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..

, ,
Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d., Zagreb, Croatia

:

, HSDPA

, H-ARQ
3,5 (3,5G)


, MAC-hs


, AMC
, QPSK

, 16QAM


,

, 3G.

(HSDPA - High Speed Downlink
Packet Access)

(WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access)
. HSDPA
(
14 /),
, ..
.
,
.
,

, ,
,
,
,
(MAC-hs - Medium Access
Control - high speed). ,

HSDPA ( RBS RNC),
HSDPA,
HSDPA.

High Speed Downlink Packet Access


Abstract

Data services are expected to have significant growth over


the next few years and will likely become the dominant
source of 3G traffic. High Speed Downlink Packet Access
High Speed Downlink Packet Access, HSDPA (HSDPA) provides impressive enhancements over Wideband
Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) for the downlink.
Hybrid Automatic repeat Request, H-ARQ
It offers peak data rates of up to 14 Mbps, resulting in a
better end-user experience for downlink data applications,
3,5 Generation (3,5G)
with shorter connection and response times. This article is
organized as follows:
Fast Link Adaptation
First comes the description of HSDPA physical channel
Medium Access Control - high speed, MAC-hs configuration and protocol layer changes. Next, HSDPA key
aspects and new features are presented (short TTI, Shared
Fast Channel Scheduling
Channel Transmission, Fast Channel-Dependent Scheduling,
Fast Link Adaptation, Amplitude Modulation and Coding,
Adaptive Modulation and Coding, AMC
Fast Hybrid ARQ, Power Allocation). Also, transport network
configuration and architectural impact are presented
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, QPSK
and a comparison to Release99 downlink packet access
possibilities is made.
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, 16QAM

Key words:

Revija19/2006/1 Ericsson Nikola Tesla

1.



.
,
(. 1.)
(NMT- Nordic
Mobile Telephony),

(FSK -Frequency Shift Keying) . NMT

(FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access),

, (DL
- Down Link) (UL - Up Link)
.

,
NMT ,
,
, .

NMT 450

GSM
, .
,


( LAN,
). ,
2,5G, ..
2G
3G.

:

(HSCSD - High Speed Circuit Switched Data)
57,6
/,
GSM.
,


.
, ,
57,6
/.

()

453-457,5
463-467,5

180

GSM 900

. 1:



(GSM - Global System for Mobile Communication),
NMT (.2.).


(), ,
.

(TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access),

,
,
.
, 2G,
9,6 /,

, .
,
,
GSM
(LAN - Local Area Network),
(CS - Circuit Switched).

Ericsson Nikola Tesla Revija19/2006/1

DCS 1800

()

890-915
935-960
1710-1785
1805-1880

992
2992

. 2:

(GPRS - General Packet Radio Service)



. GPRS
:
GPRS - (SGSN - Serving GPRS Support Node), GPRS
- (GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support Node).
GPRS
, ,
X.25 IP , 115
/. ,
(QoS Quality of Service), .
,
(, ,
, , ..)
,
.
GSM
(EDGE - Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) , , 230
/,
,
.
.

8-PSK,

.
EDGE

GSM.


,

( ).

,

(WCDMA - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access).

,

,
,
.
,


-
144/ ( 128 /

()

UMTS

1920 - 1980
2110 - 2170

. 3: UMTS
) ,
384 /.
3G
- (),
(). . 3.

(UMTS -Universal Mobile Telecommunication System).
,
. , ,

. 4: UMTS
Node

Radio Access Network

Core Network

Eksterne mree

,
,
,
, .
UMTS (. 4.),

. 5:

AMPS

GSM

GPRS

EDGE


GSM

WCDMA

HSDPA


,

4G, , 3G,
3G

(. 5.).

3G 4G,

.

(HSDPA -High Speed Downlink Packet Access)

Revija19/2006/1 Ericsson Nikola Tesla

, 3G WCDMA,
3GPP R5 R6.
HSDPA, .. 3.5G ,

,
.
HSDPA
.
1,8 /
,

14 /.
,
(download)
, ,

(real-time applications).
, ,

UMTS
(DCH, DSCH, FACH)
,
HSDPA .
,

(AMC - Adaptive Modulation and Coding).
, ,

(channel conditions)

,
.

