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Cover

Daftar Isi

DAFTAR ISI Halaman Cover ............................................................................................................................. i Daftar Isi....................................................................................................................... ii Generic structure and Language features ..................................................................... 1 1.Spoof ......................................................................................................................... 1 a) Social function spoof......................................................................................... 1

b) Generic structure spoof text .............................................................................. 1 Example Spoof...................................................................................................... 1 2.Narrative.................................................................................................................... 2 a) Social function narrative ................................................................................... 2

b) Generic Structure Narrative .............................................................................. 2 Example narrative ................................................................................................. 2 3.Analytical Exposition ................................................................................................ 5 a) Social function analytical exposition ................................................................ 5

b) Generic Structure analytical exposition ............................................................ 5 Example Of Analytical Exposition ....................................................................... 5 4.Hortatory Exposition ................................................................................................. 7 a) Social function hortatory exposition ................................................................. 7

b) Generic structure hortatory exposition .............................................................. 7 Example Hotatory Exposition............................................................................... 7 5.Review....................................................................................................................... 9 a) Social function review....................................................................................... 9

b) Generic structure review ................................................................................... 9 Example Review ................................................................................................... 9 6.Procedure................................................................................................................. 11 a) Social function Procedure ............................................................................... 11

b) Text organization ............................................................................................ 11 Example Procedure ............................................................................................. 11 7.Recount ................................................................................................................... 12 a) Social function recount ................................................................................... 12
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b) Generic Structure of Recount .......................................................................... 12 Example Recount ................................................................................................ 12 8.Discussion ............................................................................................................... 13 a) Social function discussion ............................................................................... 13

b) Generic structure discussion ........................................................................... 13 Example Discussion............................................................................................ 13 9.Description .............................................................................................................. 15 a) Social Function descriptive ............................................................................. 15

b) Generic Structure descriptive .......................................................................... 15 Example Description........................................................................................... 15 10.News Item ............................................................................................................. 16 a) Social function news item ............................................................................... 16

b) Generic structure news item ............................................................................ 16 Example News Item ............................................................................................ 16 11.Report .................................................................................................................... 17 a) Social function report ...................................................................................... 17

b) Text organization report .................................................................................. 17 Example Report .................................................................................................. 17 12.Explanation ........................................................................................................... 18 a) Social function explanation ............................................................................. 18

b) Generic structure explanation ......................................................................... 18 Example Explanation .......................................................................................... 18 13.Anecdote ............................................................................................................... 19 a) Definition and Social Function of Anecdote ................................................... 19

b) Generic Structure of Anecdote ........................................................................ 19 Example Anecdote .............................................................................................. 19 Daftar Pustaka ............................................................................................................ 20 Tugas Sequence Signals ............................................................................................. 21

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Generic structure and Language features


1. SPOOF

a) Social function spoof: To tell an event with a humorous twist. b) Generic structure spoof text: 1. Orientation (who were involved, when and where was happened) 2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order) 3. Twist (provide the funniest part of the story) Example Spoof : Penguin In The Park Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. He took him to a policeman and said, I have just found this penguin. What should I do? The policeman replied, take him to the zoo. The next day the policeman saw the same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked, Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didnt you take it to the zoo? I certainly did, replied the man. and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today Im taking him to the moviest! Twist Events II Events I Orientation

2. NARRATIVE

a) Social function narrative: To amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem. b) Generic Structure Narrative: 1. Orientation ( who was involved, when and where was it happened) 2. Complication ( a problem arises and followed by other problems) 3. Resolution ( provide solution to the problem) Example narrative : When Love is Blind There was once a beautiful girl living in a city. She was known as Shinta, a nice and friendly girl. She studied at a popular senior high school in the city. She always followed the trend of young people life style. She got dressed as how the trend was at the time. In her idea, western modern life was the ideal model for all people. She thought that everybody should be free to do anything he or she liked. She had a handsome boyfriend, Deo. Having a boy or girl friend was like a must for the young people in the city. Parents advice to get away from western culture was considered as old-fashioned. Shinta loved his boyfriend very much. On Saturday evening they made a date, going to a theatre, caf or party. Shintas parents were worried about her. They have warned her but she ignored them. She thought, Though my parents dont agree with me, the show must go on. I love him very much. Whatever happens to me, I will face it. Yes love was blind. She got blind. Since then, she often quarreled with her father and mother. She became uncontrolled. She more often went out at night with the boyfriend. But, her parents could do nothing but only wait, see and pray. Orientation

