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A. N.

BIRBRAER
. J. ROLEDER

EXTREME
ACTIONS
ON STRUCTURES

Saint Petersburg
Publishing House of the Politechnical University
2009

. .
. .

-

2009

624.04
38.112
64
,
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. . , . . . . : - . -, 2009.
594 .
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. 72. . 269. . : 143 .
Birbraer A. N. Extreme Actions on Structures / A. N. Birbraer,
A. J. Roleder. St. Petrsburg. : Publishing House of the Politechnical University, 2009. 594 p.
The book deals with problems of designing structures intended to withstand
extreme actions. Techniques for dynamic analysis of structures subjected to
short-term loads in elastic and inelastic deformation stages is described. The
book presents methods for determining loads caused by extreme actions, i.e.
impacts from missiles of various nature, explosions, tournedos and hurricanes,
load drop, structure collapse. Principles of considering extreme actions in design of nuclear power plants, including probabilistic assessment of their hazard
and risk, are defined. The book contains numerous examples of calculations.
Table of contents, which provide a deeper inside in the book contents, is given
at the end of the book.
The book is for use by design engineers and scientists. It may also be used
by civil engineering students and postgraduates.

ISBN 978-5-7422-2370-2

. ., . ., 2009
-
, 2009


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.

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I


1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1. . . . . . . .
1.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1. ( )
2.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3. . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13
16

17
17
17
18
21
21
23
30
33
33
33
35
37
37
38
38
41
43
47
47
48
49
53
53
54
55
55
57
57
57

3.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4. . . . . . . . . .
3.1.5.
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5.
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4. 50 . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.6. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . .
4.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2. . . . . .
4.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . . .
4.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4. n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. . . .
4.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2. - . . . . .
4.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.4. () . . . . . . .

66
70
72
73
77
77
77
79
80
82
82
82
83
84
84
85
85
86
88
88
88
89
95
98
101
104
104
104
108
108
110
110
112
113
116


4.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4. . .
5.
5.1. . . . . . . .
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2. . . .
5.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2.
. . . . . . . .
5.4.3. . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.
6.2. . . . .
6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
118
128
129
130
130
131
132
132
136
138
140
142
142
143
149
150
151
154
154
154
155
159
162
163
168
168
168
169
170
170
173
174
174

6.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

174
177
181
185
187

II


7. . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.
7.2. - -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3. . . . . . .
7.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4. . . . . . . . . . .
8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.2. . . . . . . .
8.1.3. . . .
8.1.4.
8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.2. . . . . . . . .
8.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3. . . . . . .
8.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

188
189
189
194
194
195
210
212
214
216
216
216
219
222
224
225
226
230
236
238
239
239
240
243
249
254
256
256
256
258


9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.2. - -
9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1. . . . .
9.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.3. . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1. . . .
9.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1. . . . . .
9.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1. . . .
10.1.1.
10.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.2. . . .
10.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3. . . . . . . .
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.4.
11.1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9
260
261
261
262
266
266
268
274
281
281
287
287
295
299
299
308
309
309
309
318
318
319
322
325
328
331
334
334
334
334
347
352
353
355
355
356

10

11.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.7. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3. . . . . . . . . .
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1. . . . . .
12.2. . . . . . . . . .
12.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.4. . . . . . .
12.2.5. SCAD Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.2. . . . . . . . .
12.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13. . . . . . . . . .
13.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.1. . . . . . . .
13.2.2. . . . . . . . .
13.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

358
359
360
360
361
367
370
370
373
373
376
377
380
388
389
389
390
407
412
417
423
423
423
423
428
429
431
439

III

14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

442
442
445
448
453
457
459


14.7. . . . . . . . . .
14.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.11.2. . . . . . . . . . . .
14.11.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.4. . . . . . .
15.1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1. . . . . . . . .
15.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.3. . . . . . . .
16.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2. . . . . . . . . .
16.2.1. . . . . . . . . .
16.2.2. . . . . . .
16.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5. . . . . . . . . .
17.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2.1. . . . . . . .
17.2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3. . . . . . . . . . . .

11
460
461
462
463
464
464
464
466
471
471
471
472
472
474
481
484
494
497
497
499
506
509
509
510
510
510
511
513
522
524
526
526
527
527
528
538

12

17.4. . . . . . . . . . . .
17.5.
18.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1.
18.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1.2.
18.1.3. , ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2. . . . . .
18.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2.3.
18.2.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

544
546
551
551
551
552
554
560
566
566
567
567
569
570
571
573
581
587


, ,
, .. . , ,
, .
, ,
,
, ,
.

, ,
, ().
. ,
, .
, ,
. , ,
(), , , ,
, .
. : , , .
, , - , .
, , .
, ( , , [12]).
, , , , .
,
.

. , , -

14

.
: , (.. ), .. , , .
.
; ;
, -
; , ; ,
;
. :
,
,
, , - . , , , ,
, ,
.., .
, - . , , . , .
I ,
, . ,
.

, .
.
,
, , .
II ,
. , , , ,
.
III . ,
. ,

15

: .
; ;
. .
. , , . : ,
.

. , - ,
, ( ). , .
. , ,
. , , .
, , , ( ).
, .
.
- -
. 8.1, 8.2, 11.1 16.4
. . , 2.3, 3.1 4.3 . . .
, , , . .
, .

, .

16

CPV
CQC

DBPV

MSK-64
SDV
SPL
SRSS
ZPA




-
( , )



-

-

-









()





Conditional Probability Value ( , )
Complete Quadratic Combination
Design Basis Probability Value ( , )

, 1964 .
Screening Distance Value ( , )
Screening Probability Level ( , )
Square Root of the Sum of the Squares ( , )
Zero Period Acceleration ( , )

I


1

( ) .
, (,
, )
, , . , , , .
.
1.1.

1.1.1.
, . 1985 .

[3], [4], [5], . , , , [29], , - [3].
.

, M 150, M 200 .. , 12.5,
15 . [77]
B
M=
,
(1.1)
0.098(1 1.64V )
V
; , , V = 0.135,
V = 0.18.

.1.

18

. [3]
-I, A-III ., A-240, A-400
..
. 1.1
[3], .. ,
, , [29],

.
,
.
1.1.

A-I
A-II

A 240
A 300

A-III
A-IV

A 400
> B 500

A-V
Bp-I

> B 500
B 500


. .
,
, [3] R. ,
fc.
f c = 1.07 R .
(1.2)
, [5, 6] Rb. , R, Rs.
1.1.2.
.
,
, ..
(. 1.1).
1. (. 1.1,).
,
A-I A-III. ,
,
. , , . , ,

1.1.

19

( ),
.
, ( ). .
:
. ,
0.2,
0.2 %.
)

0.2

. 1.1. :

;
;
;

2. (. 1.1,).
, .
,
. , . , 0.2.
3. (. 1.1,). , , .
, . 1.1, .
. , ,
. [66].
[29] -

20

.1.

, .
. ,
, .

1.6
A-I A-III
A-I A-II A-III A-IVA-V
,
. 1,,
1.4

,
1.2
,
.

.
0.001
0.01
0.1
.
, 1
A-IV A-V . 1.2.
,

. 1,, [29]

0.2 , , .
1.2.
[29]
,


K
K

K K
A-I
A-II
A-III
A-IV
1.35
1.3
1.25
1.05
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0

[29] R R ( ) K:
R = R K .
(1.3)
. 1.2 K & .
, ,
. -

1.2.

21

K.

[29], K,
. 1.2. [50].
2
.
1.8
,

1.6
, .
1.1,. 1.4
,
1.2
, .. 1
. 1.1,.
1
100
104
106
102
.
, 1
. 1.3.

. ,
[61]
, , , .
[29]

R
R ( ), K.:

R
= R K . .
(1.4)
, , (. 1.3). [29], , K.,
(
.1.2):
1.2 I ;
K =
1.3 I.
[50],
.
1.2.
1.2.1.
[6], .
:

22

.1.

I ( I ),
;
II ( II ), ,
.
I , (
) (, , ). [80]
, , ,
.. I . ,
, ( , )

, ..
P

. .
,
Q
s
, ,
. ,
. 1.4
. 1.4.

Qs/2,

.
II
, , .

(, ..)
[29, 50] I , .
I .
, () .
.
.

1.2.

23

I
. .
,
I (.. ) , .

( I). I, R .
.
1.2.2.

[29]. [50]
, .
.
,
I , . . Q
- Q
[29]. Y

[4, 6], Y0
Y Y
0
(.. . 1.5.
)


.


( )
I, . Y Q
,
. 1.5 ( ). 0 Y Y0
, Y Y0
.

[29]. .
-

24

.1.

(.. [4, 6]) K. Y, Y Y0,


, Y0:
Y
Y + Y
.
(1.5)
K = = 0
Y0
Y0
, I,
K = 3 Yi Y. , ,
I,
K = 1 Yi Y0.
:
) , R ,
R 0.003M Sl02

Y0 = +
(1.6)

h ;
E
M

) ,
,

0.003 0.75R 2
Y =
Sl0 ;
(1.7)
h0 ( ' ) R
) ,
,

b
0,003 0.75R
(1.8)
Y =
Sl02 .

N + R F R. F
, ,

I,

0.2

0.1

h0

0.1

0.2

. 1.6.

1.2.

25

,
.
i i ,
(1.9)
0.003

0.02,
0.035 +
i =
().
(1.10)

0.2
< 0.02.
. 1.6.


, .. (1.9)(1.10), b = 1 .
(1.5)(1.10) :

R , R.
(), ;

,
R
;
, ;
, ()
= F (bh0 ) ; = F (bh0 ) ;
(1.11)
F , F
b
h0
l0
a

() , 2;
, ;
, ;
, ;
, ;
N , ;
M , R ,

M = F R h0 0.5 x + FR.
0.5 x a ' ;
(1.12)

M ,
= R ;

M = 0.5bh02 R
;
(1.13)
x

x = F R (bR
);
(1.14)

26

.1.

;
= x h0 = R R ,

(1.15)



= R R + N (bh0 R ) ;
(1.16)

, :

R =

;
R
1
1+
0.4 109 1.1
0 ,
0 = 0.85 8 10 9 R .

(1.17)

(1.18)

I 0 , , , , 10 %;
S , . S
. 1.3.

S M + S 2 M 2 + ... + Sn M n
,
(1.19)
S= 1 1
M 1 + M 2 + ... + M n
S1 M1, S2 M2, , Sn Mn S M
.
f = Sl02 1 M, , .
1.3. S
[29]

S=

1
4

P
S=

1
3

1.2.

27

. 1.3

al

1 a
S = a
2 6

0.5l

al P

al

S=

1 a2

8 6

al

S=

al P

S=

1 + 2a ( 3 4a 2 )
12(1 + 4a )

0.5l

S=

0.5l

ql
8 + 3K
, K=
P
12( 2 + K )

q al
0.5l

8 + 5K
ql
, K=
48( 2 + K )
P

al P

S=

ql
4a 2 (3 a ) + 3K ,
K=
P
12( 2a + K )

al

q P al

16a (3 4a ) + 5K
, K = ql
P
48(8a + K )

P
l

PP

l
S=

0.5l

8 + 16a (3 + 4a 2 ) + 5K
ql
, K=
48( 2 + 8a + K )
P

S=

al

P q P P al
0.5l

S=

P P

0.5l

a (3 a) + 2
6(1+ a)

5
48

S=

1
12

0.5l

al

S=

S=

8 + 4 a ( 3 a ) + 3K
, K = ql
P
12( 2 + 2a + K )
2

. . 1.4 -

.1.

28


, [127, 135].
1.4.
K, [127, 135]

I.

1. :
)

l ( 4Y0 )


l ( 4Y0 )

2. ( )
3. ( ):
)
) ,
)
II.
4. ( ):
) (U, V, T- ..)
) (, ..)
5. :
) < 10
) 10
6.
7.

1.3
1.0
1.3
3.0

12.5
20

5
1
5
= y 2

. 1.4 ( [29] ):
Y0 [ , (1.5)];
l ;
, [80];
;
u , ;
,
d
= 0.0065 0.07 ,
(1.20)
c
d ; c -

1.2.

29


( c );



.
,
. 1.4, [135]:
1. ,
. ,
, K .
2.
, . 1.4,
:
1.4 Rb t 2 As
As As
R
;

(1.21)
0.25 b ,
bd
Rs
Rs
d bd
Rb ; Rs
; As ; As ; t ; b
; d .
3. (1.21), ,
(1.20). , , , 150 500 .
,
(1.20) .
4. K = 20, . 1.4, :
26.4. , , , .
[80].
5. , , , . . 1.4 2.
6.

30

.1.


, . 1.4,

. 20 %.
1.2.3.

.
.
, .
(
. 5) .
, , , , , .
. , ,
.
,
[61].
, ,
, :
K, .
[29]
[127, 135] (. 1.4). [29] K , . , . 1.4 [, . (1.20)].
K -

1.2.

31

Q,

,
: K , .
, Y0,
. ( ) ,
Y0 , 30
- .
. 1.7
20
Q
I2
[127] I3
10
I1
,
Y

.

6
0
2
4

Y = 6.7
Y,
- . 1.7.

.

Q = 25.1
( . . 4). Y0 : I1 = I ( ); I2 = I , . 3.4; I3 = (I1 + I2)/2
.
, , I1, K = 61.9, I2 34.5, I3 7.7, .. . , ..
, 5 %.

( ).
, . , , : ,
: (. . 5.5).
,
. -

32

.1.

Y0, (. . 5.22), K .
,
K
, ,
. , , .
[29] , ,
. ,
, .

2

. ,
,
.
.

(), . , (
, , ).
.
,
. .
: , .
.

. , , .
2.1.
( )
2.1.1.
-
( ),
. 2.1. . 4.1.
, ( , *
)
m&x& + bx& + kx = 0 ,
(2.1)
*

, , ,
, , , .

. 2.

34

m , ; b , /(/); k ,
/; &x& , x& x , .
m (2.1) y

m
b
&x& + 2 x& + 2 x = 0 ,
(2.2)
k

k
, /;
(2.3)
m
x
,
. 2.1. b
b

=
=
.
(2.4)
2m 2 km
. ,
mg. x
mg = k x .
(2.5)
k (2.3),

g
, /.
(2.6)
x
(
)
x(0) = x0 ; x& (0) = x& 0 ,
(2.7)

< 1,
x = Ae t sin( D t + ) ,

(2.8)

D ,

D = 1 2 ;

(2.9)

A ,
A=

x02 +

( x& 0 + x0 ) 2

D2

,
x& + x
= 0 0
.
x0 D

(2.10)

(2.11)

2.1. ( ) 35

. f, (),
T, ( ).
1
f = =
.
(2.12)
T 2
(2.9) ,
D = 1 .
= 1 .
, ,
. (2.2)
( ).

, .. << 1. D .
, . , , , , ,
. :
2

= =
.
(2.13)
2
1 2
2.
(2.3) (2.4),
(,
, ), ,
.. , . , (
). , , .
2.1.2.
.
, R(t),
(. 2.2).
m&x& + bx& + kx = R(t ) ,
(2.14)

. 2.

36

m
1
&x& + 2 x& + 2 x = R(t ) .
(2.15)
m
( )
1

R( )e

( t )

(2.16)
sin[ D (t )]d ,
m D 0
t.

t
TD = 2 /D [
y m
t TD/(810)]. R(t)
R(t)
, , ..
,
b
k
x
t.

x
(2.15) . 2.2.
- (,
, .). ,
(
, ).
, . y

m
, mX&&0 (t )
,

b
(2.17)
m&x& + kx = R(t ) ,
k
x

x
1
0
&x& + 2 x = R(t ) .
(2.18)
m
&X& (t )
0
.


. 2.3.
,
,
x (t ) =

2.2.

37

X&& 0 (t ) (.2.3). ,
, [12]. R(t ) = mX&& 0 (t ) .
(2.14)
,
x0y,
(2.19)
m&x& + bx& + kx = mX&&0 (t ) .
m
&x& + 2 x& + 2 x = X&& 0 (t ) .

(2.20)

, (2.20)
,
x (t ) =

X&& ( )e
0

( t )

sin[D (t )]d .

(2.21)

(2.20) (2.21) , (2.15) (2.16).


:
&x&a (t ) = &x&(t ) + X&& 0 (t ) .
(2.22)
, :
F (t ) = m&x&a .
(2.23)
2.2.
2.2.1.

( ), .. ,
, ,
( ). .
, , .
().
:
; , ; , , , ;
..
, , ,

38

. 2.

. . ,

, . , .
[56].
[12].
,
.
,

( . 4.4.1). , ( )
.
2.2.2.
, n .
( ), , ,
[ M ]{&x&} + [ K ]{x} = {0} ,
(2.24)
{x&&} {x} - ( n1); [M] [K] (nn); {0} (.. ) (n1).
,
:
{x(0)} = {x0 } ; {x& (0)} = {x& 0 } .
(2.25)
2.2.3.

( ). .

[.. (2.25)],
, (). ,

2.2.

39

, .

(2.26)
{x} = { }sin(t + ),
{} (n1); , /;
.
{}, (2.26)
(2.24).
( 2 [ M ] + [ K ]){}sin(t + ) = {0} .
(2.27)
, :
( 2 [ M ] + [ K ]){} = {0} .
(2.28)

n
k {}.
. 2. ,
. , .
k = 0, , , ,
. () :
det ( 2 [ M ] + [ K ]) = 0
(2.29)
( det ). ,
n- * 2.
n j, .
, **.
:
1 < 2 < K < n .
(2.30)
{j}, j- ( j- ) . j (2.28).
,
jk { j}. (2.29) *
. ,

, .
**
() ,
.

. 2.

40

0. ,
, .. , .
, n jk n1 . jk ,
. ,
{ j} , . - , , .
, , ,
k, .. k{ j} , { j}.
k . ,
,
{ j} 1.
(2.36) (2.37).
,
,
- ,
. ,
.
1
y

x3
m3
m2

x2
x1

2
y

13

11

21

23
22

12

33

32
31

m1
x
. 2.4. ( )

. 2.4 , .
x1, x2, x3. ,

2.2.

41

, ,
, .

, ( , .. [M] [K]),
, .. ( -). , , (
).

( 2j [ M ] + [ K ]) . . ( )
, n .
n. 2
(., , [12]).
. (, [54, 84] .)
. , .
,
. .
2.2.4.
:
1. { j}
n- . ,
n- { j} (.. ).
2. , .
(2.28), j- . , i- { i}T:
2j {i }T [ M ]{ j } + {i }T [ K ]{ j } = {i }T {0} .
(2.31)
. 0, ..
2j {i }T [ M ]{ j } + {i }T [ K ]{ j } = 0 .
(2.32)

42

. 2.

(2.28), i- , j- { j}T.
i2 { j }T [ M ]{i } + { j }T [ K ]{i } = 0 .
(2.33)
(2.33). , , . , , [M]T = [M]
[K]T = [K]. , (2.33)
i2 {i }T [ M ]{ j } + {i }T [ K ]{ j } = 0 .
(2.34)
(2.32) (2.34).
,
( i2 2j ){i }T [ M ]{ j } = 0 .
(2.35)
i j, , .. ( i2 2j ) 0 , ,
, { i}T[M]{ j} = 0. i = j,
( i2 2j ) = 0 , , || i||2, .
, (2.35) :
i j;
0
{i }T [ M ]{ j } = T
(2.36)
2
{i } [ M ]{i } =|| i || > 0 i = j.
(2.34), :
i j;
0
{i }T [ K ]{ j } = 2
(2.37)
2
i || i || > 0 i = j.
,
,
.
||i||2 = 1 (~
{i } ).
:
{ }
{i }
~
{i } = i =
.
(2.38)
T
|| i ||
{i } [ M ]{i }
:
0 i j;
~
~
{i }T [ M ]{i } =
1 i = j.

(2.39)

2.2.

43

0 i j;
~
~
{i }T [ K ]{i } = 2
(2.40)
i i = j.
2.2.5.


()
(2.25). ,
. ,

(2.24). . 2.3.2. ,
.

, , (2.36)(2.37). ,
(2.24) ,
.
,
(,
). . .
,
(2.24)
n

j =1

j =1

{x(t )} = {x j (t )} = { j }q j (t ) ,

(2.41)

{xj(t)} j- (),
qj(t) *, . (2.41) . (2.41) (2.24) qj t,
n

j =1

j =1

[ M ] { j }q&& j + [ K ] { j }q j = {0} .

(2.42)

.
(2.41) i- {i}T:
*

, qj(t) ,
, .

. 2.

44
n

j =1

j =1

{i }T [ M ] { j }q&& j + {i }T [ K ] { j }q j = {i }T {0} .

(2.43)

(2.36)(2.37) , i-, ,

|| i ||2 q&&i + i2 || i ||2 qi = 0 .

(2.44)

(2.44) (2.1), , q&&i


, qi . :
i- ( )
mi = || i ||2 = {i }T [ M ]{i } ;

(2.45)

i-
ki = i2 || i ||2 .

(2.46)

(2.44) ||i|| ,
2

q&&i + i2 qi = 0 ,

(2.47)

i- . ,
. , (2.24) ,
[12].
,
(2.47).
q&&i + 2 i i q&i + i2 qi = 0 .

(2.48)

.

. (2.48) (2.2). (2.25) (2.24). {x0} {x& 0 } :
n

j =1

j =1

{x0 } = { j }q0 j ; {x& 0 } = { j }q&0 j .

(2.49)

q0 j q&0 j j- . (2.49) {i}T[M]:

2.2.

45

{i }T [ M ]{x0 } = {i }T [ M ]{ j }q0 j ;
j =1
n

{i } [ M ]{x& 0 } = {i }T [ M ]{ j }q&0 j .
T

(2.50)

j =1

(2.36) i = j:
{i }T [ M ]{x0 } =|| i ||2 q0i ; {i }T [ M ]{x& 0 } =|| i ||2 q&0i .
(2.51)

{ }T [ M ]{x0 }
{i }T [ M ]{x& 0 }
&
;
q0i = i
q
=
.
(2.52)
0i
|| i ||2
|| i ||2
(2.48) (2.8):
xi = Ai e ii t sin( Di t + i ) ,
(2.53)
Di i- ,

Di = i 1 i2 ;

(2.54)

Ai i- ,
Ai = q02i +

( q&0i + q0i i i ) 2
2
Di

i i- ,
q& + q
i = 0i 0i i i .
q0i Di

(2.55)

(2.56)

,
. , , .
.
(2.41):
n

{x(t )} = {i } Ai e i i t sin( Di t + i ) .

(2.57)

i =1

, , () .
,
(2.57) n, s < n . , n . , ,
.

. 2.

46


E 0 = U 0 + T0 ,

(2.58)

U0 ,
1
U 0 = {x0 }T [ K ]{x0 } ;
(2.59)
2
T0 ,
1
(2.60)
T0 = {x& 0 }T [ M ]{x& 0 } .
2
, .. (2.57) i = 0,
E0.
.
, (2.57):
n

{x& (t )} = {i }Ai i cos( i t + i ) .

(2.61)

i =1


1
1 n
T (t ) = {x&(t )}T [ M ]{x&(t )} = {i }T [ M ]{i }Ai2i2 cos2 (i t + i ) . (2.62)
2
2 i=1
(2.36)
1 n
T (t ) = || i ||2 Ai2 i2 cos2 ( i t + i ) .
(2.63)
2 i =1
s , Tmax,
s (2.63),
E0 (, 5 %).
. ,

().
. i-
:
~
{i } = ki {i } .
(2.64)

~
~
~
|| i ||2 = {i }T [ M ]{i } = ki2 || j ||2 .

(2.65)

(2.64) (2.65) (2.52), , ,


, ki . (2.55) ,
:

47

2.3.

1
~
Ai = Ai .
ki
i .
(2.64) (2.66) (2.57)
n
~ ~
{x (t )} = {i } Ai e ii t sin( Di t + i ) =

(2.66)

i =1

1
Ai e ii t sin( Di t + i ) .
(2.67)
ki
i =1
ki . (2.57), ,
, ..
. ,
, .. ,
,
.
(2.38).
1, .
= ki {i }

2.3.

2.3.1.
n
R(t).

[ M ]{&x&} + [ K ]{x} = {J }R (t ) ,
(2.68)
{J} :
0
M

ak

{J } = M
a
k +s
M
0

1 ;
M

k ;

(2.69)

( k + s ) ;

n .

{J} , s k, k+1, , k+s


ak, ak+1, , ak+s,
a k + a k +1 + K + ak + s = 1 .

48

.2.

, .
2.3.2.


,
t.
.
. . ,

(., , . 8 9), .
, . 9.7,
Phantom RF-4E. 0.07 , . , 0.15 0.2 .
1/10 1/12 , . . 9.7, , 80
1, ..
. ,
0.0125 ,
t (1 / 10 1 / 12 ) 0.0125 0.0012 0.001 .

t = 0.001 , , 150 200


.
(, MSC/NASTRAN [123125]).

t, , . , t ( ,
.).
, a [2, 37] .

2.3.

49

2.3.3.
. .
, , (2.41). (2.68)
n

j =1

j =1

[ M ]{ j }q&& j (t ) + [ K ]{ j }q j (t ) = {J }R(t ) .

(2.70)

(2.70) { i}T[M]:
n

j =1

j =1

{i }T [ M ]{ j }q&& j (t ) + {i }T [ K ]{ j }q j (t ) = {i }T {J }R(t ) . (2.71)


(2.36)(2.37) , i-:
|| i || 2 q&&i (t ) + i2 || i || 2 qi (t ) = {i }T {J }R (t ) .
(2.72)
( ),
{ }T {J }
q&&i (t ) + i2 qi (t ) = i 2 R(t ) .
(2.73)
|| i ||
i- , i-
qi(t). , , .
{ }T {J }
q&&i + 2 i i q&i + i2 qi = i 2 R(t ) .
(2.74)
|| i ||
. ,
. 2.1.2,

, .
.
{ i }T {J }
.
(2.75)
|| i || 2
i i- . , . (2.75)
q&&i + 2 i i q& i + i2 qi = i R(t ) .
(2.76)
i =

.2.

50

R(t), (2.15). . ,
qi = i i .
(2.77)

&&i + 2i i& i + i2 i = R(t ) .

(2.78)

(2.78) (2.41),
n

{x(t )} = { j } j j (t ) .

(2.79)

j =1

{ i}i i-
.
{ j } j = { j } .
(2.80)

n

{x(t )} = { j } j (t ) .

(2.81)

j =1

.
, . ,
~
~
{ j } { j } , (2.64):
~ T
~ { j i } {J } k{i }T {J } {i }T {J } 1
i = ~ 2 = 2
=
= i .
(2.82)
k || i ||2
k || i ||2 k
|| j i ||
(2.81) {~ } , j

(2.80):
1
~ ~
{~j } = { j } j = k{ j } j = { j } j = { j } .
(2.83)
k
, {j}, , {x(t)} .
. ,
(2.81) n , r < n .

{i}.
(2.73) [M]{ i}:
[ M ]{i }q&&i (t ) + i2 [ M ]{i }qi (t ) = [ M ]{i }i R(t ) .
(2.84)

51

2.3.

(2.36)(2.37) ,
i2 {i }T [ M ]{ j } = {i }T [ K ]{ j } ,

(2.85)

, ,

i2 [ M ]{ j } = [ K ]{ j } .

(2.86)

(2.84)
[ M ]{i }q&&i (t ) + [ K ]{i }qi (t ) = [ M ]{i }i R(t ) .

(2.87)

(2.87) n :
n

i =1

i =1

i =1

[ M ] {i }q&&i (t ) + [ K ] {i }qi (t ) = [ M ]R(t ) {i } .

(2.88)

(2.70) (2.88), , ,
, :
n

[ M ]R (t ){i } = {J }R (t ) .

(2.89)

i =1

R(t) 0, ,
n

[ M ] {i } = {J } .

(2.90)

i =1

{i}:
n

{ } = [ M ]
i =1

{J } .

(2.91)


, .
k() R(t), . r+1
k() , , . S(). . 4.
. , (2.81) r < n
r .
{ i}
n

i = r +1

i =1

{i } = {J } {i } .