(TTI - Transmission Time Interval).
TTI (TTI
= 2 ) R99 (TTI = 10, 20, 40
80 ).

. 6: HSDPA

,
, :
AMC - Adaptive Modulation and Coding
- .
H-ARQ - Fast Hybrid Automatic repeat Request
-
.
FCSS - Fast Cell Site Selection
-
TTI - Short Transmission Time Interval
- .
Shared Chanell Transmission
- /
.
Fair and fast scheduling at Node B
-
.

, ,
HSDPA


(H-ARQ - Fast Hybrid Automatic repeat Request).
(UE - User Equipment)

RBS RBS ,

(
).
, HSDPA
,


(MAC), MAC hs.
.

2. HSDPA
,
HSDPA,

Ericsson Nikola Tesla Revija19/2006/1

2.1.


HSDPA
.
,
,
, ,

HSDPA : HS-PDSCH, HS-DSCH, HS-SCCH, HSDPCCH (. 6.).
High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HSPDSCH)


HSDPA
HS-DSCH. 3 GPP

2 . ,
, 2 ,

(PDU - Packet Data Unit),
.. , H-ARQ,
(TFRC
- Transport Format and Resource Combination),
.
,
H-ARQ .
HSDPA
5 ,
15 .
HS-DSCH
:
High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HSDPCCH)
(SF=256).

. 7:
HSDPA
Node B

Frame protocol

Transport

HSDPA user plane

HSDPA

15 HS-PDSCH
,
5
(SF - Spreading Factor).
High Speed Downlink Shared Channel(HS-DSCH)
,

.
HS-DSCH
, (channelization
),
.
HSDPA
,


HS-DPCCH

DL (ACK
/ NACK),
.
(RBS)
(CQI - Channel Qualitiy Indicator), RBS
(AMC).
(Software HO - Software Hand Over), RBS.
High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)
(SF=128),

. ,
2 , :
- UE ID ,
H-ARQ TFRC , HSDSCH.
UE, HSDSCH.


UE ,

Revija19/2006/1 Ericsson Nikola Tesla

. 8:

. 9: HS-DSCH
HS-SCCH ,

(Software HO - Software Hand Over).

2.2.


, H-ARQ

,
(Medium-Ac
cess Control, MAC-hs), RBS.
MAC-d RLC

- RNC (. 7.).

HSDPA ,

. 10:

Ericsson Nikola Tesla Revija19/2006/1

,
.

2.2.1.

HSDPA TTI (
)
.

, ,
,
.

75 .
,
TCP/IP
(, Web-),

(Round Trip Time).
HS-DSCH,
HSPDA, .

, .
TTI

. 2 .
,
,
.

: HS-DSCH.
,
(SF - Spreading Factor)
16,
.
,
(sharing)

,
, .. (Shared Channel Transmission).

,

. ,
, 15,

( ),
5, 10 15 ,
.
5 .
. 8. ,
HSDSCH.
HS-SCCH,
HS-DSCH, ,
(de-spreading), ,
.

. 11:

(TTI)
HSDPA:

2.2.3.

- Fast Link Adaptation

HS-DSCH
,
(Scheduling)
.

(UE),
,
(. 9.). ,
RBS, MAC-hs.
TTI ,
HS-DSCH, ,


- Fast Hybrid ARQ
- Fast Channel - Dependent Scheduling.

2.2.2.

HSDPA

Revija19/2006/1 Ericsson Nikola Tesla

TFRC

.
(/)

QPSK

1/4

1,8

QPSK

2/4

3,6

QPSK

3/4

5,3

16 QAM

2/4

7,2

16 QAM

3/4

10,7

,
.


(UE),
(. 10.).
HSDPA
:
Proportional Fair Scheduling
Round Robin

1:

HSDPA


Round Robin
. ,
,

. ,
, ,
.
,
.
Max C/I Ratio (
)
. 12:
QPSK
16QAM

C/I.

