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503

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:
..


2011

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1:
4
1 20
2: 23
1: ..23
2: .34
3: .40
4: - ...45
2 47
.49
52
..53


.

.
( .., .., .., ..,
..), , ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
:

.
:
,
( ).
, .

.

,
.
.

.
5

1:


: .
, , . (E. Kruisinga)
(verbal predicate) (nominal predicate).
(copula) (predicative adjunct). (1; 143-144)
. (G. Curme) : Verbs of complete
predication verbs of incomplete predication. ,
(the verb
with all its modifiers). ,
.

(copula)

(complement). (2; 158)


,
(feel, fall, become, remain, go, seem, appear .) (1; 150-151).

, , .

: , , .
, .. (3; 120)
. :
1.

he

arrived

() ;
I am reading. , ,

.
.
2.

. He is a doctor
, - .
he a doctor,
, he,
,
doctor.
,

. ,
, :
He is young. The room is large.
3.

. He has many friends


, .
, ,
,
. has,
,
, he many
friends .
,
.

4.

. He is here
, .
, ,
. , is

- ,

,
, he is a doctor,
7

. ,
,
, ,
. (he is here, the
book is on the table) , here on the table
,
.
5.

- :
(The Moon rose red). red
moon.
..

: .
,

,
(arrived, arrives ..) (was arriving, will
arrive ..).
..
:
1.

,
, : He is a doctor.He has many friends. He
is here. He became a doctor.

2.

, : I
can see. He began to shout.

, ..
( , ,

)
( ( + + )).
.. (4; 200-202)


1) (John lives in a
house) (My ideas obsolete!!!!!!!, Such an old, old lady)
2) (I should do that!) (He is a
driver, That was a fact).
,
.
.. .. (5; 20-21)

( )
.
:
1) (seem agitated, ought to pay, seems to have been
committed);
2) (are seven, seems final, is an employer)
3) (.. ,

): What is wanted was for me to tell her


(6; 90), (7; 229), (8; 362), (9; 95 )
: (the Verbal Predicate)
(the Nominal Predicate).
(,
):
9

He arrived early in the morning.


We are working at the moment.
This woman studies English.
My mother and I have been living here for some years already.
John will move to another city.

(the Simple Verbal Predicate).
(the Compound Verbal Predicate).
(the Modal Verbal Predicate) (the
Aspect Verbal Predicate).
to ( ought to, to be to,
to have to):
She can run fast.
We have to stop working.
My mother ought to be more polite to other people.
Jackie should join their group.
Tourists must respect traditions of foreign countries.
..,
,
, , , ,
. : to start, to begin
( ), to go on (), to finish, to stop, to cease (
, ).
His friend began to study foreign languages.
10

She started crying.


We went on strolling down the street.
, .. .., -
, , ,
, .
(link verb) (the predicative).
, .
.. , ..
, .. . (10,138)
1.

: be (), look (), feel (), taste


( ), sound (, ), smell (
);

2.

: grow (), get (, ),


become (), turn (), prove ();

3.

: remain (), keep (),


continue ();

4.

: seem (), appear (, ).

-,
. :
He is upset. . / He looks, feels, seems upset.
, , .
,
: , , /
.

11


( ), ,
:
1.

The kitchen was a room with rafters. (J. Galsworthy, The Tree, 12)
He is a chemist.(H.Wells, The Accelerator, 102)
2.

The map is yours. (H.Wells, The Treasure, 94)


It is her. (S. Maugham, Theatre, 15)
3.

She was in despair. (S. Maugham, Theatre, 124)


He is against it. (S. Maugham, Theatre, 39)
4.

He looked smart. (S. Maugham, The Outstation, 229)


The weather is fine. (S. Maugham, Theatre, 110)
:
He is fifty - two. (S. Maugham, Theatre, 6)
5.

He was beside her. (K.Mansfield, Honeymoon, 199)


The excursion was over. (S. Maugham, A Man with a Conscience, 282)
6.

:
12

Your duty is to help them immediately. (J. Joyce, Clay, 135 )


7.

Her greatest pleasure was traveling.

(H.E. Bates, Love in a Wych Elm, 221)

..


. (11; 56 - 65 ), (12)
.. (13; 145)
.
(), .