(2.92)

.2.

52

{~} =

{ } .

i = r +1

(2.93)

r+1. ,

:
k() k( r+1) const > r+1.
(2.94)
, :
r

j =1

j =1

{ j } j (t ) < {x(t )} < { j } j (t ) + {~}k ( r+1 ) .

(2.95)

,
:
, .
= {~}k ( )
(2.96)

r +1


.
(2.91) ,
s k, k+1, ,
k+s, mk, , mk+s.
{J} (2.69). (2.75),
a + K + ak + si ,k + s
i = k ik
.
(2.97)
|| i ||2

[ M ] 1{J } = {J ( s ) } ,

(2.98)

(s)

{J } , k- (k+s)- ak/mk, , ak+s/mk+s, :


0

ak mk

{J ( s ) } =
M

a
m
k +s k +s
M

1
M

k
M
( k + s )
M
n

(2.99)

2.4.

(2.91)
n
akik + K + ak + si ,k + s
{i } = {J ( s ) } .

2
|| i ||
i =1

53

(2.100)

, , k-
, mk, (2.100) :
n

ik

||
i =1

||2

{i } = {J (1) } ,

(2.101)

{J(1)} :
0
M

{J (1) } = 1 / mk
M

1
M
k

(2.102)

M
n

,
. , (2.75)
~
i = {i }T {J } .
(2.103)
, (2.100)
n
~
~
~
(2.104)
(akik + K + ak + si ,k + s ){i } = {J ( s )} ,
i =1

(2.101)
n
~ ~
ik {i } = {J (1)} .

(2.105)

i =1

2.4.

2.4.1.
( ).
( ). , -, . , (, ), ,
-

. 2.

54

(, ). , .. , [12].
.
,
. ( )
X&& (t ) . , [M],
[K]. ,
,
R(t ) = [ M ]{J } X&& (t ) ,
(2.106)
0

{J} ,

( , , 0). (2.106)
(2.68),
:
[ M ]{&x&} + [ K ]{x} = [ M ]{J } X&&0 (t ) .
(2.107)
2.4.2.

, , (2.41). (2.107) i- {i}T:
n

j =1

j =1

{i }T [ M ]{ j }q&& j (t ) + {i }T [ K ]{ j }q j (t ) = {i }T [ M ]{J }X&&0 (t ) . (2.108)


(2.36) (2.37) ,
i = j, .
|| j ||2 q&& j (t ) + 2j || j ||2 q j (t ) = { j }T [ M ]{J } X&&0 (t ) .
(2.109)

, q j(t):
{ j }T [ M ]{J } &&
q&& j (t ) + q j (t ) =
X 0 (t ) .
|| j ||2
2
j

(2.110)

(2.20) ,
j- .
j =

{ j }T [ M ]{J }
|| j ||2

(2.111)

2.5.

55

,
. j = 0, .
(2.77)(2.81). (2.77)
(2.80)
n

{x(t )} = { j } j (t ) .

(2.112)

j =1

2.4.3.
{ j}
n

{ j } = {J } .

(2.113)

j =1

( . 4). .
[22], { j} n- , ..
. {J}:
n

{J } = a j { j } ,

(2.114)

j =1

aj , . ,
(2.114) i- :
n

{i }T [ M ]{J } = {i }T [ M ] a j { j } .

(2.115)

j =1

(2.36) 0,
i = j:
{i }T [ M ]{J } = ai {i }T [ M ]{i } = ai || i ||2 .
(2.116)

{ }T [ M ]{J }
ai = i
,
(2.117)
|| i ||2
.. ai i.
(2.116), (2.113) (2.115).
2.5.

, . , , -

.2.

56

, .
[], .
(2.36) :

[]T [M ][] = [|| i ||2 ],

(2.118)

|| i || 2 , i- i- .
(, ):

[]1 [M ]1 ([]T )

= || i ||2

(2.119)

(2.119) [], []T,

[M ]1 = [][|| i ||2 ]1 []T .

(2.120)

|| i ||2 , ,
.
[] = [K]1. (2.37) :

[]T [K ][] = [i2 ][|| i ||2 ],

[ ]

(2.121)

i2 , i-
i- .
[], []T,

[ ] = [K ]1 = [][|| i ||2 ]1 [i2 ]1 []T ,

(2.122)

[ ]

2 1
i

,

.
,

[ || || ] = [E ] ,
2

(2.123)

[E] . (2.120) (2.122)


[M ]1 = [][]T ;
[ ] = [K ]1 = [][i2 ]1 []T .

(2.124)
(2.125)

3

, .. ,
.
, , , , , ,
. .

,
. ,
, . . ,

( ) ,
( , , .). ,

,
.
[53, 54, 63, 85].
3.1.
3.1.1.
.
y (x, t) x t (. 3.1).
2
2 y
2 y

E
x
I
x
x
+
(
)
(
)

(
)
=0,
(3.1)
x 2
x 2
t 2
E(x) , ; I(x)
, 4; (x) , /.
l ,
4 y
2 y
EI 4 + 2 = 0 .
(3.2)
x
t
(3.1) (3.2) .
.

. 3.

58

.
x
.
-,
l
,
,
. 3.1.
x = 0 x = l.
x = 0:
, ..
y (0)
(3.3)
y ( 0) = 0
= 0;
x
,
y 2 (0)
(3.4)
y ( 0) = 0
=0;
x 2
,
y 3 (0)
y 2 (0)
(3.5)

=
0
= 0.
x 3
x 2
: , . [22].
.
.
t = 0:
y ( x,0)
(3.6)
= y& 0 ( x ) .
y ( x,0) = y0 ( x ) ;
t
. ,
,

y(x,t)

y ( x , t ) = ( x ) q( t ) ,

(3.7)

.. , x, t. ,
.. (3.2). (3.7) ,
q&&(t )
EI IV ( x )
=

.
(3.8)
q(t )
( x)

t, x. ,

59

3.1.

, .. . 2, (x) q(t)
:

IV ( x )

( x) = 0 ;
EI
q&&(t ) + q(t ) = 0 .
2

(3.9)
(3.10)

.
. , , , .

( x ) = C1S ( kx ) + C2T ( kx ) + C3U ( kx ) + C4V ( kx ) ,
(3.11)

k=4

;
(3.12)
EI
.. :
1
1
S = (cos kx + ch kx );
T = (cos kx ch kx );
2
2
(3.13)
1
1
U = (sinkx + sh kx );
V = (sinkx sh kx ).
2
2
. (3.11) (3.4), (3.3) (x):
(0) = 0 ; (0) = 0 ; (l ) = 0 ; (l ) = 0 .
(3.14)
(3.11) C1 = C3 = 0.
C2 C4:
C2T ( kl ) + C4V ( kl ) = 0;
(3.15)

C2V ( kl ) + C4T ( kl ) = 0.
,
:
T ( kl ) V ( kl )
= 0.
(3.16)
V ( kl ) T ( kl )
, , k:
T 2 ( kl ) V 2 ( kl ) = 0 .
(3.17)

60

. 3.

(3.13)
sh kl sin kl = 0 .
(3.18)
, shkl = 0, (3.12)
, = 0, .. . . , shkl 0, , ,
sin kl = 0 .
(3.19)
:
(3.20)
k n l = n ( n = 1, 2, 3,K) .
. n- (3.15), :
V (kn l )
C4 =
C2 .
(3.21)
T (kn l )
, (3.11)
C2
n ( x ) =
(sin k n x shk n l + sin k n l shk n x ) .
(3.22)
2T ( k n l )
(3.19) , n-
( ) :
n ( x ) = Cn sin k n x ,
(3.23)
Cn ,
shk n l
Cn = C2
.
(3.24)
2T ( k n l )
C2 ,
Cn . , ,
n(x) . , .
.
[22].
1. ,
.
2. . :
a) :
l
n m;
0
(3.25)
0 n ( x )m ( x )dx = || n ||2 n = m,
|| n||2 , ,

3.1.

61

|| n ||2 = n2 ( x )dx .

(3.26)

( );
) :
l
n m;
0
(3.27)
0 n( x )m ( x )dx = kn2 || n ||2 n = m.

:
l
n m;
0
(3.28)
0 ( x )n ( x )m ( x )dx = || n ||2 n = m,
0

E ( x ) I ( x ) ( x ) ( x )dx = k
n

2
n

|| n ||

n m;
n = m,

(3.29)

|| n ||2 = ( x )n2 ( x )dx .

(3.30)

3. ( ). , f (x), ,
0 x l
n(x):
f ( x) =

a
n =1

n n

( x) .

(3.31)

. (3.10). , ,
. , .

(3.32)
q&&n (t ) + 2n n q&n (t ) + n2 qn (t ) = 0 .
(2.2), . k n, , n(x) n, (3.12)

2n

EI
, /,
l2

n =

n = n, n = 1, 2, 3

(3.33)

. 3.

62

, ( )
.
, , , ,
. ,
, , .
3 . 1 .
n(),
x
=
l

Dn

sinn

n5

sin n sh n +
+ Dn (ch n cos n ),

Dn =

shn sin n
chn cos n

ch n cos n +

+ Dn (sin n sh n ),

Dn =

chn + cos n
shn + sin n

sin n sh n +

+ Dn (ch n cos n )

Dn =
*)

shn + sin n
chn + cos n

1
2
3
4

1.0178
0.9992
1.0000
1.0000

4.730
7.853
10.996
14.137

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

( 2n + 1)
2
3.927
7.069
10.210
13.352

1.3622
0.9817
1.0008
0.9999

( 4n + 1)
4
1.875
4.694
7.855
10.996

n5
1
2
3
4
n5
1
2
3
4
n5

( 2n 1)
2

. n

63

3.1.

(3.32) (2.6)
qn (t ) = An e nn t sin(Dn t + n ) ,

(3.34)

An n- ; n ;
Dn n- :

Dn = n 1 n2 .

(3.35)

*)
n
1.2732
0
0.4424
0

n( )

n( )

2n sin n

3n cos n

2n [ sin n sh n +
+ Dn (ch n + cos n )]

3n [ cos n ch n +
+ Dn (sh n sin n )]

0.0620

2n [ch n + cos n
Dn (sin n + sh n )]

3n [sh n sin n
Dn (cos n + ch n )]

0.57485
0.44112
0.35454
0.1819

2n [ sin n sh n +
+ Dn (ch n + cos n )]

3n [ cos n ch n +
+ Dn (sh n sin n )]

2[1 (1) n ]
n
0.8152
0
0.3637
0

1.2304
0.1170
0.4728

() (. . 3.1.3).

. 3.

64

. .
, ,
[84].
(3.33), n.
, . 3.1.
.
(3.23) (3.34) (3.7), (3.2), ..
,

y ( x, t ) = n ( x ) An e nn t sin(Dn t + n )

(3.36)

n =1

( Cn 1).

y& ( x, t ) = n ( x) An e nn t [Dn cos(Dnt + n ) n n sin(nt + n )] . (3.37)


n=1

An n (3.37)
, .. , .
.
(3.36) (3.37) t = 0
n = 0. [. (3.38)]
, (3.6),

n =1

n =1

y0 ( x ) = n ( x ) An sin n ; y& 0 ( x ) = n ( x )n An cos n .

(3.38)

m(x)
0 l. (3.25)
, m = n, .
l

2
n ( x) y0 ( x)dx =|| n || An sin n ;

( x) y& ( x)dx =||


n

||2 n An cos n . (3.39)

I1n = n ( x) y0 ( x)dx ;
0

I 2 n = n ( x) y& 0 ( x)dx .

(3.40)


An sin n = I1n || n ||2 ; An cos n = I 2 n (n || n ||2 ).

(3.41)

An =

1
|| n ||2

(I1n )

I
+ 2 n ;
n

(3.42)

3.1.

n = arctg

65

n I1n

.
(3.43)
I 2n
(3.42) (3.43)
(3.36) . ,
. (
. 2.2, ).
. (3.36),
.
, .

M ( x, t ) = EIy ( x, t ) = EI n( x ) An e nn t sin(Dn t + n ) ,

(3.44)

n =1

Q ( x, t ) = EIy ( x, t ) = EI n( x ) An e nn t sin(Dn t + n ) .

(3.45)

n =1

n(x) n(x) . 3.1. (3.36)



.
, (3.36),
, , (3.44) , (3.45)
. ,
, y& 0 ( x )
x [53].
S ( ).
, ,
S /, , .. () .
, (3.1) (3.2) . , .. , . 3.2.4. ,
. ,
, 0 ,
. , -, .

. 3.

66

. , [
Cn (3.23)].
~
n ( x ) = Cnn ( x ) .
(3.46)
(3.25), (3.40), (3.42) (3.43), ,
n- Cn ,
~
An = An Cn ,
(3.47)
. (3.46) (3.47)
(3.36),

1
~
y ( x, t ) = n ( x ) An sin(n t + n ) = Cnn ( x )
An sin(n t + n ) =
Cn
n =1
n =1

= n ( x ) An sin(n t + n ) .

(3.48)

n =1

(3.36), ,
.
3.1.2.

y

F(x,t) = Fmaxf(x)(t)

.
x
, x
l

. 3.2. F(x,t), .. , . 3.2.

2 y
4 y
+ 2 = F ( x, t ) ,
EI
(3.49)
4
t
x
y(x,t) , . ,
. ,
:
F ( x, t ) = Fmax f ( x ) (t ) ,
(3.50)
(t) f (x) , 1, Fmax ,
/.

3.1.

67


2 y
4 y
+ 2 = Fmax f ( x ) (t ) .
EI
(3.51)
4
t
x
. :

y ( x, t ) = n ( x) n (t ) ,

(3.52)

n =1

n(x) n- ,
; n(t) , . (3.52) (3.51):

n =1

n =1

EI nIV ( x ) n (t ) + n ( x )&&n (t ) = Fmax f ( x ) (t ) .

(3.53)

(3.9),

nIV ( x ) =

n 2

n ( x ) .
(3.54)
EI
(3.53),

( x )[&& (t ) +
n =1

n (t )] = Fmax f ( x ) (t ) .

2
n

(3.55)

f (x) :

f ( x) = an n ( x)

(3.56)

n =1

( an ). (3.55)

( x )[&& (t ) +
n =1

n (t )] = Fmax (t ) ann ( x ) .

2
n

(3.57)

n =1

n(x) , ,
n(t)
a
(3.58)
&&n (t ) + n 2 n (t ) = n Fmax (t ) .

:
an
= n .

(3.59)


&&n (t ) + n 2 n (t ) = Fmax n (t ) .

(3.60)

n n- , ,
.

. 3.

68

(3.60) . ,
.

&&n (t ) + 2n n& n (t ) + n2 n (t ) = Fmax n (t ) .

(3.61)

n (t ) = Fmax n n (t ) .

(3.62)

&&n (t ) + 2n n& n + n2 n (t ) = (t ) .

(3.63)

n (t), (2.13).
.
(3.62) (3.52),

y ( x, t ) = Fmax n ( x ) n n (t ) .

(3.64)

n =1

. an (3.56), .
(3.56) n(x) :
l

n =1

f ( x )n ( x )dx = an n ( x )i ( x )dx .

(3.65)

(3.25), i n
0, i = n
l

f ( x ) ( x )dx = a
n

|| n ||2 .

(3.66)


l
1
an =
f ( x )n ( x )dx .
(3.67)
|| n ||2 0
, n-
l
1
n =
f ( x )n ( x )dx .
(3.68)
|| n ||2 0
,
a x b (. 3.3,), (3.68) 0, .. 0 l,
a b.

69

3.1.

)
F(x,t) = Fmax f(x)(t)

P1(t) P2(t) Pk(t)

a1

x
b

ak
l

. 3.3. :
;

x = a1,, ak
P1 (t),, Pk (t), ,
(. 3.3,), n
- .
[30], :
0 x 0;
(3.69)
1) ( x ) =
x = 0;

2)

( x )dx = 1 .

(3.70)

(3.69) (3.70) ,

( x ) ( x a )dx = (a ) .

(3.71)

-
P1, , Pk x:
P( x ) = P1 ( x a1 ) + P2 ( x a 2 ) + K + Pk ( x ak ) .

(3.72)

(3.71) , (3.68) :
l

[P ( x a ) + K + P ( x a )] ( x)dx = P (a ) + K + P (a ) .
1

1 n

k n

(3.73)

P ( a ) + K + Pk n ( ak )
n = 1 n 1
.
(3.74)
|| n ||2
, ,
,
(3.68) (3.74).

. 3.

70

.
, n(x) () n. ,
.
~
n ( x) = C n n ( x) .
(3.75)
~
2
2
2
(3.25) , || n ( x ) || = Cn || n ( x ) || . ,
1
~
(3.76)
n =
n .
Cn
(3.75) (3.76) (3.64)

~ ~
y ( x,t) = Fmaxn ( x)nn (t) =
n =1

1
n n (t) = Fmaxn ( x)n n (t) .
(3.77)
Cn
n=1
n=1
, .
. (3.64).

= FmaxCnn ( x)

M ( x, t ) = EIy( x, t ) = Fmax EI

Q ( x, t ) = EIy( x, t ) = Fmax EI

( x)
n

(t ) .

(3.78)

(t ) .

(3.79)

n =1

( x)
n

n =1

n(x ) n(x ) . 3.1


3.1.3.

. , EI
y
F ( x, t ) = X&&0 (t )
X&&0 (t ) ( ).
x

x
X&&0 (t )
X&&0 (t ) X&& 0 (t ) (. 3.4). l
. 3.4.

3.1.

71

4 y
2 y
(3.80)
+

= X&&0 (t ) .
x 4
t 2
. .
:
EI

y ( x, t ) = n ( x ) n (t ) ,

(3.81)

n =1

n(x) n- ,
; n(t) , . (3.80):

n =1

n =1

EI nIV ( x ) n (t ) + n ( x )&&n (t ) = X&& 0 (t ) .

(3.82)

(3.54) ,

n ( x )[&&n (t ) + n 2 n (t )] = X&& 0 (t ) ,

(3.83)

n =1

, ,

( x )[&& (t ) +
n

n =1

n (t )] = X&& 0 (t ) .

(3.84)


f ( x ) X&& 0 (t ) , f (x) = 1 0 l f (x) = 0 . f (x) :

f ( x ) = 1 = ii ( x ) .

(3.85)

i =1

i, (3.85) n(x)
:
l

i =1

n ( x )dx = i i ( x )n ( x )dx .

(3.86)

(3.25) , i = n,
0,
l

( x )dx =
n

2
n

( x )dx = n || n ||2 ,

(3.87)

||n||2 n- [. (3.26)].
n =

1
|| n ||2

( x )dx .
n

(3.88)

. 3.

72

(3.84), (3.85) (3.88)

( x )[&& (t ) +
n =1

n (t )] = nn ( x ) X&& 0 (t ) .

2
n

(3.89)

n(x) . ,
n(t)
&&n (t ) + n 2 n (t ) = n X&& 0 (t ) .
(3.90)
(2.18),

, . , n, n- . , . -,
,
( ).
, .

q&&n (t ) + 2n n q& n (t ) + n2 qn (t ) = n X&& 0 (t ) .
(3.91)

qn (t ) = n n (t ) ,

(3.92)

&&n (t ) + 2n n& n + n2 n (t ) = X&& 0 (t ) .

(3.93)


(2.18).
(3.92) (3.81),

y ( x, t ) = n ( x ) n n (t ) .

(3.94)

n =1

3.1.4.

, .

(3.36) (3.64).
: (3.44) (3.77),
(3.45) (3.78).
,
,

3.1.

73

, - (3.64).
(), ..
. (3.64). ,
, (3.36).
3.1.5.

(3.1) (3.2)
, .
. , ,
. 3.1. , ,
.
, ,

. , . ..
( ).
[84].

4 y
2 y
E 4 y
2I 4 y
EI 4 + A 2 I 1 +
+
= 0,
(3.95)
f G x 2 t 2 G t 4
x
t

; G ,
E
G=
,
(3.96)
1(1 + )
; f ,
(. . 3.3.1).
(3.95) (3.1),
, ,
.
(
[54, 84]). ,

. 3.

74

, , ..
.
[84].
,
(3.44) (3.45),
, .
(3.95) .
, ,
, .
, , . ,
, 1/8 1/10 .
,
,
,
. l, b = 1.
I.
I
(3.97)
i+ = .
l
, p + (. . 9.1).
( ) , ,
p +
i+ =
.
(3.98)
2
[53]:
M ( x, t ) =

4I
l

EJ

n sin
n =1

nx
l

sin n t ,

(3.99)

, (3.97) (3.98),
2p i+ EJ 1
nx
M ( x, t ) =
sin
sin n t .
(3.100)

n=1 n
l
100
T1/32, T1 1 .

3.1.

13
T1 .
32
:
t=

75

(3.101)

M max = 1.477

2p i+

EJ

(3.102)

(3.102).

2

EJ
1 =
.
(3.103)

l

p l 2
16
M max = 1.477 3 +1 .
(3.104)

8


p:
p l 2
M = .
(3.105)
8
,
16
M max = 1.477 3 +1 M = 0.762 +1 M .
(3.106)


:
M
k = max = 0.762 +1 .
(3.107)
M
,
(3.101).

(3.107). . 3.5 ,
..
k
.
(3.108)

+ 1

. 3.5 , . x l, ( [53]). 100


. ,

. 3.

76

.
, , , t = 10T1/32.
0.6

0
T1/32

0.2
0

0.5

x/l

k /(1+)

k /(1+)

0.2

0.4
0.2
12T1/32
0

k /(1+)

0.2

0
2T1/32
0

0.5

x/l

0.2
4T1/32

0
0

0.5

0.2

x/l

0.5

x/l

0.6

0.2
0

6T1/32
0

0.5

0.4
0.2

14T1/32

x/l

0
k /(1+)

0.4
k /(1+)

13T1/32
0

k /(1+)

k /(1+)

0.4

0.4

0.2
8T1/32
0
0

0.5

x/l

0.4
k /(1+)

x/l

0.6
k /(1+)

k /(1+)

0.2

0.5

0.8

0.5

x/l

0.4
0.2

16T1/32

0
0

0.5

x/l

. 3.5.

:

0.2
10T1/32
0
0

0.5

x/l

;
;
T1 1

3.2.

77

, . . 3.5 ,
, , , , .
3.2.
3.2.1.
,
, - . , , , (,
).
,
- . , , .
3.2.2.
z w(x,y,t)
h
. x

y
h, a
x
y (. 3.6), b

x
2w
Dw + 2 = 0 ,
(3.109)
t
. 3.6.
w(x, y, t)
,
x y t; ,
2
2
= 2 + 2;
(3.109)
x
y
, /2; D
,
Eh 3
D=
;
(3.110)
12(1 2 )

. 3.

78

E ; .
. ,
.
-, () , , . , , [22, 63]
.
( ), ( ), ( ). ,
.
, t = 0:
w( x, y ,0)
= w& 0 ( x, y ) .
w( x, y ,0) = w0 ( x, y ) ;
(3.111)
t
. (3.109)
( ).
, , , ,
. .
( )

w( x, y , t ) = mn ( x, y ) Amn sin(mn t + mn ) ,

(3.112)

m =1 n =1

mn(x,y) ; mn ; Amn ;
mn .


. , ,
. ,
,

, .

mx
ny
mn ( x, y ) = sin
sin
,
(3.113)
a
b

m2 n2 D
+ 2
.
(3.114)
2
b
a
, , [63].

mn = 2

3.2.

79

[22].
1. :
) :
a b

mn

( x, y )ij ( x, y )dxdy = 0,

(3.115)

0 0

m, n i, j;
) :

1 2mn 2ij 2mn 2ij

2
(
1
)
D

2
2
2
2
0 0 mn ij

2
x
y
y
x

2
2

mn ij

(3.116)
dxdy = 0 .
xy xy
2. ( ).
, f (x,y)
0 x a, 0 y b mn(x,y).
a b

3.2.3.

. R(x,y,t) ( )
2w
(3.117)
Dw + 2 = R( x, y , t ) .
t
,
R( x, y , t ) = Rmax f1 (t ) f 2 ( x, y ) , /2,

(3.118)

Rmax , ; f2(x,y)
, 1/2, , 1; f1(t) ,
, *.
, S1,
(. 3.7).
(3.117)
2w
Dw + 2 = Rmax f1 (t ) f 2 ( x, y ) .
(3.119)
t
*
, . 9.7,, 110 , , Rmax = 110 , f1(t) .

. 3.

80

,
f 2 ( x, y)dxdy = 1 .

(3.120)

S1

,
, f2(x,y)
1 S1 , x,y S1 ;
(3.121)
f 2 ( x, y ) =
(1/2)
,
.
0

x,y
S

1
R(x,y,t) . z w(x,y,t)
x
(3.117)
, , ,
,
y
a
.

b
S1
f2(x,y) , S

f2(x,y)
x
. , . 3.7.
.
,
. n .
. 2.2.
(3.119)
(. . 4.1.3).
3.2.4.

R( x, y, t) = Z&&0 (t)
z

x (. 3.8) (&Z& (t )
&Z& (t)

).
w(x,y,t)
0
0

. 3.8.
R( x, y, t ) = Z&&0 (t ) , (3.122)

Z&& (t ) . (3.122) (3.117):
0

Dw +

2w
= Z&&0 (t ) .
t 2

(3.123)

3.2.

81

w( x, y , t ) = mn ( x, y ) mn (t ) .

(3.124)

m =1 n =1

mn(t)
2
&&mn + mn
= mn Z&&0 (t ) ,
(3.125)
mn ,
1
mn =
mn ( x, y )dxdy ,
|| mn || (
S)
2
|| mn ||= mn
( x, y )dxdy .

(3.126)
(3.127)

(S)

(3.126) (3.127)
S.
mn (t ) = mn mn (t )
(3.128)

w( x, y , t ) = mn ( x, y ) mn mn (t ) ,

(3.129)

m =1 n =1

mn(t) mn , Z&&0 (t ) .

mn(x, y)
[. (3.113)]. , , x y:
mn = m , x n , y .
(3.130)

, .
.

. , , .

. 3.

82

3.2.5.

h - , . (. . 3.1.5),
.
, [22].
3.3.

, , ..,
.
.
3.3.1.


. 3.1.
, (2.3) (2.6),
, . 4.1. . 4.2, ,
m k
.

m k . 3.2,
: E G
; I ; F ; m ; f ,
: 1.3;
1.11; 2;
, .. F , , F.
3 . 2 .

k, /

m,

GF
f l

0.405m

3.3.

83


, ,
, [111], .
3.3.2.

K
EI b
, ,
(3.131)
2
2 l
m
l , ; E ,
/2; Ib , 4;
m
l l1
2-


l
l1
, /; K
. 2- 3 . 3.9
l l1 l2
3-
:
l
l2
l1
2- K
. 3.11;
3- , . 3.9.
2- 3-
l
() K
3-
, l l1 l2,
l1/l2 = 2 1.5 1
K 4.5
. 3.10. l l1,
K 4
2- , 3.5
l1 ;
2-
4- , 3

0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
l1/l
, K
. 3.10. K
, 2- ;
4- , , , K ,
3- , .
f1 =

. 3.

84

EI m 80 % , (3.131)
.

h1
h2

h3

h1

h2

h1 = h

h3

h3

3.3.3.

x
. 3.11.

(. 3.11)
f1 =

1b M

, ,
(3.132)
h2 M
b , ; h ,
h = h1 + h2 3 ;
(3.133)
M , h3,
h3 = h1 3 ;
(3.134)
M ; 1 , :
1 = 700; 1 = 1000.
3.3.4. 50

f1 = 46 h , ,
(3.135)
h , [111].

. , , -,
() . , [111],
, ,
.

3.3.

85

3.3.5.
, ,
,
1(x)
1 ( x) = ( x h ) .
(3.136)

. 3.12.
. 3.3.

x/h
0.8

= 2.5 2

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

= 1.5 1 0.6
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8 1 (x)

. 3.12.

3 . 3 .

2.5

2.0


,
0.6



1.0
,
,
1.5

3.3.6.
(, , ; .
. 12.3)
m(x) m.
1
l

m( x)

2
1

m =

( x )dx

2
1

(3.137)

( x )dx

1(x) ; l
. , m
, m = m.
m
h3 [. . 3.9 (3.132)].
l, m(x), m

. 3.

