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"-Pr-Xo N-tu-e-r

e-gG 1755. ]l-Nu-K-dr-t X-d-zl-\-al-b Edr-ho_' A-~ Xu-t-au-J \-K-c-r Ps-er-XG ]-Xr-eu-]ld au-~l-u ]l-Iu-~u. ]--~l-W-o "Xo hG-`-er-N-Xo.
I-r-S--juG I-al-\--ju-a-dlG $-Sr-u-es-u~u. <y-e-dr- I-S \r-ar-g-y-|u-r 70 "-Sr <b-c-au- Xr-c-al-d-I-jl-br I-c-br-d-|o #--Sr-|u~u. epl-]-I-al-b <-cuy-]l-, Xs-]r-Sr-G dr-ho-_Wr-d #-I P-\-hG-Jp-bu-S \l-dr-dl-~o Dl-a-al-al-br. \l-f-\-go-S--ju-S I-W-|u-Iy e-t-buG.
--Xr-bu-S hG-il-c-Xl--e--jr D-~l-Wo E`qI-G'. dl-I-o ar-|-br-S--jr-\r-~uG e-du-XuG Ntu-Xu-al-b `q-I---ju-S el--Iy \lG Zr-e-h-euG
Iy-|u-~u-o. Ku-P-tl-r-d I-Nr-du-l-b `q-I--]-r-buG a-il-cl-go--br-d d-q-cr-du-l-b `q-I--]-r-buG \r--jr ]-d-cuG I-r-u-l-eu-a-dl?
I-c-j-r-t a-d-bl-c-a-J-d-br $m "-Su- Ild-l-br Nr-d N-tu N-d-\juG <-l-br.

abcde

drho-_-Wr-d `q-IG
Nr--Ilc-t `l-e-\-br

d|G 87 2012 P\ecr 5 epl-l


Nl-e, eplG, e-r- Zre-h--jr
http://www.mathrubhumi.com/vidya
E-mail: vidyapage@mpp.co.in

A--\-bl-Wo `q-ar er-t-u-~-Xo (I--\G)? #-cuG ]r-Sr-NuI


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e-`q-I
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du-|u-~- Xl-~u-ad- I-l. `q-ar-bu-S 20 au-X 30 Ir-dl-as e-c I-r-bu- ]u-t- l-Sr-\u-r-d ]l-t- |-u-Ij- r
"-\-Ie
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Xl-l-eu-~X
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]l-Su-~- \- hvX-a- l-eu~u. $m "-eh
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`q-I
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<m-P
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- r-du-~- Xl-Su-Iq-Sr "-e e-\l-f\
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- er-\l-fI
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- r-d. a-tr-No ]l-t- |-u-Iy X-~r-al-tr-bXuG \s-j
- r epl-]r-NuI
- r-S|
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- u-al-b EG-f- a-Jd- I
- y'
(^ly-o hl-Wu-Iy) #-br-cr-|uG. I-_
- r-xu-er-\o \-c auI-jr `m-al-]c- r-Xd-
- r-du- -Z-f- EX
- d- _
- r-xu' "Y-el EA]
- r- ht' A-~u er-jr-|u-~u. #-G Iu-t
- I--jr \r-~o <-Zo`- e
- r-|u-~ `q-Nd- \
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- o.

r-t `q-
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al-r a-tr-N~
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- uG ]u-Xrb-- Z-f
- j- uG e-er-d- u-IjuG -gS-o r-|- ]S- u-Ib
- uG NlG. I-r-S
- y, ]l-d
- y, tbr-]l j-
- y, "-W- |-uIy, tl-Uu-Iy, ]-]-o d-\uIy Xu-S
- r-be
- ]q-Wa- l-bl
`l-Kr-Ia- l-bl X-I-|- ]S- lG.
e-Zpu-X_
-
-
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- s-]r S- r-e
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- u-.o
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- r-xu I-Sd- r-t "Sr-- r-dl-W-r I-Sd- uG I-c-