, .
(simple predicate). : John smiled, Bill ran
away quickly. ,
: John has come. Bill is reading a book. The letter is being written.
, .. ,
, ,

, be - ,
(can, may, must, etc.).
be, (nominal
predicate): John is a teacher; Bill was angry.
, (complex predicate):
John can speak English; Bill may have come.

- be.
13

(complex

nominal

predicate):

Bill

may

be

angry

with

me.

,
-,
( ),
(complex verbal predicate).
,
; ,
be
.
, , ..
,
:
1)

: -

2) :
-

VERBAL

NOMINAL

NON- COMPLEX

John smiled.

John was angry.

COMPLEX

John might smile.

John might be angry.

14

.., ..
.. (14; 192)

: ,
, .
.
, . . , ,
, ,


. ,

,
. .:
Four doctors arc looking after them. / They are being looked after by four doctors.

,
.
, ,

, The washing flapped w h i t e l on the lines over
patches of garden. (D. Lessing) whitely ,
.

(The washing was white) (The white washing
flapped).
, ,
: , . . ,
15

(=

), ,
( , ,
).
:
paused. (H. G. Wells)

, ,
.
,
- : (
) ( )
: Andrew r e d d e n e d . (A. J. Cronin)
Andrew grew

red.

,
, -
.
, .., ..
.. .
, ,
, .

. ,
: g a v e a
gasp. (S. Maugham)
,
, . e.

16

(to be, to become, to grow, to seem,


to taste . .), , ,
. ,
,
() ,
.
The moon rose red The moon was red
when/while it rose, , .
grew old *He was old when he grew The milk tastes sour *The
milk is sour when it tastes.
, (The moon) rose
red ,
.
, ., ..
..,
, ,

. , ,
, , ,
-, :

-,

+
+

+
+

+
+

Jack spoke. (W. Golding)

'She is a s l e e p . ' (A. Bennett)

Mrs. Davidson gave a gasp,


17

[ . . . ] (S. Maugham)

The screams were still r i s i n g


nabated from the swimming
pool. (I. Murdoch)

HiHis
heart
stopped
(J.Galsworthy)

beating.

It It turned out to be Sam. (P.


Abrahams)

S he would l i e awake for a long


time worrying about her mother.

I can g iv e y ou a call as soon


as I get home.

, ,
, , , .
..
(cognate predicate),
(15; 254-257 )

, .
.
,
- .
, .
,
, ,
,
.

(16; 299), (17; 195).

,
18


,
.
, (18; 6466).

. ,

. .
1.

, /
: want, wish, desire, crave, long, hate, loathe.
,
. want wish.
desire , long
, , , crave
,
().
hate loathe

-
. Loathe
, .

,
. hate loathe
:
I wish to record my own personal conviction (Collins, 313). He didnt want
to be helped (English Stories, 292) he longed to escape (English Stories,
19

284). shell still want to spending something (Priestley, 232). I do so hate


being green (Galsworthy, 61).
2.

, ,
: like, love, enjoy.
. Like
, , love
, enjoy
- ,
.
,
.

:

People exaggerate, they love to romanticize (English Stories, 236). But she
likes to be thought so (Christie, 180). I like being liked, you know. (Christie,
256).
3.

, .
: intend, mean, prefer, choose. intend
mean ,
, , -
. prefer choose
- . Prefer
.
rather than.
, intend prefer
:

20

Reverend Sykes intended to sweat the amount due out of his flock. (Lee,
137). He meant to come back by a roundabout route(Christie, 73). Laura
had offered him the advantage if he chose to take it. (Collins, 135).
4.

, ,
: try, attempt, endeavour. try
, attempt endeavour
, endeavour

. try -
, ,
, .

. try ():
I will endeavour to remember what I can and what I cant remember
and cant write, Louis must remember and write for me. (Collins,
266). Ive been trying to shield Mrs. Lestrange from any
inconvenience that I could. (Christie, 299).
5.

seem, appear ,
.
(), .
:

Then she seemed to pull herself together. (English Stories, 223). I seemed to have
lost everything in the hat line. (Christie,75). Since things appeared to have worked
out pretty well(Lee, 159). They seemed to be running a lot of trains already.
(Galsworthy, 34). He seems to have been writing a note to say he couldnt wait any
longer. (Christie, 73).
1
21


, ,
(
), :
1)

.
(
, , , , ).

