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Biology: Concepts and Connections, 6e (Campbell) Chapter 17

Plants, Fungi, and the Colonizati on of Multiple-Choice Questions


1)

L a n d

The , mutually beneficial association formed between a fungus and the root of a plant is called a(n) intimate A)

ingrowth. B)

mycorrhiza. C)

parasitic D)

infection.

hypha. E)

mycelium. Answer:

Topic :

Opening Essay Skill:

Factual Recall

2)

To

reduce the need for fertilizers, some citrus growers A)

add B)

mycorrhizal fungi to the soil.

eliminate C)

harmful soil fungi.

use D)

fungicides.

add E)

mycorrhizal bacteria.

eliminate harmful soil bacteria. Answer:

Topic :

Opening Essay Skill:

Factual Recall

3)

The

ancestors of land plants were probably ________ that lived in ________. A)

green algae similar to charophytes . . . the open ocean B)

green algae similar to charophytes . . . coral reef habitats C)

green algae similar to charophytes . . . coastal marshes or lake fringes D)

cyanobacteri a . . . coastal marshes or lake fringes E)

cyanobacteri a . . . moist soil crust communities Answer:

Topic :

17.1 Skill:

Factual Recall

4)

The land plants

are a clade whose members all possess the following derived characters: alternation of haploid and diploid generations; walled spores produced in sporangia; multicellular, dependent embryos; and A)

the ability to carry out photosynthesis. B)

production of air- or animal-dispersed pollen grains. C)

cell walls D)

reinforced by lignin.

male and E)

female gametangia to protect gametes.

xylem tissue to facilitate transport. Answer:

Topic :

17.1 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

5)

Gas

exchange in most land plants occurs through structures called A)

stomata. B)

spiracles. C)

phloem. D)

gas pores. E)

cuticles. Answer:

Topic :

17.1 Skill:

Factual Recall

6)

The

________, a zone of rapid cell division that produces growth, is found at primary root and stem tips. A)

sporangium B)

cuticle C)

apical D)

meristem

lignin E)

gametangiu m Answer:

Topic :

17.1 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

7)

In plants,

the vascular tissue made of dead cells that transport water and minerals from the roots is called A)

xylem. B)

phloem. C)

stomata. D)

transport E)

tissue.

meristem. Answer:

Topic :

17.1 Skill:

Factual Recall

8)

In plants,

the vascular tissue that consists of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant is called A)

xylem. B)

phloem. C)

stomata. D)

transport E)

tissue.

meristem. Answer:

Topic :

17.1 Skill:

Factual Recall

9)

In all

plants, the zygote and earliest stages of the developing embryo are A)

enclosed B)

within a seed.

a free-living, independent phase of the sexual life cycle. C)

enclosed D)

within a pollen grain.

attached to and nourished by the parent plant. E)

able to

disperse in a tough-walled spore. Answer:

Topic :

17.1 Skill:

Factual Recall

10)

Mosses belong to the group of plants known as the A)

angiosperms . B)

gymnosperm s. C)

bryophytes. D)

vascular E)

plants.

lichens. Answer:

Topic :

17.2 Skill:

Factual Recall

11)

Which

of the following statements regarding ferns is true? A)

Ferns do not have lignified cell walls. B)

Ferns have C)

well-developed vascular tissue, roots, and stems.

Ferns D)

produce seeds.

Ferns E)

produce pollen.

Ferns

reproduce effectively in dry conditions. Answer:

Topic :

17.2 Skill:

Factual Recall

12)

The

majority of plant species today are A)

angiosperms . B)

bryophytes. C)

gymnosperm s. D)

lycophytes. E)

seedless

vascular plants. Answer:

Topic :

17.2 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

13)

Which of the

following characteristics tends to limit bryophytes and seedless vascular plants to habitats that are relatively moist? A)

absence of B)

cuticle

presence of flagellated sperm C)

presence of free-living, independent zygotes and early embryos D)

presence of lignified vascular tissues E)

presence of seeds and pollen Answer:

Topic :

17.2 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

14)

Which of the

following options correctly represents the most likely sequence of the evolution of plants, from earliest to most recent? A)

bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, angiosperms B)

seedless C)

vascular plants, bryophytes, angiosperms, gymnosperms

bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, angiosperms, gymnosperms D)

bryophytes, gymnosperms, seedless vascular plants, angiosperms E)

seedless

vascular plants, angiosperms, bryophytes, gymnosperms Answer:

Topic :

17.2 Skill:

Factual Recall

15)

The

type of life cycle seen in plants is called A)

haplodiploidy . B)

gametophyte production. C)

alternation D)

of generations.

sporophytic regeneration. E)

cyclic

reproduction. Answer:

Topic :

17.3 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

16)

Which

of the following statements correctly describes the alternation of generations in a plant life cycle? A)

Diploid that produce spores by meiosis alternate with haploid gametophytes that produce gametes by sporophytes mitosis. B)

Diploid that produce gametes by meiosis alternate with haploid sporophytes that produce gametes by sporophytes mitosis. C)

Diploid s that produce gametes by meiosis alternate with diploid sporophytes that produce spores by gametophyte mitosis. D)

Diploid s that produce spores by mitosis alternate with haploid sporophytes that produce gametes by gametophyte meiosis. E)

Diploid s that produce gametes by meiosis alternate with haploid sporophytes that produce spores by gametophyte mitosis. Answer:

Topic :

17.3 Skill:

Factual Recall

17)

The

dominant stage of mosses is the A)

sporophyte. B)

gametangiu m. C)

pollen. D)

ovule. E)

gametophyte . Answer:

Topic :

17.4 Skill:

Factual Recall

18)

Ferns

and mosses are similar because both A)

produce B)

drought-resistant seeds.

have C)

dominant sporophytes.

have diploid gametophytes. D)

have E)

flagellated sperm.

have

sporophytes that produce diploid spores. Answer:

Topic :

17.4, 17.5 Skill:

Factual Recall

19)

In a moss,

most of the plants that we see are ________, while in a fern the most dominant stage is the ________. A)

gametophyte s . . . gametophyte B)

gametophyte s . . . sporophyte C)

sporophytes . . . gametophyte D)

sporophytes . . . sporophyte E)

sporangia . . . gametangium Answer:

Topic :

17.4, 17.5 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

20)

Which of the

following organisms has a dominant sporophyte generation and a free-living gametophyte generation? A)

moss B)

fern C)

mushroom D)

conifer E)

human Answer:

Topic :

17.5 Skill:

Factual Recall

21)

About

95% of all modern plant species A)

have a B)

dominant sporophyte in their life cycle.

have no C)

sporophyte.

have no D)

gametophyte.

have a E)

gametophyte adapted to house a sporophyte stage.

have

flagellated sperm. Answer:

Topic :

17.5 Skill:

Factual Recall

22)

Heavy

production and deposition of organic material during the Carboniferous period led to A)

global B)

warming.

the thinning of the ozone layer. C)

the D)

production of coal.

the evolution of lycophytes. E)

the

formation of tropical swamps. Answer:

Topic :

17.6 Skill:

Factual Recall

23)

Carbonif deposition of organic material removed ________ from the atmosphere, which produced a drier, erous cooler global climate and promoted the success of ________. A)

oxygen . . . B)

ferns

oxygen . . . C)

seed plants

carbon D)

dioxide . . . lycophytes

carbon E)

dioxide . . . seed plants

water vapor . . . cacti and succulents Answer:

Topic :

17.6 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

24)

Which

part of the life cycle does a pollen grain represent? A)

a spore B)

a sperm cell C)

a male D)

gametophyte

a male E)

sporangium

a male

sporophyte Answer:

Topic :

17.7 Skill:

Factual Recall

25)

Which

of the following represents the male gametophyte of a conifer? A)

pollen grain B)

sperm C)

spore D)

tree E)

ovule Answer:

Topic :

17.7 Skill:

Factual Recall

26)

Which

of the following plants has a dominant sporophyte generation and a seed, but no fruit? A)

fern B)

pine tree C)

tulip D)

lycophyte E)

moss Answer:

Topic :

17.7 Skill:

Application

27)

The represents the sporophyte generation of a conifer, and the ________ produces gametophytes. ________ A)

cone . . . tree B)

tree . . . cone C)

tree . . . D)

pollen

tree . . . seed E)

seed . . . tree Answer:

Topic :

17.7 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

28)

Two eristics shared by gymnosperms and angiosperms that are absent from earlier plant groups and charact represent key adaptations to life on dry land are A)

a vascular B)

system and lignin.

flagellated C)

sperm and gametangia.

gametophyte and sporophyte generations. D)

flowers and fruits. E)

pollen and seeds. Answer:

Topic :

17.7 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

29)