86

m(x) l / 3 , 1(x).
3.4.

, . , .
. , [6]

, ,
. , , , .
[6]
: 0.6; () 0.3.

: 1
/ = 1
0.6;
0.75
()
0.50
0.3,
0.25
0.2. 0.1
0


, . ,
.
n
0.01
0.1

. 3.13. F

[127, 135],

I ( ) I:
3
1
(I + I ) = 1 bh + Fbd ,
(3.138)
2
2 12

b h ; d
; F , . 3.13.

I=

3.4.

87

n, n
Ea E ,
E
n= ;
(3.139)
E
, .. .
F

K3
F=
+ n(1 K ) 2 + 1.9 ( K 0.1) 2 ,
(3.140)
3

;
K = m + m 2 + 2q ;

(3.141)

m = n 1 + 1.9 ;
(3.142)

q = n 1 + 0.19 .
(3.143)

, [61]. .

4


,
. .
,
.
4.1.

4.1.1.
- , . 2,
.

, .. .
( ).
, ,
, . 2,

. , , ,
, .

, .
:
m &y& + k y = F (t ) ,

(4.1)

y ; m, k F(t)
, . ,
[. (2.2)]. , ,
.

4.1.

89

,
,

.
.
. 5.
4.1.2.

( ) [37] , . 4.1. l EJ ; , : m k.
: F(t)
p(x)(t).
[37],
, , . ,
x t:
y ( x, t ) = y (t ) f ( x ) . (4.2) y
b
p(x)(t)
F(t)

y.
m
x

k
d T T
y(x,t) = y(t)f(x) y
(4.3)

=Q,
a
dt y& y
l
T . 4.1. ; Q
1
.

T=

1 l
1
[ y& ( x, t )]2 dx + m[ y& (l , t )]2 =
2 0
2

l
1
1
2
2
&
= [ y (t )] f 2 ( x)dx + mf 2 (l )[ y& (t )] .
2
2
0

(4.4)

90

.4.

(4.3).
, (4.3) . ,
l

d T
(4.5)
= &y& (t ) f 2 ( x )dx + mf 2 (l ) .
dt y&
0

Q. y. y (x, t)
y = y f ( x ) .
(4.6)
F(t) p(x)(t)
l

A = F (t )y(b, t ) + p( x) (t )y( x, t )dx =


0

= y F (t ) f (b) + (t ) p( x) f ( x)dx .
(4.7)
0


[y(a, t)+y(a)] y(a, t)
k
k
Ak = ( y(a, t ) + y(a))2 y 2 (a, t ) = 2y( f ) y(a, t ) + (y(a))2 . (4.8)
2
2
, . ,

Ak = ky f ( a ) y (t ) f ( a ) = y ky (t ) f 2 ( a ) .

(4.9)

y(x,t)
l

1
2
A = EJ [ y ( x, t )] dx .
(4.10)
2
0
x.
, ,
l
1
A = EJ ( y ( x, t ) + y )2 ( y ( x, t ) )2 dx
2
0

1
2
EJ 2y y ( x, t )dx = = y y (t ) EJ [ f ( x )] dx .
2
0
0
,

(4.11)

A = y F (t ) f (b) + (t ) p( x ) f ( x )dx y (t ) EJ [ f ( x )]2 dx . (4.12)


:

4.1.

91

l
2

Q = F (t ) f (b) + (t ) p( x) f ( x)dx y (t )kf (a) + EJ [ f ( x)]2 dx . (4.13)


0
0

(4.5) (4.13) (4.3),



l

l
l

&y& (t ) f 2 ( x )dx + mf 2 (l ) + y (t ) kf 2 ( a ) + EJ [ f ( x )]2 dx =


0
0

= F (t ) f (b) + (t ) p ( x ) f ( x )dx .

(4.14)

,
l

m = f 2 ( x )dx + mf 2 (l ) ,

(4.15)

k = kf 2 ( a ) + EJ [ f ( x )]2 dx ,

(4.16)

F = F (t ) f (b) + (t ) p( x ) f ( x )dx .

(4.17)


M ( x)
f ( x ) =
.
(4.18)
EJ
:
l

1
k = kf ( a ) +
[ M ( x )]2 dx .
(4.19)
EJ 0
1. - y
p(t)
x
l ,
EJ , f(x)
l
(. 4.2).
. 4.2.


l = M.

2

92

.4.

1
2x
1 cos
.
l
2
, ..
.
(4.15) :
f ( x) =

1
2x
3
3
m = f ( x )dx = 1 cos
dx = l = M .
l
4 0
8
8
0
(4.16):
l

4 l

1 2
2x
2 4 EJ
.
k = EJ [ f ( x )] dx =EJ cos 2
dx =
4 l 0
l
l3
0
, (4.17):
l

pl
p
2x

(t ) 1 cos
dx = (t ) .
2
l
2
0
0
, . 4.1, , , .
:
1) s ks, xs; r mr xr; n Fn(t)
xn;
2) xd, I0d ;
3) x;
4) (),
k(x) (, );
5) ,
, Mj(t), xj.

[37]:
l

F = p (t ) f ( x )dx =

m = ( x ) f 2 ( x )dx + mr f 2 ( x r ) + I 0 d [ f ( x d )] ,
2

(4.20)

k = k s f 2 ( x s ) + EJ ( x )[ f ( x )]2 dx + k ( x ) f 2 ( x )dx ,

(4.21)

4.1.
l

93

[ M ( x )]2
dx + k ( x ) f 2 ( x )dx ,
EJ
(
x
)
0
0

k = k s f 2 ( xs ) +

(4.22)

F = Fn (t ) f ( xn ) + (t ) p( x ) f ( x )dx + M j (t ) f ( x j ) . (4.23)
0

.
,
(4.1) [. (2.2)].
xm m, , (x) (, ),
[37]
l

= m f 2 ( xm ) + ( x ) f 2 ( x )dx .

(4.24)

y
a

w(x,y,t)
w(t)
, , b
h
x
(x,y) (. 4.3).
xi,yi
. 4.3.
mi. p(x,y)(t), Fn(t) xn,yn.

w(t),
w( x , y , t ) = w ( t ) f ( x , y ) .
(4.25)
f (x,y)
, , , .
, [37].

m =

( x, y ) f

( x, y )dxdy +

m f
i

( xi , y i ) ;

(4.26)

94

.4.

2 f 2 f 2
2 f 2 f 2 f
dxdy , (4.27)

k = D 2 + 2 2(1 ) 2
x
y
x y 2 xy

D ,
Eh 3
D=
,
(4.28)
12(1 2 )
E , .

F = Fn (t ) f ( x n , y n ) + (t ) p( x, y ) f ( x, y )dxdy .

(4.29)

(4.26)(4.29) S.
,

. , , ,
k
4 2 EJ 22.79 EJ
= 2
= 2
.

l
m l 3
2 % ( 22.37). ,
.
,
(4.1) , , y, (4.2) ,
. ,

f (x).
y ,
, f (x), .
. f(x)
,
.
[. (4.18)], 1. ,
, f (x) , ,
. , .
, .

4.1.

95

, y,
(4.1), . , y (x,t),
(4.2), . ,
f (x) .
, , , (4.18) , (4.19), , .
, , , . -, ,
,
. , f(x) , 1.
, ,
, , .
f(x)
,
, .
4.1.3.

.
, . 3.2.3 (. 3.7).
(3.118).
(3.118) (3.119), . S.
S1
R( x, y, t ) = Rmax f1 (t ) f 2 ( x, y ) , /2,

(4.30)

Rmax , ; f1(t) , ; f2(x,y) , 1/2,


, 1. , S1 f2(x,y) ,
1
, x,y S1 ;
f 2 ( x, y ) = S1
(1/2)
0,
x,y S1 .

(4.31)

96

.4.

. ,
w(x, y, t)
:
w( x, y , t ) = Rmax w ( x, y )T (t ) ,
(4.32)
w (x, y) ;
Dw ( x, y ) = f 2 ( x, y ) ;
(4.33)
T(t) , .
(4.32) ,
(3.124) . () :
L(x, y , t ) = R Dw ( x,y )T (t ) + w (x,y )T&&(t ) f (t ) f ( x, y ) , (4.34)
max

, (4.33),

L(x, y , t ) = Rmax w ( x,y )T&&(t ) + T (t ) f 2 ( x, y ) f1 (t ) f 2 ( x, y ) . (4.35)


, ,
L(x,y,z) , ..

L( x, y, t ) w ( x, y)dxdy = 0 ,

(4.36)

(S )

S.
(4.35):
T&&(t ) w 2 (x,y )dxdy + T (t ) f (x, y )w ( x, y )dxdy =

(S)

(S)

= f1 (t ) f 2 ( x, y )w ( x, y )dxdy .

(4.37)

(S)

, T(t):
T&& + 2T = 2 f1 (t ) ,
(4.38)
,
w (x,y ) f (x, y )dxdy

( )

=
2

w2 ( x,y )dxdy

(4.39)

(S )

(4.38)
. , -

4.1.

97

,
, ..
(, ). .
f2(x,y) (4.31),
1
w ( x,y )dxdy
S1 (
S1 )
2
=
.
(4.40)
w2 ( x,y )dxdy
(S )

, S1
S, ,
(x0,y0):
w ( x, y ) w ( x0 ,y0 ) .
(4.41)

w ( x0 ,y 0 )
2 =
.
w2 ( x,y )dxdy

(4.42)

(S )

, (x0, y0).
, . 0x, x1 x2 .
x

2 =

2
1
w ( x )dx
x2 x1 x1

w2 ( x,y )dxdy

(4.43)

(S )

(4.39), (4.42) (4.43)


1 .
.
, (4.38) :
T&& + 2 T& + 2T = 2 f (t ) ,
(4.44)

.
, ,
,
. -

98

.4.

, ( = 0.050.10).

. w S1 . , (4.40)
S1 1 :
1
w = w ( x, y )dxdy .
(4.45)
S1 ( S1 )
,
, (4.41), ,
w w ( x0 , y0 ) .
(4.46)
k
1 , ..
1
k =
.
(4.47)
w
m
:
k
m = 2 .
(4.48)

F (4.29)
F = f1 (t )Rmax f 2 (x, y )w ( x, y )dxdy .

(4.49)

(S )

(4.39),
, , ,
. , ,
. ,
(,
SCAD Office [35]) .
4.1.4.

4.1.

99

( ,
..), . .
.
1. ,
.
, , . 4.1.2. , .
, ,
, .
, . 4.1.3,
- .
. ,
, ,
(,
,
).
(,
, ..)
(. . 16.3)
. .
2. ,

. ,
. . 3.1.5 ,
. ,

100

.4.

. , . 3.5,
.
, ( 1 ) . , .
3. , . ( , , ),
.
, .
:
, , .
4 . 1 .
x1

x2 =
= x1+x

xn-1 =
= x n-2+x

xn =
= x n-1+ x

f(x1,y1)

f(x2,y1)

f(xn-1,y1)

f(xn,y1)

x
1(y1)

f(x1,y2)

f(x2,y2)

f(xn-1,y2)

f(xn,y2)

2(y2)

f(x1, yk-1)

f(x2, yk-1)

f(xn-1, yk-1)

f(xn, yk-1)

k(yk-1)

f(x1,yk)

F(x2, yk)

f(xn-1, yk)

f(xn, yk)

k(yk)

y1
y2 =
= y1 + y

yk-1 =
=yk-2 + y
Yk =
= yk-1 + y

, ,
I=

yk xn

f ( x, y)dxdy .

y1 x1

x, y f (x,y). . 4.1 nk (
). i (yi), f (x,yi) x y = yi.

4.1.

101

. , ,
1(y1) = [f (x1,y1) + 2f (x2,y1) + + 2f (xn-1,y1) + f (xn,y1)]x/2;
2(y2) = [f (x1,y2) + 2f (x2,y2) + + 2f (xn-1,y2) + f (xn,y2)]x/2;
.
k(yk) = [f (x1,yk) + 2f (x2,yk) + + 2f (xn-1,yk) + f (xn,yk)]x/2.
, y
, ..
:
I = [1(y1) + 22(y2) + + 2k1( yk1) + k(y k)]y/2.
, , .. x,
y.
4.1.5.

. 4.2 m, k
F .
.

- (. . 3.1.6).
4 . 2 .

f (x),
m, k, F

F(t)

f(x)
m
0.5l

y
l

y
f(x) m
0.5l

F(t)
y
l

x
l
x3
3 l 4 l 3 0 x 2
f ( x) =
3
31 x 41 x l x l
2
l l
EJ
m = 0.486l ; k = 48 3 ; F = F(t)
l

z2
l
z3
12

16
0 z
2
3
l
l
2
f ( x) =
2
3
z
z

121 161 l z l
l
2
l
EJ
m = 0.371l ; k = 192 3 ; F =F(t)
l

102

.4.
. 4.2

f(x),
m, k, F

F(t)
m
0.5l

f(x)

F(t)
m

x
x3
l
3 l 5 l 3 0 x 2
f ( x) =
3
3
3 x 5 x + 2 2 x 1 l z l
l
l3
2
l

EJ
m =0.445l; k = 109.71 3 ; F =F(t)
l
1
x x3
f ( x ) = 2 3 + 3
2
l l
EJ
m =0.236l; k = 3 3 ;
x
l
F =F(t)

f(x)

y
y p(t)

F
x

f(x) m
0.5l

y p(t)

f(x) m
0.5l
y p(t)

f ( x ) = 16

x
y

f(x)

p(t)
x

f(x)
l

x2
x
1
2
l
l

m = 0.406l; k = 204.8
F = 0.533pl(t)

l
F

m
0.5l

16 x
x3 x4
2 3 + 4
5 l
l
l
EJ
m = 0.504l; k = 49.15 3 ;
l
F = 0.64pl(t)
f ( x) =

EJ
;
l3

x
x3
x4
f ( x ) = 4 3 3 + 2 4
l
l
l
EJ
m = 0.483l; k = 115.2 3 ;
l
F = 0.6pl(t)
1
x x4
f ( x ) = 3 4 + 4
3
l l
EJ
m =0.257l; k = 3.2 3 ; F = 0.4pl(t)
l

4.1.

103

. 4.2

f(x),
m, k, F
x y
f ( x, y ) = sin sin
a
b

b/2

F
a/2


1 1 D ,
f = 2 + 2
2 a
b

b
b/2
a

, ,
f =

1.134
ab

2x
2y
1
1 cos

1 cos
a
b
4
9
m =
ab
64

0.723 4 D a 4 + b 4
2 2 + 0.606
k =
ab
a
b

F ( ):
F(t), , F = F(t);
p(t),

, F = 0.25abp(t)
f ( x, y ) =

F
a/2

4
m = 0.25ab; k = Dab 12 + 12
b
4 a
F (
):
F(t),
, F = F(t);
p(t), ,
F = 0.405abp(t);

D a 4 + b4

+ 0.606
a 2b 2

: l
; , /; EJ ; F , ; q , /.
, f(x), .

, ,
1. y(x) = yf(x),
.
, y .

104

. 4.

: D , [. (4.28)]; , /2.
w .
f(x,y) . m F (4.26) (4.29),
k f ,
[63, 84]. F .
w.

, w.
4.2.

4.2.1.
,

. (4.1) , Rmax, T(t). ,

k, T(t).
.
. 4.4 .
. 4.3 [78].
, . 4.4.
,
.
, , [26,
61, 68, 78, 135]. . 8 .
4.2.2.
, . 4.2.1, , . 4.4. . 4.4; f (t)
( ), (t)
; .
0 t (.. ) (t) [78],

4.2.

105

. t (.. ) , .

& ( ) + ( )
sin D (t ) , (4.50)
D

; D .

(t ) = e t ( ) cos D (t ) +
k
1.5

0.5
3
0.5

1.5

2.5

k
1.5
4

0.5
6
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

1.5

p/2
0 1

1
0.5

1/ = 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0


0.5

1.5

2.5

. 4.4.

~ = (2 ) = T , ;
T

106

. 4.
4.3.

2.

~
0 ~ 0.5
0.5 ~
0 ~ 0.795

0.795 ~
0 ~ 0.375

0.375 ~
0 ~ 0.5

0.5 ~ 1.5

1.5 ~

0 ~ 0.5
0.5 ~ 2

2 ~

2 sin ~
2

( 2~ sin 2~ ) 2 + (1 cos 2~ ) 2 ( 2~ ) ;
k = 1 + 1 ( 2~ )

(1 cos 2~ ) 2 + ( 2~ sin 2~ ) 2 ( 2~ ) ;
2[1 (arctg 2~ ) ( 2~ )]
( 4~ cos ~ ) (1 4~ ) ;
2
2~
4~
2~ sin ~ ;
sin

~
~
2 + 1
1 4 2 + 1
~
~
2
4
2
2~ sin ~
sin
1 4~ 2~ 1
2 1
2(1 cos ~ ) (~ ) ;
[2~ + 2 sin( ~ ) sin ] (~ ) ;
1 + 2 (~ ) ,

2 cos( ~ ) = 1 + cos ;
sin = ~ sin( ~ ) ; ~ = 1 = 1.703
0 ~ 0.5
(sin ~ ) (1 ~ ) ;
~
0.5 2
1 cos ~ 2 [1 cos( ~ )] (1 ~ 2 ) ;
~2 ~2
2 ~

( 1)

4 . 4 .


f(t)
1

(t)
t 0 t
(4.50),
1 cos t
( ) = 1 cos ;

& ( ) = sin .
2

t sin t

( ) = 1 (sin ) ( ) ;
& ( ) = (1 cos ) .

4.2.

107

. 4.4


f(t)
3
t
1

sin

(t)
t 0 t
(4.50),
( ) = (sin ) cos ;
t sin t
1 +
cos t
1 cos

& ( ) = +
+ sin .

2 ( ) 2
t

sin t sin

( ) = [ ( 2 ( ) 2 )]
( sin sin( 2) ) ;
& ( ) = [ 2 ( 2 ( ) 2 )]
(cos ( 2) cos( 2) ).

5 6 . 4.4 (t) :

2t
0 t 2 ;
5: f (t ) =
2t

2 t
2

0 t 2 2( t sin t );


t
( t ) + 2 sin t sin t ;


2
2

(4.50),
(t ) = t


4
( ) =
,
1 cos
sin

2
2

& ( ) = cos
1 cos
.

2
2

1
2t
6: f (t ) = 1 cos
;

2

2 t

4 2 (1 cos t ) ( ) 2 1 cos

0 t
2[4 2 ( ) 2 ]

t
(4.50),
(t ) =
2 2

(1 cos ),
( ) = 2

4 ( ) 2

2 2

sin
& ( ) = 2
4 ( ) 2

(4.51)

(4.52)

(4.53)

(4.54)

108

. 4.

4.2.3.

( )
,
. 4.1. .
,
.
.
2.
Lear Jet. . 8. , = 54 1/ (8.6 ),
= 0.07. Rmax = 12 (. . 8.14,); (. 8.14,) k = 1.25. ,
F = k Rmax = 12 1.25 = 15 .
4.2.4.
n

. 4.1.4. ,
,
.
. 2, . 3.
.
. 2,
j-
, ..
j (j- ). R(t)
Rmax,
n

j =1

j =1

{x (t )} = {x j (t )} = { j }q j (t ) ,

(4.55)

{j(t)} j- ; {j} j-
; qj(t) ( ), (2.75).
k( i),
,

4.2.

109

qi,max, R(t)
k( i)Rmax. (2.75)
, .
{ }T {J }
qi ,max = 2i
k (i ) Rmax .
(4.56)
i || i ||2
(4.55) i- :
{ }T {J }
{xi ,max } = {i } 2i
k ( i ) Rmax .
(4.57)
i || i ||2
, R ,
[ K ]{x} = {J }R .
(4.58)
:
n

j =1

j =1

{x} = {x j } = ai { j } .

(4.59)

ai, (4.58)
i- :
n

{i }T [ K ] ai { j } = {i }T {J }R .

(4.60)

j =1

(2.37) ,
{ }T {J }
ai = 2i
R.
(4.61)
i || i ||2
(4.61) (4.59), , (4.57).
(4.58) k( i)
q i,max R(t). . q&&i , max . , k ( i ) .

, ,
. 4.3. [12] ,

k (i ) = i2 k (i ) .
(4.57),

(4.62)

110

.4.

{i }T {J }
k (i ) Rmax .
(4.63)
|| i ||2

{ }T {J }
{&x&i ,max } = {i } i 2 k ( i ) Rmax .
(4.64)
|| i ||
(4.64) [M],
, i- ,
{ }T {J }
{Fi , } = [ M ]{&x&i ,max } = [ M ]{i } i 2 k ( i ) Rmax .
(4.65)
|| i ||
{xi} {Fi,}
(, , , ).
.
, ,
, . , (, ),
.

, . 4.3.
q&&i ,max =

4.3.

4.3.1.


(. . 2.4). ,
, .
( , , ), ,
(, , ).

- () ( Response Spectrum Method).
[12], . .

4.3. 111

( )
(), () ().
)
,
, Sa ( f, )
1
.
, 2 > 1
, , Amax
. 0
f
f

)
() ( Sd ( f, )
response spectra). ,
, , .
f
0
[12], . 4.5. :
( ;
, ) . 17.

Sa(f,). . 4.5,. f = 0
. , . , . .
, f, , Amax. ,
, ..
, .
f, , .. , , , . , , Amax Zero Period Acceleration (ZPA), .. . AZPA, fZPA.

112

.4.

, , , f = 0 ,
f f Amax.

Sd ( f, ). . 4.5,:
f = 0 ( ), .
Sa ( f, ), Sv( f, )
Sd( f, ) [12]:
S a ( f , ) = 2fS v ( f , ) = ( 2f ) 2 S d ( f , ) ,
(4.66)
f , .
Sa( f, )
, ,
, f , Amax. , Amax
.
Sd( f, ) Sv( f, ) .
Sa( f, ) , .
4.3.2. -
, , .
(. . 2 3),
.
:
1. .
2. (.. )
(, , , .), .
3. () .
4. , ,
, , .

4.3. 113

, ,
.
.
(1
) . 2 3. .
4.3.3.
, Sa(f, ) f . /2,
, F

m (),
F = mS a ( f , ) , .
(4.67)
m
k
x


. j- . 4.6.
,
(. . 2),
-
.
, ,
, .
.
. 2. (2.115). :
n

{x (t )} = { j } j (t ) ,

(4.68)

j =1

{j} j- ,
{ j } = { j } j ,

(4.69)

{j} j- ; j(t) j-
fj j; j
j- , ,
,
{ j }T [ M ]{J }
j =
,
(4.70)
{ j }T [ M ]{ j }
[M] ; {J} ,
.

114

.4.

(4.68) j-
. Sd(f, )
. j-
{x j ,max } = { j }S d ( f j , j ) .
(4.71)
(4.68) ,

n

{&x&(t )} = { j }&& j (t ) ,

(4.72)

j =1

j- .
, ,
j- :
{&x& j ,max } = { j }S a ( f j , j ) ,
(4.73)
y

1-
F1,3

m3
m2
m1

2-

3-

F2,3

F1,2
F1,1

F3,3
F2,2 F3,2
F2,1

F3,1
x

. 4.7. 3

{F } = [ M ]{&x&(t )} = [ M ]{ j }&& j (t ) ,

(4.74)

j =1

j- (.. j- ):
{F , j } = [ M ]{ j }S a ( f j , j ) .
(4.75)

. (2.26) :
1
[ M ]{ j } =
[ K ]{ j } .
(4.76)
( 2f i ) 2
(4.66)
{F , j } = [ K ]{ j }S d ( f j , j ) .
(4.77)
, (4.71).
. 4.7 .

4.3. 115

Sa(fj,j), ()
.
( ).
( ). j-
{Rj} (, , ). Rjk , j- k- .
, (, .) ,
.. .
.
. .
(3.94) :

y ( x, t ) = n ( x ) n n (t ) ,

(4.78)

n =1

n(x) n- ; n(t) n- fn n; n n- ,
l
1
n =
n ( x )dx ;
(4.79)
|| n ||2 0
||n||2 ,
l

|| n ||= n2 ( x )dx .

(4.80)

. 3.1.
n-
n ( x ) = n ( x ) n .
(4.81)

y ( x, t ) = n ( x ) n (t ) .
n =1

(4.82)

(4.82) . n-
:
yn ( x ) = n ( x ) S d ( f n , n ) .
(4.83)

116

.4.

.
M n ( x ) = EIy n ( x ) = EIn( x ) S d ( f n , n ) ,
(4.84)

Qn ( x ) = EIy n( x ) = EIn( x ) S d ( f n , n ) ,
(4.85)

n( x ) = n( x )n ; n( x ) = n( x )n .
(4.86)
n(x ) n(x ) . 3.1.
. , . 3.2.4

w( x, y , t ) = mn ( x, y ) mn mn (t ) .

(4.87)

m =1 n =1

,
wmn ( x, y ) = mn ( x, y ) mn S d ( f mn , mn ) .

(4.88)

.
4.3.4. ()
,
. () , . ,

, .
.
k- Rk,
j- Rjk.
,
, j-, , .. j- . Rk = Rjk.
.

.
:
s

Rk = | R jk | ,
j =1

(4.89)

4.3. 117

s ,
n ( ).
, . ,

. (4.89)
Rk.
[12] .
():
Rk =

R
j =1

2
jk

(4.90)

Square-Root-ofthe-Sum-of-the-Squares Method (SRSS). ,



10 % (, ).
,
10 % ( ), . 10 %,
Ten Percent Method.
Rk =

R 2jk + 2 | Rlk Rrk | ,


j =1

(4.91)

l =1 r =1

, , , f.
CQC ( Complete Quadratic Combination). , ,
Rk =


j =1 k =1

jk

R j Rk ,

(4.92)

fj
8 2 (1 + r ) r 3 2
;
1.
r=
2 2
2
2
(1 r ) + 4 r (1 + r )
fk
jk = kj .
NRL [128] ( NRL US Naval Research Laboratory):

jk =

118

.4.

Rk = Rkm +

R
j =1
j m

2
jk

(4.93)

Rkm k- s , m- ; Rjk
sm .
.
-, .
, .

, .
-,
( , ). , , .
, ,
, . , , .
4.3.5.

s, , n,
.
.
(, .), . , :
, , . , , . 2 .
1. .
, ,
.
, (4.83) s . -

4.3. 119

, - ,
. 4.3.4. , , : . . . , , . 3.1,
20 ,
.
, , -
.
s , ( )

y max
( x) =

[ ( x )S
j

j =1

( f j )] 2 .

(4.94)


(.. , ), ,
.

(3.85), (4.81)

( x ) = 1 .
j =1

(4.95)

,
s ( ):

j =1

j =1

j =1

~( x ) = j ( x ) j ( x ) = 1 j ( x ) .

(4.96)

f fs, ..
(4.94),
fr Sd ( fr ), , ,
~
y max ( x ) ~( x ) S d ( f r ) .
(4.97)
, ( +)
+
ymax
( x) =

[ ( x)S ( f )]
j

n=1

+ [~( x)Sd ( f r )] 2 .

(4.98)

120

.4.

+
( x ) y max ( x ) y max
( x) .
y max
(4.99)
(4.66)
Sa( fj ):

( x) =
y max

[ ( x )S

( 2 ) 2

j =1

[ ( x )S
s

+
( x) =
y max

( f j ) f j2 ] 2 ,

( f j ) f j2

(4.100)

] + [~( x)S ( f )
2

f r2

. (4.101)
( 2 )
j =1
+
y max
( x ) , ,
f > fs
S d ( f ) S a ,max ( 2f ) 2 ,
(4.102)
2

Sa,max . fr = fs+1, .. ,
~
y max ( x ) ~( x ) S a ,max ( 2f s +1 ) 2 ,
(4.103)

+
( x) =
y max

1
( 2 ) 2

[ ( x )S
j =1

( f j ) f j2 ] 2 + [~( x ) S a ,max f s2+1 ] 2 . (4.104)

+
max

y ( x) , Sa,max
.
(, ..).