# au--u-~ f-_o-ZG!
`q-I--l-S-\u-_-r-No au--|-au- Nr-d f-_o-Z--juG aqj-du-I-ju-al-| Iy-|l-tr-d? A-l-W-Xr-\o Il-c-W-a~l?
I--_r-xu-er-\r-~uG ]u-t--|o _-ir-K-ar-|u-~
<m-PG E-Y-a <m-P-X-cG-K-y' (P-waves or primary waves or push
pull waves), 'Zvr-Xs-b-X-cG-K-y' (S- waves or secondary waves or shake
waves) A-~r--\ c-u-X-cG <m-P-X-cG-K--jl-bl-Wo `q-arbu-S "--`l-K-u-Iq-Sr h--cr-|u-~-Xo. `q--X-d-rd-u-~-Xl-Su-Iq-Sr $-e- E`q-X-d-X-cG-K-y' (surface waves or
love waves or L-waves) A-~u er-jr-|-]-Su-~u. $-e-br E-Y-a
<m-P-X-cG-K-y' f-_o-Z-X-cG-K-y-|o h-al-\-al-b hv-`leG <y-|l-u-~-e-bl-Wo. `q-I--l-S-\u-_-r-No hl-[lc-W I-u-e-cl-tu- ]-Sr-]-Su-u-~ f-_o-Z-y-|o Il-cWG $--cG <m-P-X-cG-K--jl-Wo. `q-I- \r-cs-k-W-I-r #-ZpG A-r-N-cu-~-Xo e-j-c-e-K-r h--cr|u-~ $--cG <m-P-X-cG-K--jl-br-cr-|uG.
Y-a <m-P-X-cG-Ky

ZvrXs-b <m-P-X-cG-Ky

Ir-|
Ildr-^l-Wr-b-br-d
G-f-aJd

`q-I--]-T-\-y-|o $-p-br-dl-ZpG zl-]r-N hs-ho-ar-Io \r-cs-k-W-fl-d Il-|brd "-ds-]q-cr-dl-Wo.


--Xr-Zu-c---jr -e-No B--euG al-c-I-al-b-Xo `q-I---jl-Wo.
`q-I-G au-Iq-r "-tr-bl a-K-y-|uG ]-kr-Iy-|uG I-r-bu-a- .
1897 "-h-ar-du-l-b e-`q-I--r {--]u- \-Zr K-Xr-al-tr D-u-Iu-I-bu-l-br.
_n-i-Xo hG-ir-X A-~ l-Ns-\---r `q-I--d-k-W--j-|u-tr-No er-f-Z-al-br Xr-]l-Zr-Nr-u-o.
"-a-cr-|-bu-S ]-Sr-l-t Xs-c-u- -Z-f-y, B-gpl e-I-c-bu-S Ir--|Xs-cG, e-S-|u-Ir--| ]-h-^r-|r-d Zvs-]u-Iy, \pq-hs-d-Uo, #-]o-ho ]-e-X--Z-fG,
ir-al-d-b ]-e-X-a-J-d, Pl-e, hu-al-, $-Ul-\s-gp, a-[p-g ]-e-X-\r-c-Iy A~r-er-S--jr `q-I--hl-[p-X Iq-Su-X-dl-Wo.

E\-u-S Il-Nu-I-c-j-r-duG
`q-I--au-l-Iu-a-~l...?
Dl... Nu-l!' A-~-d Iq-u-Il
I-cu-Xu-~-Xo? A-~l hG-K-Xr
"-X-d. Il-c-W-a-l-W-~l?
`m-aL
- S- \
- b
- u-S "-Sr-zl-\r $-p <-]`- q-J
- - 5 aJ-dI
- j- r-dl-br-l-Wo Xr-cr-Nr c- r-|u-~Xo. 100 f-Xa- l-\G `q-I
- h
- l-[p-Xb
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- j- l-Wo 5lG a-Jd- b
- r
e-cr-I. tr-IS-o -h-o I-br-dr 8-IqSu-X Xs-X
- b
- u- `q-I
-
- y
$m a-Jd- b
- r -Xs-kr-|lG. I-cj-r-t zl-\G 60 f-Xa- l-\G `q-I-hl-[p-Xb
- u- 3lG a-Jd- b
- r-dl-W.o
20 f-Xa- l-\G al-G `q-I
- h
- l-[p-Xbu-X
- uG 4.5 Xs-X
- -Xs-kr-|u-~
D-~lG-a-Jd- b
- r zr-Xr N-u-~-