Days went by. One morning, Shinta got a serious stomachache and wanted to throw up. She got dizzy; she went to the bathroom and threw up some contents of her stomach. Shinta was very worried. Am I getting pregnant? she asked herself. Her worries grew stronger until she decided to buy a pregnancy tester in a shop. She tested her urine. And what a shock! The tester showed a positive pregnancy. Shinta got fainted in her room for some minutes. She was very afraid that her mother knew what happened. Shinta tried to hide her pregnancy. Her face got pale every day and looked unhealthy. She tried to contact Deo. Knowing her girlfriend got pregnant; he was also frustrated and didnt want to admit that he was the father of the baby. He tried to avoid meeting Shinta. He was not responsible for the consequence. He asked her to abort the baby, but she refused. The stomach became bigger and bigger, but she was successful to hide it from others sight. She was very depressed, and more and more. Four months later, in one evening, when she could no longer be able to keep the burden, she decided to do abortion. In her bedroom, she took a chair and jumped from it to the floor. When her feet touched the floor, a bloody clod of a red fetus covered with placenta was dropped, cried and move several seconds, then stopped moving. The blood was running out of her skirt, making the floor wet. Shinta could see what happened in front of her eyes, didnt know what to do. She tried to stand up. But then she got unconscious. The next day, in the morning when she didnt get out of the room, Shintas mother called her name several times. No answer made the mother open the room door and looked inside. She saw blood everywhere in the floor and walls. The horror was shocking her when she found her daughter lying near the dead small fetus. She was upset but could control herself. Complication

Shintas mother quickly took her to the hospital. But, its too late. On the way Shinta died before she got a help. On the same day, the news about Shinta spread throughout the city. Resolution

3. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

a) Social function analytical exposition: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something in the case, to analyze or to explain. b) Generic Structure analytical exposition: 1. Thesis (usually includes a preview argument. It introduces topics and indicates the writers position) 2. Arguments (consists of a point and elaboration sequence. The number of points may vary, but each must be supported by discussion and evidence) 3. Reiteration (restates the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented) Example Of Analytical Exposition : Corruption and Indonesian Culture Corruption has happened for many years and today it becomes a bad culture in Indonesia for three reasons. Most adult Indonesian or foreigners have known and admitted that corruptions happen in many places. The daily newspapers, news programs on TV and radio have reported corruptions are done everywhere, almost in all departments or public services of this country. Corruptions happen in health, education departments and banks. When we manage to get some documents in public service offices, we usually need much money to pay. Manipulations happen everywhere The actions to eliminate corruption are weak. The ever stronger culture seems not to come to an end when the responsible institutions who have to reinforce the justice today commit corruption. This is the worst. Corruptions happen in police department, courts where judges, public prosecutors, lawyers make deals to do corruption. All of us also heard in the end of 2004, Probosutejo reported that he had bribed the Supreme Court, or called Mahkamah Agung which Argument 2 Argument 1 Thesis

becomes the highest level where the justice can be obtained. Perhaps you have to try to come to the local courts and see what happen there. You will see practices of bribery and other kinds of corruption. Therefore, we can say that corruptions becomes our culture. Do you like it? The citizens have no goodwill to fight against the corruption. They create the situations in which people have opportunities to do corruptions. The citizens like to break the rules because they are not disciplined. For example, in the street when they drive a car or ride motorcycle, they do not have the driving license or necessary documents. Then, they are caught by the local policemen. To avoid more difficulties, they like to bribe the officer. The officer let them go then. In other words, the citizens and officers are the same, doing corruption together. If only the people were critical, disciplined, and obey the rules, and willing to report any wrong behaviors, this country will not be number one corrupting country in the world. Conclusion Based on the reasons, we can conclude that corruption is becoming a bad culture in Indonesia if it is not ended soon by all of us. It seems that there must be more severe penalty for the Corruptors. Do we still care about the future of this country? Reiteration Argument 3 Argument 2

4. HORTATORY EXPOSITION

a) Social function hortatory exposition: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something should or should not be the case. b) Generic structure hortatory exposition: 1. Thesis ( stating an issue of concern) 2. Arguments ( giving reasons for concern, leading recommendation) 3. Recommendation (stating what ought or ought not to happen) Example Hotatory Exposition : A Campaign of the Importance of Reading Reading habit is poor among Indonesians because most people havent realized the importance of reading Reading is important to transform knowledge and technology. By reading, one knows the world. He or she will understand what he doesnt see by himself or herself. The lines of the paragraphs in an article contain pieces of knowledge. The knowledge is needed to improve the quality of humans life. Technology transformation from other country can only be done by reading a lot various sources of literature. Valuable books in libraries and bookstores mean nothing if they are not read. Realizing the importance of reading will make someone motivated to read. When we know that something is very important because it can give us valuable information, we will try to get or do the thing. For example, a businessman who always follows latest information or news, will know what to do in his/ her business. He will make a good decision to make a transaction. Most people in all developed countries have realized the importance or reading and they have good reading habits. In bus and train stations, vehicles, waiting rooms, parks, people like reading. They enjoy reading which gives them valuable knowledge and inspiration. Arguments 2 Arguments 1 Thesis