Pollen

grains develop in the ________ and are trapped by the ________. A)

anther . . . B)

stigma

stigma . . . C)

anther

anther . . . D)

ovary

stigma . . . E)

ovary

carpel . . . stamen Answer:

Topic :

17.8 Skill:

Factual Recall

30)

The

________ is the protective chamber that houses the ovule and later matures to become the fruit. A)

petal B)

ovary C)

carpel D)

sepals E)

stigma Answer:

Topic :

17.8 Skill:

Factual Recall

31)

To cross-

fertilize flowers A and B, one would first remove flower A's immature ________ and later transfer pollen from flower B to flower A's ________. A)

carpel . . . B)

ovule

anthers . . . stamen C)

stamens . . . stigma D)

stigma . . . E)

style

sepals . . . petals Answer:

Topic :

17.8 Skill:

Application

32)

The

angiosperm plant we see represents the ________ generation, and the flower produces ________. A)

sporophyte . . . gametophytes B)

sporophyte . . . bryophytes C)

gametophyte . . . sporophytes D)

gametophyte . . . bryophytes E)

seed . . .

sporophytes Answer:

Topic :

17.9 Skill:

Factual Recall

33)

Some of unique adaptations of angiosperms include their beneficial relationships with ________ and their the relatively ________. A)

animals . . . well-developed vascular system B)

animals . . . rapid fertilization and seed production C)

animals . . . large sporophyte D)

fungi . . . E)

well-developed vascular system

fungi . . .

slow seed maturation Answer:

Topic :

17.8, 17.9 Skill:

Factual Recall

34)

The

ripened ovary of a flower, which is adapted to disperse seeds, is called a(n) A)

ovule. B)

casing. C)

fruit. D)

cone. E)

sporangium. Answer:

Topic :

17.10 Skill:

Factual Recall

35)

Which

structure is found in angiosperms but not gymnosperms? A)

fruit B)

spores C)

seeds D)

ovule E)

a tube that grows from the pollen to deliver sperm Answer:

Topic :

17.9, 17.10 Skill:

Factual Recall

36)

A ur is dispersed by ________, whereas most fleshy, edible fruits are eaten by animals that ________. cockleb A)

wind . . . B)

defecate the intact seeds

wind . . . fully digest the fruits, including the seeds, which are killed C)

water D)

currents . . . defecate the intact seeds

hitching E)

rides on mammals . . . fully digest the fruits, including the seeds, which are killed

hitching

rides on mammals . . . defecate the intact seeds Answer:

Topic :

17.10 Skill:

Factual Recall

37)

Corn,

rice, wheat, fleshy fruits such as apples and berries, and many spices are all produced by A)

gymnosperm s. B)

ferns. C)

lycophytes. D)

angiosperms . E)

seedless

plants. Answer:

Topic :

17.11 Skill:

Factual Recall

38)

Corn, , tomatoes, and cucumbers all contain seeds and are derived from the ovary of a flowering plant. peppers Therefore, in botanical terms, they are ________. A)

fruits. B)

gymnosperm s. C)

vegetables. D)

sporophytes. E)

seeds. Answer:

Topic :

17.11 Skill:

Factual Recall

39)

Red and other wind-pollinated plants invest relatively little in producing ________, but must invest a great maples deal in producing ________ to achieve good pollination rates. A)

floral scents . . . showy petals B)

showy or C)

scented flowers . . . massive amounts of pollen

pollen . . . D)

showy or scented flowers

pollen . . . E)

female flowers

seeds . . . massive amounts of pollen Answer:

Topic :

17.12Evolution Connection Skill:

Factual Recall

40)

Which

of the following features would you expect to see in the flowers of wind-pollinated grasses? A)

very large, B)

fragrant, white flowers

petals with C)

UV-absorbing "nectar guides"

very simple flowers that produce massive quantities of pollen D)

red flowers E)

with long nectar tubes

flowers that smell and look like rotting flesh Answer:

Topic :

17.12Evolution Connection Skill:

Application

41)

Plants

dependent on nocturnal pollinators typically have flowers that A)

absorb UV B)

light.

are small. C)

have long D)

and narrow floral tubes.

are large, E)

light-colored, and highly scented.

are located close to the ground and smell of rotting flesh. Answer:

Topic :

17.12Evolution Connection Skill:

Factual

42)

One of the

factors that helps animal-pollinated flowering plants target pollen to plants of the same species is A)

the rapid ability of

B)

pollinators to extract nectar from any species of flower, regardless of the pollinators' past or recent experience with a given flower type.