XsbXr

Xu-al-b a-il-cl-g-o b
- r-d d-q-Jr-dl-cr a-Jd- b
- r 1993 h-]G _
-
30-\o hG-`e
- r-N e-`q-I
- G ]-Xr-\lbr-c
- j- u-S Ps-e\
- l-Wo "-]i
- c- r-N-
Xo. 4.5 Xs-X
- -Xs-kr-N -Z-f
- o
6.3 Xs-X
- b
- l-Wo "-~o c-J- ]S- ur-bX
- .o "-- \-b-r d-q
Jr-dl-cr a-Jd- I
- - j "-]-kr-No 3
$-c- r `q-I
- h
- l-[p-Xb
- u- a-Jd- br zr-Xr-N-u-~ I-cj-
- rt "-ez
- - b-|u-tr-No D-~u Nrr-Nu - \l-|q.
au-d-]-cr-bl Ul-auG $-Su-|r
#-No Ul-auG D-| zr-Xr-N-u~-Xo `q-I--hl-[p-X-bu- -Z-fy-|-Su-l-Wo. au-d-]-cr-bl fG $ cq-k-al-b-XuG $m "-]-IS-hl-[p-X Il-l-W-dl.

A-Io-t-bu-S I-u-]r-Sr-G.
Idl-a-dG i-Z-cl-drbuS N-c-a-Zr\G
A.A. I-|l-So N-c-a-Zr-\G.
a-br-d- "--cr-Nu .

K-ds-dr-bl K-ds-dr N-c-a-Zr-\G (1642).


s^ il-|r-Mo P--Zr\G.

N-u-a-\l P--Zr-\G.

tl-So-P A-Io-t I-u-]r-Sr-Nu (1896).


I-Y-I-jr hG-Ks-X- I-dl-a--dG i-Z-cl-dr el-i-\l-]-I-S-r a-cr-Nu (2006).
adbl-jI-er A.A. I-|l-So 1987 "--crNu.
]l-Nr-a-S-br-d h-a-c-\l-br-I.
#-[u-\r-I `m-Xr-I-fl--r-t ]r-Xl-e-~o #-_-o A-s er-f-gr-]r-N
K-ds-dr-bl K-ds-dr-bu-S N-c-a-Zr-\G.
X-al-K-j-|u-tr-No K-e-g-W-y \-S-r er-d-]- ]-d er-e-c--juG
d-`p-al-|r-b {r-s-go `m-Xr-I fl-.
a-db
- l-j
- r-d d-kW
- - al- #-Zp-\l-ed- r-t c-Nb
- r-Xl-eo D. N-u-a-\l-t P-Z- r-\G (1847).

15
16
22

Xs--X "-tr-bl tr-Io-S


`q-I--r-t Xs--X -Xp-albr "-tr-bu-~-Xr-\u- "-j-elWo Etr-Io-S ho-I-br'. "-a-cr|-|l-c-\l-b Nly-ho l-hrho tr-Io-S #-Wo $-Xr-\o cq-]GIl-Su--Xo. tr-Io-S ho-I-brdr aq-~-c-br Xl--bu- Nd-\-y a-\u-gp "-tr-bl-tr-d.
3.5 au-X 5.4 e-c-bu- `q-I-y N-tr-b \l-f-\-go-S--jul-|uG. 5.5-\u au-I-jr-du--e
#-ju-Iy-|uG I-r-S-y-|ua-dlG \l-f-au-l-|uG. 8-\u au- Nly-ho l--hr-ho tr
I-jr-du- `q-I---jl-I- e-`q-I---jl-Wo. tr-Io-S
ho-I-br Iq-Sl-X a-|l-j ho-I-br, tl-hr ^lt ho-I-br A-~s "-j-eu-Il-du-I-ju-au-o.

D-cu `q-I--au-l-bl \-y A-u-N-WG? Nr-d -[l-\-Il-cp-y al-G $-er-S hqNr-]r-|lG.


$-c- G h-x-`
- j- r Xu-th
- l b
- z-d-jl-Wo hu-ck
- r-XG. a-Xr-du-Iy, I-r-S
- y,
$-dI
- -o r-Io ]l-u-Iy, a-c
- y A-~r-eb
- r
\r-~o "-Id- G ]l-dr-|l -r-|W
- G. \r-y
I-r-S
- r-\u-r-dl-br-cr-|u-l-l-Wo `q-IG <-l-Iu-~- X-r I-r-eX
- uG e-KG Xu-thlb
- z-d- -l -ar-|W
- G. "-Xr-\o Ir-r-d
- r P-\l-dI
- y, Nr-r-\r-Iy, Klh
- o
tq-^u-Iy Xu-S
- r-be
- b
- r \r-~uG Zq-c- -|o
al-tu-I.
I-r-S
- j- u-S aq-dI
- y-|o Iq-Su-X Iq-r]rS- r-G <-X
- r-\l ]--~o $-Sr-u-es-rd "Xu-Il-o "-c- G aq-dI
- y Xl-cX
- - ap-\
hu-ck
- r-Xa- l-br-cr-|uG.