(Proportional Fair
Scheduling) ,
,

.
:
;

.
,
2 (TTI),
.
UE (UE measurement reports),

(path loss),
(fading) .
,
, ,
.
,
.

, ,
,
Round Robin.

Ericsson Nikola Tesla Revija19/2006/1


,
.

Round Robin Max C/I .
,
.

.
best effort

(Proportional Fair) ,
.

2.2.4.

HSDPA

(WCDMA)
SF (Spreading Factor)

(AMC - Adaptive Modulation and Coding),
,
.
HS-DSCH

. 13: H-ARQ
,
HS-DSCH


RBS.
(common) (dedicated channel),
HS-DSCH,
(. 11.).

, (jitter),

,

.
TTI HS-DSCH
, R99,

QPSK
HS-DSCH
16QAM,

( 1.),
,

.
16QAM
QPSK,

,
. ,

(effective code rate).
,

, ARQ.

. 14: HSDSCH

TTI.
. ,

,
.

:


:

Revija19/2006/1 Ericsson Nikola Tesla

. 15: HARQ

. 16: ,
RBS
, ,
, ,
.
QPSK

(. 12.).
,
TTI = 2

, UE. UE
, ,

.
16QAM
,
RBS,
, ,
.
16QAM
, ,
QPSK.

,
( )

,

Ericsson Nikola Tesla Revija19/2006/1

(, , )
.

2.2.5.



(H-ARQ Fast Hybrid Automatic repeat Request) ,

ACK ,
.

(CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check, Checksum),
.
,
,
(NACK - Negative Acknowledgment).
NACK,
.
HSDPA :
Soft Combining ,
Incremental Redundancy (IR) /
,

10

. 17:


(. 13.).
Soft Combining


, , 5 ,
RBS
. UE ,
, NAQ RBS.
, .
,
,
,

.
.
,
UE ,

.
Incremental Redundancy (IR)
IR Soft Combining,
,
, ..
.

,
,

(. 14.).

3.
HSDPA

,
HSDPA ,
.
HSDPA


.

3.1.
WCDMA
(RBS RNC)
HSDPA
RBS,
(. 16.):
,
MAC-hs
( HS-TX15 TX3.x)
(
P4.GA).
HSDPA , ,
,
, ..
RBS: ,
, ARQ.

HSDPA RBS
MAC-hs, ..
RBS,

,
.

,
HSDPA, RBS,
MAChs.

, UE,
,
HARQ RBS
,
(Round Trip Time)
60 (. 15.).

(
P4.GA).

11

HSDPA RNC,
:

. 17.
.
, HSDPA
,
UMTS/WCDMA,

Revija19/2006/1 Ericsson Nikola Tesla

.
,
(
, ),

,
UMTS/WCDMA .

(UBR) VC AAL2 ( ,
AAL2).
UBR
(best effort),
,
HSDPA ,
B best effort .
HSDPA
RBS - RNC (HSDPA Iub Flow Control)
Iub

RBS,
. Iub
, RNC
MAC-d RBS.
Iub
,

Iub Aal2 C RBS.

.18: HSDPA

4.
HSDPA

QoS, ,


QoS Aal2.
, .

.
HSDPA Best Effort
Aal2 QoS C
,
,
.

C ,
HSDPA,
/ HSDPA,

WCDMA RAN, ..
.

,
- Unspecified Bit Rate

Best effort HSDPA


QoS DCH. ,
DCH .

4.1.

HS
Iub
. 19:
Aal2

. 20: A B (CBR)
Aal2, C (HSDPA
) Aal2
,
ETM1/ETM4/ETMC1

Ericsson Nikola Tesla Revija19/2006/1


R99 HSDPA:

. 21: B C (UBR)
Aal2, A
Aal2

12

. 22: (A + B , CS
PS , PS64, PS128 PS384
C HSDPA) Aal2 ,

ETMC1, ETMC41, ETM3. ,
QoS .