..
, (.., .. )
.
2)

,
.
().

- -

.
(.. , .. , ..).
3)

.
: .
() ,
, .
:

) () ,
,
.
22

, :
to begin, start, take up, continue, go on, finish, give up .

( ..).
) ,
,
. ..
(..
, .. ).
.
4)

- .

, ,
,
(, ,
..). :
, to be : John might be angry.
The child may be asleep. She must be a teacher. ..
(nominal
complex). (
, ).
2
.

23

2:

.
,
, .
(dependent words)
(head word) ,
, .

,
24

. : 1
( ), 2 (
), 3 ( ), 4
( ).
1:
,
() ,
.

, .
:
,
.
() ,
. (16; 133)
:

D
: head word, D , ,

.

.
:
(I came down with the wife. (A. Christie, Evans, 19)),
25

(you saw him (A. Christie, Evans, 31)),


(I dont know why. (A. Christie, Evans, 26)),
(But Maria said she had brought something special for papa and
mamma(J.Joyce The House, 136)).
: (
Ashrust was motoring along the outskirts(J. Galsworthy, The Tree, 3)),
(They had walked, intending to make Chagford(J.
Galsworthy, The Tree, 6)),
(She stood among them. (J. Galsworthy, Saga, 52)), (Bobby thought
suddenly. (A. Christie, Evans, 18)).
1

.
,
. ()
, ,
, , , .. . (16;
133-136)
()
, .
1:
H

D1

D2
26

-
1.
1: The letter dropped from Mr. Warburtons hand. (S. Maugham, The
Outstation, 248)

,
. dropped .
(from hand),
, , ,
(Mr. Warburtons), :
dropped

from hand

2: So she prayed beside the bed of her child. (D.H. Lawrence, England,
168)
prayed

beside the bed

of child

her

27

, .
,
prayed,

beside the bed.

child,
,
her.
,
.
:
.
: , ,
, .
. (16; 133-136)

, :
H

D1

D2

D1

D2

D3


.
, :

28

1.

.
: ;
, .
) :
Madam sent him a letter. (S. Maugham, A Man With the Conscience, 277)
sent

him

a letter

) , :
The girl brought the telegram to the man. (J. Galsworthy, Saga, 476)
brought

the telegram

to the man

,
(brought).
.
( the
telegram), ,

(to the man).


2.

, ;
and he thought about that thoroughly (J. Galsworthy, The Tree, 65)
thought

29

about that

thoroughly


thought,
.

(about

that),

(thoroughly).
:
Bobby moved a stepalong the ledge(A.Christie Evans, 7)
moved

a step

along the ledge

moved .
,
(a step), ,
(along the ledge).
3.


( , , ):
) :

So he worked spasmodically through the day. (D.H. Lawrence, England, 169)


worked

spasmodically

through the day

worked

- ,

,
30

. spasmodically -
, .
, through
the day. , ,
.
) :
Bobby sat down on a projection in the rock (A. Christie, Evans, 7)
sat down

on a projection

in the rock


(sat down).
, (on a
projection, in the rock).

. :
H

D1

D2

D1

D2

D3,

- .

, :
1) :
he played at poetry and romance(D.H. Lawrence, England, 143)
31

played

at poetry

romance

,
,
(played).
(at poetry, romance),
and.
2) :
whether he went here or there! ( J. Galsworthy, The Tree,76)

went

here

there

(went).

, (here, there).

,
.
1,

( ).
. :
32

) +

They were fleeting as one of the glimmering or golden visions. (J. Galsworthy, The
Tree, 5)

were fleeting

as one

of the visions

glimmering

golden

, Past Continuous were fleeting,


- ,

one,

,
33

(of the visions).


,
(glimmering, golden).
:
She tried in Downess bag and then in the pockets of her water-proof and then on
the hallstand. (J.Joyce, The House, 136)
tried

in bag

in the pockets

Downess

on the hallstand then

of water-proof

, ,

, .
tried ,

bag

pockets

(bag,

pockets,

hallstand).
,

Downess.

water-proof, , ,
, (her).
)

the Candleton sisters, seven of them, lived in a large gabled house built of red
brick that gave the impression of having been muted by continual sunlight to a
pleasant shade of orange rose. (D.H. Lawrence, England, 143)
34

lived

in house

large

gabled

built

of brick
red

attr. clause


,
.
(lived),
,

(in house).