effective campaign. To plant an understanding in a generations minds is not an easy job. It needs a hard work from all components of the nation, especially the government. A serious campaign which is organized by the central and local government can help common people wake up and stand to face the real competition. The campaign can be done through various kinds of mass media such as TV, radio, booklets, bulletins, newspapers, magazines. It can also be conducted by teachers, parents and all people who care. Therefore, a nation-wide effective campaign of the importance of reading by all components of the nation should be done, facilitated by the government, to face the tighter competition. The world has forced globalization. Those people with little knowledge will be left behind. To speed up the better change in this country, a good reading habit is really important.
Recommendation

Arguments 3

5. REVIEW

a) Social function review: To critique an art work or event for a public audience b) Generic structure review: 1. 2. Orientation (background information on the text) Evaluation (concluding statement : judgment, opinion, or

recommendation. It can consist of more than one. 3. Interpretative Recount (summary of an art works including characters and plot). 4. Evaluative summation: the last opinion consisting the appraisal or the punch line of the art works being criticized. Example Review : Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix I absolutely love the Harry Potter series, and all of the books will always hold a special place in my heart. I have to say that of all the books, however, this one was not my favorite. When the series began it was as much of a feel good experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright, fast-paced, intriguing, and ultimately satisfying. and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today Im taking him to the moviest! Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. In some instances this worksyou feel a whole new level of intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. I was truly moved by the last page. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary, depressing feel. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here, and parts of it do seem long, as if were reading all about Harry just hanging out instead of having his usual adventures. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house, for example - housekeeping is still housekeeping, Interpretative Recount Evaluation II Orientation

Evaluation I

magical or no, and Im not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. A few other changes in this book - the real world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books, and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book, especially with being a teenager and all, but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. He goes from being a warm-hearted, considerate person to someone who will bite his best friends heads off over nothing. It just seemed like it didnt fit with his character, like he turned into a walking clich of the angry teen overnight. The real story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book, and this part I loved. I actually liked the ending (and yes, I cried!) as sad as it was. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Still a really good book, with some editing it would have been great.

Interpretative Recount

Evaluative summation

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6. PROCEDURE

a) Social function Procedure: To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions. b) Text organization: 1. Goals (the final purpose of doing the instruction) 2. Materials (ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions) 3. Steps (a set of instruction to achieve the final purpose) Example Procedure : How to charge hand phone battery prepare your : hand phone battery charger Steps : 1. Connect the charger to your hand phone, the flash symbol on the charger plug must face upward. 2. Wait until the battery icon appears on the screen. 3. Charge the battery approximately 5 hours or until the battery icon indicates that the battery is fully charged. 4. Remove the charger by pulling out from your hand phone. Steps Goals Materials

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7. RECOUNT

a) Social function recount: To tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events. b) Generic Structure of Recount: 1. Orientation (who were involved, when and where was it happened) 2. Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order) 3. Re-orientation (optional closure of events) Example Recount : Mr. And Mrs. Gunawarmans tour to Europe Mr. and Mrs. Gunawarman were on a tour of Europe. They were travelling on; a guided tour of five countries. They were going to travel through Holland, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and France for two weeks. The guide for the tour was a Swiss. On the day of the travel, the guide told them to check their passports, their travellers checks their foreign cash. He told them to keep them safely. They travelled in a comfortable poach with a toilet, music, and video. The guide stopped the coach at many famous places. He explained the cultural importance of the places. They stayed in big hotels for the night and ate in the restaurants. On the way, they .stopped at small inns to eats lunch. In the big towns they went shopping. They bought many souvenirs for their friends. They enjoyed the two weeks tour. Re-orientation Events Orientation