hs-ho-al-l-^o

]Tr-|l-\uG "-j-|l-\uG...
Ehs-ho-al-ho' A-~ s-|o ]-Z-r-t "-YG E`q-I-G'
A-~l-Wo. `q-I---|u-tr-Nu- ]T-\-fl-J-bl-I-
Ehs-ho-al-j-Pr' A-~-tr-b-]-Su-~u. `q-I--al-]r-\r-bl-Wo
Ehs-ho-al-l-^o'. #-Zp-al-br `q-I--al-]r-\r er-I-hr-]r-NSu--Xo N-\-br-dl-Wo.

P\h-cn-bn sN-m
hqN-\Iy

12

#]o-ho
]-e-X\rc

`qI
-
-
- y -[l-\a- l-buG ely-|l-\r-I,o S-I-o l-WrIo, ]q- l-Wr-Io A-~r-- \ aq-~u-Xc- a- u-.o "-r-]-eX-h-o ^l-S\
-
- j- u-S ^-da- l-br <-l-Iu-~ `q-I
-
- j- lWo Eely-|l-\r-Io `q-I
-
- y'. E]q - l-Wr-Io `q-I
- y' `q-ar-bu-S <-]c- r-Xd-
- r \r-~o 90 au-X 720 e-c
Irdl-as #-
- r \r-~u-au-l-Iu-~X
- r-\l `m-al]-cr-Xd-
- r A-u-l--|uG "-eb
- u-S f-r Iu-tr-cr-|uG. S-I-o l-Wr-Io `q-I
-
- j- l-Wo B-e
- uG er-\lf-Il-cr-Iy. `q-ar-bu-S <-]c- r-Xd-
- r-\r-~uG 30 Irdlas al-G #-
- r-dl-Wo "-e <-l-Iu-~X
- .o

I-c-j-r-duG -hl-[p-X-bl...? A
- lW
- o N-
- X
- ?o

-Xp-I-X-Iy

11

buG X-r N-cu-~ -Z-f


- o
50 au-X 100 "-Sre-c <-bc- a- u e-Xr-ca- l-dI
- y #-S- r|uG. `q-ar-|S- r-br-d \s-cu-te
- I
- ju-S ]l-XI
- y-|o al-G hG-`e
- r|u-Ib
- uG \-Zr-Iy K-Xr-al-tr Du-Iu-Ib
- uG N- "-\u-`e
-
- ju-.o ]-eX
-
- - Z-f
- r-\u has-]a- l-Wo `q-I
-
- r-t <-Z`-o e-zl-\- a-r e <-cuy]l-d- u-Ij- uG -Xs-kr-|lG.
$m Zu-c
-
- j- u-S ^-da- l-bul-Iu-~ #y-\l-f
- r-t
Il-cpG -Xp-IG ]-t- b-X
- r-d-
dl.

`q-I--]l-T-y

P-\-e-cr-br hoIqju-I-jr
N-l-\u- -e--\-y

aq-~u-X-cG

Zu-c---ju-S ]-cu-a-!

er-t-u-~-X--\?

X-l-tl-|r-b-Xo:
AG. c-Lu-\l-Yo
-e--\y

-[l-\ I-u-]r-Sr--y fl--Ivr-ho.


i-Z-cl-dr "-\u-ho-a-c-WG, #--I-Y ]-cr-N-b-]-S.
I-|l-So "-\u-ho-a-c-WG, I-er-Xl-dl-]-\G.
dl-I-u \-S-~ P-d-bu---j-|u-tr-No er-e-c-f-J-c-WG.
Ppl-Xr-fl--r-t e-j-N h-ar-\l. -i--juG <-]--i--juG ]-cr-N-b-]-S.
Ppl-Xr-fl- Ivr-ho, Nr---Z-f-\G.