(large, gabled) II (built). ,


,
(of brick).

(red) (that gave


the impression of having been muted by continual sunlight to a pleasant shade of
orange rose).
2: .
- ,

35

().

-
1 (. . 8, 15).

:
1.
2.
3.
.
-, -
.
, ,
. 2
:
LPr

LPr

D1

D1

D2 (Dn)

LPr

D1 D2

LPr

D1

D2

LPr

(Dn)

D1

D2

Dn

D3

D3

D4

..,
36

LPr - , L (link verb), Pr

(predicative), D , n ,
(Dn) - ,
- .

: , ,


, .
.
1. :
Ill be better in a minute. (H. Wells, The Treasure, 100)
shall be better

in a minute
.
-

.

,
(in a minute).
He is a stranger to me. (A. Christie, Evans, 77)
37

is a stanger

to me

. ,

(to

me),

.
,
,
, :
it was unjust to form an opinion on so brief a glimpse. (S. Maugham, The
Outstation, 231)

was unjust

to form

an opinion

on a glimpse

brief

so
38

.
.
, (to form).
, ,
(an opinion).

opinion

(on a glimpse).

(brief),

(so) .
The marvel of drugs has always been great to my mind. (H.Wells, The Accelerator,
106)

has been great


always

to mind
my

,

. has been great
, always
, mind.
,
my.
2. .

() ,
. , ,
39


, , , (,
, , ). ,
, .
(, )
.
:
He seemed such a nice, pleasant sort of fellow. (A. Christie, Evans, 35)
seemed a sort of fellow

such

nice

pleasant


(a sort of fellow). ,
(nice, pleasant),

(such).

.
:
He was a man of courage, not given to complaining, bearing his burdens by
himself. (D.H. Lawrence, England, 143)
was a man

of courage

not given

to complaining

bearing

burdens by himself

40

his
(a
man). ,
, ,
(of courage). II (not given)
, (to complaining).
I

(bearing)

(burdens),

, (by himself).
(burdens) ,
his.
3.


. :

suddenly the music seemed to Vincent a joke in bad taste (J. Braine, Room At
the Top, 87 )
seemed a joke

to Vincent

suddenly

in taste

bad

(to Vincent)
, suddenly, ,
.
, (a joke),
, (in

taste),

41

(bad).
3:

.
.
() ,
.

.
,
: ,
, .
:
VNF

D1

VNF

D1

D2

VNF

(Dn)

D1 = D2 = (Dn)

VNF

D1

D2

(Dn)

D3 ..,
V (verb),
NF (non-finite form of the verb).
3
, ,
,
( ).
42

:
you cant send a message(A. Christie, Evans, 34)
cant send

a message
,
.

(cant) (send).

(a message).
Someone must have put the stuff in the beer(A. Christie, Evans, 34)
must have put

the stuff

in the beer

,
.
must put
.

(the stuff)

jt (in the beer).


,
:
you cant send the imprudent and vague message! (J. Galsworthy, Saga,
34)
cant send
43

the message

imprudent

vague

,
(the message).
,
(imprudent, vague).

:
He may live on many generations inside the shelter of the social establishment
which he has erected for himself (Lawrence, England, 155)
may live

on generations

many

inside the shelter

of establishment

social

attributive clause

,
(on generations)
(inside the shelter).
44

(many),

(of). ,
.

() .
,
.
, : to begin, start, take up, continue, go
on, finish, give up .
:

She began to look for her plumcake. (J. Joyce, Clay, 136)

began to look

for plumcake

her

:
she went on singing in a tiny quavering voice . (J. Joyce,Clay, 138)
went on singing

in a voice

tiny

quavering
45


, :
The gentleman began to chat with her about Hallow Eve and the rainy weather.
(J.

