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()

..

2012


. ,
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,
-,
.
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,
.

. ,
.
.

,
.
.
( ).

.
.

.
.
,
.

1.
.
:
X x , Yy , Z z , X y , Yz , Z x - ;
exx , eyy , ezz , exy , eyz , ezx - ;
u , v, w - ;

X n , Yn , Z n - Fn
n .
:

X x X y X z
+
+
+ X =0
x
y
z
Yx Yy Yz
+
+
+ Y = 0
(1.1)
x
y
z
Z x Z y Z z
+
+
+ Z =0
x
y
z
X , Y , Z - , - .
( ):

X n = X x cos nx + X y cos ny + X z cos nz


Yn = Yx cos nx + Y y cos ny + Y z cos nz

(1.2)

Z n = Z x cos nx + Z y cos ny + Zz cos nz

( ).
X x = + 2 exx
Yy = + 2 e yy
Z z = + 2 ezz
X y = exy
Yz = e yz

Z x = ezx
: = exx + e yy + ezz - ;
, - ;
E
=
-
(1 + )(1 2 )
E
=
-
2(1 + )
-
E - ( )

(1.3)

(1.3)
, .
( ):
u
x
v
e yy =
y
w
ezz =
z
u v
exy =
+
y x
v w
eyz = +
z y
w u
ezx =
+
x z
exx =

(1.4)

u , v, w
.
(1.4)
.
, ,
.
, ()
. ,
. (1.4) (
).

.
1. .

.
, (1.5).
(1.1) ,
(1.3) (1.4) u , v, w.

+ 2u + X = 0
x

( + )
+ 2v + Y = 0
y

( + )
+ 2 w+ Z = 0
z
( + )

(1.5)

.
( )
:
u
u v
u w
) cos nx + ( + ) cos ny + ( + ) cos nz = 0
x
y x
z x
v u
v
v w
Yn = ( + ) cos nx + ( + 2 ) cos ny + ( + ) cos nz = 0
x y
y
z y
w u
w v
w
Z n = ( + ) cos nx + ( + ) cos ny + ( + 2 ) cos nz = 0
x z
y z
z
X n = ( + 2

(1.6)

2. .
(1.1) ,
,
. .

(1.4) .
( -):
2
2
2 exx e yy exy
+

=0
y 2
x 2 xy
2 eyy 2ezz 2 eyz
+ 2
=0
z 2
y
yz
2 ezz 2 exx 2 ezx
+ 2
=0
x 2
z
zx

(1.7)

eyz ezx e xy
2 e xx

(
+
+
) =2
x
x
y
z
y z
2 eyy
ezx exy eyz

(
+
+
)=2
y
y
z
y
z x
e
e
e

2e
( xy + yz + zx ) = 2 zz
z
z
x
y
xy

(1.8)

, (1.7) (1.8) .
- ,
.
(1.4)
. , (1.4)
. -.
(1.7) (1.8)
(1.3) (1.1),
,
. - (1.9),
(1.10).

2 X x +
2Yy +

1 2
X
X Y Z
= 2

(
+
+ )
2
1 + x
x 1 x y z

1 2
Y
X Y Z
= 2

(
+
+ )
2
1 + y
y 1 x y z

(1.9)

1 2
Z
X Y Z
Zz +
= 2

(
+
+ )
2
1 + z
z 1 x y z
2

2 X y +

1 2
X Y
=
+
1 + xy y x

1 2
Y Z
Yz +
=
+
1 + y z z y
1 2 Z X
2Z x +
=
+
1 + zx x z
2

(1.10)

= X x + Yy + Z z - .
- - .
(1.1)
.
(1.2).
3. .
, ,
: X = X (x , y , z ) , Y = Y ( x , y , z ) , Z = Z ( x , y , z ) .
.
,
. - :
1 2
2
Xx +
=0
1 + x 2
1 2
2Yy +
=0
(1.11)
1 + y 2
1 2
Zz +
=0
1 + z 2
2

2 X y +

1 2
=0
1 + x y

1 2
=0
1 + y z
1 2
2 Z x +
=0
1 + zx
2Yz +

(1.11). :

1 2 2 2
( X x + Yy + Z z ) +
(
+
+
) = 0 ,
1 + x 2 y 2 z 2
2

(1.12)

(1 +

1
) 2 = 0
1 +

2 = 0

(1.13)

,
.
(1.3). :
X x + Yy + Z z = 3 + 2 (e xx + e yy + e zz ) ,

= 3K

(1.14)

K = 3 + 2 - .
(1.13) (1.14) ,

2 =

1 2
= 0
3K

(1.15)

.
:

+ 2u = 0
x
, :
( + )

( 2 ) + 2 2 u = 0
x
(1.15) ,
( + )

2 2 u = 0

(1.16)

(1.17)
2 2 v = 0
2 2
(1.18)
w= 0
.
(1.3).
, :

( 2 2u )
x
(1.15) (1.16), :
2 2 X x = 2 2 + 2

2 2 X x = 0

. , .

,
.

, .

.
.

:
1. :
X n = f1 ( )
Yn = f 2 ( )
Z n = f3 ( )
f i - .

(1.19)

2. :
u = 1 ( )
v = 2 ( )
w = 3 ( )
i -

(1.20)

3. 1 (1.19),
2 (1.20).

-,
. , ,
u ( x, y, z ) , v( x, y, z ) , w( x, y, z ) . ,
w , u v - .
.
-.

2.
.
, ,
.
h . ,
, .
(.2.1).