,
.
.
[. (2.82)]
n

j =1

j =1

{x(t )} = {x j (t )} = { j } j (t ) ,

(4.105)

{ j} j- , (2.81); j( t )
j- ; n .
j-
Sd ( f i ):

4.3. 121

{x j } = { j }S d ( f j ) .

(4.106)

, . - . , .
s
( n). ,
( ,
). k-
s

xk =

j =1

jk

S d ( f j )] 2 .

(4.107)

{j} (2.114), :
n

{ j } = {J } ;

(4.108)

j =1

{J} (2.107). {~}


{ j}, (s +1)-:
s

{~} =

{ } = {J } { } .
j

j = s +1

j =1

(4.109)

f fs, ..
(4.107),
fr Sd(fr), , - ,
{~
x } {~}S d ( f r ) ,
(4.110)
k-
~
xk ~k S d ( f r ) ,
(4.111)
~k k- {~} .

, ( +)
xk+ =

[ jk Sd ( f j )] 2 + ~xk2 =
j =1

[
j =1

jk

S d ( f i )] 2 + [~k S d ( f r )] 2 . (4.112)

(4.66) xk xk+ Sd(fj), Sa(fj):


xk =

( 2 )

[
s

1
2

j =1

jk

S a ( f j ) f j2

(4.113)

122

.4.

xk+ =

[
s

S a ( f j ) f j2

] + [~ S
2

( f r ) f r2

.
(4.114)
( 2 )
j =1
, (4.103),
~
xk ~k Sa ,max ( 2f s+1 ) 2 ,
(4.115)
2

jk

Sa,max
f fs.
xk+ =

[
s 1

S a ( f j ) f j2

] + [~ S
2

f s2+1

.
(4.116)
( 2 )
j =1
Sa,max
, xk+ .
2. .
.
(4.84). :
M j ( x ) = EI j( x ) S d ( f j ) = EI j( x ) j S d ( f j ) .
(4.117)
2

jk

a ,max

j(x ) j . 3.1,
(4.108), (4.106)
Sd( fj ) Sa( f j ),
1 2[( 1) j 1] 2
jx
.
(4.118)
l S a ( f j ) sin
M j ( x) = 3
3

j
l
, .

M ( x) =

M
j =1

2
j

( x) .

(4.119)

. ,
, f fs
fr.
~
M ( x ) = EI~( x ) S d ( f j ) =
s
s

S (f )
= EI j( x ) j S d ( f r ) = M j ( x ) d r .
Sd ( f j )
j =1
j =1

M + ( x) =

M
j =1

2
j

~
( x ) +M 2 ( x ) .

(4.120)

(4.121)

4.3. 123


.
Q j ( x ) = EIy j( x ) = j( x ) j S d ( f j ) .
(4.122)
(4.118),
jx
1 2[1 ( 1) j ]
Q j ( x) = 2
lS a ( f j ) cos
.
j
2
l

s

Q ( x) =

j =1

(4.123)

2
j

( x) ,

(4.124)

2
j

~
( x ) +Q 2 ( x ) ,

(4.125)

Q + ( x) =

j =1

s
S (f )
~
(4.126)
Q( x) = Q j ( x) d r .
Sd ( f j )
j =1

, n . N , , .
j- {xj,max} (4.71). , ,
[T]:
{N j } = [T ]{x j ,max } = [T ]{ j }S d ( f j , j ) .
(4.127)

k- Njk. Nk
, , .
n , s ,
N k =

N
j =1

2
jk

(4.128)


{~} , (4.109).
s

~
{N } = [T ]{~}S d ( f r ) = [T ] {J } { j } S d ( f r ) ,
(4.129)
j =1

124

.4.

Sd ( f r )
f fs, fr.

s . (4.129) [T]:
s

~
{N } = [T ]{J } [T ] { j } S d ( f r ) =
j =1

1
{N j } S d ( f r ) .
(4.130)
= [T ]{J }
j =1 S d ( f i )

k-
,
N k+ =

N
j =1

2
jk

~
+ N k2 .

(4.131)

, , , (4.130)
S
S d ( f r ) = a ,max 2 ,
(4.132)
( 2f s +1 )
Sa,max , ,
3. .
,
, ,
.

.

. j-

l
1
(4.133)
j =
M 2j ( x )dx ,
2 EI 0
Mj(x) , (4.118). ,
2 l 5 [( 1) j 1]2 2
(4.134)
j = 6
Sa ( f j ) .
EI
j6
j 0.
, , . :

4.3. 125
4
4 2 l 5 S a ( f 2 j 1 )
.
(4.135)

6 EI j =1 ( 2 j 1)12
s ,

4 2l 5
6 EI

S a2 ( f 2 j 1 )

(2 j 1)

12

j =1

(4.136)

( )
~ 4 2l 5
= 6
EI

S a4 ( f 2 j 1 )

(2 j 1)

12

j = s +1

(4.137)

, , f2j1 > fs
Sa(f2j1) Sa,max.
2 5 2
~ 4 l S a ,max
=
6 EI

(2 j 1)

j = s +1

(4.138)

[16]:

6 ( 2 6 1)
1
1
<
=
B3 = 1.001145 ,

6
6
2 6!
j = s +1 ( 2 j 1)
j =1 ( 2 j 1)

(4.139)

B3 = 1/42 . ,
(4.138) , ..
2 5 2
~ 4 l S a ,max
.
(4.140)
=
6 EI
, , Sa(f2j1)
, f > fs.
~
,
4

4 2 l 5 s S a ( f 2 j 1 )
(4.141)
+ S a4,max .

6
12
EI j =1 ( 2 j 1)

n . j- ( )
1
1
2
j = {x j }T [ K ]{x j } = S d ( f j ) { j }T [ K ]{ j } ,
(4.142)
2
2
+ =

126

.4.

[K] . (4.66) (2.36)(2.37)


:
2

2
1 Sa ( f j )
1 Sa ( f j )
T
2
j =
{ j } ( 2f j ) [ M ]{ j } =
{ j }T [ M ]{ j } . (4.143)
2
2
2 ( 2f j )
2 ( 2 f j )

j- *
j = { j }T [ M ]{ j } .

(4.69) ,
j = j2 m j = { j }T [ M ]{J } .

(4.144)
(4.145)

(4.144)
2
1 Sa ( f j )
j =
(4.146)
j .
2 ( 2f j ) 2

s < n .
. ,
:
s

j =1

2
j

(4.147)

,
n . (2.36) (4.108),
n

{ j }T [ M ]{ j } = { j }T [ M ]{ j } = { j }T [ M ]{J } .

(4.148)

i =1

[ M ]{J } .

j =1
j =1

j =1
(4.108):
n

={ } [ M ]{ } = { }
j

{ }
j =1

= {J}T .

(4.149)

(4.150)

()
j- , .. mj = { j}T[M]{ j} = || j ||2,
[. (2.73) (2.110)].

4.3. 127
n

j =1

= {J }T [ M ]{J } = M c ,

(4.151)

M .
, n
. ,
(s+1)- n-, ,
n
s
~
M = j = Mc j .
(4.152)
j = s +1

j =1


2
~ 1 Sa ,max ~
=
M.
(4.153)
2 ( 2f s+1 ) 2
~
,

+ =

j =1

2
j

~
+ 2 .

(4.154)

. ,
,
~
M Mc .
(4.155)
, ..
.
4.
.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
, , , , . , , , . .
5. {j}.

128

.4.

{j}, .. , (2.79).
,
. {j}
,
(4.108). {xj} Sd ( f j )
Sa( f j ). {j} :
( 2f j ) 2
1
{ j } =
{x j } =
{x j } .
(4.156)
Sd ( f j )
Sa ( f j )
6. .
(4.108) .. [46] ( ).
, {J} 1 ( ,
).
( ) f, (. . 4.3.1).
, ,
.. , (
[102] rigid body response, .. ).
[12].
,
.
, ,
, , .
4.3.6.

k- ,

F N k(1) , K , N k( p ) 0
(4.157)

( ). , (4.157) .
,
(4.157) , (.. ):
Fi = F ( N ik(1) , K , N ik( p ) ) ,
(4.158)
Fi (4.89)(4.94).

4.4. 129

4.4.


,
, (, , ) .
-
, .
. . 4.2 4.3.
.
,
(, , ).
,
. , . 16.3
. ,
, .

, .
, , , .
,

, .

5


(
, ) , . [29, 50].
.
5.1.

, - , .
, , . .

. ,

, .
,
, , .
,
(., ,
[66]). , - . , . , , ,
; ,
, , . ,
.
.

. ,
. (-

5.2.

131

, ) ,
.
,
. , .
, - , . [29],
,
(
). ,
, .
- ,
. , , , .
5.2.
, [39, 57, 70].
. ,
( ), .
, ,
.
. , , .

, ,
.

-

132

. 5.

. , , (), .. .
. -, .. , . ,
, .
.
5.3.
5.3.1.
. . 5.1 .
l, (/).
)
x = s1, , sk

y
Pk(t)
sk
P
(t),
,
P
(t),

(x)p(t)

1
k
P1(t)
s1
,
x (x)p(t). 0
,

y

y
p(t) (/),
(x) .
a
y
l

)
.

y F(x)
F(x)
,
x
- (
x = a)
y
y
M,
a
l

. 5.1.
, :
.
;

5.3.

133

I, . 1. (
), ,
M, , , [29]. , .
, , M,
,
(.
5.1,). , ,
,
M. y. ,
.
. y y (. 5.1,). , y, , y
.

:
n

A
i =1

= 0,

(5.1)

Ai
y (. 5.1).
P1(t), ,
Pk(t), (x)p(t) M, .
P1(t), , Pk(t)
k

A
i =1

1
1
( l si ) Pi ( t ) .
= y Pi ( t ) si +

l a a si l

a 0 si a

(5.2)

, , .. 0 si a, , .. a < si l.

l
1 a

1
(5.3)
A ( x ) p ( t ) = p(t ) x ( x )dx +
(l x ) ( x )dx y .

l a a
a 0

, , ..
(x) = 1, :

. 5.

134

l
2

A ( x ) p ( t ) = p(t ) y .

(5.4)


y
l
y
AM = M + =
M y .
(5.5)
a (l a )
a l a

(. 5.1,). x

x
lx
,
(5.6)
F ( x ) = &y& ;
F ( x ) = &y&
a
l a

x
lx
y ( x ) = y ,
y ( x ) = y
.
(5.7)
a
l a
,
a

AF = y ( x ) F ( x )dx + y ( x ) F ( x )dx =

a
0

l
&y& a 2

&y&
l
&y& .
= y 2 x dx +
(l x ) 2 dx = y
2
(l a ) a
3
a 0

(5.3)(5.8) (5.1),
l
&y& = f (t ) ,
3
f (t ) =

M l
a (l a )

(5.8)

(5.9)

1
1
(l si ) Pi (t ) +
Pi (t )si + l a a
a 0si a
< si l

l
1 a

1
(l x ) ( x )dx .
(5.10)
+ p(t ) x ( x )dx +

l a a
a 0

(x) = 1
M l
l
1
1
f (t ) =
+ Pi (t ) si +
Pi (t )(l si ) + p(t ) . (5.11)

a (l a ) a 0si a
l a a< si l
2

(5.9):
y (0) = y0 = 0 ;
y& (0) = y& 0 ,

(5.12)

t = 0 . y0 = 0 , . y& 0 ,

5.3.

135

, ..
t = 0.
, y(x,t) ( . 3.2.2).
l

T0 = y& ( x,0)dx .

(5.13)

, , ,
. 4.1.2.
.
y& 0 ,
x
lx
.
(5.14)
v( x ) = y& 0 ;
v( x ) = y& 0
a
l a

2
y& 0

l
2
l 2
y& 0
(l x ) 2 dx =
(5.15)
T = 2 x dx +
y& 0 .
2
(l a ) a
2 a 0
6

6T0
.
(5.16)
y& 0 =
l
(5.9)
a

y& (t ) = y& 0 +

3
f ( )d ;
l 0

(5.17)

y (t ) = y0 + y& ( )d .

(5.18)

y,max tmax, , ..
y& (tmax ) = 0 .
(5.19)

[29] . 1:
y + y,max
3,
(5.20)
y
y .

. 5.

136

5.3.2.

y

sk
s1

Pk(t)

(x)p(t)

P1(t)

x
0

l
. 5.2.

sk
P1(t)

y
M

s1

Pk(t)

(x)p(t)
x

0
l
. 5.3.

sk
P1(t)

s1

Pk(t)

(x)p(t)

R(t)

x
0

M
R(t)

ya(t)

l
. 5.4.

y
M

sk
P1(t)

s1

Pk(t)

(x)p(t)
x

M M
a

l
. 5.5.
,


.

. 5.2.
, .

. ,

, ,
.
5.35.5.
.
1. , (. 5.3).

M.
,

,
.

, M.

137

5.3.

2. ,
(. 5.4). ,

,
. M
R(t).

l a
M
1
(l a )3
&y&a (t ) . (5.21)

+
R(t ) = +
(
l
s
)
P
(
t
)
p
(
t
)
i i
( )d
l a

l a a<si l

((x) = 1)

M
(l a ) 2 (l a )3
1
R(t ) =

l a

(l si ) Pi (t ) + p(t )
l a a< si l

&y&a (t ) . (5.22)

, .

, , , ,
R(t).
, M
, .
3.2.2,
. (5.21)
(5.22), .. , , R(t) ,
.
3. , (. 5.5). , . 5.1, .

. , y.
(5.9),
l + M
(l a ) 1
M
1
f (t ) =
+ Pi (t ) si +
(l si ) Pi (t ) +
a (l a )
a 0 si a
l a a< si l
l

1 a
1
(l x ) ( x )dx .
+ p(t ) x ( x )dx +

la a

a 0

l + M
(l a ) 1
M
f (t ) =
+ Pi (t ) si +
a (l a )
a 0si a

(5.23)

. 5.

138

+
y

1
l
(l si ) Pi (t ) + p(t ) .

l a a<si l
2

0
a

l
. 5.6.

(5.24)

. (5.12), y& 0 , . 5.3.1.


.
(. 5.6)

y
y
;
= .
(5.25)
a
l a
, ,
:
yl
1 = + =
.
(5.26)
a (l a )
1
, [29] ( . 1).
5.3.3.
, (. 5.7).
.
y
1. Pk(t)
sk


s1
P1(t)
(x)p(t)
(. 5.8). .
M
x 0
l
. 5.2,
. 5.7.
.
y
sk
Pk(t)
2. s1
(x)p(t) M
P1(t)

(. 5.9). x 0
, l
, . 5.8.
.
M

139

5.3.

3.
(. 5.10),
.

M
.
M

. 5.3
, ,
.
4.
(.
5.11). ,
M
.
M
. 5.4,

.
R(t) ,
,

R (t ) =

y
s1

sk
P1(t)

Pk(t)

(x)p(t)
x

. 5.9.

sk
s1

Pk(t)

(x)p(t) M

P1(t)

x
l

. 5.10.
y
s1
0

sk
P1(t)

Pk(t)
R(t)

(x)p(t)

M
ya(t)
R(t)
a
l
. 5.11.

1
M
+
(l si ) Pi (t ) M
l a a<si l

l a

+ p (t ) ( )d

(l a ) 3

&y&a (t ) .
3

(5.27)

R(t ) =

1
M
+
(l si ) Pi (t ) M
l a a<si l

(l a ) 2 (l a ) 3
&y&a (t ) .
(5.28)

2
3
. 5.4, ,
(5.27) (5.28), .. .
+ p (t )

. 5.

140

5.

M
(. 5.12).
0
x ,

M
M
y
. 5.2 M
M

a
l
.
. 5.12.

.
,
y.
(5.9),
l + ( M
+ M
)(l a ) 1
M
1
f (t ) =
+ Pi (t ) si +
(l si ) Pi (t ) +
a (l a )
a 0 si a
l a a< si l
y

s1

sk
P1(t)

Pk(t)

(x)p(t) M

l
1 a

1
+ p (t ) x ( x )dx +
(l x ) ( x )dx .
(5.29)

la a
a 0


l + ( M
+ M
)(l a )
M
f (t ) =
+
a (l a )
1
1
l
(l si ) Pi (t ) + p(t )
+ Pi (t ) si +
(5.30)

2
a 0 si a
l a a<si l
(5.12),
, .
.
,
(. 5.13), y
a

(5.25).

x
y
0
. , 1

1
,
l
. 5.13.
[29] . 1.

5.3.4.

,
- [57]. -

141

5.3.

,
(5.31)
M = W ,
W .
,
, . ,
,
:
M = 2 S max ,
(5.32)
Smax .
2Smax W.
M = W .
(5.33)
W
. 5.1.
M W
=
(5.34)
M
W
.
5 . 1 . W
[57]

y
h
x

bh 2
=
W =
4
= 1.5Wx

d3
=
6
= 1.7Wx

W =

y
h
x
b

W =

bh 2
(2 2 )
4
2.36Wx

y
x

W = 2S x =
= (1.141.18)Wx

.5.

142

. 5.1

b2
h
x

W =

2
2
3 3
h2
b1 + b2 (b12 + b22 ) b1 + b2
3(b2 b1 ) 2
2

W =

d 3 d 3 1.7d ( d 3 d 3 )
=
Wx
6
( d 4 d 4 )

b1

d
x

,
, ,
M.
, ..
, .
5.4.
5.4.1.


, . , , ,
. , (/).
, , ,
.
,
, , , [79].
,
.
-,
, , .. .

5.4.

143


.
(), , , , ,
.
, . ,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,

, . , ,

.
.
ab, ab;
, /2. , -

,
. mx, my,, /,
1 .
.
: . ,
.
, , [79].
5.4.2.

.
p(t) (
). , .

. 5.14 [79]. ,

.5.

144

. mx, my, (/).


, ,
.
m
a
= y , ;
= 1.
(5.35)
m x ,
b

tg =

(3 + )
2

(5.36)

= 1.
( = 1) = 450 (..
), () 300.
a

y
B

11
1

C
z

E
2

33
my ,

2x

mx ,

mx,

mx

my

A
22

2y

D x

. 5.14.
[81]

.
,
, . z
.
, (5.1). z , .
BCFE,
. 5.15. , , &z& .

145

5.4.

2
&&( ) = &z& .
w
(5.37)
b
, . d.

2
S ( ) = a
d .
(5.38)
tg

b/2

w()
d

&z&

z z

mx, p(t)

. 5.15. ,
BCFE

, d ,
2
2
&&( )S ( ) = &z& a
(5.39)
f ( ) = w
d .
b
tg

2
z = z .
(5.40)
b
, , , z
b2
b
2
2
2
b a
= z &z& a
A
d = z &z&
. (5.41)
b
b
tg

2
3
4
tg

0
ABE:
b 2
= z &z&
.
(5.42)
A
8tg

+ A
) =
A = 2(A
b a
b
b 2
ab
= z 2 &z&
.
(5.43)
+ &z&
= z &z&

2
3
4
tg
8
tg
3


p(t) BCFE
b2

ba

,
Ap = z p(t ) a
d = z p(t )
tg
2 2 3tg
b

ABE
b2
Ap = z p (t )
.
6 tg
0

(5.44)

(5.45)

146

.5.

, p(t)
ab
Ap = 2(Ap + Ap ) = z p(t ) .
(5.46)
2
, .

b
b
EF = a
; AE =
.
(5.47)
tg
2 sin
mx, my, ,
( x y). , (1.10). ,
[29], , . .
, .
EF x,
(. 5.14, 11):
4
1 = z
(5.48)
b
(, tg1 1, z ).
a
1
(5.49)
Am1 = 1 EF = z 4mx ,
.
b
tg

.

mx , = m x , cos ; my , = m y , sin .
(5.50)
, , x y.
x (. 5.14, 22) BCFE , .. ,

2
2 x = 1 = z .
(5.51)
2
b
y (. 5.14, 33)
ABE

5.4.

147

2
= z tg .
(5.52)
c
b

1
+ m y , tg . (5.53)
Am 2 = ( 2 x mx , + 2 y my , ) AE = z mx ,
tg

1
1
Am1 + 4Am 2 = z 4mx ,
+ m y , tg =
+ 4 mx ,
tg
b tg

= z 4 mx , + m y , tg .
(5.54)
b

(5.43), (5.46) (5.54) (5.1),



ab
&z& = f (t ) ,
(5.55)
3

ab
f (t ) = 4 mx , + m y , tg +
p( t ) .
(5.56)
b

2
(5.55)

z (0) = 0 ; z& (0) = z&0
(5.57)

2 y =

( ).
t
3
z& (t ) = z&0 +
f (t )dt =
ab 0
a
3

ab
= z&0 +
4 mx , + m y , tg t +
J p ( t ) ,
(5.58)

ab
b
2

J p (t ) = p(t )dt .

(5.59)

z (t ) = z& (t )dt =
0

= z&0t +

a
3
2 ab
2 mx , + m y , tg t + J p (t )dt .
ab
b
2 0

(5.60)

.5.

148

. tmax, zmax,
z& (tmax ) = 0 . ,
zmax, , (5.48) (5.52),
1, 2x 2y
, . 1.
(5.57).
0, [29] .
.
w& ( x, y )
,
.
b a

J
T = w& 2 ( x, y )dxdy =
.
(5.61)
200
2
J , . 4.1. ,


. , . 5.5.
. z&0 . BCFE, . 5.15. , ,
2
z& ( ) = z&0 .
(5.62)
b
d.
S() (5.38),
1
2
2
(5.63)
dTBCFE ( ) = z& 2 ( )S ( ) = z&02 2 2 a
d .
2
b
tg

, BCFE
b 2

b a

b
(5.64)

.
4 3 4 tg
0

ABE:
TBCFE =

dT

BCFE

( ) = z&02

149

5.4.

b
(5.65)

.
4 12 tg

TABE = z&02

b
a
.
6
2 tg
(5.61) (5.66),
T = 2(TBCFE + TABE ) = z&02

z&0 =

6 Jtg
.
b(2atg b)

(5.66)

(5.67)

5.4.3.

[79].
, , , .
, . :
mx, my,, mx, my,. ,
. , ,
(. 5.16).
y

11
mx,

1
C

a
2

A
22

my,

mx

my
1

33

my,

x
D

1/2

mx,
mx,

1/2

. 5.16.


[81]

(5.35), .. , . , :

.5.

150

my ,
= ;
mx ,

tg =

my ,
= y .
m y ,

mx ,
= x ;
mx ,

(3 + )
2

(5.68)

(5.69)

= (1 + y ) (1 + x ) .

(5.70)

z
(5.55),
ab
a

f (t ) =
p(t ) 4 mx , + m y , tg 2(amx , + bmy , ) .
(5.71)
2
b

(5.57), , .
5.4.4.

. . 5.17
, D
xd, yd P(t).
11

a
D

xd

11

3
my

mx

P(t)
b

D
z

yd

C x
z
11
. 5.17.
[70, 79]

[70, 79].
()
. , , ..
.

5.4.

151

. z.

4
4

ab
1
1
+ P(t ) ,
&z& = mx ,
+ m y ,
(5.72)
3
i =1 cos i
i =1 sin i

i ,
D, .
. (5.72) (5.57). ,
z&0 T , ,
. 5.4.2, .
, . 5.4.2, :
M
T = z&02
,
(5.73)
12
M = ab . ,
3T
.
(5.74)
z&0 = 2
M
. (5.72), z :
2
i = z
.
(5.75)
b cos i
. 1.
5.4.5.

.
. 5.18. x y . S , R
.
[70, 79, 127]. ,
. , .
,
.
m
, m (. 5.18,, 11).
, [70],

.5.

152

).
P = 2 ( m + m

(5.76)

.
)

11

11

P(t)

m
a
11

P(t)

&z&1
R

dr

. 5.18.
[70, 79, 127]

. ,

(5.1).
z, z (. 5.18,). . .
&z& ,
.. r
r

&z&( r ) = &z&1 .
(5.77)
R
dr (. 5.18,).

(5.78)
dS ( r ) = 2rdr .
,
r

F ( r ) = &z&( r )dS ( r ) = &z& 1 2 rdr .


R

r

z ( r ) = z 1 .
R

(5.79)

(5.80)

5.4.
R

A = z ( r ) F ( r ) = z 2&z& 1
P(t) P
AP = z[ P(t ) P ] .

153

r
R 2
. (5.81)
rdr = z &z&
R
6
(5.82)

(5.1),
R 2
&z& = P + P(t ) .
(5.83)
6
. , ,
z(0) = z0 = 0. z&(0) = z&0
T S .
, , .. ,
P(t) = P.
w& ( x, y ) t,
P, :

J
T = w& 2 ( x, y )dxdy =
.
(5.84)
2 S
2
J , , . 4.1.4.
, , T
S,
. T ,
,
. , , . , , ( ) .
. 4.1.2, . 4.2.
S . dS dr
r (. 5.18,)
(5.80).
r

v ( r ) = z&0 1 .
(5.85)
R

.5.

154

,
2

1 2
r

v ( r ) dS ( r ) = 2rz&02 1 dr ,
2
R
S
dT =

(5.86)

r
R

T = dT = 2z&02 r 1 dr = z&02
.
R
6
0
0
(5.84) (5.87), :

(5.87)

3J
.
(5.88)
R 2
. zmax
:
z
max = max .
(5.89)
R
. 1.
z&0 =

5.4.6.

[70, 79]
( , ,
, ). , , , .
5.5.

5.5.1.
)

F(t)

R(y)

R(y)
R
0

. 5.19. :
, ;




.
,

5.5.

155

, . 5.19,.
R(y) (. 5.19,). . 4.1. , . .
5.5.2.
, .. y y,
m, k F(t) , . 4.1.
. 4.2.
y. ,
(5.9)(5.11).
m &y& (5.9):
l
m = .
(5.90)
3
R (. 5.19) ,
(5.10) (5.11):
M l
.
(5.91)
R =
a (l a )

1
1
F (t ) = Pi (t ) si +
(l si ) Pi (t ) +
a 0 si a
l a a< si l
l
1 a

1
(l x ) ( x )dx ,
+ p(t ) x ( x )dx +

l a a
a 0

, ,
1
1
l
F (t ) = Pi (t )si +
(l si ) Pi (t ) + p(t ) .

2
a 0si a
l a a<si l

(5.92)

(5.93)

1.
:
l = 6 , b = 1.8 .
EJ = 0.44108 2 = 1000 /. -

.5.

156

p(t), /

M = 0.16106 .

( 3 . 4.4),
p = 3.5104 = 0.02 . , 60

(. 5.20):
40
t

20
p(t ) = 0.63 105 1
, /.
0.02
0
0.01
0.02
.
t,

. 5.20.

. . 4.2 ,

m = 0.504l = 0.50410006 = 3024, ;

EJ
0.44 108
k = 49.15 3 = 49.15
= 0.1 108 , /;
l
63

t
t

6
F = 0.64lp(t ) = 0.64 6 0.63 105 1
, .
= 0.24 10 1
0.02
0.02

k
m

0.1 108
= 57.5 , /.
3024

.
y(t) . 4.3.
y F:
F
0.24 106
y = , =
= 0.024 , .
k
0.1 108
t 0.02 c, ..

t sin t
y (t ) = y 1 +
cos t =

5.5.

157

y(t),

sin 57.5t
t

= 0.024 1
+
cos 57.5t , .
0
.
02
1
.
15

, .. t > 0.02 c,
(4.50). .
sin

y (t ) = y
cos cos (t ) +

cos
1
+
+
+ sin sin (t ) =

= 0.024 [0.385 cos 57.5(t 0.02) + 0.398 sin 57.5(t 0.02)] .


1.20

y(t)

. 5.21. 0.80
y
, y(t)
, ..
0.40
.
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
(5.91). t,
. 5.21.

, .. a = l/2,
. (5.91),
M l
0.16 106 6
R =
=
= 0.107 106 .
0.5l (l 0,5l )
0.25 6 2

R
0.107 106
y = =
= 0.107 10 1 = 1.07 .
k
0.1 108
t = t* = 0.023 c.

y& (t * ) = 0.024 ( 0.385 57.5 sin 57.5(0.023 0.02) +
+ 0.398 57.5 cos 57.5(0.023 0.02)) = 0.54 /.
, .
. -

158

.5.

