direction does it ow? If the bar is moving to the right, that means that the ux through the loop is increasing. The area of the loop is lvt, so that the ux (and its time derivative) through the loop is B = lvtB dB = Blv dt (165)

By Faradays law, this produces an EMF in the loop, whose magnitude is EM F = meaning that the current is Blv 2 (167) R The negative sign means that the current is owing counterclockwise (i.e. downward through the resistor), since the positive sense was dened by the direction of the magnetic eld. b) What is the magnetic force on the bar? In what direction? The magnetic force is F = Idl B. Since the current is up through the bar and the magnetic eld is into the page, the force is to the left, as it must be. Otherwise, the bar would gain more and more energy as it sped up, without a source of that energy. The bar must slow down. The force is I= F = IlB = B 2 l2 v R (168) dB = Blv = IR dt (166)

where the minus sign means to the left. 2. c) If the bar starts out with speed v0 at time t = 0, and is left to slide, what is its speed at a later time t? m dv B 2 l2 v = dt R v(t) = v0 eB

2 l2 t/Rm

(169)

2 d) The initial kinetic energy of the bar was, of course, mv0 /2. Check the energy 2 /2. delivered to the resistor is exactly mv0 The power delivered to the resistor is P = I 2 R, and power is the time derivative of energy: P dW/dt: dW B 2 l2 v 2 B 2 l2 v 2 P = = I 2R = dW = dt (170) dt R R

0 2 v0 e2B

2 l2 t/Rm

dt =

2 B 2 l2 v0 Rm 2 2 (e2B l t/Rm ) R 2B 2 l2

1 2 = mv0 2 2

(171)

Problem 7.12 A long solenoid, of radius a, is driven by an alternating current, so that the eld inside is sinusoidal: B(t) = B0 cos(t). A circular loop of wire, or radius a/2 and resistance z R, is placed inside the solenoid, and coaxial with it. Find the current induced in the loop, as a function of time. The ux through the loop is a B = ( )2 B0 cos(t) = a2 B0 cos(t) 2 4 so the induced EMF is EM F = dB a2 B0 = sin(t) dt 4 (172)

(173)

Problem 7.15 A long solenoid with radius a and n turns per unit length carries a time-dependent current I(t) in the direction. Find the electric eld (magnitude and direction) at a distance s from the axis (both inside and outside the solenoid), in the quasi static approximation. The magnetic eld inside a solenoid is B = 0 nI, and outside is 0. Thus, the ux through an Amperian loop of radius s inside the solenoid is B = 0 nI(t)s2 The induced EMF is EM F = 0 ns2 and the electric eld can be calculated via EM F = E dl = E2s Ein = 0 ns dI 2 dt 2 (177) dI dt (175)

(176)

The electric eld circles around the solenoid, since the magnetic eld is in the z direction through the solenoid. Meanwhile, the ux through an Amperian loop outside the solenoid is B = 0 nI(t)a2 since the magnetic eld outside the solenoid is 0, the contribution to Thus, the electric eld can be found through E dl = d 0 nI(t)a2 dt (178) B da vanishes outside.

(179)

Since the loop of integration is taken around the point outside the solenoid, the integral becomes 2sE. dI 0 na2 dI E2s = 0 na2 E= (180) dt 2s dt Problem 7.31 A fat wire, radius a, carries a constant current I, uniformly distributed over its cross section. A narrow gap in the wire, of width w a, forms a parallel-plate capacitor, as shown in Fig. 7.43. Find the magnetic eld in the gap, at a distance s < a from the axis. This is a displacement current problem. The displacement current is given by the change of electric ux. The electric eld due to the charge density on the edge of the wire is E = / 0 . Thus, the ux through an Amperian loop of radius s is E = Thus, we have B dl =

0 0

s2

dE s2 d s2 1 dq Is2 = = = 2 2 dt a 0 0 dt 0 a dt

(181)

E = t

0 0 Is a2 0

B=

0 Is2 1 0 Is = 2 a2 2s 2a2

(182)