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8. DISCUSSION

a) Social function discussion: To present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue (for points against points) b) Generic structure discussion: 1. Opening statement presenting the issue 2. Arguments or evidence for different points of view (pros and cons) 3. Concluding recommendation Example Discussion : The Advantages and the Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy is commonly offered as an alternative to overcome the crisis of energy. The debate of whether the use of nuclear energy is an appropriate choice has not come to an end. Some people agree with the utilization of it because of its benefits. Some others, however, disagree because of its risks to the environment. Those who agree with the operation of nuclear reactors usually argue that nuclear energy is the only feasible choice to answer the ever-increasing energy needs. In their opinion, the other sources of energy: oil, coal, and liquid natural gas are not renewable and safe, while nuclear energy can be sustainable when produced in a safe way. However, people who disagree with the use of nuclear energy point out that the waste of nuclear products can completely destroy the environment and human lives. A meltdown in a reactor, for example, usually results in the contamination of the surrounding soil and water. Take for example, the blow up of the nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Russia twenty years ago. The serious contamination imperiled people and the environment severely. Argument "contra" Argument pro Issue

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It is obvious that nuclear energy should be avoided because it really endangers the environment but what about a less polluted energy instead of nuclear energy? Is there any alternative energy to overcome the crisis of energy? Conclusion

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9. DESCRIPTION

a) Social Function descriptive: To describe a particular person, place or thing. b) Generic Structure descriptive: 1. Identification (identify phenomenon to be described) 2. Description (describe parts, qualities, characteristics) Example Description : Natural Bridge National Park Natural Bridge National Park is a luscious tropical rainforest. It is located 110 kilometres south of Brisbane and is reached by following the Pacific Highway to Nerang and then by travelling through the Numinbah Valley. This scenic roadway lies in the shadow of the Lamington National Park. The phenomenon of the rock formed into a natural arch and the cave through which a waterfall cascades is a short 1 kilometre walk below a dense rainforest canopy from the main picnic area. Swimming is permitted in the rock pools. Night-time visitors to the cave will discover the unique feature of the glow worms. Picnic areas offer toilets, barbecues, shelter sheds, water and fireplaces; however, overnight camping is not permitted. Description Identification

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10. NEWS ITEM

a) Social function news item: To inform readers or listeners about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. b) Generic structure news item: 1. News worthy event (tells the event in a summary form) 2. Background events (elaborate what happened, tell what caused the incident) 3. Sources (comments by participants, witnesses, authorities and experts involved in the event) Example News Item : Town Contaminated Moscow A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo 22 near Vladivostock. The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a thermal and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Sources Background events News worthy event

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11. REPORT

a) Social function report: To describe the way things are (for example: a man made thing, animals, plants). The things must be a representative of their class. b) Text organization report: 1. General classification (introduces the topic of the report/tells what phenomenon under discussion is.) 2. Description (tell the details of topic such as physical appearance, parts, qualities, habits/behaviour). Example Report : Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus rex, sometimes just called T-rex, is believed to be the largest and most fearsome predator on Earths land ever to have existed. This dinosaur once roam the Earth in the Creataceous period approximately 68 to 65 million years ago. As a carnivorous dinosaur, this giant predator most likely ambushed their prey, and devoured them with jaws full of white sharp teeth. With its fast ability to run at an astonishing speed of 32 mph (50 kmh), a perfect slim and stiff tail that gave it an excellent balance and allowed it to make quick turns, equipped this gigantic predator and made it even more deadly, like a killing machine. Description General classification

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12. EXPLANATION

a) Social function explanation: To explain the process involved in the formation or working of natural or socio cultural phenomena b) Generic structure explanation: 1. A general statement to position the reader 2. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs 3. Closing Example Explanation : A brief Summary of Speech Production Speech production is made possible by the specialised movements of our vocal organs that generate speech sounds waves. Like all sound production, speech production reguires a source of energy. The source of energy for speech production is the steady stream of air that comes from the lungs as we exhale. When we breathe normally, the air stream is inaudible. To become audible, the air stream must vibrate rapidly. The vocal cords cause the air stream to vibrate. As we talk, the vocal cords open and close rapidly, chopping up the steady air stream into a series of puffs. These puffs are heard as a buzz. But this buzz is still not speech. To produce speech sounds, the vocal tract must change shape. During speech we continually alter the shape of the vocal track by moving the tongue and lips, etc. These movements change the acoustic properties of the vocal tract, which in turn produce the different sounds of speech. Closing Explanation Explanation General Statement

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13. ANECDOTE a) Definition and Social Function of Anecdote : Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. b) Generic Structure of Anecdote : 1. Abstract : signals the retelling of an unusual incident 2. Orientation : sets the scene (when and where) 3. Crisis : provides details of the unusual incident 4. Reaction : reaction to crisis 5. Coda (optional) : reflection on or evaluation of the incident Example Anecdote : Snake in the Bath How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap. Suddenly to my horror, a snake head appeared in the plug-hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us. For an instant I stood there quite paralysed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna, who was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or shed probably have leant over the bath to get a better look! We found out later that it was a black mamba, a poisonous kind of snake. It had obviously been fast asleep, curled up at the bottom of the nice warm water-pipe. It must have had an awful shock when the cold water came trickling down! But nothing to the shock I got! Ever since then Ive always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water. Crisis Orientation Abstract

