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..

--

2013

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373.167.1:51
22.1729
444
43

..
43

. / : , 2013. 224 . (
).
ISBN 978-5-222-20136-7
, .

, , .

ISBN 978-5-222-20136-7

373.167.1:51
22.1729

12.07.2012. 16.08.2012.
60901/32. . 2500 . .

344082, .--, ., 80
E-mail: morozovatext@aaanet.ru
.., , 2012
, , 2012

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. , . ,
, (0)
(9); ,

(XX ).
10, 2- , 3- 100 = 102, 10 .
, 362 = 3 100 + 6 10 + 2, 362= 3 102 +
+ 6 101 + 2 100.
:
3173 = 3 1000 + 1 100 + 7 10 + 3
, ,
:
abcd = a 103 + b 102 + c 101 + d 100.
: a 10n , 1 < < 10, n N .
:
317,3 = 3,173 102; 0, 00003173 = 3,173 105.

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(R) ,
.
(Q)

-
m
m
, m , m n
n
,n - , n .
.
- - :
:
1
2 = 1, 4142135...
= 0, 333... = 0 ,(3).
3


(Z)

, - , , , 0. .
(Z)

(N)
{1;2;3;4...}.

0
,


a + 0 = 0 + a = a.


,
{...3;2;1}.

N Z Q R

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,
. , .
a + b = b + a ;
(a + b) + = a + (b + ) ;
ab = ba ;
(ab) = a(b) ;
a(b + ) = ab + a
.
:
a + 0= a; a 1 = a; a + (a) = 0,
a a.

, 0. a/0 !


.
: a
b , :
1) (a) + (b) = (a + b)
5A; 8 a > b ,
a b ,
2) a + (b) = b + a = 0 ,
5A; 8 a = b ,
(b a),
5A; 8 a < b.

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: 0 + (2) = 2;
(5) + (47) = 5 47 = (5 + 47) = 52;
86 + (45) = 86 45 = 41;
74 + 37 = 37 74 = (74 37) = 37.
:
1) , .
2)
,
,
.
. ,
:
1) 0 = 0 = 0;
2) (b) = () b = b;
3) () (b) = b,
a b .
, ,
!
: 56 2 = 112; 7 (6) = 42.
( ):
+ : + = +
+ + = +
+ =
+ : =
+ =
: + =
= +
: = +

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a , a
b
b , b 0. a
, b .


( ) :
a ac
= ,
b bc
b 0, 0.
5 10 25
= .
: =
9 18 45
()
:
a c a+c a c ac
+ =
;
=
.
b b
b
b b
b
()
, ,
() , .
:

3 2 5 3 2 1
+ = ; = .
7 7 7 7 7 7

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,
,
() .

() ,
.
a c a+c a c ac
+ =
;
=
.
b d
bd
b d
bd
(,b) a
b , , b.

.
:

45 42
47
2 1 2 3 5 3 6
+
=
;
+ = + = ; + =
9 3 9 9 9 7 15 105 105 105

2 1 2 3
1 3 6
45 42
3
= = ; =

=
.
9 3 9 9
9 7 15 105 105 105

:
a c ac
= .
b d bd
,
,
.

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2 1 21 2 5
5 2 5 2 10
=
= ;
2 = =
= .
9 3 9 3 27 11
11 1 11 1 11

a
( b 0, 0), b

b
.
a
1
,

2
7
2
2, 2 = ;
9
1
9
.
7

:
, :
a c a d ad
.
: = =
b d b c bc
:

4 8 4 35 4 35 1 5 5
1
: = =
=
= =2 ;
7 35 7 8
7 8 12 2
2

6
6 1
61
1
1
: 12 = =
=
= . .
23
23 12 23 12 23 2 46

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D
4a

b
2a

b
2a

a<0
D=0

a<0
D>0

D
4a

b
2a

a<0
D<0
. 54


y = xa , a
, .
(a = 0), a = 0,
y = xa = x0 = 1 ( x 0).

60

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(y = xa) (. 55)

= 2

= 4

= 2n , n N

= 3

= 1

. 55

61

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..................................................................................................... 3
...................................................................................89
.......................................... 111
.................................................................................130

( )................................................135
..............................143
............................................................................................150

239

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