2.1
2

h
= 1.
a

h
: 0,1;0, 001;0, 0001 .
a
, . w ,
w
0, 25 , .
h
.
.
w
0, 25 1 .
h
.

w
( ? 1) , ().
h
.
,
.
.
.
.
:
1. ,
, .
2. Zz Xx,Yy,Xy
.
3. ,
.
-.
, .

,
.
-
,
( w 0, 25h) . , .

, ..
. -.
, ,
, , .
:
exz = 0
eyz = 0

(2.1)

(2.2)
(1.4) (2.1) (2.2)
:
u w
+
=0
(2.3)
z x
v w
+
=0
(2.4)
z y
:
w
dz + (x , y )
x
w
v =
dz + ( x, y )
y
z ,
w = w( x , y ) ,
w
u = z
+ (x , y )
(2.5)
x
w
v = z
+ ( x, y )
(2.6)
y
z = 0 , u = ( x, y ) v = (x , y ) .
, ,
. , z = 0 , u = v = 0 , ,
= = 0 . , :
u = zwx
(2.7)
v = zwy
(2.8)
u =

.
-,
Z z = 0 . (1.3) :
Z z = + 2

w
=0
z

u v w
w
+ + ) + 2
=0
x y z
z
:

ezz =

w
=
z

u v
+ )
x y
+ 2

(2.9)

.
w
, w = w( x , y ) , ,

z
. (2.9).
-.
. , ,
w
w
ezz =
0 .
u v ,
z
z
X x (1.3).
u
u
v w
X x = + 2 exx = + 2
= ( + 2 ) + ( + )
x
x
y z
w

(2.9), :
z
E u
v
Xx =
( + )
(2.10)
2
1 + x
y

E v
u
( + )
2
1 y
x
E
u v
Xy =
( + )
2(1 + ) y x

Yy =

(2.11)
(2.12)

(2.10)-(2.12) u, v (2.7), (2.8),


X x , Yy , X y :
Ez
(wxx + wyy )
1 2
Ez
Yy =
(wyy + wxx )
1 2
Ez
Xy =
wxy
1 +
Xx =

(2.13)

, exz = e yz = 0 .

X z = exz = 0
(2.14)
Yz = eyz = 0
(2.15)
Z z . ,
,
. .
, .
. , , ,

X z , Yz . (1.1)
.

X x X y X z
+
+
=0
x
y
z
Yx Yy Yz
+
+
= 0.
x
y
z
X x , Yy , X y (2.13),
X z
Ez 2
=
w
z 1 2 x
Yz
Ez 2
=
w,
z 1 2 y
,

Xz =

Ez 2 2
w + ( x, y)
2(1 2 ) x

Ez 2
2
w + ( x, y)
(2.16)
2
2(1 ) y
(1.2).
Yz =


,
(.2.2).
h
, z = :
2
cos nx = cos ny = 0;cos nz = 1 ; X n = 0; Yn = 0; Zn = q 2 ( x, y )
h
, z = :
2
cos nx = cos ny = 0;cos nz = 1 ; X n = 0; Yn = 0; Zn = q1 ( x, y )
h
(1.2), z = :
2
X z = Yz = 0; Z z = q2 ( x, y )
(2.17)
h
z = :
2
X z = Yz = 0; Z z = q1 ( x, y )
(2.18)
(2.17) (2.18) ( x, y) ( x, y ) (2.16)
:

( x, y ) =

Eh 2 2
w
8(1 2 ) x

( x, y ) =

Eh 2 2
w
8(1 2 ) y


X z Yz
h2
)
4 2 w
Xz =
2(1 2 ) x
h2
E(z 2 )
4 2w
Yz =
2
2(1 ) y
E(z2

(2.19)

(2.20)

(2.13), (2.19) (2.20)


. X x , Yy , X y ,

h
, z = . X z Yz
2
.
h
, z = .
2

3.
.

h
2

T1 =

T2 =

S=

dz

2
h
2

Y dz
y

(3.1)

2
h
2

dz

N1 =

h
2

X dz
z

N2 =

h
2
h
2

Y dz
z

(3.2)

T1 , T2 , S - ,
N1 , N 2 - .
,
, . (3.1), (3.2),

.
:
G1 =

G2 =

H=

h
2

zdz

2
h
2

Y zdz
y

(3.3)

2
h
2

zdz

G1 , G2 - .
H - .

,

.
-
.
. 3.1.

.3.1
:
wxx = 1
wyy = 2

(3.4)

wxy =

1 , 2 - ,
x y .
- .
(2.13), (2.19) (2.20)
.

:
h
2

h
2

Ez

X dz = 1

T1 =

h
2
h
2

S=

dz =

E
( 1 + 2 ) zdz = 0
1 2
h

h
2

2
h
2

( 1 + 2 )dz =

h
2

Y dz = 1

T2 =

h
2

( 2 +1 ) zdz = 0

1 +

h
2

h
2

zdz = 0

h
2

T1 , T2 , S .
,
.
:
G1 =

h
2

h
2
h
2

Yy zdz =

G2 =

H=

X x zdz =

h
2

h
2

h
2

h
2

h
2

h
2

Ez
E
Eh3
2
(

)
zdz
=

)
z
dz
=

( 1 +2 )
1
2
1
2
1 2
1 2
12(1 2 )
h

Eh3
( 2 +1 )
12(1 2 )

X y zdz =

Eh3
Eh3 (1 )
=

12(1 + )
12(1 2 )

