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CE 356 Environmental Engineering-II

Lec-1: Introduction
Prof. Dr. Javed Anwar Aziz Engr. Ghulam Hussain

Course Objectives
To learn basic concepts of wastewater engineering:
Origin of wastewater, quantities, characteristics, carriage (collection), treatment, disposal/reuse.

To design wastewater collection systems To understand and design various wastewater treatment processes.
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TEXT BOOK
WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE By E.W. Steel and T.J. McGhee 6th Edition

REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Wastewater Engineering, Treatment, Disposal, Reuse by Metcalf and Eddy, 4th Edition. 2. Introduction to Environmental Engineering by Davis and Cornwell, 2nd Edition. 3. Water and Wastewater Engineering by Fair & Geyer 4. Water and Wastewater Technology By Mask J. Hammer

COMPONENTS OF WASTEWATER ENGINEERING


Collection system (network of sewer pipes) Disposal Works (sewage pumping stations, outfalls) Treatment works (for rendering wastewater treatment prior to its disposal into

environment)

SOME BASIC TERMS


SEWAGE: It is the liquid waste or wastewater produced as a result of water use. SEWER: It is a pipe or conduit which carries sewage. It is generally closed but normally not flowing full. SEWERAGE: It refers to the collection, treatment and disposal of wastewater.
Sewerage works or sewage works include all the physical structures required for that collection, treatment, and disposal.

SOURCES OF WASTEWATER
Domestic Sewage: It is wastewater from residential buildings, offices, hotels and institutions etc. Industrial Waste: It includes the liquid discharges from industrial processes. Storm Sewage: It include surface run off generated by rainfall and the street wash. NOTE: Sanitary Sewage refers to the combined sewage from domestic and industrial sources.

TYPES OF SEWERS
Sanitary Sewer: Sewer which carries sanitary sewage i.e., wastewater originating from a municipality including domestic and industrial wastewater. Storm Sewer: It carries storm sewage including surface run off and street washes and any other wastes which may be discharged into the streets or onto the ground. Combined Sewer: It carries both sanitary and storm sewage.

TYPES OF SEWERS (Cont)


House Sewer is a pipe conveying wastewater from an individual structure to a common sewer or some other point of disposal. Lateral Sewer is a common sewer with no tributary flow except from house sewers. Submain Sewer collects flow from one or more laterals or house sewers. Main/Trunk Sewer collects flow from several

submains as well as lateral and house sewers.

TYPES OF SEWERS (Cont)


Force Mains are pressurized sewer lines which convey sewage from a pumping station to another main or to a point of treatment or disposal. Outfall Sewer receives discharge from all collecting system and convey it to the point of final disposal (e.g., a water body etc)

Fig: Types of sewers

TYPES OF SEWER SYSTEMS


1. SEPARATE SYSTEM If storm sewage is carried separately from domestic and industrial wastewaters, the system is called separate system. Separate systems are favored when:
There is an immediate need for collection of sanitary sewage but not for storm sewage. When sanitary sewage needs treatment but storm sewage does not.

TYPES OF SEWER SYSTEMS 2. COMBINED SYSTEM:

(Cont)

It is the system in which sewers carry both sanitary as well as storm sewage. Combined system is favored when:
Combined sewage can be disposed off without treatment. Both sanitary and storm sewage need treatment Streets are narrow and two separate sewers cannot be laid.

TYPES OF SEWER SYSTEMS (Cont)


3. PARTIALLY COMBINED SYSTEM:

If some portion of storm or surface run off is allowed to be carried along with sanitary sewage, the system is known as partially combined system. NOTE: In urban areas of developing countries, mostly partially combined system is used.

SEWAGE FLOW / QUANTITY


Domestic and industrial sewage is derived from water supply, so it has a relationship with amount of water consumption. It is generally reported that about 70-90% of the total water supplied to a community becomes wastewater.
Sometimes, illicit drains and water use from privately owned source produce quantities of sewage larger than public water withdrawals.

INFILTRATION: It is the water which enters the sewers form ground through poor joints, cracked pipes, and the walls of the manholes.

INFLOW: Inflow is the water which enters the sewers from surface through perforated manhole covers, roof drains connected to the sewers, and drains from the flooded cellars etc.

VARIATIONS IN SEWAGE FLOW


Sewage flow rates vary by source and with time. Since sewers must be able to accommodate the MAXIMUM RATE OF FLOW, the variation in sewage flow need to be studied.

VARIATIONS IN SEWAGE FLOW (Cont.) Generally, Hermans Formula is used to estimate the ratio of maximum to average flow.
Qmax 14 M 1 Qav 4 p

Where; P = Population in thousand. M = Peak Factor

VARIATIONS IN SEWAGE FLOW (Cont.)


WASA Lahore considers the following relationship for sewer design
Avg. Flow in sewer Peak Factor to (m3/d) obtain Qmax 4.0 2500 2500-5000 5000-10,000 10,000-25000 25000-50,000 50,000-100,000 100,000-250,000 250,000-500,00 > 500,000 3.4 3.1 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.15 2.08 2.0

VARIATIONS IN SEWAGE FLOW (Cont.) MINIMUM RATE OF SEWAGE FLOW: Generally taken as 50 % of average sewage flow. Minimum rates of flows are used in:
Design of sewage pumping station To investigate the velocities in sewers during low flow periods.

DESIGN PERIODS AND USE OF SEWAGE FLOW DATA

1. Design of Sewer Systems: Period of design is Indefinite as the system is designed to care for the maximum development of the area. Qmax is used for design of sewers. Qmin is used to check velocities during low flows.

DESIGN PERIODS AND USE OF SEWAGE FLOW DATA (Cont.)

2. Design of Sewage Pumping Station: Design period is usually 10 years. Rates of flow required are: average daily, peak and minimum flow rates, including infiltration.

DESIGN PERIODS AND USE OF SEWAGE FLOW DATA (Cont.)

3. Design of Sewage Treatment Plants: Design period is usually 15 - 20 years. Rates of flow required are: average daily, and peak flow both including infiltration.