, .
y t1 .

m &y& = R ,
m , (5.90),
l
m =
= 2000 ;
3
R , , R= 107106 .
,
2000&y& = 0.107 106 ,

&y& = 53.5 .
, .

y0 = 0; y& 0 = y& (0.023) = 0.54 /.



y& = y& 0 53.5t1 = 0.54 53.5t1 ;
53.5t12
= 0 + 0.54t1 26.75t12 .
2
y& , ,
t1* = 0.01 .
y = y0 + y& 0t1


y = 0.54 0.01 26.75 0.012 = 0.273 10 2 .
[29].
y + y 0.107 101 + 0.273 10 2
=
= 1.25 .
K=
0.107 101
y
[29] K 3 (. . 1). , .
.
1.
.
t*, .

5.5.

159


R. y1 t1 ,
&y&1 = F (t1 ) R ,
F (t1 ) ,
F(t), ..
F (t1 ) = F (t t * ) .
, , .
, .
. ,
.
2. , .
M, :
(5.33) W. , . 1.
5.5.3.
, ,
B
- R
A
. Ry
,
,
y y
y
, 0
( . 5.22.
) ,
(. 5.22).
( A)
.
, .
y . R A
k1 , . 4.1; k1 . 4.2.

.5.

160

R = k 1 y .

(5.94)

AB ,
,
(. . 5.3 5.4), , . . ,
B, R, , ..
. , (5.23) (5.24):
(l a )
M l + M
R =
,
(5.95)
a (l a )
M

M
(. . 5.4).
B, y, , , , ,

(.
. 5.3.2). ,
, - .
)

R
R
Ry

R
R
Ry

R
R
Ry

y
0 y

0 y,

0 y y,

. 5.23.
:
;
;

,
.
. 4.2 k2
( , , ,
). y

5.5.

y = y +

R R

161

.
(5.96)
k 2
, . 5.23,, , , .. . .
, , (. 5.23,). (. . 5.19), , y,.
, ,
, (.
5.23,).
( ), .. . ,
y,
.
, , y, ,
.. . , , .

,
, ,
(. 5.5.2).
. m,
k1 F . 4.1.2. . 4.2. . 2.1.2.
, , . 4.3. . 5.23,, ,
y, . 5.23,, y,.
, y& 0 .

, . 5.5.2. , -

162

.5.

m (5.90). R ; F , R, (5.23) (5.24). .



[29] (. . 1)
. (5.25) (5.26).

. . [29],

. ,
. , , .
, ..
, ,
. , .
5.5.4.

, . (
) ,
( ABC)
R
A
B
, (. 5.24).
Ry

m, k F . 4.1.2.
y
y y
0
. 5.24.
. 4.2. ,

.. ,
m (5.90). R
(5.33) (5.34):
1
l + ( M
+ M
)(l a ) .
R =
M
(5.97)
a (l a )
(5.33) (5.34) F.
,

5.5.

163

. 5.23. . 5.5.3,
.
5.5.5.

,
,
y, . 5.5.25.5.4, z. :
, . ,
.
,
,
. , ,
R
( ), R
(. 5.25).
z
z z
, , , , .
. 5.25. . 4.1.2,

. 4.2.
[29]
, .
z(t) (5.55) (5.56). ,

ab
m =
;
(5.98)
3

a

R = 4 m x , + m y , tg ;
(5.99)
b


ab
F =
p(t ) ;
(5.100)
2
, (5.55) (5.56).

.5.

164

, . 5.23.
, . .
2.
a = 6 , b = 4
h = 0.3 ; = 660 /2.
30 ( 400),
E = 0.361011 , = 0.2.
A-III.
0.14 %
. mx, = my, = m = 0.12106 /.

p = 1106
= 0.02 ,
t

p(t ) = 1 106 1

0
02
.

(. . 4.2, 3).

. . 4.2.
m = 0.25ab = 3960 ,

t
t

7
F = 0.405abp(t ) = 0.405 6 4 1106 1
= 0.972 10 1
.
0
02
0
02
.
.


Eh 3
0.36 1011 0.33
=
= 0.84 108 .
12(1 2 )
12(1 0.2 2 )

D=

4 Dab 1

4 0.84 108 6 4 1 1
1
9
2 + 2 =
2 + 2 = 0.4 10 .
4 a
4
4
b
6

k =

k
m

0.4 109
= 317.8 /.
3960

. 5.14.
(5.35) (5.36):

5.5.

mx ,
m y ,

tg =

= 1;

165

a
= 1.5 ;
b

1.5

= 0.577 .
1 (3 1.52 + 1) 1
. 5.23,. R. (5.99),

a

R = 4m + tg = 4 0.12 106 (1 + 0.577) = 0.76 106 .


b

z,, ,
R
0.76 106
z , = =
= 0.0019 .
k
0.4 109

(3 + )
2

z(t),

0.2


z,


0.1
z(t)
. 4.3 z(t)
.
z, 0
0.0005
0.001 0.0015
-

t,
F:
. 5.26.
F,max 0.972 107
z =
=
= 0.0243 .
k
0.4 109
t = 0.02 c
t sin t

z (t ) = z 1 +
cos t =


t
sin 317.8t

= 0.0243 1
+
cos 317.8t .
0
.
02
6
.
356

z(t) . 5.26. z, = 0.0019 , , t = 0.00127 , ..


.
, :

166

.5.

1 cos t

z& (t ) = z 1
+ sin t =

1 cos 317.8t

= 0.0243 1
+ 317.8 sin 317.8t /.
0.02

t = 0.00127 (
)
z& (0.00127) = 3.02 /.
,
. z.
(5.98)
ab 660 4 6
m =
=
= 5280 .
3
3
t1 .
,
t = 0.00127 . 0.94106 , 0.019 . ,
0 t1 0.019
t

p(t1 ) = 0.94 106 1 1 ,


0.019
.
0 t1 0.019 (5.100):
64
ab
t
t

0.94 106 1 1 = 0.113107 1 1 .


F (t1 ) =
p(t1 ) =
2
2
0.019
0.019

1:
m &z& = R + F (t1 ) .
,

5280&z& = 0.76 10 6 + 0.113 10 7 1 1 ,


0.019

&z& = 70.08 11264t1 .


:
z0 = 0 ;
z&0 = z& (0.00127) = 3.2 /.
,

5.5.

167

11264t12
= 3.2 + 70.08t1 5632t12 ;
2
43.48t12 4097.1t13
z (t1 ) = z0 + 0.049t1

= 0.49t1 21.74t12 1365.7t13 .


2
3
t1 = 0.019 c
z& (0.019) = 2.5 /;
z (0.019) = 0.06 .
z& (t1 ) = z&0 + 70.08t1


,
. t2 .
5280&z& = R = 0.76 106 ,

&z& = 143.9
( ).
z& (t2 ) = 2.5 143.9t2 ;
143.9t22
z (t2 ) = 0.06 + 2.5t2
= 0.06 + 2.5t2 71.97t22 .
2
, ,

t2 = 0.0174 .

z (t2 ) = 0.06 + 2.5 0.0174 71.97 0.0174 2 = 0.082 .
. [29] (. . 1). x
y , (5.48), (5.52)
(5.52). , . (5.48)
4z
4 0.082
1x = =
= 0.082 .
b
4
[29] (1.10)
. = 0.009.

= 0.2 > 1x = 0.082.
, .

168

.5.

5.5.6.

. 5.5.5.
m , k
F . 4.1.2 . 4.2.
,
. 5.4.3. m (5.98),
(5.100). (5.71):
a

R = 4 m x , + m y , tg + 2(amx , + bmy , ) .
(5.101)
b

, . 5.4.3.
5.5.7.


. 5.5.5. , ,
m, k F .
4.1.2, . 4.2.
. 5.4.4. m (5.98). (5.72):
4
1
1
+ m y ,
.
(5.102)
cos

sin
i
i
i =1
i =1
, , , ,
F = P (t ) .
(5.103)

R = m x ,

, . 5.4.4.
5.5.8.

, , .


. 4.1.2. . 4.2.
,
. , -

5.6.

169

, , , .

. 5.5.5 5.5.6.
, . 5.4.5. (5.83) ,
R 2
m =
;
(5.104)
6
, (5.76)
(5.83),
).
R = P = 2 ( m + m
(5.105)
,
,
F = P (t ) .
(5.106)
, . 5.4.5.
5.6.
, , ,
.
.
, .
.

6



, , .
, . 4. .
, ,
, .
, .
,
.
6.1.

,
.
P(t),
tk , ,
,
tk

I = P (t )dt , .

(6.1)

.

q = mv ,
(6.2)
m ; v .

( ) , :
q q = I,
(6.3)
q , q
. (6.2)

6.1.

171

)
m( v v ) = I ,
(6.4)
v a P(t)
ajP(t) k
, v y
mn
.
mk
, m1
mj
,
x
0
v0k
v0j
, .
)
,
l
1
- y
f(x)p(t)
. - 0 a
x
b
, , v0(x)
10 % ( 2025 %)
l

.
. 6.1.
. 6.1,
:
, - , - ; P(t),
j, , k. ajP(t), , akP(t),
aj + + ak = 1. I. , ,
, ajI, , akI.
(6.4).

, , (6.4), v, v0:
a
a
v0 j = j I , , v0 k = k I .
(6.5)
mj
mk
,
, .. .
, , , .. - . , :
; j, , k (6.5), .

, . 6.1,.
x (x) (/).

172

. 6.

p(t) (/)
i (/). a x b f(x) ( fmax = 1). ,
x f (x) p (t) (/), (.. )
i f (x) (/). , (6.5),

if ( x )
,
(6.6)
v0 ( x ) =
( x)
. ,
, .. f (x) 1,

i
(6.7)
v0 = .

, ..
.
i x, v0 . (6.7)
l1, (. . 6.1,):
il
(6.8)
v0 = 1 .
l1
, l1. ,
, ,
, , .
. , (x,y)
(/2) i f (x,y)
(/2) .
if ( x, y )
.
(6.9)
v0 ( x , y ) =
( x, y )
, , , ,
.

.
,

, . 2 3.

6.2.

173

,
, , .
6.2.



m k.
I (. 6.2).
y m
1 2
I
T = mv0 .
(6.10)
2

k
,
2
x
1 I
I2
T = m =
.
(6.11)
2 m
2m
. 6.2.
x.

1

U = kx 2 .
(6.12)
2
,
I
x=
.
(6.13)
mk
A, (2.8). x0 = 0; x&0 = v0 ,
v
A= 0 ,
(6.14)

, /. , (6.13):
I
I
I
I
v
x=
=
=
=
= 0.
(6.15)
2
2 2
m
mk
mk
m
m
, , n , . , -

174

. 6.

0.5l

1 (). .
6.3.

6.3.1.

.
. 4.1, . 5.
. .
6.3.2.
a)
x
(. 6.3,).

i+ = 400 .
y
: l = 6 ,
b
=
1.8
, s = 0.25 ,
R
J = 2.34103 4.
m
E = 0.191011 /2,

= 900 /.
y
( , . 1,
). )
R,
,
R

0.1
,
y
M = 0.16106 .
0.05
ymax
y

. , 0
0.005
0.01
0.015 y,

. 6.3.
, :
- ; (. 6.3,).
( )

6.3.

175


. 4.2:
(6.16)
my = 0.504l = 0.5049006 2722 ,
11
3
EJ
0.19 10 2.34 10
= 0.101108 /. (6.17)
k , = 49.15 3 = 49.15
l
63
( ). R , ..
. (5.100) M =
= 0.16106 , . , ,
4 M 4 0.16 106
R =
=
= 0.107106 .
(6.18)
l
6
y:
R 0.107 106
=
= 0.0106 .
(6.19)
k , 0.101 108
. 6.3,.

y =

, =

k ,
m,

0.101 108
= 60.9 /,
2722

(6.20)


2
2
T, =
=
= 0.1 .
(6.21)
60.9
, 0.01 , .. 0.1T. . 6.1.2
.
, . 6.2.
i+= 400 . . 4.2,
, p, F = 0.64pl. , , ,
I = 0.64i+ lb = 0.64 400 6 1.8 2765 .
(6.22)

(6.11):
I2
27652
T= =
1404 .
(6.23)
2m 2 2722

176

. 6.

A,
. y (. 6.3,). (
. 6.3, )
y

A = R + y .
(6.24)
2

(6.23) (6.24),
y
T
1404
0.0106
y =
=

= 7.8 10 3 .
(6.25)
6
R 2 0.107 10
2
[29] (. . 1)

:
y + y 0.0106 + 7.8 10 3
=
= 1.74 .
K=
(6.26)
0.0106
y
K < 3, [29] .
i+ T
. 6.3,, ..
. ymax
2T
.
(6.27)
k
Rmax, ,
. 6.3,
y max =

Rmax = kymax.
(6.28)
Rmax F,
ymax.
. 4.2 F p
Rmax = F = 0.64pl.
(6.29)
, ymax
R
(6.30)
p = max .
0.64l
,
.

6.3.

177

6.3.3.
, 1, , i+ = 800 .
, :
(2)
(3)
(1)
= M
= 0.2106 , M
=
M
6
= 0.1610 . :
(1) = 0.31, (2) = (3) = 0.34. )
a)
(3)
x
x
M

0.5l

0.5l

[29]


m1
m2
(. . 1). R
R1

k1
k2
.
y
y
y
(2)
y
M

. 6.4.
(. 6.4,). :
. 4.2, - ;



:
my = 0.406l = 0.4069006 2192 ,
(6.31)
204.8 EJ 204.8 0.19 1011 2.34 10 3
= 0.422108 /.
=
63
l3

k 1 =

1 =

k 1
=
m,

0.422 108
= 138.75 /.
2192


2
2
T1 =
=
= 0.045 .
1 138.75

(6.32)

(6.33)

(6.34)

178

. 6.

. 6.1.2, ,
0.1T.
, .
,
.
- R,
B
q
R1 R

0.2
A
ql 2
(1)
M =
,
(6.35)
0.1
24

ymax
y2
y1
2
0
ql
0
0.01
0.02 y,
M ( 2 ) = M ( 3) =
.
(6.36)
12
. 6.5.
,
. ,
, .
. , (. 6.5).
k1 OA .
y1 A

y=

5ql 4
.
384EJ

(6.37)

(6.36)
y=

M ( 2)l 2
.
32EJ

(6.38)

,
y1 =

(2) 2
M
l

32EJ

0.2 106 62
= 0.506 102 .
32 0.19 1011 2.34 103

, ,
R1 = k1 y1 = 0.422 108 0.506 102 = 0.214 106 .

(6.39)
(6.40)

:
, (2)
(3)
M
( AB . 6.4,).
M
-

6.3.

179

, .
. ,
,
. 5.5.3. : AB
. , (. 1):
k 2 =

49.15EJ 49.15 0.19 1011 2.34 103


= 0.101108 /.
=
l3
63

(6.41)

AB
. 6.5.
R (
) (5.107), ,
,
a = l/2:

R =

(1)
(2)
( 3)
M
l + ( M
+ M
)(l a )

(1)
(2)
( 3)
4 M
+ 2( M
+ M
)

=
=
a (l a )
l
0.16 106 + 0.2 106
= 4
= 0.24 106 .
(6.42)
6
y2
AB :
R R1
=
y 2 = y1 +
k 2
0.24 106 0.214 106
= 0.506 10 2 +
= 0.763 10 2 .
(6.43)
8
0.101 10
. 6.5.
,
1. p F = 0.533pl. , ,
I = 0.533i+ lb = 0.533 800 6 1.8 4605 .
(6.44)
(6.11),
I 2
46052
=
4837 .
(6.45)
2m 2 2192
ymax
, , . ymax
T ( . 6.5 ):
T=

180

. 6.

R1 y1 ( R1 + R )( y 2 y1 )
+
+ R ( y max y 2 ) .
2
2

R y ( R + R )( y y )
1
ymax = y2 + T 1 1 1 2 1 =
R
2
2

T=

= 0.763 102 +

(6.46)

1
0.214 106 0.506 102

4837
0.24 106
2

(0.214 106 + 0.24 106 )(0.763 10 2 0.506 10 2 )


= 0.023 . (6.47)
2

. 5.3.3. :
2y
2 0.024
( 2 ) = ( 3) = max =
= 0.008 ,
(6.48)
l
6

(1) = 2 ( 2 ) = 0.016 .
(6.49)

[29] (. . 1).

0.003
= 0.035 + .
(6.50)


0.003
0.003
( 2 ) = ( 3) = 0.035 + (1) = 0.035 +
= 0.044 ,
(6.51)
0.34


0.003
0.003
(1) = 0.035 + (1) = 0.035 +
= 0.045 .
(6.52)
0.31

( 2 ) = ( 3) = 0.008 < ( 2 ) = ( 3) = 0.044 ;

(6.53)

(1) = 0.016 < (1) = 0.045 .

(6.54)

, .
i+ ,
T 0Ay1
. 6.5, , .
,
. 6.3.2. ymax
0A:

6.3.

181

2T
.
(6.55)
k 1

Rmax = k1ymax.
(6.56)
, . . 4.2,


Rmax = F = 0.533pl.
(6.57)
, , ymax ,
R
p = max .
(6.58)
0.533l
, .
- (. . 5.23).
.
. 5.5.3,
, ..
, , . , , , , .
y max =

6.3.4.

( )
, .
: a = 6 , b = 4 , h = 0.25 (. 6.6,).
E = 0.21011 /2, = 0.2,
= 525 /2.
.
i+ = 1200 . , , : mx, = my, = 0.12106 /.
x y
: x = y = 0.34. [29] (. . 1).

182

. 6.

. . 4.2. :
m = 0.25ab = 0.2552564 = 3150 .
(6.59)
)

)
R,

b=4

1
0.5

x
0.005 0.01 0.015
0
a=6
. 6.6. :

ymax
0.02 y,

(3.111)
Eh 3
0.2 1011 0.253
=
= 0.27 108 .
2
2
12(1 )
12(1 0.2 )

D=

4 Dab 1

(6.60)

1 4 0.27108 6 4 1 1
9
k =
2 + 2 =
2 + 2 = 0.12810 /. (6.61)
4 a b
4
6 4
k .
,
(. . 5.5.5).
. 5.23,, .. ,
k ( y . 6.6,). . 5.5.3, .
R (. . 5.5.5).
(. . 6.6,) :
m
0.12 106
a 6
k = y , =
= 1 ; = = = 1.5 .
(6.62)
6
b 4
mx , 0.12 10

(5.42)
tg =

k (32 + k ) k

1.5
1 (3 1.52 + 1) 1

= 0.84 .

(6.63)

6.3.

183


(5.111)
a

R = 4 mx, + my , tg = 4 0.12 106 (1.5 + 0.84) = 0.112 107 . (6.64)


b


R
0.112 107
y = =
= 0.875 10 2 .
(6.65)
k 0.128 109
. 6.6,.
, (. . 4.2),

1 D 1 1 0.27 108
= +
= 32.16 . (6.66)
2 + 2
2 a b 2 62 42
525

1
T1 =
= 0.031 .
(6.67)
f1
, T1,
.. . 6.1.2 .
. . 4.2, p (t),
F = 0.405abp (t). ,
I = 0.405i+ ab = 0.405 1200 6 4 = 11664 .
(6.68)
f1 = f =


(6.11):
I2
11644 2
T= =
= 21521 .
(6.69)
2m 2 3150
, A .
ymax. A ( . 6.12, ):
y

A = R ymax .
(6.70)
2

A = T,
y
0.875 10 2
21521
T
=
+
= 0.0236 .
ymax = +
(6.71)
2 R
2
0.112 107
, (5.54),

184

. 6.

1 = 4 ymax b = 0.0236 .

(6.72)

, (5.57) (5.58).
x

2x =

= 0.0118 ,
(6.73)
2
y
2
2
2 y = ymax tg = 0.0236 0.84 = 0.001 .
(6.74)
4
b
. [29] (. . 1)
0.003
= 0.035 + .
(6.75)


x y , , x , y
:
0.003
, x = , y = 0.035 +
= 0.044 .
(6.76)
0.34
(6.76) (6.73)(6.74), ,
. , .
T
. 6.6,,
.
, . 6.3.2 6.3.3. ymax :
ymax = 2T k .
(6.77)

Rmax = kymax.
(6.78)
, Rmax , . 4.2, , ,
Rmax
.
(6.79)
p=
0.405ab
, ,

.

185

6.3.

6.3.5.
. 6.7
,
. 6.3.4. i+ = 2500 . mx, my,,
, mx, my,,
, : mx, = my, = mx, = my, =
= 0.12106 /. : x = y = = 0.34.
)

)
R,

b=4

a=6

y
0.01

ymax
0.02

y,

. 6.7. :
;

, , , . .
. 4.2,
m = 0.14ab = 0.1452564 = 1764 .
(6.80)
, .. , . 6.3.4, D = 0.27108 .
. 4.2,
k =

0.723 4 D a 4 + b 4
2 2 + 0.606 =
ab
ab

0.723 4 0.27 108 6 4 + 4 4


2 2 + 0.606 = 0.26 109 /. (6.81)
64
64

(. 6.7,).
, . 6.2.3.
. 5.4.3 5.5.6. , (. 6.7,). (5.74)(5.76) :
=

186

. 6.

k=

m y ,

mx ,
m
x = x ,
mx ,

0.12 106
= 1;
0.12 106

a 6
= = 1.5 ;
b 4
my , 0.12 106
0.12 106

=
=
1
;

=
=
= 1;
y
0.12 106
m y , 0.12 106

1 + y
= 1;
1 + x

k =

(6.82)

my , 0.12 106
=
= 1.
mx , 0.12 106

(5.75):
1.5

tg =
=
= 0.84 .
(6.83)
2
1 1 (3 1.52 + 1 1) 1 1
k (3 + k ) k
(5.116):
a

R = 4 mx , + m y , tg + 2(amx , + bmy , ) =
b

= 0.12 106 4 + 0.84 + 2 (6 + 4 ) = 0.35 107 .


(6.84)


R 0.35 107
=
= 0.0135 .
(6.85)
k 0.26 109
,
, ..
.
. . 4.2,
, p (t)
F = 0.25abp (t). ,
I = 0.25i+ ab = 0.25 2500 6 4 = 15000 .
(6.86)
y =

(6.11):
I 2
15000 2
=
= 63776 .
(6.87)
2m 2 1764
ymax. A ( . 6.7, ),
, :
T=

A = R ymax .
2

(6.88)

6.4.

187

,
y
T
0.0135
63776
ymax = +
=
+
= 0.025 .
(6.89)
2 R
2
0.35 107
ymax , . 6.3.4.
,
.
. .
,
.
(6.116):
4
4
1 = ymax = 0.025 = 0.025 .
(6.90)
b
4
[29] (. . 1)
0.003
0.003
= 0.035 + = 0.035 +
= 0.044 .
(6.91)
0.34

, 1 < , .. .
T
. 6.7,, .
, ,
R
p = max .
(6.92)
0.25ab
6.4.
, .
, , -,
.
, 1
(0.1, , , 0.20.25 ). -, .

. , , .

II


7


( )
,
, , , , .
. , (, ) ,
, .
( , .)
( ). , .

: ( ).
, .
, ..
, .
,
. ,
, .. .


.
, .
,
(. . 8).
.

. , , , -

7.1.

189

, . : ; ,
; . .
7.1.


.
XVII . , , . , ( ).
, h+
h, .
, , , . .
, ,
, .
, , . . 7.2,
. 11. , . 7.3 7.4.
7.2. - -

- -
, , ,
. [53, 84].
- . .
- . , , ,

, :
. -

190

. 7.

[53, 84],
, .
. ,
l v0 (. 7.1,),
. , ..
,
(. 7.1,). ,
. , ,
v0.
, )
,
v0
x

l
(. 7.1,).
- )
, c
. ,

)
v0, ..
,
c
.
. 7.1.




v0.
, , ,
.

c= E .

(7.1)

E ; . ,
t1 = l c ,
(7.2)

t2 = 2l c .
(7.3)
[84]
8v l
1 i
ix
iat
sin
.
(7.4)
= 20 2 cos
c i =1,3,5K i 2l
2l
2l

7.2.

(x = 0)
4v
1 iat
.
= 0 sin
c i =1,3,5K i
2l
t = t1
4v n ( 1) i 1 4v0 v0
= 0
=
= .
c i =1 2i 1 c 4 c
,

= E = v0 E .

191

(7.5)

(7.6)
(7.7)


.
, ,
R = A = v0 A E ,

(7.8)

.

, .. 0 t t2.
(7.6) , , , . , -
. ,

,
. ,
.
(1908 .). ,
, .
,
,
. R :
R = K 3 2 ,
(7.9)
K , ,
.
,
.
.. [7] ,

. 7.

192

R = ,

(7.10)

,
,
. .. [53].
,
.
v0 .
(7.7). , ,

.
E

(7.11)

0 = 2 gh ,

(7.12)

2
.
2 gE

(7.13)

, h .
20. = 1.25Ryn= 1.250.245109 = 0.3109 ,
Ryn , [6]; 1.25 , [29]. = 7800 /3; E = 2.11011 .
(7.11) (7.13), v0 7.4 /, h 2.8 .
25. = Rb = 0.18108 , Rb
, [29]
. = 2100 /3; E = 3.21010 .
(7.11) (7.13) v0 2.2 /, h 0.25 .
,
.
() [53]. .

, .
,

7.2.

193

. , ,
( , )
, . [53]
,
l . , ,
,
, ,
,
. , l, .
, .
. 8,
.

, ,
, , , .

, , . , , , v0, 0. , , v0 0 .
.
, ,
(, ), ,
.
, , , .
, , ,
. . 11.1.2.

. 7.

194

7.3.

7.3.1.

. -, : , , , . -, :
, , , .
, :
, , .

.
)

x
t
. 7.2.
*:
;
;

, , . ( ) (. 7.2,). .
, ,
.
.
,
,
(. 7.2,).
, .

.
*
, . 7.2, : spalling; scabbing; perforation.

7.3.

195

t/d < 5, .
, ,
(. 7.2,).
7.3.2.


,

(. . 17.2). , , , .
,
, .
, .
, .
( ), .
. , . ,
,
( ), 150 /.

.
,
. , , ,
. , ,
,
. [99, 127, 135].
, [100], .
:

196

. 7.

t ;
tp ,
;
ts ,
NDRC * [127, 135].
(.. )
0.31.5 % .
1.8

V0
x
4 KNQd
2;

d
1000d
x =
(7.14)
1 .8
KNQ V0 + d x > 2,

d
1000d
**: x
, ; d , ; Q , ; V0
, /; N ,
,
0.72 ;
0.84 ;

N =
(7.15)
1.00 ;
1.144 ;
K , ,
K = 180( f ) 1 2 ,
(7.16)
f c ,

/** ( ,

[29], f c = 1.07 R
).
tp
x
x

1.32 + 1.24
1.35 13.5;

tp
d
d
=
(7.17)
2
x
x
x
d 3.19 0.718 1.35.

d
d
d
ts
*
NDRC National Defence Research Committee
()
**
1 (1) = 0.0254 ;
1 = 12= 0.3048 ;
1 = 4.445 ;
1 /2 = 6890 .

7.3.

197

x
x

2.12 + 1.36
0.65 11.75;
ts
d
d
=
(7.18)
2
d 7.91 x 5.06 x x 0.65.

d
d
d
, (7.14), ,
0.6 x/d 2.0. , ,
tp ts . Bechtel Corp.
CEAEDF. , (7.14)(7.18) ,
t/d 3, tp ts .
, d0 d.
x (7.14), N = 0.72 d = d0.
(7.30)
2
(7.17), d = d 02 d
.
*
CEAEDF [127, 135].

0.375 0.75 Q
t p = 0.765( f c)
V0
,
(7.19)
d
(7.19)(7.21) ,
.
, : 1.5 t/d 3; 3000 f c 4500 /2 (0.21108 f c 0.31108
); 155 /3 (2500 /3);
0.81.5 % .
Behtl Corp. [18, 134, 135]:
t s = 15.5

Q 0.4 V0
;
d 0.2 f c

(7.20)

.
d0 :

CEA Commissariat lEnergie Atomique (); EDF Elecricit de France.