A.A. I-|l-So

a-db
- l-j \l-e Il-dL
- -
- j- r-dq-S ]u-hI
-
- Z- -f\
- G.
-t er-jG-_-cG -"-\u-ho-a-c-WG. a-d-bl-jr a-l-tr-b h-a-]r-Nu (1891).
Iu--t er-jG-_-cG.
$-p-br-d {r-s-go er-cu- au-~---ju-S \l-xr Iu-tr-|-dl-b Iu--t er-jG-_-cG (1809) \-S-~u. IuI-c-j-r-d hvl-X-p-h-a-c ]l-cl--y N-N, h-ar-\l.
er-e-Il-\-x
Z-fs-b bu-e-P-\-Zr-\G.
hvl-ar er-e-Il-\-x-t P--Zr-\G (1863) Z-fs-b bu-e-P-\ Zr-\-al-br #-N-cr-|u-~u.
hvl-ar er-e-Il-\-x "-\u-ho-a-c-WG. Z-fs-b bu-e-P-\-Zr-\l-Ll-g ]-cr-]l-Sr-I-ju-S el--Iy f-J-c-WG N-N.
$-p I-c-h-\-bu-S #-Zp-I-al-U $ Ns-^l-b I.AG. I-cr-b-]-bu-S ho-a-c-Wl-G
$-p I-c, epl-a, \l-er-I h-\-b-|u-tr-Nu- l-Y-ar-I-al-b "-tr-eu-\-S.
I-c-h-\l Zr-\G.
h-\l-Zr-\-al-br #-N-cr-|u-~u.
ep-Xp-h tl-u-Iy, N-cr--]-c-al-b a-o er-e-c-y A-~r-e f-J-cr-|.
er-|r-]s-Ur-b Zr-\G .
2001 P-\-e-cr 15\l-Wo er-|r-]s-Ur-b #-cG-`r-N-Xo.
er-|r-]s-Ur-b ]-cr-N-b-]-S.
#-[u-\r-I I-er--b-r-dl-cl-jl-b Iu-al-c-\l-fl 1924 ]-d-\-bl-r-d t-Us-a _l--]-I-S- #-fl I-er-Xl-dl-]-\G "-\u-ho-a-c-WG. -Xr-I-ju-S -Z-f-\G.
Iu-al-c-\l-fl N-c-a-Zr-\G .
r acrNu.
l-`l-c-X-r-t h-q-W ]-cr-`l-g-br-dq-S a-d-bl-j-r-t "-`r-al-\-al-b
Iu-r-|u- X-u-cl N-c-a-Zr-\G. a-Iu-i
a-il-`l-c-XG h-q-W er-e--\G -Xr-I-ju-S -Z-f-\G, "-\u-ho-a-c-WG.
r-|u- X-u-cl-t N-c-a-Zr-\G.

`l-go N--_l-ho P--Zr-\G.


23 huPr. "-c-er-x P--Zr-\G.

D-Ur-g- (Dtsh)brd I--|r 1897 hu-`l-go N--_l-ho P-\r-Nu.


hu-`l-go N--_l-ho Ps-e-N-cr--|u-tr-]u X-l-tl-|.
a-d-bl-j hr-\r-a-b Z-fs-b, "--Z-fs-b --br-d-|u-b-r-b Pr. "-c-er-x-t P--Zr-\G (1935). Pr. "-c-erx "-\u-ho-a-c-WG, Il-q -Z-f-\G.

24 hm-o -zl-\G cq-]-e-Xo-I-cr-|-]-u. 1908 _-U ]-e hm-o -zl-\G cq-]s-I-cr-Nu.


a-d-bl-j I-Yl-hl-ir-Xp-r e-tr-l-cu `l-gl-f-dr-br-dq-S --b-\l-b
25 er.I.A. N-c-a-Zr-\G.
e-S-| Iq-l-d \l-cl-b-W \l-b A-~ er.I.A. 2004 "--cr-Nu.
26 tr-]-_r-Io Zr-\G .
hvl-X-p-Zr-\l-N-c-W-r-\o au-o 1930 P-\-e-cr 26 ]q-W hvl-X-p-Zr-\-al-br #-N-cr-Nu.
28 Xr-|l-Sr-b N-c-a-Zr-\G.
-f-h \l-S-I--o Xr-|l-Sr-b (]r. Iu--\- \l-b) 2001 "--cr-Nu.
30 c--hl-kr-Zr-\G .
$p-bu-S cl--]r-Xl-eo a-il-l-Kl-r Ild-]u.

hm-o er-e-c-f-JcWG.
er.I.A. "-\u-ho-a-c-WG.
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er.I.A.
tr]-_r-Io Zr-\ Ivrho, h-ar-\l, tldr, -Zf\G.
Xr-|l-Sr-b "-\u-ho-a-c-WG. -Xr-Iy ]-cr-N-b-]-S. #--I-Yl `l-KG el-b-\.
Klr-Pr-bu-S Ps-erXG, N-N, Ivrho, -Zf\G.

Pr. "-c-erx

hu-`l-go
N--_l-ho