Reaction

Coda

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Daftar Pustaka

DAFTAR PUSTAKA http://www.englishindo.com/2012/01/narrative-text-penjelasan-contoh.html http://www.englishindo.com/2012/01/descriptive-text-penjelasan-contoh.html http://www.text-types.com/2011/05/example-and-generic-structure-of.html http://www.text-types.com/2011/05/example-and-generic-structure-of_29.html http://wahidsahidu.blogspot.com/2011/03/jenis-jenis-dalam-bahasa-inggris.html http://www.scribd.com/doc/52568891/Based-on-generic-structure-and-languagefeature-dominantly-used http://bahanajar.wordpress.com/textspeech/jenis-jenis-text-ing/ http://www.englishdirection.com/2011/01/jenis-jenis-text-bahasa-inggris.html http://www.wiziq.com/tutorial/37345-Jenis-jenis-Teks

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Tugas Sequence Signals


Soal : He then spent the next week in bed. John first became ill at lunch and went home immediately. John finally learned that he had weakened his condition and had wasted many days by trying to return to school not fully recovered. At last, he was well enough to return to school. He was not fully recovered when he insisted on returning to school. He had to return home that same morning.

Jawab : John first became ill at lunch and went home immediately. He was not fully recovered when he insisted on returning to school. He had to return home that same morning. He then spent the next week in bed. John finally learned that he had weakened his condition and had wasted many days by trying to return to school not fully recovered. At last, he was well enough to return to school.

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He then spent the next week in bed. John first became ill at lunch and went home immediately. John finally learned that he had weakened his condition and had wasted many days by trying to return to school not fully recovered. At last, he was well

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enough to return to school. He was not fully recovered when he insisted on returning to school. He had to return home that same morning.

Dia kemudian menghabiskan minggu depan di tempat tidur. Yohanes pertama jatuh sakit saat makan siang dan pulang ke rumah segera. John akhirnya belajar bahwa ia telah melemah kondisinya dan telah menyia-nyiakan beberapa hari dengan mencoba untuk kembali ke sekolah belum sepenuhnya pulih. Akhirnya, ia cukup sehat untuk kembali ke sekolah. Dia belum sepenuhnya pulih ketika ia bersikeras untuk kembali ke sekolah. Dia harus pulang pagi itu sama.

1. John pertama jatuh sakit saat makan siang dan pulang ke rumah segera. 2. Dia belum sepenuhnya pulih ketika ia bersikeras untuk kembali ke sekolah. 3. Dia harus pulang pagi itu sama. 4. Dia kemudian menghabiskan minggu depan di tempat tidur. 5. John akhirnya belajar bahwa ia telah melemah kondisinya dan telah menyianyiakan beberapa hari dengan mencoba untuk kembali ke sekolah belum sepenuhnya pulih. 6. Akhirnya, ia cukup sehat untuk kembali ke sekolah

John first became ill at lunch and went home immediately. He was not fully recovered when he insisted on returning to school. He had to return home that same morning. He then spent the next week in bed. John finally learned that he had weakened his condition and had wasted many days by trying to return to school not fully recovered. At last, he was well enough to return to school.

1. Dia kemudian menghabiskan minggu depan di tempat tidur. 2. John pertama jatuh sakit saat makan siang dan pulang ke rumah segera.

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3. John akhirnya belajar bahwa ia telah melemah kondisinya dan telah menyia-nyiakan beberapa hari dengan mencoba untuk kembali ke sekolah belum sepenuhnya pulih. 4. Akhirnya, ia cukup sehat untuk kembali ke sekolah. (6) 5. Dia belum sepenuhnya pulih ketika ia bersikeras untuk kembali ke sekolah. 6. Dia harus pulang pagi itu sama.

1. Yohanes pertama jatuh sakit saat makan siang dan pulang ke rumah segera. 2. Dia belum sepenuhnya pulih ketika ia bersikeras untuk kembali ke sekolah. 3. Dia harus pulang pagi itu sama. 4. Dia kemudian menghabiskan minggu depan di tempat tidur. 6. John akhirnya belajar bahwa ia telah melemah kondisinya dan telah menyianyiakan beberapa hari dengan mencoba untuk kembali ke sekolah belum sepenuhnya pulih. 7. Akhirnya, ia cukup sehat untuk kembali ke sekolah

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