:
Eh3
(3.5)
D=
12(1 2 )
D - () ,
.
,

Eh3
, (3.4).
12
, .
(1 2 )
(3.4).
(3.4) :
G1 = D( 1 + 2 )
G2 = D ( 2 + 1 )
H = D (1 )

(3.6)

:
N1 =

h
2

h
2

h2
)
3
2
4 2 wdz = Eh
w ,
2
2
2(1 ) x
12(1 ) x

E( z2

X dz =
z

h
2

2
w
x

N2 = D 2w
y
N1 = D

(3.7)

.
(1.1)
X z , Yz (2.19), (2.20).
.
Z x Z y Z z
+
+
=0
x
y
z
:
X z Yz Z z
+
+
=0
x
y
z
:
h
2

X z

( z

h
2

Yz Z z
+
)dz = 0
z
z

:
h
2

X z

dz =
x
h x

2
h
2

h yz dz = y

h
2

X dz =
z

h
2

h
2

Y dz =
z

h
2

N1
x

N2
y

:
h
2

Z z
dz =
h z

h
2

dZ

h
2

h
h
= Z z ( ) Z z ( ) = q1 ( q2 ) = q1 + q2 = q ,
2
2

q - ,
(. 2.2).
,
:
N1 N 2
+
+q =0
(3.8)
x
y
N1 N 2 (3.7) :

D(

2
2
2
(

w
)
+
( 2 w)) + q = 0 ,
x 2
y 2

D 22 w = q
(3.9)
:
4w
4w
4w
+
2
+
=q ,
(3.10)
x 4
x 2 y 2 y 4
q
q =
D
(3.9) (3.10)
. :
1. ( );
2. ( x y ) .
.
(3.9) 1815
.
(3.9) w( x, y )
- .
, ,
.
.

.
1. .
s ,
: w( s) = 0, Gn = 0 .
,
.
2. .
w( s) = 0 ,
,
w
=0.
,
n
3. .
,
.
(3.9)
,
w( x, y ) .
.

4.
.
h
. .
. ( x, y) - , ( x1 , y1 )
, s n

, ,
(.4.1).

4.1
,
. ,
,

X x , Yy , X y , X z , Yz . ,
x1

.

X 1x1 = X x cos2 + Yy sin 2 + X y sin 2


1
( X x Y y )sin 2 + X y cos 2
2
= Yz sin + X z cos

X 1 y1 =
X 1z1

(4.1)

(4.1) .
.
h
2

Tn =

Sn =

2
h
2

1x1

h
2

dz =

1 y1

X dz cos
x

dz =

h
2

h
2

h
2

+ Yy dz sin 2 +
h
2

1
( X x dz Yy dz ) sin 2 +
2 h
h

h
2

dz sin 2 = 0

dz cos 2 = 0

Tn S n ,
T1 , T2 , S (3.1), .
, x1 .
Nn =

h
2

1z1

dz =

h
2

h
2

Y dz sin + X dz cos .
z

(3.2) N n :

N n = N1 cos + N2 sin .
(4.2)
(4.1) z ,
,
.
Gn = G1 cos 2 + G 2 sin 2 + H sin 2
1
H n = (G1 G 2 ) sin 2 + H cos 2
2

Gn =

h
2

1x1

zdz , H n =

(4.3)
(4.4)

h
2

1y1

zdz , G1 , G2 , H (3.3).

Gn - ,
s . H n -
, n . N n , z .

. Gn H n ,
N n
G0 , H 0 , N0 . ,
:
Gn = G0 , H n = H 0 , Nn = N0
(4.5)

. (4.5) .
(4.5)
H n
H 0
= N0
s
s
(4.5)
Nn

(4.6)

Gn = G0
(4.7)
(4.6), (4.7)
.
.
(. 4.2),
.

4.2
.
w
x = 0 : w = 0,
=0
x
n ,

(4.8)
w
=0
n

w
=0
x
, .
y = 0, y = b : w = 0, Gn = 0

n ( ) , , (4.3),
2
Gn = G2 = D (wyy + wxx )

Gn wyy + wxx = 0 , ,
y = 0, b , w = 0 ,
wxx = 0 . ,
:
y = 0, b : w = 0, w yy = 0

(4.9)
y
, ,
wyy = 0 wxx = 0
.
H n
x = a : Gn = 0, N n
=0
y
s ,
H n H n
=
s
y
Gn = 0 , , (4.9), wxx = 0 . ,
H n
= 0
=0, (4.2) (4.4) N n
y
H
N1
=0.
y

N1 H (3.7) (3.6)
:
D (wxxx + wxyy ) = 0 ,

wxxx + wxyy = 0
:
x = a : wxx = 0, wxxx + wxyy = 0
(4.10)
, (4.10)
x y .
1. .
,
, q (.4.3).

