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| Peer es ; cea ; | se cee Se ce Aes students preparing for the Gambridge Coen eee en eae a’ pee ues esa ed PUR nant See ener rie ‘The material is divided into four sections to develop proficiency in different aspects of the language, Two-thirds of the book is devoted Peer mmo ee Fuca a ee eee tet ce ed eh Pee eee en tre eee etry with contemporary kinds of examination Precns Advanced English Practice is usatul for both Pee ec eee the teacher as a resource book. A key is er ee cone ete ced Rei) Cee a ore eer Reg ee are a aera ee ees CO CE ea A Praetieal English Grammar: Sra es Ce Ea il Advanced Pats) Es) Practice Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP NFHERS AUCKEAND BANGKOK FLORENCE HONG KONG ISTANFUL KARAGH KUATA LUMPUR MADRAS. MADMIED MELBOURNE MEXICO CITY NAIROBI PARIS SINGAPORE TAIL TOKYO TOROWIO and associated compan: in BERLIN BADAN Osford and Osfird Lgl are trade marks of ‘Oxford University Pr ISBN 0 19 432181 9 © Osfond Unicerity Pree 1963, 1971, 1956, iss elon publiched 1963 ‘Second edison 1971 (rebvinted txeloe times) Thind edition 1986 Teach inpreson 1998 “Te author and publisher ae grateful 10 Ti Newspapers Limited, the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, tbe Consumers? Assocation, Chatto & Windus, Murray Polinger and Hutchinson for permission to reproduce short extracts which appear in the exercises in Section One [No unauthorized photocopying Al rights reserved, No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in 1 retrieval system, or transmitted, in ny form of by any means, electron, mechanical, ‘Photocopying, recorcgg or therwise, without the prior ‘written permission of Oxfurd University Press “This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, oF otherwise circulated vithout the publisher’ prior consent fn any form of binding or cover other thar that in which is §S published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the Subsequent purchases, Photoset in Ehrhardt by Rowland Phototypeseting Lad Buy St Edmunds, Suffol Printed in Hong Kons Contents Introduction Section one The fundamentals of grammar General review of tenses and verb forms Modal auxiliary verbs Introduetion Ability or potential: can, could, be able to Ability or potential in past time: could aud hare beableto Conditional could, would beable to could, could have ‘would beable, would have been able 8 General characteristics: can, could Possibility am, cole may, might Future possibility: may, might, could ity: may hace, might have, could have (Situations) Permission: can, could, may, might 11 can, could, may, might in reported speech Other uses of may and might 12 Concessive may 13 might in requests and suggestions 14 Expectation or probability: should, ought to 15 Inference and logical conclusion: must, can’t (Situations) 16 Beliefand conjecture: will, would 17 Characteristic behaviour: will, would 18 Inherent capacity: will, would (Situations) 31 32 32 34 19 20 a 2 23 24 29 30 31 32 33-34 35-36 37 38. 39 40 4-42 4 Contents Prediction: shall, will shall after 1, we (ceported > direct speech) Review: vations usesof sill Advice and recommendation: shall, should, ought to, ‘had better ‘shoul, ought t0, had baer (Situations) Other uses of should sheuldn noun clauses after sugtest,reenmmend, ee should in adverbial clauses of purpose shouldin noun clauses after subject +10 be + adjective Obligation and necessity: must, musta’t, have (got) t0 must, msn't, hace (gt) to must, musi, have (gH) 19in reported speech Absence of obligation or necessity: needn't, not need (0, not have to needn't, not need (0, et have to needn't, not need to, net have tin reported speech Introduction to the verb forms of English The ‘simple’ verb forms Presentsimple Present simple: states Present simple in exolanations Present simple for daily habits resent simple with frequency’ adverbs (Situations) Composition topics resent simple in demonstrations Present simple in headlines Past simple Stative verbs: present simple and past simple Past simple Cnarratie’ for past events Past events (Situations) Composition topics Future actions or events, resent simple with adverbs having furure time reference Present simple in adverbial clauses of time referring 10 future Anote on the ‘future? 34 37 38 38 39 40 41 2 2 45 46 6 48 49 Contents § ‘The ‘progressive’ verb forms Present progressive 45-46 Presemt progressive Past progressive 47. Past simple and past progressive 48. Present and past, simple and progressive 49. Present simple and progressive, simple and progressive infinitive, present participle Future actions or events ‘50. Progressive forms with adverbs referring to future time (plans and arrangements) Future progressive 51 Simple and progressive infinitive after shall, wil, may, etc Perfect progressive 52 Present and past perfect progressive ‘Verbs not normally used in progressive forms 53 Present simple (Situations) 54 States and events: present simple or progressive ‘The ‘perfect’ verb forms 36, Perfect forms in past, present and future time 57 Present perfect and past perfect, simple or progressive (Situations) 58. Present progressive and present perfect 59 Present perfect (Situations) forand since 60 Present perfect with since 61-62. forand since ‘Simple and progressive perfect forms 63. Present perfect simple or progressive Present perfect in adverbial clauses of time referring to fiture 64 Present perfect in future time clauses 65 Reported speech, Past simple and past perfect: time distinctions 66-67 Past simple and past perfect 68 Past perfect: substituting finite for non-finite clauses 69 Past perfect in reported speech a @ 65 65 66 or 7 68 69 69 7” a n 2 2B 16 n B B 9 80 80 81 82 83 85 87