Problem 7.32 The preceding problem was an articial model for the charging capacitor, designed to avoid complications associated with the current spreading out over the surface of the

plates. For a more realistic model, imagine thin wires that connect to the centers of the plates (Fig. 7.44a). Again, the current I is constant, the radius of the capacitor is a, and the separation of the plates is w a. Assume that the current ows out over the plates in such a way that the surface charge is uniform, at any given time, and is zero at t = 0. a) Find the electric eld between the plates, as a function of t. Between the plates, we have the usual electric eld in a capacitor, E = / 0 = q/ 0 a2 . But q/t = I, so the electric eld as a function of time is E= It z 2 0 a2 (183)

b) Find the displacement current through a circle of radius s in the plane midway between the plates. Using this circle as your Amperian loop, and the at surface that spans it, nd the magnetic eld at a distance s from the axis. The ux through this circle is this electric eld multiplied by the area of the circle, s2 : E = Therefore, the displacement current is Id =

0

It s2 0 a2

(184)

dE = dt

Is2 s2 = 2 2 0 a2 a I

(185)

From this we can obtain the magnetic eld B dl = 0 Id B2s = 0 Is2 a2 B= 0 Is 2 2a2 (186)

c) Repeat part (b), but this time use the cylindrical surface in Fig. 7.44b, which is open at the right end and extends to the left through the plate and terminates outside the capacitor. Notice that the displacement current through this surface is zero, and there are two contributions to Ienc . We know have a total enclosed current of (i) the current in the wire with radius s, and (ii) the displacement current from the donut region around the wire. The displacement current will be the old displacement current in equation 185, minus the current in the wire. So s2 Id,new = Idisp,old Iwire = Iwire 2 Iwire (187) a To obtain the total current to be enclosed by our Amperian loop, we need to add the real current owing in the wire, I: Itot = Id,new + Iwire = Iwire Thus, we again nd, as in equation 186, that B= 0 Is 2 2a2 (189) s2 s2 Iwire + Iwire = Iwire 2 a2 a (188)

Problem 8.2 Consider the charging capacitor in Prob. 7.31. a) Find the electric and magnetic elds in the gap, as functions of the distance s from the axis and the time t. (Assume the charge is zero at t = 0.) We already found the magnetic eld in problem 7.31 by using Maxwells law B dl = 0 0 E . We found it to be 0 Is B= 2 (190) 2a2

Meanwhile, the electric eld in the gap is given by E = / 0 z. Using = q/A = It/A, we obtain E= It z 2 2 0 a E t It z 2 0 a (191)

We could have also found this by using Maxwells law in dierential form: B= 0 I 1 (sB ) z= z= s s a2

0 0

E=

(192)

b) Find the energy density uem and the Poynting vector S in the gap. Note especially the direction of S. Check that Eq. 8.14 is satised. The energy density is uem =

0

E2 +

1 I 2 t2 1 0 I 2 s 2 0 I 2 s2 B2 = + = 2 4 (c2 t2 + ) 20 2 0 2 a4 2 4 2 a4 2 a 4 I 2 st 1 E B = 2 4 s 0 2 0 a

(193)

Meanwhile, the Poynting vector is trivially computed: S= Eq. 8.14 is (umech + uem ) = S (195) t umech = 0 here, so it remains to take the time derivative of equation 193 and compare it to the divergence of equation 194: 0 I 2 uem = 2 4 c2 t = t a S= I 2t 2 2 0 a4 (s) = s I 2t 2 0 a4 (196) (194)

(Recall that the divergence is taken in cylindrical coordinates). Since c2 = 1/0 0 , equation 8.14 is conrmed. c) Determine the total energy in the gap, as a function of time. Calculate the total power owing into the gap, by integrating the Poynting vector of the appropriate surface. Check that the power input is equal to the rate of increase of energy in the gap (Eq. 8.9 in this case W = 0, because there is no charge in the gap). The total energy is given by

b

Uem =

uem dV =

0

uem w2sds =

0 wI 2 b2 2 2 b2 [c t + ] 2a4 16

(197)

for an arbitrary surface of radius b. w is the width of the gap. The total power is P = S da = I 2 wtb2 I 2t [b (2bw] = s s 2 2 0 a4 0 a4 (198)

Problem 10.3 Find the elds, and the charge and current distributions, corresponding to V (r, t) = r 0, A(r, t) = qt/4 0 r2 . This is a rather simple exercise: E= V B= A 1 q = r t 4 0 r2 A=0 (199) (200)

0

r q ) = 3 (r) 2 r 0

= q 3 (r)

(201) (202)

B=0

J=0