4.3
:
x y
q = q0 sin
sin
.
(4.11)
a
b
a
b
, x = , y = .
2
2
q
=
q

0 . :
q
x y
2 2 w = 0 sin
sin
(4.12)
D
a
b
, :
2w
x = 0, a : w = 0, 2 = 0
x
2w
y = 0, b : w = 0, 2 = 0
(4.13)
y
(4.12) , ..
x y
w = w0 sin
sin
(4.14)
a
b
, (4.14)
(4.13). w0

. (4.14) (4.12)
,
q
2 2
w0 ( 2 + 2 )2 = 0
a
b
D

q0 a 4b 4
w0 =
.
(4.15)
D 4 ( a 2 + b 2 ) 2
(4.15) (4.14) :
q0 a 4 b 4
x
y
w=
sin
sin
(4.16)
4
2
2 2
D ( a + b )
a
b

m x
n y
q = q0 sin
sin
,
(4.17)
a
b

q0
m x
n y
w=
sin
sin
2
2
(4.18)
m n
a
b
4 D ( 2 + 2 )2
a
b
.
2.
, , ,
.
:
x
q = q0 sin
(4.19)
b

4w
4 w
4 w q0
y
+
2
+
= sin
(4.20)
4
2
2
4
x
x y
y
D
b
x = 0, a
. y = 0, b
2w
y = 0, b : w = 0, 2 = 0
y
,
y
w = w0 ( x ) sin
(4.21)
b
(4.21) (4.20) ,
,
w0 ( x) .
d 4 w0 2 2 d 2 w0 4
q
(4.22)
2
+ 4 w0 = 0
4
2
dx
b dx
b
D
(4.22)
w0 ( x) = w0,1 ( x ) + w0,2 ( x )
w0,1 -

d 4 w0,1

2 2 d w0,1 4
(4.23)
+ 4 w0,1 = 0
dx 4
b2 dx2
b
w0,2 ( x) - (4.22). , w0,2 - ,

q0 b 4
(4.24)
w0,2 =
D 4
, (4.24) (4.22) .
(4.23)

2 2
4
4 2 2 + 4 = 0
b
b

1,2 = , 3,4 =
b
b
, w0,1 ( x ) :

w0,1 ( x ) = C1 sh x + C2 xsh x + C3 ch x + C4 xch x


(4.25)
b
b
b
b
w0 ( x)
qb

y
w = (C1sh x + C 2xsh x + C 3ch x + C 4xch x + 0 44) sin
(4.26)
b
b
b
b
D
b
C1 , C2 , C3 , C4 ,
x = 0, x = a .

5.
,
.
,
, (
w
0, 25 ). . ,
h

.

, .
-. (
) u, v
w (2.5), (2.6). ,
,
.
z = 0 : u = u0 ( x, y ); v = v0 ( x, y )
(5.1)
u0 , v0 - . (5.1)
(2.5) (2.6)
= u0 ( x, y ); = v0 ( x, y ) .

u = u0 zwx
v = v0 zwy

(5.2 )
(1.4)

u u0
2w
exx =
=
z 2 = 1 z 1
x x
x
v v0
2 w
e yy =
=
z 2 = 2 z 2
(5.3)
y y
y

exy =

u v u0 v0
2 w
+
=
+
2 z
= 2 z .
y x y
x
x y

1 , 2 , - ,
,
u
1 = 0
x
v
2 = 0
(5.4)
y
u v
= 0 + 0
y x
(1.3) (5.3)
. -,
Z z
E
Ez
Xx =
(1 + 2 )
(1 + 2 )
2
1
1 2
E
Ez
Yy =
( 2 + 1 )
( 2 + 1)
(5.5)
2
1
1 2
E
Ez
Xy =

2(1 + )
1 +
(3.1) (3.3),
,
T1 = K (1 + 2 )
T2 = K ( 2 + 1 )
(5.6)
K (1 )
S=

2
Eh
K=
- .
1 2
,
.
, (3.5).
, -
u0 ( x, y ), v0 ( x, y )
w( x, y ) . (1.1),

. dz
,
h
2

X x

( x
h
2
h
2

2
h
2

X z
) dz = 0
z

Yx Yy Yz
+
+
)dz = 0
x
y
z
Z x

( x

X y

h
2

Z y
y

(5.7)

Z z
)dz = 0
z

,
. ,

h
2

X x

dz =
x
h x

2
h
2

h
2

X y
y

dz =

h
2

dz =

T1
x

dz =

S
y

h
2
h
2

h
2

(2.17),
(2.18), X z Yz
.
h
2

X z
dz =
h z

h
2

dX

h
2

h
h
= X z ( ) X z ( ) = 0
2
2

h
2

Z x
dz =
h x

h
2

h
2

X z

N
dz =
X z dz = 1

x h
x
h x

h
2

h
2

Z y
y

dz =

N 2
y

(2.17), (2.18)

h
2

Z
h zz dz =

h
2

dZ

h
2

h
h
= Z z ( ) Z z ( ) = q1 ( q2 ) = q1 + q2 = q
2
2

T1 S
+
=0
x y
S T2
+
=0
(5.8)
x y
N1 N 2
+
+q =0
x
y
. (1.1),
, zdz .
h
2

X x

( x
h
2
h
2

h
2

X y
y

X z
) zdz = 0
z

Yx Yy Yz
+
+
) zdz = 0
x y
z

.
h
2

h xx zdz = x

2
h
2

h
2

X y
y

zdz =

h
2

zdz =

G1
x

zdz =

H
y

h
2
h
2

h
2



h
2

h zz zdz = z

h
2

zdz = zX z |

h
2

h
2

h
2

X z dz = N1

h
2

(2.17), (2.18).
. ,
:
G1 H
+
N1 = 0
x
y
H G2
+
N2 = 0
(5.9)
x
y
(5.8) N1 N 2 , (5.9),
:
2G1
2 H 2G 2
+
2
+
+q = 0
(5.10)
x 2
x y y 2

(3.6) (3.4), , ,

D 2 2 w = q
(3.9), .
. T1 , T2 , S

(5.8), , ,
.
, (5.4)
u0 v0 .