. 7.

198

ts = 5.42

Q 0.4 V0
.
d 00.2 f c

(7.21)

s
0.06 2 s d 0 0.125 .

,
, ts tp 1020 %.
UK AEA * [103].
.
UK AEA [103], , , ,
. .
1. . , , , , , () , .
23

Vc = 1.3

16

12
cy

t 2p p
12

m ( r + 0.3) ,

(7.22)

tp
m
p
Vc

, ;
, ;
, ;
,
, 45 < V < 300 /;
, /3;
fcy , ( :
150 , 300 ), 5106 < fcy < 37106 ;
fcu (
150 ) 18106 < fcu < 46106 ;
r
:
0 < r < 0.75 %; r = ( a ct )100 ,
(7.23)
a ; c
; t (. 7.3,).
*

UK AEA United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority


.

7.3.
)
c

199

)
c

. 7.3. r B:
;

, (7.22),
:
p
m
0.2 <
< 3;
150 < 2 < 10 4 /3.
(7.24)
t p
p tp
, , (7.22)
,
23

t 2d
Vc = 1.3 f (r + 0.3) p .
(7.25)
m

,
, r (7.22)
1/3
2/3 .
, .
(7.22) ,
fcy 37106 .
400
470 . , . , ..
, .
[103] .
.
, .
V
+30 15 %,
.
16

12
cy

12

200

. 7.

2. , .
, ,
.
. ,
,
, ,
. ,

, . . ,
.
.
(7.22) r
a s
B = + 100 ,
(7.26)
ct t
s (. 7.3,). (7.22)
0 < r < 0.7 % 1.2 < B < 4.3 %.
.
. , , , .
. 400
470 . ,
,
.
,
.
: .
,
, .
3. .
V , :
1.3 ;

7.3.

201

( ) 1.15
; ,
.
4. . ,
5.6 , . ,
.
(7.22) (7.25),
r
1 a a
rT = + t 100 ,
(7.27)
t c ct
at ; ct
.
, , , ,
.
5. .

NmV 1.8
(7.28)
G = 3.8 10 5 0.5 c2.8 ,
f cy d

0.55 2
< 0.22;

2
G = 0.25 + 0.0605 0.22 < < 2;
(7.29)
0.9395
> 2.

= x/d
; N , (7.15).
, (7.28):
25 < Vc < 300 /; 22 106 < f cy < 44 106 ;
(7.30)
m
5000 < 3 < 200000 / 3 .
d
, 20 % > 0.75 50
+100 % < 0.75.
30 /
,
-
. .

. 7.

202

. ,
, -
.
. ts, ,
ts
= 5.3 3 G ,
(7.31)
d
G (7.29).
:
29 < Vc < 238 /; 26 106 < f cy < 44 106 ;
(7.32)
m
1500 < 2 < 40000 / 3 .
d ts
2 < ts/d < 5.6 40 %.
6. . . . : , s/d > 0.05.
, (
s/d: s/d > 0.036;
s/d > 0.068). , , (7.28) , , . ,
(7.22), .
,
,
s/d < 0.05. ,
20 %, s/d < 0.025.
7. .
(7.28),

< 2 ,
(7.33)
4
(7.28) d.
, (7.34). (7.33) 20 +60 %:
G=

7.3.

203

370

350

348

22 106 < f cy < 36 106 ;


26 < V0 < 170 /;
(7.34)
s
m
0.03 <
< 0.08; 200000 < 2 < 850000 / 3 .
d
d s
1. 55

,

. m = 300 ,
Q = 2940 (660 ),
V0 = 85 / (280 /), 210
. 7.4. 8

R = 0.310 ; . 7.4.

f c = fcy = 1.07 R
=
,
= 0.33108 (4790 /2); = 2400 /3;
r = 0.25 % .
NDRC.
(7.14). ,
,
180
180
=
= 2.6 .
K=
4790
f c

= 0.046 2:
d=

4A

4 0.046

= 0.242 ( ) (9.53) .

(7.14),
1.8

V0
x = 4 KNQd

1000d

=
1.8

290

= 4 2.6 0.72 660 9.53


= 9.36 (0.24 ).
9.53
1000

,
x 9.36
=
= 0.982 < 2 ,
9.53
d
.. . , 0.6 x/d 2.0,
ts tp .

204

. 7.

x/d
tp (7.17):
2
tp
x
x
= 3.19 0.718 = 3.19 0.982 0.718 0.982 2 = 2.44 .
d
d
d
,
t p = 2.44d = 2.44 9.53 = 23.25 (0.59 ) .
ts
(7.18):
ts
x
= 2.12 + 1.36 = 2.12 + 1.36 0.98 = 3.45 ,
d
d
.. ts
t s = 3.45d = 3.45 9.53 = 32.88 (0.8 ) .
, Behtl Corp. CEAEDF
, NDRC
x/d 0.6. , , .
Behtl Corp.
Q 0.4 V0
6600.4 280
t s = 15.5 0.2
= 15.5
= 50.3 (1.28 ) .
9.530.2 4790
d
f c
CEAEDF.
t p = 0.765( f c)

0.375

V00.75

= 18.6 (0.46 ).

Q
660
= 0.765 ( 4790) 0.375 2800.75
=
d
9.53

, , .
UK AEA. .
p = 0.21 + 0.35 + 0.055 + 0.37 = 0.985 ().
(7.22), Vc tp:
23
pt 2p
16 12
12

Vc = 1.3 f cy
( r + 0.3) =
m

23

0.985t 2p
(0.25 + 0.3)1 2 = 208.7t 4p 3 .
= 1.3 24001 6 (0.33 108 )1 2

300

7.3.

205

, V = V0 = 85 /.
34

34

V
85
tp = 0 =
= 0.5 ().
208
.
7

208.7
(7.24):
0.985
p
300
m
=
= 0.62 ;
=
= 618.4 (/3).
2
2
0.5
t p
p t p 0.985 0.5
, .. (7.22)
.
, (7.31), ts. (7.28)
d = 0.242 :
0.72 300 851.8
ts
NmV 1.8
= 5.3 3 3.8 10 5 0.5 c2.8 = 5.3 3 3.8 10 5
= 3.23
d
(0.33 108 ) 0.5 0.242 2.8
f cy d
,
t s = 3.23d = 3.23 0.242 = 0.78 ().
(7.32).
300
m
=
= 6567 .
2
d t s 0.242 2 0.78
, (7.32) , .
(7.28), (7.29) x . (7.28):

NmVc1.8
0.72 300 851.8
= 3.8 10 5
= 0.226 .
0. 5 2. 8
f cy d
(0.33 108 ) 0.5 0.242 2.8
G
(7.29):
G = 0.226 = 0.25 2 + 0.0605 ,

x
= = 0.813 .
d
, (7.29).
G = 3.8 10 5

x = 0.813d = 0.813 0.242 0.2 ().


(7.30):

206

. 7.

m
300
=
= 21168 (/3).
3
3
d
0.242
, (7.30)
, ..
.
7 . 1 . 1

NDRC
Behtl Corp.
CEAEDF
UK AEA

x,
0.24

0.2

tp,
0.59

1.28
0.5

ts,
0.8
0.46

0.78

.
. 7.1. NDRC UK AEA x, tp ts
. ts 4060 %
tp. , Behtel Corp.
CEAEDF, . , , x, , .
, NDRC, Bechtel Corp. CEAEDF, [135]: 25
149 /; 75 200
10 100 ; 75 300 5
340 . UK
AEA ,
.
,
,
, ,
.. (,
) .
. , , 20.

. ,
UK AEA, ,

7.3.

207


, . ,
UK AEA
. ,
.
2. , Phantom RF-4E (.
. 8.3.3) m = 1665 ( Q = 3670 ),
d = 0.91 (35.8), V0 = 100 / (328 /); . :

R
= 0.216 108 ;

f c = fc = 1.07 R
= 0.23108 (3340 /2);
= 2200 /3.
r = 0.7 % .
NDRC. , .
,
.
,
(7.14)
K = 180

f c = 180

3340 = 3.1 .

(7.14)
1.8

V
x = 4 KNQd 0
1000d

=
1.8

328
= 4 3.1 0.72 3670 35.8
= 15.9 (0.4 ).
1000 35.8
,
x 15.9
=
= 0.44 < 2 ,
d
35.8
.. .
,
0.6 x/d 2.0, ts tp . , Behtl Corp. CEAEDF.
.

. 7.

208

Behtl Corp:
t s = 15.5

Q 0.4 V0
36700.4 328
15
5
.
=
= 63.3 (1.6 ) .
35.80.2 3340
d 0.2 f c

CEAEDF:
t p = 0.765( f c)

0.375

V00.75

= 28.48 (0.72 ).

Q
3670
= 0.765 (3340) 0.375 3280.75
=
d
35.8

UK AEA. (7.25)
v tp,
:
23

dt 2
vc = 1.3 f p ( r + 0.3)1 2 =
m
23
0.91t 2p
16
8 12
12
43

= 1.3 2200 (0.23 10 )


(0.7 + 0.3) = 150.3t p .
1665

v = v0 = 100 /,
16

12
cy

34

34

v
100
tp = 0 =
= 0.74 ().
150.3
150.3
(7.24):
1665
m
p
d 0.91
= =
= 1.23 ;
=
= 275.3 (/3).
t p t p 0.74
p 2 t p (0.91 ) 2 0.74
, .. (7.23)
.
(7.31) (7.26) ts:

ts
Nmv1.8
0.72 16651001.8
= 1.94 .
= 5.3 3 3.8 105 0.5 c2.8 = 5.3 3 3.8 105
d
f cy d
(0.23108 )0.5 0.912.8
,
t s = 1.94d = 1.94 0.91 = 1.77 ().
(7.32).
.

1665
m
=
= 1136 (/3).
d 2t s 0.912 1.77

7.3.

209

(7.32), 1500 /3,


.. . , ts .
.
Nmv1.8
0.72 1665 1001.8
G = 3.8 10 5 0.5 c2.8 = 3.8 10 5
= 0.049 .
f cy d
(0.23 108 )0.5 0.912.8
(7.27):
G = 0.049 = 0.55 2 ,

x
= = 0.11 .
d
< 0.22, . = 0.44 .

x = 0.11d = 0.11 0.91 = 0.1 .
(7.30).
.
m 1665
=
= 2209 (/3).
d 3 0.913
(5000 /3),
(7.30). , x .
. 7.2 ,
2, , x, NDRC UK AEA, 4 .
, NDRC

.
7 . 2 .
( 2)

NDRC
Behtl Corp.
CEAEDF
UK AEA

x,
0.4

0.1

tp,

0.72
0.74

ts,

1.6

1.77

tp, CEAEDF
UK AEA, .
(0.7 ),
[112].

210

. 7.

ts, Behtl Corp. UK AEA, .


, , 1,
tp 4050 %,
2.22.4 .
, ts UK AEA
.
.
, ,
20 %, [108].
,
,
, ..
, ,
. 2
, -, tp, ts, , .
, [112] ,

, , . , .. .
, ,
, ts 1.41.5tp, 1, ,
. UK AEA,
.
.
. (, ,
..) , .
7.3.3.


. , V0;
, ,

7.3.

211

(7.22), Vc; V1.



, , ,
.
:
1
1
1
(7.35)
mV02 = mVc2 + mV12 ,
2
2
2
,
V02 = Vc2 + V12 ,
(7.36)

V1 = V02 Vc2 .

(7.37)

,
, .
,
V1 [103].
, Vc 15 %. ,
(7.31) , , .
3. , 1
,
0.4 .
(7.22)

23

pt 2
V1c = 1.3 1 6 f cy1 2 p ( r + 0.3)1 2 =
m
23
0.985 0.32
(0.25 + 0.3)1 2 = 61.5 (/).
= 1.3 24001 6 (0.33 108 )1 2
300
15 %, .. V1c = 52.3 /.
, (7.37),

V1 = V02 V12c = 852 52.32 = 67 (/).


. , ,
.

. 7.

212

7.3.4.

,
. ,
.
, . 6 , -, ; .
, , ,
. 2 3. ,
, , . 8.
.

, : , , .

.
. , NDRC [118].
,
, ,
p( t ) =

263820 v(t )

KN 12000d

0.2

f [ x(t )] ,

(7.38)

x(t )
x(t )
2d d 2;
f [ x(t )] =
(7.39)
x(t )
1

> 2;
d

x(t) , ; v(t) , /; , (7.14).


x(t) v(t)
m&x& = p(t ) S ( x ) ,
(7.40)
m ; S(x) . : x(0) = 0; x& (0) = V0 . R(t),
, .

7.3.

213


, R, .
x
:
mV02
Rx =
.
(7.41)
2

mV02
R=
.
(7.42)
2x
R ,

R
V2
a= = 0 .
(7.43)
m
2x
x, ,
V2 2
+ V0 .
(7.44)
x = 0
2 x 2
, :
2x
= .
(7.45)
V0
, ,
, R , , (7.52)(7.54) [118].
, x.
NDRC ,
15 % . ,
, , , ,
.
, .
,
m
m =
,
(7.46)
1 + m m

. 7.

214

m ,
m =

w ( x, y)dxdy ;
2

(7.47)

( S )

; w(x,y)
; S
.
, , , . 8
.
7.4.

. . ,
,
.

, .
.
BRL* [135]:
32

DV02
t
,
(7.48)
=
1 120 000 K s2
d
t , , ; d
, ; V0 , /; Ks ,
( Ks 1); D
, /3,
Q
D= 3,
(7.49)
d
Q , .

. , , , , .
SRI* [127]:
2

3 B t 0.0452 DV02
t
,
+
=

d 128 d d
*

(7.50)

BRL Ballistic Research Laboratory ( , )


*
SRI Stanford Research Institute ( , )

7.4.

215

B ;
.
SRI :
2 D 12 /3 (0.55105 D 0.33106 /3);
2 B 12 (50 B 300 ); 0.062 d 3.5 (1.6 d 89 );
70 V0 400 / (21 V0 120 /);
0.1 t d 0.8 ;
5 B d 8;
8 B t 100 .
, , , B/d B/t, . , B/d > 8 B/t > 100,
(7.50)
2

2
t 2 F t 0.0452 DV0
,
(7.51)
+
=

d 128 d
F F = 100t/d F = b/d ( , F 8).
,
, BRL SRI .
B/d < 6 BRL , SRI.
, SRI, 25 %.
,
[135].

8



, , ( ). , , , ,
() . ,
. , ,
, .
,
. 7:
.
, . , : , ..
(
). ,
,
.
,
.

.
8.1.
8.1.1.
, .
, .

.
[129]. (x) P(x) (. 8.1). , (., , [109, 110]),
.
, -

8.1.

217

m1 (t ) = ( )d = [ (t )]&(t )d t ,

, /

P,

. ( ) .
,
().
.

)
(

)

40
4000
)*.

P
30
3000

20
2000

(. 8.2,): 1000
10
(1),
0
x&1 = 0 , 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 x,
(2), . 8.1.

Phantom RF-4E [129]:


x&2 (t ) = &(t ) . - ;
(1):
P
(8.1)

(t) , (. 8.2,). (2):


m2(t) = mc m1(t),
(8.2)
mc .
,
:
r
r r dm
dQi
= Fi e + u i ,
(8.3)
dt
dt
r
r
Qi i- (i = 1, 2); Fi e
*
[19, 98]
, .
, , , ,
, .

.8.

218


m1(t)
m2(t)
;
mi(t)
r
&(t )
; u R

0
x
(2)
(1)

)
.
8.2.

y
(1)
-

, P(x)
R
:

(1) (2)
0
x
; ,
().

m1g


(1) , , (8.3),
OX (. 8.2,)
dm1 &
= (t ) [ (t )] , (8.4)
Q1x = 0 ; Fixe = R (t ) P[ (t )] ; u x = &(t ) ;
dt
R(t) , P[(t)] , .
(8.3), , [129]:
R(t ) = P[ (t )] + & 2 (t ) [ (t )] .
(8.5)
)

(t)

,
.
, , .. &(t ) 0 ,
.
P() x

,

(. 8.3). R

(1)
, gm1()
(1) . 8.3. , - ,
- x. (1) - , , ,
, OX

8.1.

Fixe = R P ( ) gm1 ( ) sin .

219

(8.6)

, ..

&(t ) 0 , Fixe = gmc sin .

,
P[ (t )] + gm1[ (t )] sin + & 2 (t )[ (t )] &(t ) 0 ;
(8.7)
R(t ) =
&(t ) = 0.
gmc sin
,
, , R(t)
:

Rn(t) = R(t)cos

R(t) = R(t)sin.
>, .
. 8.2.3 8.2.4.
8.1.2.
(8.5),
(t ) &(t ) [135].
.
.
1. ,
. ,
y
, 1,
lA2
A1

xA
2, ,
A A2

R(t)
0
x
(. 8.4). 1
m2(t)
m1(t)
gmc
(t)
l
l1 = 0. . 8.4.
2
xA
l

l A2

1
1
S 2 ( ) ,
=
( )d =

m2 ( )
m2 ( )

m2() ;

(8.8)

.8.

220
l

m2 ( ) = ( ) d ;

(8.9)

S2() ,
l

S2 ( ) = ( ) d .

(8.10)


m1l A1 + m2l A2
1
[S2 ( ) m2 ( )] .
xA =
=
(8.11)
mc
mc
0x:
(8.12)
mc &x&A = R(t )
( ,
, ).
(8.12), (8.11)
:
m &x& = &&m ( ) + & 2 ( ) .
(8.13)
c

(8.2), (8.5) (8.13) (8.12),


:
P( )
&& =
.
(8.14)
mc m1 ( )
:
(8.15)
(0) = 0 ; &(0) = v0 .
(8.14) , ,
d& d& d & d& 1 d& 2
&& =
=
=
=
(8.16)
dt d dt
d 2 d

z = & 2 .
(8.17)
1-
dz
2 P( )
=
(8.18)
d
mc m1 ( )

z (0) = v02 .

(8.19)

8.1.

221

P( )d
z = 2
+ v02 .
m

m
(

)
c
1
0

P( )d
,
F ( ) =
m
c m1 ( )
0

z = 2 F ( ) + v02 .

(8.22)

(8.17) (8.21)
&( ) = v 2 2 F ( ) .

(8.23)

(8.20)

(8.21)

t(), (t):

d
t ( ) =
,
(8.24)
2
v0 2 F ( )
0
t(), (t). P[ (t )] , [ (t )] , &[ (t )] m1[ (t )] ,
(8.7) R(t).
max ,
. (8.23) ,

max
P( )
2 F ( max ) = 2
d = v02 .
(8.25)
m

(
)
1
c
0
,
= max x

(8.24) .
y
xA
,

A

.
2. R(t)
,
0
gmc

(. 8.5). (t)
, . 8.5.

0y ( )
.

.8.

222

0x:
(8.26)
mc &x&A = R(t ) gmc sin .
(8.7) (8.14), :
P( )
(8.27)
&& =
+ g sin .
mc m1 ( )
, .. (8.15). , , (8.23)
&( ) = v02 + g sin 2 F ( ) ,
(8.28)
F() (8.21).
:

t ( ) =

.
(8.29)
2 g sin + v02 2 F ( )
max , (8.28) . , ,
.
t(), (t) &(t ) ,
(8.7), .
0

8.1.3.

,
, ..
P( ) = P1 = const ; ( ) = 1 = const ; m1 = 1 ; mc = 1l .

(8.30)

,
,
.
(8.21)


ln 1 .
(8.31)
1 0
l

1
, 0.
(8.30) (8.28),
F ( ) =

t ( ) =
0

P1

P1

l =

d

2 g sin +
ln 1 + v02
1 l
2 P1

(8.32)

8.1.

223

max, (8.28). (8.31) , max



P
v02 + g max sin + 1 ln 1 max = 0 .
(8.33)
l
1
max ,
, .
1 P1,
v0, max/l << 1. max,


ln 1 ,
l
l

(8.32)

t ( ) =
0

d
2a + v02

(8.34)

(8.35)

P
(8.36)
a = g sin 1 .
mc

,
at 2
(t ) =
(8.37)
+ v0 t .
2
(8.37) , v0 a < 0. ,
, max l
. mc,

P1.

(8.38)
&(t ) = at + v .
0

, , ,
(8.37) (8.38) (8.7). (8.30)

P1 + 1 t ( at + 2v0 ) g sin + 2( at + v0 ) 2
R(t ) =
2
gmc sin

&(t ) 0 ;
&(t ) = 0.

&(t ) = 0 :

(8.39)

.8.

224

v0
.
(8.40)
a
(8.37),
v2
max = 0 .
(8.41)
2a
tmax =

8.1.4.

, , ,
,
:
P( ) = a P ;
( ) = a .
(8.42)
,
,
.

a 2
(8.43)
m1 ( ) = ( )d = .
2
0
(8.42) (8.43) (8.21) ,
a

a
F ( ) = P ln 1 2 .
(8.44)
a 2mc
t() (8.44) (8.29):

2
a
t ( ) = 2 g sin + v02 + 2 P ln1 2 d .
(8.45)
a
2
m

, max , (8.45), ..

2 g max sin + v02 + 2

a
aP
2
= 0 .
ln 1 max
a 2mc

(8.46)

,
, .. a 2 2mc << 1 ,
a
a

ln 1 2 2 ,
(8.47)
2mc
2mc
(8.47) (8.45)

8.2.

225

t ( ) =

.
(8.48)
aP 2
2 g sin + v
mc
,
. .
, , .. mc, .
m && = a + m g sin ,
(8.49)
2
0

&& + 2 = g sin ,

(8.50)

aP
.
mc
:
(0) = 0 ; &(0) = v0 .

(8.51)

(8.52)

(8.50):
1
= 2 v02 2 + g 2 sin( t ) + g sin ,

= arctg

g
.
v0

1 2 2
& =
v0 + g 2 cos( t ) .

(8.53)
(8.54)

(8.55)

, (8.42),
(8.43), (8.53) (8.55) (8.7).
, :
1

t max = + .
(8.56)
2

8.2.
, . 8.1, , -

. 8.

226

. , . .
[109, 131].
.
8.2.1.

(), (. 8.6,). - n
(. 8.6,). k- .
)
y

lA2
lA
xk
A

A1

R(t)
x

m1(t)

xk

A2

R(t)

m2(t)

gmc

l
y
xk

(t)

. 8.6.
:
; ;

)
P()
0

R(t)

m1(t)
x

gm1(t)

. x0y, , 0x k-
. 0y ( )
, , .
:
[ M ]{&x&} + [ K ]{x} = {J }R(t ) ,
(8.57)

8.2.

227

{x} {x&&} ; [M] [K] ; {J} , k- Jk = 1,


Ji = 0 (i k).
(. 8.6,).
mc. lA
, ..
,
m ( ) 0 + m2 ( )l A2
l A ( ) = 1
,
(8.58)
mc
, , m1() m2()
, (8.1), (8.2) (8.9); lA2
[. (8.8)].
(8.58),
l
l
S ( ) m2 ( )
1
lA =
(
)
d

( )d = 2
.
(8.59)

mc
mc

x0y A
S ( ) m2 ( )
x A = xk l A = xk 2
,
(8.60)
mc
xk , .
:
(8.61)
mc &x&A = R(t ) + gmc sin .
(8.60) :
mc &x&A = mc &x&k

l
l

d 2

)
d

( )d .

dt

(8.62)

(8.62) (8.61)
.
m &x& + &&m ( ) & 2 ( ) gm sin = R(t ) .
(8.63)
c k

(.8.6,),
m1().
(8.3). . m1()
x& k ,
Q1x = x& k m1 ( ) ;
(8.64)

Fixe = R(t ) + P( ) + gm1 ( ) sin ;

(8.65)

. 8.

228

u x = x& k + & ;
(8.66)

dm1 ( ) &
= ( ) ,
(8.67)
dt
(8.64)(8.67) (8.3), ,
:
&x& m ( ) = R(t ) + P( ) + & 2 ( ) + gm ( ) sin .
(8.68)
k

:
R(t ) = &x&k m1 ( ) + P( ) + & 2 ( ) + gm1 ( ) sin .
(8.69)
R(t)
(8.57):
[ M ]{&x&} + [ K ]{x} = {J } &x& m ( ) + P( ) + & 2 ( ) + gm ( ) sin . (8.70)


k- . , [M]
k- &x&k m1 ( ) . ~
[M ] , , k-,
~
M ii = mi ,
(8.71)
k- , ,
~
M kk = mk + m1 ( ) .
(8.72)
, ~
[M ] , :
~
[ M ]{&x&} + [ K ]{x} = {J } P( ) + & 2 ( ) + gm ( ) sin .
(8.73)

(8.69) (8.63).

P( )
(8.74)
&& = &x&k
+ g sin .
m2 ( )
&x&k k- (8.71):
n

[ mk + m1 ( )]&x&k + kkj x j = P( ) + & 2 ( ) + gm1 ( ) sin .

(8.75)

j =1

&x&k (8.74) :

&& =

1
(mk + mc )
&2
P( ) + gmk sin .
kkj x j ( )
m2 ( )
mk + m1 ( ) j=1

(8.76)

8.2.

229

(8.71) (8.76) n +1 n +1 , : n x1, x2, , xn + . :


(8.77)
xi (0) = 0; x&i (0) = 0; i = 1K n ;

(0) = 0; &(0) = v0 .

(8.78)

. -
. ,
(8.69).
(8.71)(8.76) ,
, - . . , ,
.
, .
1 (8.7)
. R(0)(t).
2
R(0)(t), (8.57). ,
, .
&x&k (t ) ( ).
3 &x&k (t ) (8.74). , (t) &(t ) . ,
P(t), (8.7) R(1)(t). ,
m1(t).
4 m1(t)
[M(1)] (8.57).
2- R(1)(t).
, ,
, 12 , .. .

. 8.

230

, - , mk, kk.
. 4.1.
:
1
&x&k =
k k xk + P( ) + &2 ( ) + gm1 ( ) sin ;
(8.79)
mk + m1 ( )

( m k + mc )
1
&2
P( ) + gmk sin . (8.80)
k k x k ( )
mk + m1 ( )
m2 ( )

,
, mk,
(, ). kk Rk(xk).
, (8.69)
&x&k (8.79).

&& =

R(t ) =

m ( ) x
[
P( ) + & ( ) + gm ( ) sin ] +
( )
1 + ( )
2

2
k k

, (8.81)
1 + m
m
2 ,
k
2 = k ;
(8.82)
mk
m() ,
m ( )
m ( ) = 1
.
(8.83)
mk
,
. (8.81)
(8.7), ,
. ,
,
mk >> m1() .
1

8.2.2.


, .
,
.
0xyz (. 8.7).

8.2.

231

, .. z (
) .
xk yk.
xA
lA

,
yA
xB
A

xk
yB
,
yk
B

0

,
gmc
,
0
x
y
.
Rkx
Rky
gmk
- . 8.7. :

(. 8.7).

mk, ,
Rkx(xk) Rky(yk).
, -, Rkx=kxxk, Rky=kyyk.
B + . , ,
A, lA
(8.59). B:
m x + mc x A
xB = k k
;
(8.84)
mk + mc
m y + mc y A
yB = k k
.
(8.85)
mk + mc
:
S m2
x A = xk l A cos = xk 2
cos ;
(8.86)
mc
S m2
y A = yk l A sin = yk 2
sin .
(8.87)
mc
S2 = S2() m2 = m2().
(8.86), (8.87) B:

. 8.