TTI


TTI

ARQ

7300

Soft

1.2

7300

IR

1.2

7300

Soft

1.8

7300

IR

1.8

7300

Soft

3.6

7300

IR

3.6

10

14600

Soft

7.2

10

14600

IR

7.2

15

20432

Soft

10.2

10

15

28776

IR

14.4

2: ( )
Class A:Stringent class high, delay target

- VBR (Variable Bit Rate)

-
- UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate)

< 5 (2-10)

For speech and other conversational services


Class B:Stringent class medium, delay target

< 15 (5-20)

For other scheduled transfers with strict arrival


deadlines
Class C: Tolerant class high. Unspecified delay
For best effort HSDPA connections
A: ,
,
5 (CBR).
B: ,
(/),
15 .
C: ,
,
.
HSDPA :
-
- CBR (Constant Bit Rate)
-

13

CBR
.
,
.
.
VBR
.

, .
VBR :
VBR (VBR-rt - real-time )
VBR (nrt-VBR - non-real-time ).
rt-VBR
, nrt-VBR


(, , email).
UBR
- .

,

Revija19/2006/1 Ericsson Nikola Tesla

.
,
( ).
HSDPA QoS B C best
effort (. 18.).
HSDPA

QoS .

,
(round-trip)
Web .

HSDPA:
Aal2
(. 19.).

ETM1 ETM4.
,
.

Aal2 (. 20, 21 22.).

5. HSDPA
HSDPA ,
, WCDMA (
SF),
HSDPA
,
WCDMA.

5.1. ,
HSDPA
HSDPA


,
. HSDPA
,
:
:
: ,
, (
)
.

HSDPA:
-5 -2 do 0
DCH.
( ):
,
HSDPA, ,
,
.
12 ,
HSDPA,

Ericsson Nikola Tesla Revija19/2006/1

, 0,9
/ 14 /.
2. 10
.
(RRM Radio Resource Management)
,
HSDPA,
(SIR - Signal to Interference Ratio)
.


,

HSDPA.
.

5.2.
HSDPA
,
, HSDPA
, , R99.
15 3/4
QPSK ,
5,3 /,
16QAM
.
IR ARQ, 16 QAM 3/4

14,4 /.
,
,
. ,


( ) ,
.
WCDMA

, ..

. HSDPA
R99 (DSCH
DCH).

/ (SIR)

H-ARQ . ,

,
SF, .
/
, SIR RBS, HSDPA
, ,
,
.

,

14

(channelization code).

.
,
, ,

.

6.


. HSDPA


,



.
384/, 1,8/ (
14/). ,
,


,
,
,
TTI,
.

HSDPA
,

(HSUPA - High Speed Uplink Pa
cket Access) ,
5,76 /.

.
, ..
3,5G, ,
(all-IP),

.
HSDPA
VIPnet 2006 .