21 2 2 2
+ 2
=0
(5.11)
y 2
x
x y
1 , 2 , (5.6)

T T2
1 = 1
K (1 2 )
T T1
2 = 2
(5.12)
K (1 2 )
2S
=
K (1 )
(5.11)
2 (T1 T2 ) 2 (T2 T1)
2S
+

2(1
+

)
=0
(5.13)
y 2
x 2
x y
,
:
T1 S
+
=0
x y
S T2
+
=0
(5.14)
x y
2 (T1 T2 ) 2 (T2 T1)
2S
+

2(1
+

)
=0
y 2
x 2
x y
(3.9) (5.14)

.
.
F ,

2F
T1 = 2
y

T2 =

2 F
y 2

(5.15)

2 F
xy
(5.14),
.

S =

(5.16)
2 2 F = 0
F ( ).
(5.14) (5.16),

. ,
,
(3.9) (5.16). .
:
1. w - .
2.
.
(5.5), (5.6) (3.6),
:
T 12 z
X x = 1 + 3 G1
h h
T2 12 z
Yy = + 3 G 2
(5.17)
h h
S 12 z
Xy = + 3 H
h h
.
.
, .
h
(5.17) , z = .
2
T1 6
X x max
G1
min =
h h2
T2 6
Yy max
G2
(5.18)
min =
h h2
S 6
X y max
H
min =
h h2

6.
.
.
,
(. 6.1).

6.1


T0 . (1.2)
x = a .
T
Xn = 0 = X x
h
Yn = 0 = Yx
(6.1)
Zn = 0 = Zx
( x = a ) (1.2)
, :
T
Xn = 0 = X x
(6.2)
h
(5.17) , , ,
T
X x = 1 . (6.1) (6.2)
h

T1 = T0
(6.3)
S =0
, y = b
T2 = 0
(6.4)
S =0
(5.14)
, . (5.14) (6.3) (6.4)
,
T1 = T0
T2 = 0
(6.5)
S =0
, ,
.
.

T0 (. 6.2).

6.2

(1.2) x = a
(6.1), (6.2). y = b

Xn = 0 = X y
T0
= Yy
h
Zn = 0 = Z y

Yn =

(6.6)

y = b (1.2) ,

T
Yn = 0 = Y y
(6.7)
h
, (5.17), (6.6) (6.7) x = a
(6.3), y = b
:
T2 = T0
(6.8)
S =0
(5.14)
(6.3) (6.8), ,
T1 = T0
T2 = T0
(6.9)
S =0
.
.
S 0 (.6.3).

6.3
, ,
, . x = a :
T1 = 0
S = S0
(6.10)
y = b :
T2 = 0
S = S0
(6.11)

(5.14) , T1 = T2 = 0 .

S
=0
y
S
=0
(6.12)
x
, S = const . (6.10) (6.11)
, S = S0 . ,
.

( )
- , .
, 6.4.

6.4

q = f ( x, y )

(6.13)

4w
4 w
4 w
D ( 4 + 2 2 2 + 4 ) = f ( x, y )
(6.14)
x
x y
y
, w
G1 G2 . :
2w
=0
x 2
2w
y = 0, b : w = 0, 2 = 0
(6.15)
y
f ( x, y )

m x
n y
f ( x, y ) = amn sin
sin
(6.16)
a
b
m =1 n =1
amn - , . -
n y
am1n1 , (6.16) sin 1 dy
b
0 b .
x = 0, a : w = 0,

sin
0

sin
0

n y
n y
sin 1 dy = 0 , n n1 ,
b
b
n y
n y
b
sin 1 dy = , n = n1 ,
b
b
2

n1 y
b
m x
dy
=
amn1 sin
(6.17)

0
b
2 m =1
a
mx
(6.17) sin 1 dx 0 a .
a

a b
mx
n y
ab
0 0 f ( x, y )sin 1a sin 1b dxdy = 4 am1n1 ,

a b
4
mx
n y
am1n1 =
f ( x, y )sin 1 sin 1 dxdy .
(6.18)

ab 0 0
a
b
(6.18) (6.16) .
q = f ( x, y )
.
(4.18).

a
1
m x
n y
w = 4 2 mn 2 sin
sin
(6.19)
D m =1 n =1 m n 2
a
b
( 2 + 2)
a
b

q0 . f ( x, y ) = q0 . amn
(6.18)
4q a b
16q
m x
n y
amn = 0 sin
sin
dxdy = 2 0
(6.20)
ab 0 0
a
b
mn
(6.20) m n - . m n
amn . (6.20) (6.19)
m x
n y
sin
sin
16q0
a
b
w = 6
(6.21)
2
2
m n
D m =1 n =1
mn( 2 + 2 ) 2
a
b
m, n = 1,3,5,...
.
a
b
x = , y = . m n (6.21)
2
2
, .

a
b
(6.21) x = , y =
2
2
b

f ( x, y ) sin

wmax

16q
= 6 0
D m =1 n=1

m+n

(1) 2
m 2 n2
mn( 2 + 2 )
a
b

(6.22)

. m, n = 1 .

4q a 4
q a4
(6.23)
wmax = 60 = 0, 00416 0
D
D
, (3.5) D = 0.3
q a4
(6.24)
wmax = 0, 0454 0 3
Eh
2,5 .