232

S 2 m2
cos ;
(8.88)
mk + mc
S m2
y B = yk 2
(8.89)
sin .
mk + mc
+ .
. :
(mk + mc )&x&B = Rkx ( xk ) + gmk sin + gmc sin ;
(8.90)
x B = xk

(mk + mc )&y&B = Rky ( yk ) gmk cos gmc cos ,

(8.91)

&x&B &y&B B. (8.88), (8.89) :

S2 m2
(8.92)
xk m + m cos ;
k
c

d2
S m2
(8.93)
( mk + mc ) y B = 2 yk 2
sin .
dt
mk + mc

(8.92) (8.93)
(8.90), (8.91), :
&x& ( m + m ) + &&m cos &&(m S ) sin = & 2 ( ) cos +
( mk + mc ) &x&B =

d2
dt 2

+ & (m2 S 2 ) cos + 2&&m2 sin Rkx ( xk ) + g ( mk + mc ) sin ; (8.94)


&y& ( m + m ) + &&m sin + &&(m S ) cos = & 2 ( ) sin +
2

+ & 2 (m2 S 2 ) sin 2&&m2 cos Rky ( y k ) + g ( mk + mc ) cos . (8.95)



+ :
r
r
dK
= Me .
(8.96)
dt
r
r
K ; M e
.
r
M e
r
r r
M e = rn Fen ,
(8.97)
r
r
Fen n- ; rn - . 0
r
r
r
Fe 0 = ( Rkx + gmk sin )i + ( Rky + gmk cos ) j ;
(8.98)
-

233

8.2.

r
r
r
r0 = xk i + yk j .

(8.99)

A
r
r
r
FeA = gmc sin i + gmc cos j ;

(8.100)

-
r
r
r
rA = x A i + y A j .
,
r
r
M e = k [ xk Rky + yk Rkx + g ( mk + mc )( xk cos yk sin )

g ( S 2 m2 ) cos( + )] .

r
r
r
K = rn mn vn , (8.103)
r
rn - n-
; mn r
; vn
.

x
m0 = mk + m1 ( ) , (8.104)
0.

r
r
r
(8.105)
v0 = x& k i + y& k j .

(8.102)

&
xk

&
C

yk

x& k



r
r
K 0 = k [mk + m1 ( )]( y& k xk x& k y k ) .

(8.101)

y& k

y
. 8.8.

(8.106)
,
(. 8.8).
mC = ( )d ;
(8.107)
-

r
r
r
rC = xCi + yC j =
r
r
= i [(xk + cos ) cos ] + j[( yk + sin ) sin ] ; (8.108)
r r
vC = i [(x&k + & cos & sin ) +& sin ] +
r
+ j [( y& k + & sin + & cos ) & cos ] .
(8.109)

. 8.

234


r
r
dK c = k ( y& k xk x& k yk ) + ( y& k cos x& k sin ) + &( xk sin yk cos ) +
+ & ( xk cos + y k sin ) + 2& [& ( xk cos + y k sin + ) +
+ ( y& k cos x& k sin + & )]+ 2& } ( )d .


l
r
r r
K 2 = dK = k {[( y& k xk x& k yk ) + ( y& k cos x& k sin ) +

+ &( xk sin y k cos ) + & ( xk cos + y k sin ) + 2& ]m2


[& ( xk cos + yk sin + ) + ( y& k cos x&k sin + & )]S2 + &I 2 }, (8.110)

I2 ,
l

I 2 = I 2 ( ) = 2 ( )d .

(8.111)

+ (8.106) (8.110):
r
K = ( y& k xk x& k yk )( mk + mc ) +
(8.112)
+ (m2 S 2 )[ y& k cos x& k sin + & ( xk cos + yk sin )] +
+ &m ( x sin y cos ) + & ( 2 m 2S + I ).
2

(8.102) (8.112) (8.96). ,

&x&k [(mk + mc ) yk + (m2 S2 ) sin ] + yk [(mk + mc ) xk + (m2 S2 ) cos ] +


+ &&m ( x sin y cos ) + &&[( m S )( x cos + y sin ) +
2

+ m2 2 S 2 + I 2 ] = [& 2 ( m2 S 2 ) + & 2 ( )]( xk sin y k cos )


2&&[m ( x cos + y sin ) + (m S )] + g (m + m )( x cos y sin )
2

g ( S 2 m2 ) cos( + ) xk Rky + y k Rkx .

(8.113)

(8.94) yk, (8.95) xk,


(8.113), :

S I
&x&k sin + &y&k cos + && 2 2 =
m2 S2

&
= 2& + g(mk + mc )( xk cos yk sin ) g( S2 m2 ) cos( + ) .

(8.114)

8.2.

235

(8.94), (8.95)
(8.114) , : xk, yk, .
P()
+
.

,
x
T
~ = m + m ( ) .
m
k
1
Rkx
y
Rkx Rky
gmk
gm1 Rky

P()
. 8.9. ,
T (. 8.9).
,
, . , gmk gm1().

,
~
~ dx& k + ( x& u ) dm = F e ;
m
k
x
x
dt
dt
(8.115)
~
~ dy& k + ( y& u ) dm = F e ,
m
k
y
y
dt
dt
&
&
xk , y k ; ux, uy ,
:
u x = x& k + &cos ; u y = y& k + &sin ;
(8.116)
Fxe , Fye ,
+ :
Fxe = Rkx + P( )cos T sin + g (mk + m1 ) sin ;

(8.117)
Fye = Rky + P( )sin + T cos + g (mk + m1 ) cos .
(8.59) (8.60) (8.58), :
( mk + m1 ) &x&k = Rkx ( xk ) + [ P + & 2 ( )] cos
T sin + g ( mk + m1 ) sin ;
(8.118)
( mk + m1 ) &y&k = Rky ( y k ) + [ P + & 2 ( )] sin +

+ T cos + g ( mk + m1 ) cos .

(8.119)

(8.94), (8.95), (8.114), (8.118)


(8.119) -

236

. 8.

: xk, yk, , T. : xk(0)=0; x& k (0) = 0 ; yk(0) = 0; y& k (0) = 0 ; (0)=0; &(0) = v0 ;
(0) = 0; & (0) = & 0 ; T(0) = 0.
0 Rx

, x
.
y
Rkx
, Ry
gmk
Rx Ry
Rky
(. 8.10):
. 8.10. , R x = m k &x&k + Rkx gm k sin ; (8.120)

R y = m k &y&k + R ky gm k cos . (8.121)

8.2.3.

0 > , . [131].
[8, 9].
,
, .
, , , ,
, . - x y (. 8.11).
, , . + (8.49),
xc ,
mc
(m S 2 )
sin +
yc = y + 2
.
(8.122)
(mk + mc )
m k + mc
(8.94) , (8.95)
&&mc :
&y&(mk + mc ) + &&m2 sin + &&(m2 S 2 ) cos + &&mc =
= ( )& 2 sin + (m S )& 2 sin 2m && cos R ( y ).
(8.123)
2

ky


+ , :

237

8.2.

mc
m cos
&x& sin +
+ &y& cos && 2
+ && cos +

m
S
m
2
2
2 S2

S I
( ) cos
+ && sin + 2 2 = &2
& 2 cos
m2 S2
m2 S2

mc
m sin
+ g cos( + )
= 2&&1 + 2
sin .
m2 S2
m2 S2

(8.124)

a)

m2(t)

0
x

m1(t)
Rkx
mk

Rky
y

R
fR

Rkx

gmk
fR

. 8.11.
:

P
x

Rky

gm1

+ ;
, ;
,

(8.49), (8.123) (8.124) , : x, y, .


(. 8.11,). R,
, f R, f ,
f = tg.
(8.125)

238

. 8.

:
mk &x& = R Rkx ( x ) + gmk sin ;
mk &y& = fR Rky ( y ) + gmk cos .

:
fR ( x ) Rky ( y )
&y& = f&x& kx
+ g (cos f sin ) ;
mk
R = mk &x& + Rkx ( x ) gmk sin .

(8.126)
(8.127)

(8.128)
(8.129)

, ,
(. 8.11,). , , ,
:
m1 &x& cos + m1 &y& sin + m1&& sin =
= & 2 ( ) & [x& cos + ( y& + & ) sin ] +
+ P R (cos + f sin ) + gm1 sin( + ) ;
(8.130)
T = &x&m1 sin + &y&m1 cos + &&m1 cos +
+ &[ x& cos + ( y& + & ) sin ]
gm1 cos( + ) R (sin f cos ) .
(8.131)
(8.94), (8.123), (8.124), (8.128), (8.129), (8.130)
(8.131) , : x, y, , , , R T.

, ,
. ,
, :
(0) = 0; & (0) = v0 ; R(0) = 0.
,
,
. [32] , .
8.2.4.

,
, . , ,
.
,
, (. .14.2).

239

8.3.

,
. . 8.2.3


, .

,


(. 8.12). ,

, [8, 98].

R
fR
T

P
r

. 8.12.

8.3.

8.3.1.
: ,
.
(
) . [86],
, ,
.


(
. 17). , , .
(8.5), ,
. , ,
, .
,
-, .
, [112].

240

. 8.

, ,
( ), . , , /
, ,
.
,
,
. , ,
[18].
, . ,
. ,
, 7.
. 12.
8.3.2.
Lear Jet-23.
(. 8.13) [62]
[112]. 57 , .
13.8 ,

3.84 ,

10.85 .
5670 .


1 ,

. 8.13. Lear Jet-23


0.45
180 .
. 8.14,. v = 360 /. [62],
S = 12 2 ( l = 10 h = 1.2 ). , 5 , 0 45 , 5
80 .

8.3.

)
. k

R,

15
10
5

0.05
t,

241

0.1

1.5
1

= 0.05 0.07 0.1


0.5

20

40
60
f,

80

100

. 8.14. Lear Jet-23:


[62];

. 8.14,
k. (.. - ),
f ,
, . 8.14,,
(..
12 ). ,
k,
10 30 , R(t). k 1.21.3, .. .
k
, . 4.
,

R(t), .
k, .
Cessna-210. (. 8.15)
[62]
[112]. 46 . : 8.6 ,
9.9 , 11.5 . 1725 .

. 8.16,. - v = 310360
/. S = 4 2 ( l = 8 h = 0.5 [62]). , Lear Jet. -

. 8.

242

.
8.16,.

200 ,
.
0.5 2.

. 8.15. Cessna-210
.
)
. . K

R,

8
6
4
2
0

0.01
t,

2
1.5
1

= 0.05 0.07 0.1

0.5
0

0.02

100

200 300 400 500


f,

. 8.16. Cessna-210:
;

.
. 8.17;
S = 2 2; 0 90 .
)

)
. . k

R,

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0

0.01
t,

0.02

= 0.05 0.07 0.1


0

200
f,

400

. 8.17. :
;

8.3.

243

8.3.3.
- Phantom RF-4E.
[128] [112]. . 8.18,
,


. 8.1.

, . 8.18. -
,
Phantom RF-4E

. 8.19,.
)

)
40
R,

R,

120
80
40

0.02

30
20
10

0.04
0.06 0.08
t,

0.002 0.004 0.006


t,

)
. . k

. 8.19.

Phantom RF-4E:

1.5
1


;

;

= 0.05 0.07 0.1

0.5
0
0

20

40
60
f,

80

100

244

. 8.

,
. 8.19, ,


,
,

, . 8.1,.

20000 , 215 / [110].
0
45 .

7 2.
. 8.19,
, . 8.19,.


,


,

.
,

,

1665 , 0.91
. 8.20. 100 /. 0
Sandia National Laboratories () [133] 45 .
. 8.3.1, ,

. Phantom , .
8.19, [112].

8.3.

245

R(t),

R(t),

R(t),

/
10000 .
200
1988 . Sandia Namc
v0 = 240 /
tional Laboratories ()
22

160
18
,
12
120
Phantom RF-4E
215 / 80

3.66 (. 8.20). , 40
(
0
1:25,
t,
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
)
94 %

160
v0 = 215 /

mc
22

120
,
18
6 %
12
80
[132, 133].
,

40

0

t,
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08

v0 = 90 /
mc = 22 18 12
.
60


0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1 t,
.

. 8.21.
. 8.19,,
Phantom mc
Phantom v0

, .
- , , (1.5),
. Phantom,
,

246

. 8.

R, 102

. ,
[143],
mc 12 22 , v0 90 240 /.
. 8.21
, .
,
(x)
)

1.2
,
0 =

1.0
0
23

0.8
35

57
, 46
0.6
69
80
.
0.4

, ,
0.2
(1.5), 0.0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08

t,

)
18
0

0
14
80

0
69

0
57
,

0
10
46

0
35

6

2
, 0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08 . ,
0
t,
. 8.22. Phantom ,
0 :
,
;

.

8.3.

247

S, 2

R,

0 ,
. . 8.2.3.


. 8.22,
Phantom RF-4E*. v0 = 200 /, mc = 20 ; = 23 ( f = 0.4).
, . 8.1,, ().
. 8.22, Rn(t) 0.
, , Rn(t) = R(t)cos0, R(t) . ,

( 0 = 46) , ,
Rn(t).
0 .
120

100
R
80
,
S
.
15
60
8.22,.
10
40

. . 8.23 5
20
0

0
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
t,
[50]. ,
. 8.23.

[50]
20 000
200 /. 0 45 .
.
Phantom RF-4E.

.. [18, 98]

. 8.

248

2.4

1.8

1.2
0.6

2
0

10 15 20
x,

25

. 8.25. FB-111
[127, 135]

80
R,

, 103

10

P,

5.2

10.3


. 8.19,.
, /
.
, Phantom RF-4E.
FB-111
. . 8.24. 52 000 ( ).
21.4
P
. 8.25.
. 8.26

22.4

v0 = 89.2 /
[127, 135] ( . 8.24. FB-111 [127, 135]
60

:
P
5P

40

P/5

20

0.2
0.1
t,

0.3

. 8.26.

[127, 135]

). , : 5 5 P.
, , .
: , , .
, .

249

8.3.

R,

50

0.1 0.2 0.3


t,

50

0
0.4

S, 2

100

100

. . k

8.3.4.
Boeing 707-320 , 190 .
. 8.27. :
44.42 , 44.61 , 12.75 . .





.
. 8.27. Boeing 707-320

[112].
200 000 100 /.
)
)
2

= 0.1 0.07 0.05


0
0

10

20 30 40
f,

50

. 8.28. Boeing 707-320


100 /:

. 8.28,, . 8.28,. ,

(). . 8.28, . [129]
, . 8.29,. 100 /,
. 8.25,, . [112], . ,
. 8.29, .

. 8.

250

P
5

0
0

30
15
x,

45

R,

10

10

v0=200 /
150 /
100 /
50 /
25 /
10 /

100
P, /

, /

10

1
0

0.8
0.4
t,

1.2

. 8.29. Boeing 707-320:


;
[137]

Boeing 747-400 Jumbo Jet , ,


500 .
a)
390 000 .


. 8.30,,
.
8.30,.
. 8.31,


)
.
64.44

70.66


50 .
11
22.17
. 8.32

19.41
25.6
, 68.63
.
. 8.30. Boeing 747-400 Jumbo Jet:
;
-

251

8.3.


250 , ..


Phantom
(. . 8.19,),



.

0
10 .

. 8.31.
Boeing 747-400

R,

250

125
(2.5 /2)

200
65
(1.3 /2)

150
100

0.1

0.3
0.2
t,

0.4

125
(2.5 /2)

0.15
0

0.16

2
. . k

0.21 0.3

0.4

. 8.32.
Boeing 747-400

0.21
0.2


50 2

1.5
1

50 2

= 0.05 0.07 0.1


0.5

0.2

0.15
0 0.02 0.16

90

65
(1.3 /2)

10

20
30
40
f,

33
8

50

. 8.34. . 8.32

. 8.33.
Boeing 747-400

. 8.

252

S, 2

, /

P,

. 8.32.
. 8.33. 50 2 (), , , 100 2 ( ), 50 2
.
. 8.34 , . 8.32.

/ 75 000 ( ), .
-26 -24. -26,
. 8.35,

(,
..).

-
220 /. . 8.35. -26

,

)
, 430 /. 24 000 .

50
50,8
3453
3

40

2
30
-24. 719
17,3
17,3
20 556
1
10
436
170

803
212
0
.
24
10
5
15
20
42 472

x,

12

. 8.36.
-26:

4
0

10
15
x,

20

24

8.3.

R,

)
50

V0 = 430 /

40

V0 = 220 /

30
20
10
0

0.02

0.04

0.08
0.06
t, c

0.10 0.12

)
10
V0 = 430 /

V0 = 220 /

6
4
2
0

0.02

0.04

0.08
0.06
t, c

0.10

0.12

0.10

0.12

S, 2

)
12

V0 = 430 /

10

V0 = 220 /

8
6
4
2
0

0.02

0.04

0.08
0.06
t, c

)
20
R,

. 8.36 (x), P(x)



.
:

-
(. 8.37,). .
8.37,

, .
8.37,
.
.
8.37,,
220 /
(
)
3 , .
, ,

(
),

.

-

253

10

0.02

0.04
0.06
t, c

0.08

0.10

. 8.37.
-26:
; ;
;

254

. 8.

. . k

6 2 (. 8.37,). 430 / ( )
.
, 3, 9 ,
.
.
, , ,
. , 2
,
,

-, ..
1
220 /.
= 0.1 0.07 0.05
()
220
/ . 8.37,.

0
20
40
60
80
100
,
f,
. 8.38. . 8.37,.


. 8.38.
-26
8.3.5.

, .
,
.

. ,

, ,
. III .
.
, .
,
(
).
k. .
.

8.3.

255

. , .
, , . , , k,
, . -, (, ,
), , , . ,
, ,
, .
k , .

,
. , .
,
, , .. 5 10 %.
( Lear Jet) 1.6 1.8.

k 1.7. k 8
20 , .. . , ,
35 .
. 17- .

, 1. (Boeing 707-320, Boeing
747-400 -24) 50 , Phantom RF-4E 100 , 100 .

. ( ) ,
(. . 4.3.5).

256

. 8.

8.4.
8.4.1.
() , . 150 /.

. 13.
,
, , . ,
. . 13.
[90]
,
. . : , ..
( , ); (
); .
. .
, . . 7.
( , ..).
8.4.2.
,
, (,
.). .

() l = 13.4 ,
0.343 . m = 724 , = 54 /.
, v0 = 67 /. = 0.53108
[135]; A = 0.1 2, , P = A = 0.53107 .
(8.39), (8.40), . 8.1.3.
, ( = 0)

8.4.

257

v 02
<< 1 .
2P

(. . 13). 6- () vmax 168 /.
, v0 0.4vmax, ..
v0 = 67 /.
v02
= 0.023 << 1 .
2P
, .. ,
. , .
(8.39):
2

R(t),

P
2
R(t ) = P1 + 1 v 0 1 t = 0.53 10 7 + 54(67 7324t ) ,
m
c

(8.40):
mv
67 724
t max = c 0 =
= 0.00915 c .
P1
0.53 10 7
. 8.39. Rmax = 0.554107 , Rmin = P1 = 0.53107 .
, [135] (8.5).

6
,
5

4
v0
.
3

67 /
2
38 /
1
Rmax Rmin = P1.
0
0.005
0.01
,
t,
Rmax
Rmin . 8.39.
, ()
. . 8.39, ,
38 / ( 3-
95 /). -

. 8.

258


k, . 4.
,
(8.5)
(, )
(, ) .
,
(. . 8.23). , , , , , .
8.4.3.

, 3-
(
70 /).
:
( )
( ).
.
2.5
, M

50
,

40
30
20

1330

10

22 /
0

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05


,

. 8.40.
1968 Falcon [135]

1815 ,
27 /
910 ,
14 /

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0

-0.5
0.00 0.02

0.04 0.06
,

0.08 0.10

. 8.41.
[127]

. 8.40 8.41 [127, 135] . ,


. .
, -,
. , -

8.4.

259

R,

P,

, /

, ,
, ,
. , ,
. 8.41.

(8.5). . 8.42 -24 1800 . P
. 8.42,.
)
P

600
3

400
2
P

,
200
1
R = 330 . , P,
0
0
0
1
3
4
5
2
, , ,
, ,
)
4
3
.
v (/)
. 8.42, 2
20

30
v.
1
40

50
( 0
). 0
0.01
0.02
0.03
,
. 8.42.

-24 :

, . 4. ;
, . 8.4.1
,
, [127].
. 8.42, .
300 0.60.8 .
. 7.

9

, ,
*. [50, 51, 71, 87] [112, 128, 137 .]. ,
.

(, ) ( , ..). , ,
,
, , .
: ,
. , ,
. , ,
, , . ,
[71].
.
:
(), , ( ). .
, . , ,
, , ,
.
, .
, , ,
, .
, .
*

9.1.

261

9.1.
9.1.1.

p,

.
[112].
() , ..
, - -
(), , .
p(t)
)


p

.

0
t
, +

)
. 60

40
,
20
. ( 0
0.4
0.8
1.2
t,
, ..
)
. 9.1.
. 9.1,.

, :
- ;
,
p (
). + ( ),
, .
,
.
( ).

, ..

262

. 9.

. ,
, , .
.
*,
. , 120 250 /, .
, : , .
. 9.1, .
,
, . ,
, . , ,
,
. , ,
, [112]
(. . 9.1.2).

.

. .
,
, .
9.1.2.
- -
/
, , , , (, , ) .
, ,
, .

*

, . , [60]
300500 /, .. .

9.1.

263

, [40].
(),
.

, Rd (. 9.1).
, ,
. 9.2. , . , .. .
9 . 1 .

1
2
3
4


Rd,
<2
2 Rd < 10
10 Rd < 40
40 Rd

9 . 2 .

1.

2.




1,3-

3.

264

. 9.
. 9.2

4.

Tp


, ,

.
,
. 9.3.
9 . 3 .

1

3
4


, , ,
,


Rd . Rd , :
1 5 ;
2 20 ;
3 50 ;
4 150 .
: , , ,

:
,


(. 9.4).

265

9.1.
9 . 4 .

1
2
3
4


1
2
3
4

1
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
2
3
4
5
3
4
5
6



(. 9.5).
9 . 5 .

1
2
3
4
5



500 /
, 300500 /
, 200300 /
, 150200 /
,

w = k1 6 M ,

(9.1)

M , ; , ( . 9.2); k1 , k1 = 43.
,

w = k 2 6 M ,

(9.2)

k2 , k2 = 26.

1.
, , .
. 9.1, .
. 9.3 , .. .
. 9.4 ,
.
. 9.5 ,
300500 /.

. 9.

266

9.2.
9.2.1.
.
(., ,
[21, 29, 60, 61, 67, 68, 96] .).

M ()
R (). :
R
R=
,
(9.3)
3 Q

Q ,
Q = (1 ) M ,

(9.4)

,
( = 0.05; = 0.2; = 0);

(). . 9.6. , = 1.5.
9 . 6 .

50/50

A-IX-2


, /
4520
5380
5695
5785
4520
4520
4475
5150
2665
7005

1.0
1.19
1.26
1.28
1.0
1.0
0.99
1.14
0.59
1.55


, /3
1.6
1.66
1.9
1.77
1.73
1.66
0.6
1.66
1.6
1.72

(. 9.2,) .
p ():
0.92 3.5 10.6 5
+ 2 + 3 10

p = R
R
R
4.2 105 R 1.45

1.2 R < 17.8 /1 3 ;


17.8 R < 1000 / .
13

(9.5)

267

9.2.

+ ():
1.7 103 3 Q R
1.2 R < 10 /1 3 ;
+ =
(9.6)
0.4
3
10 R < 1000 /1 3 .
6.594 10 3 Q [lg(0.4 R )]

p(t)

p(t)

p
p
0

. 9.2.
:

t
0

2
1

; :
1 (9.7), (9.8); 2 (9.9); 3
; 4


,
(. . 6),
i+,
.
1.2 R < 1000 /1/3
i+ = 350

, .
(9.7)
R
0 t + [61]
n

t
p(t ) = p 1 ,
+
n=

+ p

(9.8)

1.
(9.9)
i
. 9.2, ( 1).

:
t

p ( t ) = p 1 .
(9.10)

. 9.

268

, .. = + (. 9.2,, 2). [61, 68].


,
, (9.8) (9.10):
2
1 = + .
(9.11)
n +1
(. 9.2,, 3). , ( ) +, .. , ,
(. 9.2,,
4):

2 =

.
(9.12)
n

[61, 68]:
p = 3 104 R 1 , ;
(9.13)

= 0.16 3 Q , .

(9.14)

,
,
.
(, ),
, . , , p R , p 200 .
, ,
.
9.2.2.
, [83].
[71], . [40], .
, . . 9.1. -

9.2.

269

,
. 9.2.3. , , ,
,
, , .
, , ,
.
, , . 9.7. , :
1)
. , , , ;
2) , ;
3) , .

2240M T
V =
, 3,
(9.15)
CT0
M , ; ,
(. 9.8); T
: K = C + 273; T0 = 273 K; (. 9.7).

r0 = 0.78 3 V , .

(9.16)


p = 2.586 103 ( 1 1) qm , ;

(9.17)

1 qm (/) . 9.7.

p = p p0 ,
(9.18)
p0 ( p0 105 ).
, ,
.

R
R=
, /1/3.
(9.19)
3 E

. 9.

270


, /3

H2
CH2
C2H6
C3H8
C4H10
C5H12
C6H14
C2H2
C2H4
C3H6
C4H8
C4H6
C6H6
C7H8
C6H10
C6H12
CH4O
C2H6O
C3H6O
CH3
CO
C4H10O
C2H4Cl2
C2H3Cl

2
16
30
44
58
72
86
26
28
42
56
54
78
92
106
34
32
46
42
17
28
74
99
62.5
98
166
188

0.933
1.232
1.250
1.315
1.328
1.340
1.340
1.278
1.285
1.314
1.329
1.330
1.350
1.350
1.355
1.340
1.300
1.340
1.210
1.180
1.280
1.360
1.490
1.400
1.27
1.28
1.30


C, %


- (
)

9 . 7 .

15

2.87
2.57
1.98

9.7
3.32
3.55

1.5

271

9.2.

qm, /

qv, /3

29.59
9.45
5.66
4.03
3.13
2.56
2.16
7.75
6.54
4.46
3.38
3.68
2.84
2.23
1.96
2.23
12.30
6.54
4.99
19.72
29.59
3.38
6.54
7.75
6.4
6.45
6.55

C, %

4
5
2.9
2.1
1.8
1.4
1.2
2.5
3.0
2.2
1.6
2.0
1.4
1.3
1.0
1.2
6.0
3.6
2.2
15.0
12.5
1.7

1.2
1.2
1.2

75
15
15
9.5
9.1
7.8
7.5
81
32
10.3
9.4
11.5
7.1
6.7
7.0
10.6
34.7
19.0
13.0
28
74
49

7.5
7.5
7.5

2425
2763
2797
2801
2776
2797
2797
3387
3010
2922
2892
2962
2937
2843
2830
2797
2843
2804
3112
2365
2930
2840
2164
2483
2973
2880
2810

3195
3404
3496
3676
3684
3748
3748
4329
3869
3839
3843
3967
3966
3838
3834
3748
3696
3757
3766
2791
3750
3862
3224
3980
3770
3670
3650

1.248
1.256
1.257
1.257
1.270
1.258
1.261
1.259
1.259
1.259
1.260
1.260
1.261
1.260
1.259
1.248
1.253
1.256
1.259
1.248
1.256
1.261
1.265
1.260

272

. 9.

(9.19) R (R > r0); E


, :
E = 2qv V , .
(9.20)
, :
2p
= 1 0
p

1 1
1

(9.21)

9 . 8 . ,



( )
, ( )
, ( )
(, ,
),
(, )

1.0
0.60.7
0.5
0.1
0.05
0.01

p, (. 9.2),
1.227 10 3
+ 490 0.05 R < 0.068 / 1 3 ;
R 4.68

4.156 103
0.068 R < 0.31 / 1 3 ;
p =
1.7
R

4960 + 974 + 146 0.31 R / 1 3 ,


R2
R3
R
+, ,

(9.22)

0.323 103 R 3 E
0.052 < R 0.434;
(9.23)
+ =
4
1
.
5
0.434 < R .
0.209 10 R 3 E (6.634 + R )
( ) ,
:
p
(9.24)
i+ = + .
2
2.
100 , ,

9.2.