15

Revija19/2006/1 Ericsson Nikola Tesla

7. :
AAL2

ACK

AMC

ARQ
ATM

CBR

CQI

CS

DCH

DL

DPCH

DPDCH

DSCH

EDGE

FACH

FCSS

FDMA

FP

FSK

GGSN

GPRS

GSM

H-ARQ

HO

HS SCCH

HSCSD

HSDPA

HSDPCCH

HSDSCH

HSPDSCH

HSUPA

IP

ATM Adaptation layer 2


, AAL2
Acknowledge

Adaptive Modulation and Coding

Automatic repeat Request

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Constant Bit Rate

Channel Quality Indicator

Circuit Switched

Dedicated Channel
()
Downlink

Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel

Dedicated Physical Data Channel

Downlink Shared Channel
,

Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution


GSM
Forward Access Channel

Fast Cell Site Selection

Frequency Division Multiple Access

Frame Protocol

Frequency Shift Keying

Gateway GPRS Support Node
GPRS
General Packet Radio Service

Global System for Mobile communication

Fast Hybrid ARQ

Handover

High Speed - Shared Control Channel

,
High Speed Circuit Switched Data

High Speed Downlink Packet Access

High Speed - Dedicated Physical Control Channel

High Speed - Downlink Shared Channel



,
High Speed - Physical Downlink Shared Channel

HSDPA
High Speed Uplink Packet Access

Internet Protocol

Ericsson Nikola Tesla Revija19/2006/1

16

IR

L1

LAN

MAC-hs

NACK

NMT

ZPDU

PS

PSK

QAM

QoS

QPSK

R99

RBS

RLC

RNC

SF

SGSN

SIR

TCP

TDMA

TFRC

TTI

UBR

UE

UE ID

UL

UMTS

VBR

VBR-nrt

VBR-rt

VC

VP

WCDMA

3GPP

17

Incremental Redundancy

Layer 1
1
Local Area Network

Medium Access Control high speed

Non Acknowledge

Nordic Mobile Telephony

Packet Data Unit

1. Harri Holma, Antti Toskala
Packet Switched

WCDMA for UMTS: Radio Access for Third
Phase Shift Keying
Generation Mobile Communications,

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
John Wiley&Sons, 2000

2.
Quality of Service


Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

:
Release 99
99

Radio Base Station
e-mail: iva.medvid@ericsson.com

Radio Link Control
Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d., Krapinska 45
RNC
p.p. 93
Radio Network Controller

HR-10002 Zagreb,
Spreading Factor

Serving GPRS Support Node
5
GPRS
2006 .
Signal to Interference Ratio
/
:
Transmission Control Protocol

Time Division Multiple Access

Transport Format and Resource Combination

Transmission Time Interval

Unsuspected Bit Rate

User Equipment

User Equipment Identity

Uplink

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

Variable Bit Rate

Variable Bit Rate non real time

Variable Bit Rate real time

Virtual Channel

Virtual Path

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

Third Generation Partnership Project

8.

Revija19/2006/1 Ericsson Nikola Tesla

. 8

Downlink DCH user 1

Downlink DCH user 2

Demodulation information

2 ms

Channelization codes
time
Channelization codes used
for HS-DSCH transmission
Eight codes (example).
Configurable.
. 9

. 10

User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4

Scheduled user
User 1
User 2
high data rate
low data rate
Time
User 2
high data rate
low data rate
Time

, HS-DSCH

().
.
1, 2,
3 , 4


1
2

3GPP Release 99

3GPP 99

Power

Unused power

Dedicated channels (power controlled)

( )

Common channels

Power usage with dedicated channels

Total cell power

3GPP Release 5

3GPP 5

Total cell power

HS-DSCH (rate controlled)

HS-DSCH ( )

HS-DSCH with dynamic power allocation

HS-DSCH

MAC-hs round-trip time=12


Transmitter
Receiver
Failed transmission
Px y, z HARQ process #x, data packet #y,
transmission #z
Soft combining in EU
ACKs not shown in figure

Ericsson Nikola Tesla Revija19/2006/1

MAC-hs
= 12


Px y, z HARQ #x, #y,
#z
Soft combining EU
ACKs

18

. 14

CRC attachment
Code block segmentation
Turbo encoding
Physical layer HARQ
Code #1 Code #2 Code #N
Physical channel mapping
Interleaving (2 )
Physical channel segmentation

. 15

Turbo encoder
Bit separation
Systematic bits
Parity bits
1st rate matching
IR buffer
Redundancy version setting
2nd rate matching
Physical channel segmentation

. 16

Packet
Retransmission
Node B

Class C: HSDPA best effort

. 18

. 19

. 20

. 21

. 22

19

Class A: Strict QoS





1-
IR

2-

Allocated bandwith
User plane

Class B: DCH best effort

CRC


HARQ
#1 #2 # N
(mapping)
(interleaving) (2 )



: HSDPA best effort/

: DCH best effort/

: QoS

Class A
Class B
Class C
Control plane

Class A&B
Class C
Control plane

Class A

Class B&C

Control plane

Class A+B
Class C

Control plane

Revija19/2006/1 Ericsson Nikola Tesla

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