. r
x = r cos y = r sin ,
2 w 2 w 2 w 1 w 1 2 w
+
=
+
+
x 2 y 2 r 2 r r r2 2

2 1 1 2 2 w 1 w 1 2 w
D( 2 +
+
)(
+
+
)=q
(6.24)
r
r r r 2 2 r 2 r r r2 2
,
. w = w(r ) ,
. (6.24)
d 4 w 2 d 2 w 1 d 2 w 1 dw q
(6.25)
+

+
=
dr 4 r dr 2 r 2 dr 2 r 2 dr D

w = C1 ln r + C2 r 2 ln r + C3 r 2 + C4 + w
(6.26)

, w - (6.25).
( q - )
qr 4
w =
64 D
(6.26)
C1 = C2 = 0 , C3 C4
( r = a ). :
dw
( w) r = a = 0;( )r = a = 0
(6.27)
dr
:
2 w w
(6.28)
( w) r = a = 0;( 2 +
)r = a = 0
r
r r
(6.27),
q
w=
(a 2 r 2 )2
(6.29)
64 D
, (6.28)
q 2 2 2 4a 2 ( a 2 r 2 )
w=
(a r ) +
(6.30)

64 D
1 +

,

d 2w
1 dw
1 dw
d2 w
G1 = D( 2 +
); G2 = D(
+ 2 ); H = 0
dr
r dr
r dr
d r

7

(3.9)
T1 , T2 , S . ,
w
, 0, 25 ,
h
.
w
0, 25 1 , T1 , T2 , S ,
h
.
,
.
(5.14), , ,
(5.16).
(3.9).
w h , (3.9), (5.16)
, ,
(1.4), .

u 1 u 2 v 2 w 2
exx =
+ ( ) +( ) +( )
x 2 x
x
x
v 1 u
v
w
e yy = + ( ) 2 + ( )2 + ( )2
y 2 y
y
y
w 1 u 2 v 2 w 2
ezz =
+ ( ) +( ) +( )
(7.1)
z 2 z
z
z
u v u u v v w w
exy =
+ +
+
+
y x x y x y x y
v w u u v v w w
e yz = +
+
+
+
z y z y z y z y
w u u u v v w w
ezx =
+
+
+
+
x z x z x z x z
(1.4)
.
, w h .
(7.1), , ,
.
.
, (7.1)
, w .
, u , v

, (7.1)
.
, , ,
, -.
(5.6) (3.6),
1 , 2 ,

u 1 w
1 = 0 + ( )2
x 2 x
v0 1 w 2
2 =
+ ( )
(7.2)
y 2 y
u v w w
=
+ +
x y x y

.
dxdy , 7.1.

7.1
T1 , T2 , S z

2w
2 w
2 w
T1 2 dxdy, T2 2 dxdy, 2 S
dxdy
(7.3)
x
y
xy
, ,

qdxdy , .
(7.3), T1 , T2 , S z
q

2w
2 w
2 w
+
T
+
2
S
(7.4)
2
x 2
y 2
xy
( ) ,
,
2w
2 w
2 w
2 2
D w = q + T1 2 + T2 2 + 2 S
(7.5)
x
y
xy

, .
.
, (5.8).
, ,
, .
,
(7.2)
q + T1

2 2 21 2 2 w 2 w
2 w 2
+

(
) =0
(7.6)
x 2 y 2 xy x2 y2
xy
, (5.11),
(7.2).
(7.6)
(5.12). (5.15)
(5.8) , (7.6), ,

2w 2 w
2 w 2
2 2 F + Eh 2

(
) =0
(7.7)
2
xy
x y
(7.5) , T1 , T2 , S

2 F 2 w 2 F 2 w
2 F 2 w
D 2 2 w 2

+
2
=0
(7.8)
x y 2 y 2 x2
xy xy
(7.7), (7.8)
.

.
.
.

(4.6), (4.7). ,
,
.
7.2,
Tn
S n , T0 S0 .
,
Tn = T0 , Sn = S0

(7.9)

7.2
, , T1 , T2 , S

Tn = T1 cos 2 + T2 sin 2 + S sin 2
1
S n = (T2 T1 )sin 2 + S cos 2
(7.10)
2
(4.6), (4.7) (7.9)
(7.7) (7.8).
.
x = a
, 4.2.
, (4.6), (4.7) (4.10),
(7.9) Tn = 0 , S n = 0 . ,
(7.10)
Tn = T1
Sn = S ,
,
Tn = Fyy
S n = Fxy
, ,

wxx = 0
= 0
wxyy + wxyy
Fyy = 0
Fxy = 0 .


,
.

,
. ,
p ( 7.3).

7.3
p .
p p .
, , , . ,
, p ,
. p = p , : ,
, , . p .
,
.
p w F .
, , w + w , w -
( ).
F + F .
, (7.7), (7.8)
. ,
.
() w, F (7.7), (7.8)
().
:
2 2 F + Eh( wxx wyy + wyy wxx 2 wxy wxy ) = 0
D 2 2 w Fxx wyy Fyy wxx + 2 Fxy wxy wyy Fxx wxx Fyy + 2 wxy Fxy = 0

(7.11)

(7.11) :
1.
.
2. .
3. w F - .
, 0 p p .
( w = 0 0 p p ),
(7.11)
2 2 F = 0
D 2 2 w Fxx wyy Fyy wxx + 2 Fxy wxy = 0
(7.12)
(5.15) (7.12)

2 2 F = 0
D 2 2 w T2 wyy T1 wxx 2 S wxy = 0
(7.13)
,
.
w . (7.12) (7.13)

