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8

: . .
. . . .
. .

8.1
(. . )
,
.
,

( ).

. 8.1

,
( ) (.8.1 ).
,
20 ,
- .
, ( , ),
. ,
, w1, U1, I1 . .
1, wl (. 8.1). ,
( ),
( 2) (.8.1).
,
.
),
) ). (.8.2)

.8.2
(.8.1),
- . ( .8.3).


.

. 8.3
, , .
X,Y,Z.
, , ,
x,y,z. . 8.2-8.3 .
.
8.4.

. 8.4 ), )- , ), )-
8.2
. 8.5 .
, w2 , . .

r2, ,
, w1 , .

. 8.5
,
U1= I1.
I1 w1 ,
.
El
E2
E2
r2 I2.
2, 1. C
.8.5.
.
F.
F=I1 w1 +I2 w2
. ,
1
2 , I1 I2.
:
dI1
dt
dI
2 jL2 2
dt
1 jL1

(8.1)

L1, L2- , I1 ,I2


. . 1 = - w1d/dt 2 = - w2d/dt
,

.

8.3
,

. = /S
S
l , . .
= , .
, ,
. ,
. . 8.2

Z2 = z2.
. 1 2,
.

1 = jw1 = jw1S = jw1oHS
(8.1.a)
2 = jw2 = jw2S = jw2oHS,
(8.1.)
B .

I1 I2

= I1 w1/lp + I2 w2/lp
(8.2)
=U1, C
1 = U1 2 = U2 (. 8.2). (8.1) (8.2)
U1 = - jw1= -jw1o S(I1 w1/lp + I2 w2/lp)
(8.3.a)
U2 = z2H I2= -jw2
(8.3.)
, , (
I2= 0) (8.3.a)
U1 = -jw1o S(I1x w1/lp )
(8..)
I1x .
= U1 , (8..)
(8.3.) :
-jw1o S(I1 w1/lp + I2 w2/lp) = -jw1o S(I1x w1/lp) = const.
(8.4.)
-jw1oS/lp,
I1 w1+ I2 w2 = I1x w1
(8.5)
w1
:
I1 + I2 w2/w1 = I1x
(8.6)
(8.3.a) (8.3.), :
U1/U2= w1/ w2 = n12
(8.7)
n12 ,
(8.7) (8.6) :
I1 = -I2 /n12 + I1x
-I2 /n12 I2',

I1 = I1 = I1x + I1x
(8.6.a)
,
1, 2 1 1 (.8.5):
U1+E1+1 = I1r1
E2+2 = U2+ I2r2

(8.8)

,
(8.1):
dI1
dI
sin wt
= jL1 1max
jL1I1max w cos wt = -jX1Li1(t)=-jX1LI1
dt
dt
dI
dI
sin wt
2 jL2 2 jL2 2 max
jL2 I 2 max w cos wt =-jX2LI2(t)=-jX2LI2
dt
dt
1 jL1

(8.9.)
(8.9.)

X1L=L1w-
I(t)=Icos(wt)=I-
(8.9.)-(8.9.) (8.8) U1 U2
U1= -E1+I1r1+jI1X1L
U2= E2-(I1r1+jI1X1L)

(8.10)

(8.10) (8.6.a)
U1= -E1+I1r1+jI1X1L
U2= E2-(I1r1+jI1X1L)

(8.11)

I1 + I2 /n12 = I1x
(8.11)
.
8.4
(8.11)
(.8.6)

. 8.6

.8.6
.
, .
8.5 .

.
,
, . .. . (8.11)
. ,
, ,
, .
.
(8.11) I1+ I2/n12 = I1x
I1 = I1x - I2/n12
(8.12.)
, - I2/n12 = I 2 , I 2 - ,
(8.12.) :
I1 = I1x + I 2
(8.12.)

:
(8.13)
2I 2 2I 2 ,
2, I2 ;
2I 2 - .
(8.13) :
2

2 I 2
I
2 2 2 n12
I 2 / n12
I 2

(8.14)

, ,
:
U 2I 2 U 2I 2

UI
UI
U 2 2 2 2 2 U 2 n12
I 2 / n12
I 2

(8.15)


, :
I2R22 I 22 R 2

I R
R 22 2 2 R 2 n12 2
I 22

(8.16)


E2 I2 E 2 I 2 .
tg=X2/R2.
tg=X2'/R2' .
2
X 2 = X 2 n12
X2/R2 = X2'/R2'
(8.17)

, , ,
.