Joyce Clay, 135)

began to chat

with her

about Eve

weather

Hallow

rainy

4: -
, ,
,

(, , ..).
: ,
: John might be angry. The child may be asleep. She must
be a teacher .. -

(. 1,3, 4) (. 2).
:
, ,
.
:

MLPr

MLPr

MLPr

MLPr
46

D1

D1

D2 (Dn)

D1 = D2 =

(Dn)

D1 = D2 ..,

MLPr - ,
M (modal verb),
L (link verb),
r (predicative).
1:
You might never be angry! (A. Christie, Evans, 85)
might be angry

never
2:
It cant have been the actual pushing. (A. Christie, Evans, 32)
cant have been pushing

actual
3:
I ought to be dead about sixteen times over. (A. Christie, Evans, p.30)
ought to be dead

about times
47

sixteen
4:
It must have seemed strange to her and to him. (A. Christie Evans, p.75)

must have seemed strange

to her

to him

2

, : ,
, ,
- .
.
: 1)
, .. ,
; 2) ,

3)

; 4) .
, ,
, ( ).

,
48

, :

.

.

, .

49



,
,
.
, ,
,
,
, .
.

.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) - .

. .
,

. ,
( 1, 2, 3, 4).
: 1) ,
, ; 2)
50

, ; 3)
; 4)
.

( ),
.
1 ( ), 2 ( ), 3 (
) 4 ( )
.

,
, :

.

.
,
,
. ,
( 2 4),
, .

,

, .

51


.

.

52


1. E. Kruisinga. A Handbook of Present-Day English.- L., 1931
2. G.O. Curme. A Grammar of the English Language, v. 3, Boston, 1931
3. .. . - .,

, 1957. - 285 .
4. .. . (

).- .- 1971
5. Kobrine N.A., Korneyeva E.A.

An Outline of Modern English Syntax.-

Moscow, 1956.
6. .. , .. .

. ., 1967.
7. .. , .. . .

.,- 2007. 320 .


8. .. , .. .

. .: , , 2004 608 .
9. .. . 2- . 1.

. .: + - , 2004, 511 [1] .


10. ., .., .. .

. . .: 1956.
11. .. .

. . . ..
: - , 1972
12. .. . .

. ., 1970
13. .., .. . .:

.., 1973
14. .., ., .. .

:
53

. - .: ,
1981. - 285.
15. .., ..

. ., 1967
16. .. . ., 1968.
17. .. . .

.,1967
18. .., ..

. . 1984. 2

1.

H.E. Bates, Love In the Wych Elm. XX .


3. . . .. . ., -
. 320.

2.

J. Braine Room, Room At the Top. .: - - , 2005

3.

A. Christie - Christie A. The Murder at the Vicarage. ;


- , 2007.

4.

A. Christie Evans Christie A. Why Didnt They Ask Evans. .:


.., 1991. 175 . (- ). ..

5.

Collins - Collins W. The Woman in White.- Cambridge University Press,


2002.

6.

A.J. Cronin A.J. Cronin The Green Eyes. .: - Pearson, 2008.

7.

English Stories. M.: , 1999.

8.

J. Galsworthy, The Tree. Galsworthy J. The Apple Tree.


XX . 3. . . ..
. ., - . 320.

9.

Galsworthy, Saga - Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga .: - ,


2009

10.Galsworthy

- Galsworthy J. Swan Song. .; Goreign Languages


Publishing House, 1956.
54

11.

J. Joyce, Clay. XX . 3. . .
.. . ., - . 320.

12.

J. Joyce, The House. - J.Joyce. The Boarding House.


XX . 3. . . .. . .,
- . 320.

13.D.

Lawrence, England. D.H. Lawrence. England, My England.


XX . 3. . .
.. . ., - . 320.

14.

Lee. Lee H. To Kill a Mockingbird. ;


,2003.

15. D. Lessing. Lessing D. A Man And Two Women. London: Touchstone


Edition, 1984
16.K.

Mansfield, Honeymoon. XX . 3.
. . .. . ., - .
320.

17.S.

Maugham . Maugham Theatre. .: - , 2009

18.S.

Maugham, A Man With the Conscience. XX .


3. . . .. . ., -
. 320.

19.

S. Maugham, The Outstation. XX . 3.


. . .. . ., - .
320.

20.Priestley

- Priestley J.B. Angel Pavement. Cambridge University Press,

2004.
21.H.

Wells, The Accelerator. - Wells H.G. The New Accelerator.


XX . 3. . . ..
. ., - . 320.

22.

H.Wells, The Treasure. Wells H.G. The Treasure In the Forest.


XX . 3. . .
.. . ., - . 320.

55

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