, , . ,
2 2 F = 0 . ,

:
D 2 2 w T1,0 wxx T2,0 wyy 2 S0 wxy = 0
(7.14)
(7.14) . T1,0 , T2,0 , S0 ,
. :
T1,0 S0
+
=0
x
y
S0 T2,0
+
=0
(7.15)
x
y
2 (T1,0 + T2,0 ) = 0

8


T1 , T2 , S
(6.5).
(7.14) :
D 2 2 w + T0 wxx = 0
(8.1)
, ,
7.4
x = 0, a : w = 0, wxx = 0
y = 0, b : w = 0, wyy = 0
(8.2)
(8.1)
m x
n y
w = A sin
sin
(8.3)
a
b
m n - .
. (8.3) (8.1),
,

D(m12 + n12 )2 T0 m12 = 0


(8.4)
m
n
m1 =
, n1 =
a
b
(8.4)
n4
T0 = D(m12 + 2n12 + 1 2 )
m1
m n ,
. :
m12 = z , n12 = z1

z12
(8.5)
)
z
T0 - z z1 .

T0
T0
=0
=0,
(8.6)
z1
z
(8.6) , z = z1 .
T0
2z
= 2+ 1 f 0
z1
z
, z1 T0 . T0
T0 = D( z + 2 z1 +

2
, y ( n = 1 ).
b2
z = z1 m1 = n1 . m ,
a
n = 1 . , m - ,
b
a
, = 1, 2,3... .
b
2
a = b . m = n = 1 , z = z1 = 2 . (8.5)
a

4 2 D
(8.7)
T0, k =
a2

4 2 D
4 2 Eh2
Xx = 2 =
(8.8)
a h
12(1 2 )a2
z1 =


y = 0, b ,

2 EI 2 Eh2
(8.9)
Xx = 2 =
a
12a 2
(8.8) (8.9) ,

.
.
(6.9)
(7.14)
D 2 2 w + T02 w = 0
(8.10)
, ,
(8.2).
, (8.10)
D 2 w + T0 w = 0
(8.11)
T
2
, = 0 ,
D

(8.12)
2 w + 2 w = 0
(8.10). :
2 w + 2 w= 0
(8.13)
0 - .
w
2w
=
0
= 0.
(8.2). x = 0, a w = 0 , ,

y
y 2
,
:
2w 2w
w = 0, 2 + 2 = 0
(8.14)
x
y
,
y = 0, b . , (8.13), , ,
0 . , (8.13)
. , 0 = 0
(8.12) .
,
m x
n y
w = A sin
sin
(8.15)
a
b
w (8.12) :
T0 (m ) 2 (n )2
2
= =
+ 2 ,
D
a2
b
m 2 n2
(8.16)
+ )
a 2 b2
m n .
a

2 2 D
(8.17)
T0, k =
a2

2 2 D
2 2 Eh2
Xx =
=
(8.18)
a2
12(1 2 )a2
(8.8) ,
.
T0 = D 2 (

.
,

4w
4 w
4 w
2 w
D( 4 + 2 2 2 + 4 ) + 2 S0
=0
(8.19)
x
x y
y
xy
, , (8.2).
(8.19)
w = A sin(m1 x + n1 y )
(8.20)

,
(8.2). ,
(8.20) .
-.

y
w = A sin
sin m1 ( x ky )
(8.21)
b
m
m1 =
, m - x , k
a
. (8.21)
y = 0, b w = 0 ,
2w
= 0 . x = 0, a .
y 2
,
x , a ? b . S0 ,
a b

2 2
( D w + 2S0
0 0

2w
) wdxdy = 0
xy

S0, k = f (m1 , k )

S0

(8.22)


(8.23)

S0,k m1 k ,

5, 64 D
S0, k =
(8.24)
b2

5, 64 D
Xy = 2
(8.25)
bh

, .
, , .

(8.8), (8.18) (8.25).

(7.14), , ,

D 2 2
w + 1wxx + 2 wyy + 2 wxy = 0
(8.26)
h
1 , 2 , - X x , Yy X y
. , (8.26) .
: 1,k , 2, k -
,
x y .
(8.8). k -

.
(8.25). ,
1 2
,
,
(8.27)
1,k 2,k k

( 1 ) p + ( 2 )q + ( )r = 1
(8.28)
1,k
2, k
k
:
(8.27) (8.28)
, : p, q, r 1 .
(8.28)
,
. 8.1.

8.1
(8.27),
(8.28)
. . ,
x .

( 1 ) p + ( )r = 1
(8.29)
1,k
k
8.2.

. 8.2

, ( )
1

=1,
= 1 . ,

1,k
k
1 ,
1 = 0,51, k .
, ?
8.2. 1 = 0,51, k
.

= 0,8 . ,

k
1 = 0,51, k , ,
0,8 k .
-
.
(8.28)
. p, q, r .
,
.

9
.

. ,
.
, , .
,

. ,
, 9.1.

9.1

9.2

R , - h .
, -.
, 9.2,
(3.6), (3.7) (5.6).
1 , 2 , (3.4),

u 1 w 2
1 =
+ ( )
x 2 x
v w 1 w
2 = + ( )2
(9.1)
y R 2 y
u v w w
=
+ +
y x x y
(7.2), ,
w
2 , , .
R

, ,
T1 S
+
=0
x y
S T2
+
=0
(9.2)
x y

(7.5)
T
2w
2 w
2 w
D 2 2 w = q + 2 + T1 2 + T2 2 + 2S
(9.3)
R
x
y
xy
T
2 , 9.3,
R
T2 z .