the broad C)

use of many different types of flowers by most pollinators.

the fact that have limited learning capacities and tend to stick with one type of flower once they have pollinators learned to use it. D)

the tendency to avoid visiting the same type of flower more than once, in case its nectar is toxic. of pollinators E)

the fact that each species of pollinator typically visits flowers of one and only one plant species. Answer:

Topic :

17.12Evolution Connection Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

43)

Many flower traits

are specifically attractive to a certain type of pollinator. For example, the scent of rotting flesh is attractive to certain flies and beetles, but not to most other pollinators. What adaptive purpose is served by this kind of "niche marketing" of flowers to specific pollinators? A)

This adaptation

B)

works to reduce pollinator traffic at a flower. Therefore flowers do not have to produce as much nectar to feed big crowds of pollinators.

This adaptation

C)

reduces pollinator traffic so that flowers have a chance to develop their pollen fully before it is spread.

This done because the wrong kind of pollinator might eat all the pollen instead of delivering it to targeting is another flower. D)

This is favored by

E)

natural selection because otherwise certain pollinators would starve and die. Specific flowers evolve to give these pollinators a steady, reserved food source to help them survive.

This assure that pollen will be delivered to another flower of the same species. If less specialized adaptation pollinators are used, the odds are greater that pollen will wind up on the stigma of a different helps to species. Answer:

Topic :

17.12Evolution Connection Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

44)

More

than ________ of prescription drugs are extracted from plants. A)

5% B)

10% C)

15% D)

25% E)

50% Answer:

Topic :

17.13 Skill:

Factual Recall

45)

In the southea stern United

States, almost all of the mature forest had been cleared at least once by 1910. Since then, there has been a dramatic increase in forest cover, largely through the establishment of pine plantations as a source of lumber and pulp for paper making. Compared to the forests they replace, these forests are generally A)

just as B)

biologically diverse, but made up of smaller trees.

more hardy and resilient because the trees are younger. C)

less D)

biologically diverse and less hardy and resilient.

composed of bigger, healthier trees because the trees are planted in evenly spaced rows and fertilized. E)

more likely to contain a great deal of genetic diversity within a given tree species. Answer:

Topic :

17.13 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

46)

Generall y, forest conservation efforts are designed to A)

stop the B)

cutting of trees entirely so that humans and forests can live in harmony.

make sure C)

that all remaining forest are protected from any kind of human use.

transform natural

forests to more-productive tree plantations that can also be used to reverse global warming. D)

better manage

E)

forests so that our uses of trees and other forest products are compatible with the long-term maintenance of forest cover and biological diversity.

set the use other forest products to a level that meets or exceeds the rapid natural regeneration rate. of trees and Answer:

Topic :

17.13 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

47)

Heterotr ophic eukaryotes that digest their food externally and absorb the small molecules are referred to as A)

bacteria. B)

protozoans. C)

fungi. D)

plants. E)

multicellular algae. Answer:

Topic :

17.14 Skill:

Factual Recall

48)

Fungi are

found associated with the earliest plant fossils. Fungi may have helped plants become terrestrial by A)

forming B)

mycorrhizal associations with plants and by decomposing organic matter.

forming C)

lichen-like associations with ancestral plants.

stocking the soil with organic matter. D)

providing E)

simple organic compounds in return for sugars.

killing the bacterial enemies of plants. Answer:

Topic :

17.14 Skill:

Factual Recall

49)

Threadli ke fungal filaments are called A)

mycelia. B)

hyphae. C)

sporangia. D)

root hairs. E)

mold. Answer:

Topic :

17.14 Skill:

Factual Recall

50)

mushroom A)

is composed of many threadlike filaments called mycorrhizae. B)

is specialized to obtain most of the nutrients for the fungal mycelium. C)

is an D)

independent stage in the alternation of generations of the fungal life cycle.

is not E)

actually part of a fungus, but is a member of a related group.

is an above- ground fruiting body connected to a mycelium. Answer:

Topic :

17.14 Skill:

Factual Recall

51)

Fungi A)

are similar to bacteria because fungi are composed of prokaryotic cells. B)

are similar to bacteria because fungi use extracellular digestion to obtain their nutrients. C)

are similar to green plants because fungi produce chlorophyll. D)

differ from E)

members of the animal kingdom because fungi are autotrophic.

and green plants have cells that are surrounded by a cell wall made of cellulose. Answer:

Topic :

17.14 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

52)

Fungi

contact and absorb food through the ________, a branching network of ________. A)

mycelium . . . hyphae B)

hyphae . . . C)

mycelia

mycorrhiza . . . mushrooms D)

mycelium . . . chitin E)

mushroom . . . hyphae Answer:

Topic :

17.14 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

53)

Which

of the following structures is an essential part of most fungal reproductive systems? A)

gametangia B)

cellulose C)

flowers D)

seeds E)

spores Answer:

Topic :

17.15 Skill:

Factual Recall

54)

The

heterokaryotic phase of a fungal life cycle is A)

a stage in B)

which the hyphae contain only one type of haploid nucleus.

a stage in C)

which hyphae contain two, genetically different, haploid nuclei.

a stage in D)

which hyphae contain two, genetically different, diploid nuclei.

a stage that is diploid but functions as a gametophyte (like the body of an animal). E)

a triploid by the fusion of a diploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of a compatible hypha. stage formed Answer:

Topic :

17.15 Skill:

Factual Recall

55)

Which

type of reproduction is typical in many fungi, particularly molds and yeast? A)

sexual B)

reproduction through mating of two diploid parent mycelia

sexual through fusion of two haploid parent mycelia and subsequent production of haploid spores reproduction C)

asexual D)

reproduction through production of haploid spores by a diploid parent

asexual E)

reproduction through production of haploid spores by a haploid parent

asexual

reproduction through production of diploid spores by a haploid parent Answer:

Topic :

17.15 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

56)

The last common ancestor of animals and fungi was probably ________, like the spores of ________ fungi. A)

flagellated . . . chytrid B)

flagellated . . . zygote C)

prokaryotic . . . glomeromycete D)

multicellular . . . chytrid E)

nonflagellate d . . . chytrid Answer:

Topic :

17.16 Skill:

Factual Recall

57)

About

90% of plants have mycorrhizae linking them to A)

chytrids. B)

glomeromyc etes. C)

ascomycetes (sac fungi). D)

basidiomycet es (club fungi). E)

zygote fungi. Answer:

Topic :

17.16 Skill:

Factual Recall

58)

Most

familiar types of mushrooms, along with puffballs and shelf fungi, are A)

chytrids. B)

ascomycetes (sac fungi). C)

zygomycetes (zygote fungi). D)

glomeromyc etes. E)

basidiomycet es (club fungi). Answer:

Topic :

17.16 Skill:

Factual Recall

59)

Most

zygomycetes and ascomycetes reproduce ________ when conditions are ________. A)

sexually . . . constantly moist and food is abundant B)

sexually . . . favorable, as in the spring of the year C)

asexually . . . favorable, as in the spring of the year D)

asexually . . . harsh, as in the fall of the year E)

by

spores . . . windy Answer:

Topic :

17.17 Skill:

Factual Recall

60)

Which

of the following occurs in a mushroom, that is, in the fruiting body of a basidiomycete? A)

Hyphae of B)

two different mating types fuse.

Diploid C)

nuclei form, undergo meiosis, and produce haploid spores.

Heterokaryot ic cells separate to re-create the original haploid hyphae. D)

Spores E)

germinate and form a haploid mycelium.

Asexual

reproduction takes place through basidiogenesis. Answer:

Topic :

17.17 Skill:

Conceptual Understanding

61)

Fungal

diseases common in ________ include ________ and ________. A)

animals . . . smuts . . . rusts B)

plants . . . C)

smuts . . . rusts

animals . . . smuts . . . chytrids D)

plants . . . E)

ringworm . . . coccidioidomycosis

humans . . . rusts . . . vaginal yeast Answer:

Topic :

17.18 Skill:

Factual Recall

62)

Gangre hallucinations, temporary insanity, and even death can result when humans consume grain infested ne, with A)

corn smut. B)

chytrids. C)

coccidioidom ycosis. D)

the yeast E)

Candida albicans.

ergots. Answer:

Topic :

17.18 Skill:

Factual Recall

63)

What

kind of entity is a lichen? A)

an B)

association between a fungus and a brown alga

an C)

association between a multicellular protist related to the brown algae and a bacterium

an D)

association between a fungus and cyanobacteria or green algae

an E)

association between a bryophyte and a fungus

an

association between a bryophyte and a bacterium Answer:

Topic :

17.19 Skill:

Factual Recall

64)