.
U2'=-U2n12
2'=-2n12
I2' =-I2/n12
R2' =R2n122
(8.18)
2
X2' =X2n12
Z2' =Z2n122

.
.8.7

.8.7

, . .
, .
:
n12'=1/2'=1/n122=n12/n12=1
.. 1,
n12'=w1/w2',
.
X0 R0
. :
.=I02R0
(8.19)
:
tg=0/R0
(8.20)
=2fc=250
8.6 . .
:
.
I1, I2, U1,U2 ZH , ..
I1= I1, I2= I2, U1= U1 , U2=U2 , Z =Z,
. .
.
, . . U1= U1 , U2=U2,
(0,03-0,1)I2.

. .
.
, .. I1= I1, I2= I2.
(0,02-0,05)U1 !!
.
(U1= U1) .
,
.
:
=I2/I2
(8.21)
8.7 .
(. 8.7)
, w1 .
,

2.

. 8.8 . )- , )


U1x = U1HOM

.

.
U1x = U1HOM I1
310 % I1HOM ( ,
). , I1
(8.11) U1x 1x. ,
U2x = 2x. , U1x
U2x ,
:
n21 = w2/ w1 = 2x / 1x = U2x / U1x
(8.22)


, 6000/230
( .
.

(r1I1x 2).
I1x<< I1 ( , 1000 ).
.
.. .
550
1,49 % , 110 MB 0,5
0,3 %.
, . .
I1x I1 I1 .
,

, I1 0,1
I1, ,
, .. /2. U1x = U1HOM .
, ,
,
. 1x = f(U1x) I 1x = F(U1x)
(. 8.9). , , U1x , , I 1x
;
( U1x > 0,8 U1HOM) I 1x
.

. 8.9
2 , , 2.
1x (. 3
.). 1x U1x, (-
), Plx U1x2.
,
.
~U1x2=U1H2
(8.23)

:
R0, X0 tg .
8.8 .

. , .
.

I 1 = I 1. (. 8.10)
:
, . .

)
)
.8.10
() ()
, ,
. (U2 = 0) E2,
, (8.11
),
:
E2= (r2+jx2)I2
(8.24)
,
E2= (U2+r2I2+jx2I2)
(8.25)
U1 I1 = I1
510 % Ul . E2
(2 5 %) 2
.
(8.23), I1
, 2. ,
, 1
:
P1k=r1I1k2+r2I2k2
(8.26)
. . I1 ,
I1kI2k (.8.10.)
P1k=rkI1k2
(8.27)
rk=r1+r2

S
1 . S = 520
P1K/ S 3,73 %, S = 320 5600
21 %.
1 I1k= I1 (8.27)
:
rk= P1k/ I1k2
(8.28)
,

3


r ,
( 75 ).
.
:
X k Z k 2 -rk 2

U1k 2 2
-rk
I1k 2

(8.29)

.

. (8.6)
Ilx
; ,
Il I2'
(8.30)
, ,
(.8.10.). C
:
IlU1=I2U2
U1/U2=I2/Il
, U1/U2=w1/w2=n12
n12 = w1/w2 I2 /I1
(8. 31)
Il
r ,
.(.8.10.).
8.9 .

:
;
.
U2 I2 U1 =nst
s=nst, .
.8.11

.8.11 .
U2
:
s20 ( ) U2 ,
s2<0 ( ) U2 .

.
2 1

= 2/1
(8.32)
.
.
U1=UlHOM I1=IlHOM
cos 2 > 0,8
99 %.
, . . 2 1.
P1 2 ,
.
, .
= 1 2,
= 2/( 2+ )
(8.33)

. U1 =
UlHOM I1=IlHOM

.
=
=
(8.33) :
=

P2
I 2 H U 2 H cos 2 H

P2 I 2 HU 2 H cos 2 H

(8.34)


U1 = UlH
Z2 cos2 = const.
,

, , .
,
, ,
. U1 = UlHOM .

r(I2')2= 2 r(I2')2= 2P
(8.35)
(8.21); P
.
,
U2 = U1/n12 U2

2 = U2I2 cos 2 = U2I2 cos 2 Scos2
(8.36)
(8.35) (8.36) (8.34)
Z:
=

Scos2

Scos2 2 P

(8.37)

.8.12.

, ,
cos 2 .
, , ,
=

. ,

(= 1)
.