9.3
, ,
(9.1) u , v .

21 2 2 2 1 2 w 2 w 2 w
2 w 2
+

+
+

(
) =0
(9.4)
y 2 x 2 xy R x2 x2 y2
xy

(7.6)
1 2w

.
R x 2
(5.12) (5.15) (9.4)

Eh
2 2 F +
wxx + Eh( wxx wyy wxy 2 ) = 0
(9.5)
R
(9.2) . (9.3)

Fxx
Fxx wyy Fyy wxx + 2 Fxy wxy = q
(9.6)
R
(9.5), (9.6) ,
q .
(7.7), (7.8). (9.5),
(9.6)
.
,
.
.
.
D 2 2 w

.
,
:
f
0, 2
(9.7)
b
f - , b -
( 9.4).

9.4

9.4
.
(9.7) ,
. f , b -
( 9.4). ,

f
R
=
= 0,5 .
b 2R
.
,

.
,
, . ,
: w 0, 25h . ,
(9.5). (9.6), ,
.
Eh 2 w
(9.8)
2 2 F +
=0
R x 2
1 2F
2 2
(9.9)
D w
=q
R x 2
, R ,
(3.9), (5.16)
.
w
w
0, 25 , (5.16)
( 1) .
h
h
,
. (9.8) 2 2 F
, . ,
, ,
. , ,
.
1.
,
.
, ,
, .
(9.8) (9.9) ,
,
q = q ( x ) .
.
, x : F = F ( x) ,
w = w( x) . (9.8) (9.9)
d 4 F Eh d 2 w
(9.10)
+
=0
dx 4
R dx 2
d 4w 1 d 2 F
(9.11)
D 4
q =0
dx
R dx2
l ,
. , , x = 0, l :
d 2w
(9.12)
w = 0, 2 = 0
dx
(9.17),

d 2 F Eh
(9.13)
+
w = C0 + C1 x
dx 2
R
,
. , x = 0, l T2 = Fxx = 0 .
, , C0 = C1 = 0 . (9.20)

d 2 F Eh
+
w=0
dx 2
R
d 2F

(9.11),
dx 2

d 4 w Eh
D 4 + 2 w = q ,
dx
R
4
d w
(9.14)
+ 4 4 w = q
4
dx
Eh
q
= 4 4 ,
=q.
:
2
DR
D

.
.
1

.
R
. (9.14) ,

.
.
1
w = e x (C1 sin x + C2 cos x) + e x (C3 sin x + C4 cos x) +
q
(9.15)
4 4
Ci - , .
,
( x = 0 ) G0 N 0 ,
.
9.6.

9.6

, (9.15) q = 0 .
, x = 0 , ,
x .
(9.15) C3 = C4 = 0 , e x
.
w = e x (C1 sin x + C2 cos x)
(9.16)
C1 C2
. x = 0 :
d 2w
G1 = D 2 = G0
dx
d 3w
N1 = D 3 = N0
dx
w (9.16), C1 C2 .
G0
1
C1 =
, C2 = 3 ( N0 + G0 )
2
2 D
2 D

e x
w=
(9.17)
[ G0 (sin x cos x) N0 cos x ]
2 2 D
( x = 0 )
1
w = 3 ( G0 + N 0 )
(9.18)
2 D

,
( 9.7).

9.7

.
l1 = 1, 2 Rh .
,
, (9.17)
.
P
N 0 = :
2
x
e
P

w=
G0 (sin x cos x) + cos x
(9.19)
2

2 D
2

G0 ,
dw
= 0 x = 0 .

dx
dw
e x
=
[ 2 G0 cos x + N0 (cos x + sin x)] .
dx 2 2 D
x = 0 :
dw
1
=
(2 G0 + N0 ) = 0 , :
dx 2 2 D
N
P
G0 = 0 =
2 4

Pe x
w = 3 (sin x + cos x)
(9.20)
8 D
( x = 0 )
P
PR 2
wmax = 3 =
(9.21)
8 D
Eh

P
G1,max =
(9.22)
4
2. .
,
q = q ( x, y ) . (9.8), (9.9)
. (9.9),

1
D 2 2 22 w (2 2 F )xx = 2 2 q ,
R
(9.8)
Eh 4 w
2 2 2 2
(9.23)
D w 2 4 = 2 2 q
R x
(9.23).
.
,
(
1 = 2 = = 0 ). (3.6) (
G1 = G2 = H = 0 ). (9.8) (9.9)
(9.24)
2 2 F = 0
2
1 F
(9.25)
= q
R x 2

2 (T1 + T2 ) = 0
(9.26)
T2
= q
(9.27)
R

(9.24), (9.25)
.
.
(9.2),
(9.27)
.
.
,
.
, q ( 9.5).

9.5
, ,
, .
. .
, .
l1 1, 2 Rh .
,
y . T2 (9.27)
T2 = qR
(9.28)
T2 = const , (9.2) S = f ( y ) .
, S = S0 = const .
S0 .
( ), S = 0 . , (9.2) ,
T1 = const . T1
. , x
q R 2 .
T1 2 R , .
qR
T1 =
(9.29)
2
(9.28), (9.29)

S =0
(9.30)
.
( )

, ,


1. ..,- . .

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

.: - .
1963. 635 .
.. , . . . 1982. 567 .
.. . . .
1976. 512 .
.. . .
. 1972. 507 .
.., .. . .: ,
1968
.. .
-.:- -, 2007
.., .. . .:
, 1969