You enjoy learning about

history by traveling throughout North America studying gravestones. You notice that gravestones from 1900 and earlier usually host many types of lichens. But in one cemetery, lichens are entirely absent, even from old gravestones. Given what is known about lichens, the cemetery without lichens probably A)

has an B)

unusually dry climate.

is subject to extremely cold winter temperatures. C)

gets a great deal of rain, which favors the growth of competing bacteria. D)

has a high E)

population of fungi that parasitize lichens.

is close to a source of air pollution. Answer:

Topic :

17.19 Skill:

Application

65)

Central American leaf-cutting ants A)

eat leaves B)

for nutrition.

use the C)

leaves to build their homes.

lay their D)

eggs in decomposing leaves.

cultivate E)

fungal gardens on the leaves.

chew up the leaves and use them for fertilizer to promote the growth of other plants that they eat. Answer:

Topic :

17.20 Skill:

Factual Recall

66)

Which

of the following statements regarding fungi is false? A)

Fungi are B)

important decomposers in ecosystems.

Fungi can C)

only break down plant material.

The D)

distinctive flavor of certain cheeses is due to fungi.

The first E)

antibiotic discovered came from a fungus.

Fungi are derived from a flagellated protistan ancestor. Answer:

Topic :

17.21 Skill:

Factual Recall

67)

An forest ecosystem is enclosed in a sealed greenhouse. The entire ecosystem, including the air and experim soil, is treated with an extremely potent fungicide that kills all fungal life stages including spores. ental What will probably happen next? A)

Tree growth will increase because the dead fungi will act as a fertilizer. B)

Plants will C)

enjoy a long-term increase in growth and survival because of the removal of fungal pathogens.

Dead organic accumulate on the forest floor; plant growth will decline because of a lack of nutrients and the matter will loss of mycorrhizal partners. D)

All of the plants will

die immediately when they are poisoned by the death of their mycorrhizal associates. E)

A few go extinct due to loss of their fungal food sources, but otherwise the forest will be largely animals will unchanged. Answer:

Topic :

17.21 Skill:

Application

Art Questions
1)

According to this figure, at what time in the evolutionary history of plants did vascular systems likely first evolve?

A)

475 mya B)

460 mya C)

425 mya D)

360 mya E)

50 mya Answer:

Topic :

17.2 Skill:

Application

2)

Which part of this figure represents the anther?

A)

structure A B)

structure B C)

structure C D)

structure D E)

structure E Answer:

Topic :

17.8 Skill:

Factual Recall

Scenario Questions
After reading the following paragraph, answer the question(s) below. Scientists believe that a shift from pollination by insects to pollination by birds occurred several times over the course of angiosperm evolution. Two researchers designed an experiment to test this hypothesis using two species of monkey flower (Mimulus spp.). M. lewisii has violet-pink flowers and is pollinated by bumblebees. M. cardinalis has orange-red flowers and is pollinated by hummingbirds. The researchers switched flower-color genes between the two species. As a result of the gene transfer, they produced a variation of M. cardinalis with dark pink flowers (instead of the original orange-red). The new variety of M. lewisiis had orange flowers (instead of the original violet-pink). Plants of both genetically altered varieties were placed in their original habitats and observed. The genetically altered variety of M. cardinalis was visited by bumblebees 74 times more often than plants with the original color flowers. The genetically altered variety of M. lewisii was visited by hummingbirds 68 times more often than plants with the original color flowers. 1)

Based

on the results of this study, you can conclude that A)

petal color won't

B)

contribute to speciation, since pollinators will select familiar plant species regardless of petal color.

gene C)

mutations that affect petal color will also affect nectar production.

gene mutations

D)

that produce larger flowers will cause the species to become more attractive to bird pollinators.

gene mutations

affecting petal color can contribute to speciation through a shift in pollinator species. E)

flower color doesn't appear to be an important factor in the speciation of flowering angiosperms. Answer:

Topic :

17.12 Skill:

Application

2)

The n of easily modified flower colors that make plants attractive to animals was an important factor in evolutio angiosperm evolution because A)

plants have no way to cross-pollinate without the intervention of animals. B)

animals are more effective at delivering pollen to other flowers than is the wind. C)

flower color attracts animals that can disperse the seeds of the plant. D)

successful E)

evolution requires interactions between plants and animals.

pollination by animals prevents problems with inbreeding caused by self-pollination. Answer:

Topic :

17.10, 17.12 Skill:

Factual Recall