273

R0 = 500 . 20.
.
(. 9.7 9.8):
M = 100 000 ; , , = 0.1; = 44;
C = 4.03 %;
1 = 1.257;
: qm = 2801 /,
qv = 3676 /3; T0 = 273 K;
T = 20C + 273 = 293 K.
- (9.15):
V =

2240M T 2240 0.1 100000 293


=
= 0.136 106 (3).
44 4.03 273
CT0

(9.16):
r0 = 0.78 3 V = 0.78 3 0.136 106 = 40 ().
. 9.1.2.
. 9.2, 2- . ,
1- . 9.3 (
). . 9.4 . 9.5
, .
. 9.2.2.
(9.17):
p = 2.586 103 ( 1 1)qm = 2.586 103 (1.257 1) 2801 = 0.186 107 ().


p = p p0 = 0.186 107 1 105 = 0.176 107 ().
(9.21) ,
:
1 1

1.2571

2 p 1
2 1 105 1.257

= 1 0 = 1
= 0.366 .
7
0.186 10
p
, , (9.20):
E = 2qv V = 2 3676 0.366 0.136 106 = 0.366 109 ().

R
370
R=
=3
= 0.517 (/1/3).
9
3 E
0.366 10

274

. 9.

R
(9.22):
4960 974 146 4960 974
146
p =
+ 2 + 3 =
+
+
= 14294 14.3 ().
2
R
R
R
0.517 0.517 0.5173
(9.23):
+ = 0.209 10 4 R 3 E (6.634 + R )1.5 =
= 0.209 104 0.517 3 0.366 109 (6.634 + 0.517)1.5 = 0.2 ().
(9.24):
p
14.3 0.2
i+ = + =
= 1.43 ().
2
2
,

, . 14.
. ,
,
, (9.17), 44
.
, .
9.2.3.

, . 9.2.1
9.2.2, . , , .. .
, ,
, .
[29, 68].
. 9.3 , . , () ( ). . D,
p, :
D = 340 1 + 8.3p , /.

(9.25)

275

9.2.

p(t)

p
t

p(t)

0
p(t)
p(t)

)
p(t)

p
p

t
0

p(t)

p(t)
p

p(t)
p(t)

t
)

x1

x
p(t)

0
p(t)

p(t)

t+

. 9.4.

:

p(t)

, ; ;

p(t)
p(t)

p(t)

t t

p(t)

. 9.3.
:
; ;


p(t) , . 9.4,.



. p(t)

(. 9.4,).

276

. 9.

p.
10 %,
6( p ) 2
, .
(9.26)
p = 2p +
p + 0.72
,
.

k = p/p, 2.
10 %,
p = p +

2.5( p ) 2
p + 0.72

, .

(9.27)

(9.26), (9.27)
.
. , . ,
,
, p p (. 9.4,).

3H *
t
,
(9.28)
D
H* : h
b (. . 9.3,).
t (9.26) (9.27).
p (. . 9.4,).
t > t .
(9.28), t , .
p , .. (
. 9.4,). ,
t.
, (. . 9.4,). ,
x (. . 9.3,), x1
x x1
.
p(t ) = p 1

(9.29)

9.2.

277


,
. 9.5,

x
t=
.
(9.30)

T
. 9.4,.

t, A - B -

. (9.30) 9.5. x = l. - [96]



t,
4h
2b
t =
t =
.
(9.31)
D
D

k = p/ p

. . 9.5
5
p = 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.25

[96]. , 4

0.02 0.01 0.005
,

.
3
,
,
.

2
0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0.03
1
, 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
(
). .
9.6.

B,

[67]
.

278

. 9.

,
.
. 9.6 k
p. ,
p, , 40. p
0.1 ,
, 40 70.
3.
b = 1515 h = 18.4 . , R = 500 (M = 60 000 ). Q
(9.4), = 0: Q = M = 60 000 .
(9.3)
R
500
R=
=3
= 12.8 (/1/3).
3 Q
60000

R
(9.5):
0.92 3.5 10.6 5
p =
+ 2 + 3 10 =
R
R
R
10.6 5
0.92 3.5
=
+
+
10 = 9830 () = 9.83103 ().
2
3
12.8 12.8 12.8
(9.6):

+ = 6.594 10 3 3 Q [lg(0.4 R )]

0.4

= 6.594 10 60000 [lg(0.4 12.8)] = 0.23 (c).


.
9.7,. ,
.
.
(9.25):
3 3

0.4

D = 340 1 + 8.3p = 340 1 + 8.3 9.83 10 3 = 353.6 (/).

, . (. 9.7,) (9.26):
6( p ) 2
6 (9.83 10 3 ) 2
= 2 9.83 10 3 +
=
p = 2p +
9.83 10 3 + 0.72
p + 0.72
= 0.02045 () = 20450 ().

279

9.2.

t, ,
(9.28),
H* = 7.5 (
):

p(t),

9830
t,

0
0.23
3H
3 7.5
=
= 0.064 ().
p(t),
D
353.5
)

20450
. 9.7,. t
9830
(9.30) x = b =
= 15 :
b
15
t,
t =
=
= 0.042 ().
D 353.5
0.23
0 0.064

)
p(t),

(9.31):
9830
2b
2 15
t =
=
= 0.085 ().
t,
D 353.5
0 0.042 0.085
0.272


. 9.7.
:
t = t + =
,
=0.042 + 0.023 = 0.0272 ().
;
;
,

. 9.7,
.
, (, , ,
.),
, .
4.
:
1 (. 9.8,). 1 .
, .
. 9.8, ,
.
,

t =

. 9.

280
a)



20
0.01 .
1
p(t)
,

p(t)
15

p(t)
p = p p
10
p(t)

(
20
),

5
0.01

. ,

0
0.10
0.20 t, c

. 9.8.
,

;
.
, , [50], 10 30 1 . , , . 9.7,. , , , , .
, -, , ,
30
1 , 1.5 14000 ( 230 ). , ..
,
(,
). -, ,
45 ,
, 2 (. . 4).
, .
.
.
: [112] , .
10 , .. , 0.2 .

281

9.2.

9.2.4.

)
p
p

p0

max

+ t
)

10

p0, 105


, ,
,
.
. 9.9,
[65].
p0 ( )

. 9.9,
p ,

. , p
;
p.

=1
0.9
0.7
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.1

0.1
0.1

10

5
0.8p 0.2;
p, 10
p
(9.32)
. 9.9. 0.9p = 0.4.
:
- ;

p0
max = (0.10.15)+.
, p 100 ,
p 20 .

9.2.5.

, .
. 9.10. , p , , . , .

282

. 9.

, ,
: p
;
, ; , ,

. t
+

[96]

~
i+ = k i+ ,
(9.33)
. 9.10. - i+
-

; k , V, 2,
Q, . k

+.
k ,

. [96]
V/Q 7 :
8.5 V ( 2Q ) 7 V Q 15 ;
k=
(9.34)
15 < V Q .
1

:
- , ,
, , , k ;
- , ,

k ;
- , k
.
, . . 9.11

9.2.

283

p,


[21].
- 10 000
,
1000
100
,
,
10
. 10
0.001
0.01
0.1
1

Q/V, / 3

. 9.11.
,

, [21]
(9.17).
5. ab = 55 h = 4
Q = 8 . O .


(3)
(2)
(. 9.12): (1)
1.9
0.93
2
0 l
l
2
3
; (2)
4 , ..
l4
(4)
l1
(1)
; (3)

1.44
; (4)
4.4
.

. 9.12.


. 9.9. (
).
, . k, (9.34):

. 9.

284

V
100
= 8.5
= 2.25 .
2Q
2 8
. 9.9, . , :+ 0.01 , .
, .
9.12.
.
k = 8.5

9 . 9 .


li,
Ri , /1/3

pi ,

+ i ,

p ,i ,

+,i,

i
2
3

2.5

3.2

4.1

3.5

(9.3)

1.25

1.6

2.05

1.75

(9.5),
1-

0.084

0.045

0.026

0.036

(9.6),
1-

0.0038

0.0043

0.0048

0.0045

(9.26)

4.4

1.9

0.93

1.44

(9.33)
(9.34)

0.0086

0.0097

0.011

0.01

. 9.13 . ,
p0
, t = t1
:
p(t ) = p1 exp(ct ) .
(9.35)
(9.35),
tmax .
p1 , ,
:

9.2.

p1 = p0 + p ,

285

(9.36)

p
p
p
1
p(t) = p1exp(ct)
. 9.11.
aS
c = 2.13 0 ,
(9.37)
p0
V
2
S , ; V
t1
tmax t
, 3; a0
.
. 9.13.

a0 = 340 /. -
(9.37),
S
c = 725 , 1/.
(9.38)
V
, t1 , . ta

, :
l
ta =
.
(9.39)
D
l ; D
[. (9.25)]. n , .. n ,
t1 = ( 2n 1)ta + + .
(9.40)


. [21] , ..
t1 = 5ta + + .
, , ,
. , [21] , c, (9.36)
(9.37), , .. . , ,
t1, (9.40). , ,
.

pmax
= p1 exp(ct1 ) .
(9.41)

286

. 9.

, t1, .

pmax = pmax
p0 .
(9.42)
S ,
(9.36), (9.39) (9.41)
. :
. (9.37) (9.41),
V
p1
S=
ln
.
(9.43)
2.13a0t1 pmax
6. , , pmax 50 .
:
()
pmax
= pmax + p0 = 50 + 100 = 150 ().


Q
8
=
= 0.08 .
V
100
. 9.11 , p 320 . ,
p1 = p0 + p = 100 + 320 = 420 ().

D = 340 1 + 8.3 106 p = 340 1 + 8.3 106 4.4 106 = 2080 (/).
l1 = 2.5 . ,
2.5
l
ta = 1 =
= 0.0012 ().
D 2080
+ = 0.011 c. , :
t1 = 5ta + + = 5 0.0012 + 0.011 = 0.017 ().
, p1 = 420 ,
V
p1
100
420
S=
ln
=
ln
= 8.1 (2).
2.13a0t1 pmax 2.13 350 0.017 150

9.3.

287

9.3.
9.3.1.

, . 9.1.1.
,
w * ,
. . 9.1.1 [40]
, w.
w = 200 /.

, : , .
.
, . [11], , ..,
.. , .. [25, 94] . .
, , . ,
, ( = 68).
() , . ,
,
, . ( ,
, )
.
: , .
, ,
,
: .
. , ,
, . 9.14 (, ).
*

. . 268.

288

. 9.

a)
p
pmax
p
t

)
p

: R
(); R

; R
; ,
= w a0 ,
(9.44)

a0 = 340 /
.
pmax
0.5, R R R,

p
,
. 9.14,. 0
t

. 9.14.
: p, pmax, ;
. ,

, (.
. 9.14).
, .
0 < 0.6, pmax
, .. :
pmax = 2.1 p0

2
,
1+

(9.45)

p0 .
(9.45) , . .

. , .

..
. .
[71]

289

9.3.

R0 = 0.781 3

2240M T
,
CT0

(9.46)

(. . 9.7); , (9.56).

R = R0 3 ,

(9.47)

,
= 4(1 + C C ) .

(9.48)

= 8.
R (R R)
pm ( R 0 ) =

pmax
,
1 + B( R 0 1)C

(9.49)

B C . 9.10, R0 ,
R 0 = R / R .
(9.50)
9 . 1 0 .

B
C

0.2
0.588
1.146

0.3
0.567
1.146

0.4
0.687
1

0.5
0.546
1.048

0.6
0.467
1.14


, .
, (9.45) (9.49).

, , . 9.15.
R0 t0:
t 0 = t R , /.
(9.51)
: ; C ; J, G F
, ; D .
. 9.11. = 8,
6 8 23%.

290

. 9.
12

11
5

t 0, 103 /

10
9
8

7
6

1
3

4
2

2
1

0.5

1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
R 0

3.0

3.5

. 9.15.

,
. 9.15, .
16,
. 9.12. ,

.
R0,t0 , : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 .


(. 9.16). OB , .
. p pmax, a, . 9.13.

291

9.3.

p = ( pmax p ) sin

2l

+ p .

(9.52)

9 . 1 1 .

B
C
D
E
F
G
J


0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.3

7.4

5.9

4.9

4.2

3.7

3.3

2.9

2.7

2.5

1.03

1.05

1.06

1.08

1.1

1.3

1.15

1.18

1.2

8.2

6.8

6.0

5.4

5.0

4.8

4.5

4.4

4.3

95.2

20.2

7.7

4.3

3.2

2.6

2.3

2.0

1.8

285.2

63.1

25.5

14.9

11.2

9.1

7.9

6.8

6.1

95.2

20.2

7.7

4.3

3.2

2.6

2.3

2.0

1.8

t E0 10 3

280

58.9

21.9

11.7

8.2

6.3

5.1

4.3

3.7

9.3

7.8

7.0

6.4

6.0

5.8

5.5

5.4

5.2

8.5

6.9

5.9

5.2

4.6

4.2

3.8

3.5

3.3

8.4

6.8

5.8

5.1

4.5

4.1

3.7

3.4

3.2

RB0

t 10
0
B

0
C

t 10
0
C

0
D

t D0 10 3
0
E

0
F

t F0 10 3
0
G

t 10
0
G

0
J

t 10
0
J

9 . 1 2 .

t010 3 /

0.37 + 0.63RC0

0.75t B0 + 0.25t E0

0.21 + 0.79 RC0

0.5(t B0 + t C0 )

0.09 + 0.91RC0

0.25t B0 + 0.75t C0

0.75RB0 + 0.25RE0

0.78t B0 + 0.22t E0

0.5( RB0 + RE0 )

0.53t B0 + 0.47t E0

0.25RB0 + 0.75RE0

0.27t B0 + 0.73t E0

292

. 9.
12

t 0, 103 /

10

3
3

p
1

b
a

pmax

11

0
t

0
G t

J
t0

3
2

pmax

pmax

t 0

t 0

3
2

0
0.0

1.0

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

. 9.16.

, R
,
R0 [. (9.49)].
R0.
0 R0 1 (. 9.16, aa),
: , . t 0
a a
. p pmax ( , ). 1, 2 ..
(, , ) . a a , EM, ..
11, 22 .

293

9.3.

pmax
p (. . 9.13)
t 0 ,
OB J. 0
.
t
p /6.
.
1 R0 R E0 (. 9.16, b b),
: . t0 b b
OE BE.
, , < pmax , pmax
2 2, ,
0
t 0 , . t

(1 t 0 t0 ) n ,
p = pmax
(9.53)
n, , . 9.13.
9 . 1 3 .

0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2

p,
0.06
2.03
9.52
22.4
39.2
59.3
82.2
107.7
135.8

pmax,
24.3
35.5
47.9
65.9
85.3
108.2
132.3
156.3
195.9

p,
19.9
30.4
40.9
53.7
66.4
81.6
96.8
114.1
131.3

n
1.45
1.51
1.57
1.66
1.74
1.83
1.9
1.96
2.05

k
0.107
0.105
0.09
0.087
0.084
0.082
0.078
0.074
0.071

R E0 R0,
( ).
p
. 9.2.1,
R = kR 0 .
(9.54)
k . 9.13.

294

. 9.

.
0 R 0 RE0
p RE0 R 0 .
0 R 0 1
p max p , R0
.
, R0,
( R ). R ,
R0 ( R E0 ) ,
t0 (9.51).
)

R0 = 1.5; = 0.8

39.2

40

66.4

85.3

50

0
0

0.05

0.10
0.15
t,

80

50

40

0
0

0.20

R = 25

76.5

p,

R = 25

39.2

80
p,

R0 = 0.5; = 0.8

0.10
0.05
t,

R0 = 0.5

40.9

= 0.8
47.9

9.5

p,

)
R = 25

60

0
0.0

0.5

1.0

. 9.17.
R0, R

1.5

t,


, , R0 R. . 9.17.
. 9.17, = 0.8 R0 = 0.5, .
9.17, = 0.8, R0 = 1.5.
R = 25 , -

9.3.

295

R = 50 . ,
, ( ).
. 9.17, R0 , .
9.17, (R0 = 0.5), = 0.6;
R = 25 . ,
,
.
9.3.2.

,
, ,
.
.
(9.45),
,
.
7.
, 75 000 () Boeing
747-400, . 8.3.4.
, . 9.1.2. . 9.2 ( 4).
, . 9.3,
( 3). . 9.4
, 5-
, . 9.5 . (9.1):
w = k1 6 M ,
M , ; ,
(
. 9.2.2); k1 , k1 = 43. M = 75 000 ;
= 0.05 (. 9.8) , ,
w = k1 6 M = 436 0.05 75000 170 (/).
pmax (9.45). ,
p0 = 105 ; a0 = 340 /. :
= w a0 = 0.5 .

296

. 9.

pmax = 2.1 p0

0.52
2
= 2.1 105
= 0.35 105 ().
1+
1 + 0.5

. , , (9.15), (9.16), : C = 1.2; = 166 (. 9.7); T = 390 K


(17C); T0 = 373 K.

R0 = 0.781 3

2240M T
2240 0.05 75000 390
= 0.781 3
= 27.6 ().
166 1.2 373
CT0

,
(9.47) (9.48) C = 6.45 (. 9.7):
C
1.2

R = R0 3 41 + = 303 41 +
= 50.4 ().
C
6
.45

, ,
. , , .. R = 0.
. ,
,
1.5 ( 70 ), .. .
: - Phantom RF-4E, . 8.3.3, 10 000 , (. 8.3.2), 200 .
, ,
Boeing 747-400. : - R = 28.3 , R = 7.7 .
8.
[142].

p = ps + cq ,
(9.55)
ps , ; q ; ,
. ,

9.3.

297

(
). ,
.
p p1
p2
, , , t1
t2
. 9.18.
0 0.1 0.2
t, c
: p1 105 ; p2 = ap1,
1/2 a 2/3. . 9.18.

p2 0.5105 . [142]
.
50
. 9.18 40

,
30
[112]
20
10
[128].
, 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
t,

. 9.19.
()
[112, 128]
() :
p1
p1
p = p p ,
(9.56)

p ; p .
p2
p
. 9.20, .
0.3
0.1 0.15 0.2
0
t,
(, .
9.20.

[128]:
). ;

0.2 .
, . 9.20,, .
. 9.18.
,
.

298

. 9.

,

1.3p

p
.
900
0
, 600 120
. 9.18,
p
300
. p

,

1.3p
p

pp1/p2

. 9.21.
(. . 9.2.3).

[128]
( ),
30 70 ,
. 9.20, :
t 0.15 c;
p1t 0.15
(9.57)
p =
p1 (2 t 0.15) 0.15 t 0.3 c.


. 9.14 . 9.21.
p

pp1/p2

9 . 1 4 .

0
p

30
p

45
1.3p

60
p

90
p p2 p1

120

180

, ..
. , , , 10 .. . 9.2.3, ,
, , ,
. [128]
ps (9.55),
cq, .. -

299

9.4.

, .
q p2 . 9.15. . c = 1.2.
9 . 1 5 .
q p2
p2,
q,

10
1.5

30
3.5

50
10

,

.

.
9.4.
9.4.1.
,
, . p :
)
. [71],
p1
(
2.4 ),
1.2. ;
) ,
(, , .). p1
,
. ,
, p. [71] p = 40 .
: Vp, 3; p1
, ; p0,
( p0 0.1 );
a1, /; a0, / ( a0 = 340 /); 1.

300

. 9.

a1 = 91.18

T1 1

, /,

(9.58)

T1 (T1 K = T C + 273); (. 9.7); 1


, .
9 . 1 6 . {a} 1

T, K
300
500
1000
300
500
600
270
300
500
300
500
700
280
400
600
300
400
600
320
400
530
280
300
320
300
600
300
360
400
600

{a) ,
0.1
1
10
401
417
566
391
396
437
341
342
347
670
697
960
668
676
753
667
673
721
410
413
427
405
406
417
397
397
398
396
414
599
366
371
420
337
339
353
402
424
698
396
406
494
376
381
409
393
352

254
276
630
214
229
291
308
410

277
315

230
243
333
247
339

233
299

221
273

402
418
571
376
379
404
143

109
147

097
174

069
074
150

301

9.4.

. 9.16. , {a},
, 1000 1. , T = 400 K
p = 1 {a} = 315. ,
1 = 1 + 315/1000 = 1.315.
(9.59)
p
[21]:

2 1

1 1
( p p0 1) ( 1 1)
p1 p a0
=
,
(9.60)
1

p0
p0 a1 2 0 [ 2 0 + ( 1 + 1)] ( p p0 1)

0 (, [71]
:
).

p = p p0 ,
(9.61)

p p p0 p
=
=
1 .
(9.62)
p0
p0
p0
. 9.22 ,
(9.60).
, . 0 = 1.402,
(p0 = 0.1 ) T = 300 K (+27 C).
1, . 1
, , 1.
.
, (9.61), (9.62), ,
. R [21, 71].
Vp
p p0
E =Vp 1
.
(9.63)
1 1

302

. 9.

, ,
3
Vp .
(9.64)
4
R,
,
p
(9.65)
R = Rc 3 0 .
E
Rc = 3

p/p0
100

10

1 = 1.02
3

a1/a0
10
9
8
7
6
5
4

1.5

0.8
0.5
0.2

10

1
p/p0
100

10

100

1000

p1/p0

1 = 1.4
a1/a0
10
9
8
7
6
5
4

1.5

0.8
0.5
0.2

10

100

1000

p1/p0

. 9.22 .
a1

303

9.4.

R . 9.23 [21].
, R p/p0.
, R ,
R. R ,
(9.64) R Rc. :
1 = 1.7

p/p0
100
a1/a0
10
9
8
7
6
5
4

10

1.5

0.8
0.5
0.2
10

100

1000

1 = 1.98

p/p0
100
a1/a0
10
9
8
7
6
5
4

10

p1/p0

3
2

1.5

0.8
0.2

0.5

1
1

10

100

p
1

1000

p1/p0

304

. 9.

p
p0
100

R = R 3

(, )

p0
=
E

R
.
(9.66)
Rc

A
10

B
R.

,
. 9.23
1
, [21]. , , 0.1
, 0.01
0.10
1.00
R
p/p0 R,
. 9.23.

[71]
, (9.5),
i+
(9.7). 0.1

Q (), E (),
0.01
(9.63), (4520 /):
10 3
E
Q =
, .
(9.67)
10 4
4520

10 5
1
1
0.1
10
100
R
i+ = i+ 3 p02 E ,
(9.68)
a
0
. 9.24.

i+
[21]
, . 9.24 R.
9. , , . 9.25,.
25 3, , .
, , ..
. ,
. R = 4.75 .
= R

305

9.4.

V = 12.5 3, T1=300 .
10.5106 ,
14.1106 . [71]
p1
, 1.2, ..
p1 = 1.2 14.1 10 6 17 10 6 ().
)

)
20

18
16

20

4.75

14

12

12
10
8
6
4

10

2
0
0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7


,

. 9.25. :
;

p1 :
p1 p0 = 170 .
(9.58), 1 = 1.68 ( . 9.16 170 );
= 28.
T
300 1.68
a1 = 91.18 1 1 = 91.18
= 387 (/).
28


a1 a0 = 1.15 .
p ,
(9.60).
p p0 = 6.73 .

306

. 9.

,
p = 6.73 p0 = 0.673 106 ().

p = p p0 = 0.673 10 6 0.1 10 6 = 0.573 10 6 ().

p p
=
1 = 5.73 .
p0
p0
(9.63):
p1 p0
17 106 0.1 106
= 12.5
= 0.3 109 ().
1.68 1
1 1
(9.64)
, :
E = Vp

3
3
Vp = 3
12.5 = 2.98 ().
4
4
R,
, (9.65):
Rc = 3

p0
0.1 106
= 2.98 3
= 0.2 .
E
0.3 109
R , , (9.66):
4.75
R
= 0.2
= 0.32 .
R = R
2.98
Rc

R . 9.23.
A, p/p0 = 5.73 R = 0.2,
(). R , . , R = 0.32 ( B)
p
= 3.
p0
p0 = 0.1106 ,
R = Rc

p = 0.3 10 6 .
i- , hi ,

9.4.

307

Ri = R 2 + hi2 .
i- , .
. 9.25,
.
(. . 9.6),
, .
, , . 9.25, . ,
,
(.. 10 ), ,
, .
. : R = 0.32 . . 9.24 ,

i+ = 0.12 . (9.68):
i
0.12 3
i+ = + 3 p02 E =
(0.1 106 ) 2 0.3 109 = 509 ().
a0
340
, ,
2i
2 509
+ = + =
= 0.0034 ().
p 0.3 106
. . 4.4
,
,
, ..
[96].
. Q . (9.5)
(9.7) , ,

32

i R
Q= + .
350
, ,
509 4.75
Q=

350

32

= 18 ().

308

. 9.

[96] ,
V
Q V/Q 15.
V = 5800 3. ,
V
= 322 >> 15 ,
Q
, , - ,
, , .. , .
9.4.2.

[71].
,
(. 9.2.2). : ; Vp, 3 ( );
h, ; , ; , /3; ,
/3; R, .

p = 37.5 p 3 B 3 V p R

2.07

, ,

(9.69)

, / (. . 9.7);
p ( p = 3.46);
3

B = 3 V p ( h + ) .

(9.70)

10.
Vp = 100 3.
= 0.005 ;
= 7800 /3.
h = 1.5 ; = 1800 /3. , ,
R = 20 .
B = 3 100 (1.5 + 0.005 7800 1800) = 3.05 .
. 9.7:
= 1.315 /3.
(9.69), :
p = 37.5 3.46 1.315 3 3.05

( 100 20)
3

2.07

= 12 ().

10

,
() , ,
, ( ).
, ,
.. . , ,
. ,

1 /2 [11, 86], ,
, .
10.1.

10.1.1.


, .
, [40, 58]. ,
,
.
Vi, - Pr. : p i+ (. . 9).
p , i+ .
Vi Pr,
, .
1. ,
:
8.4

9.3

17500

+ 290 ;
V1 =

i+
p
Pr1 = 5 0.26 ln V1 .

(10.1)
(10.2)

. 10.

310

2. ,
:
7.4

11.3

40000

+ 460 ;
(10.3)
V2 =

i+
p
Pr 2 = 5 0.22 ln V2 .
(10.4)
3.
( ):
4.2 1.3
,
(10.5)
V3 =
+
p
i+
p ,
p
p = 1 + ;
(10.6)
p0
i+ ,
i+
i+ = 1 +
;
(10.7)
p0 3 m
m , ; p0 ( p0 105 );
Pr 3 = 5 5.74 ln V3 .
(10.8)

4. :
Pr 4 = 12.6 + 1.524 ln( p ) .
5. :
1
1.3 109
7380 +
;
V5 =
p
i+
Pr 5 = 5 2.44 ln V5 .
P

0.1

0.01
4
5
6
7
- Pr

(10.10)
(10.11)

(10.9)

. 10.1.

- Pr P
. 10.1 . 10.1.
, Pr = 5.10,
P 0.55.

. 10.1.
.
,
- Pr = 5.10.

10.1. 311


0.5 4. (0.5) , (4). P = 0.54. Pr = 7.75 0.99 7. , P = 0.997. Pr .


. 10.2 10.5.
1 0 . 1 .
- [40]
P
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.99

0
3.72
4.16
4.48
4.75
5.00
5.25
5.52
5.84
6.28
7.33

1
2.67
3.77
4.19
4.50
4.77
5.03
5.28
5.55
5.88
6.34
7.37

2
2.95
3.82
4.23
4.53
4.80
5.05
5.31
5.58
5.92
6.41
7.41

3
3.12
3.86
4.26
4.56
4.82
5.08
5.33
5.61
5.95
6.48
7.46

4
3.25
3.92
4.29
4.59
4.85
5.10
5.36
5.64
5.99
6.55
7.51

5
3.38
3.96
4.33
4.61
4.87
5.13
5.39
5.67
6.04
6.64
7.58

6
3.45
4.01
4.36
4.64
4.90
5.15
5.41
5.71
6.08
6.75
7.65

7
3.52
4.05
4.39
4.67
4.92
5.18
5.44
5.74
6.13
6.88
7.75

8
3.59
4.08
4.42
4.69
4.95
5.20
5.47
5.77
6.18
7.05
7.88

9
3.66
4.12
4.45
4.72
4.97
5.23
5.50
5.81
6.23
7.33
8.09

.
: p = 30103 ; i+ = 400 .
1. P1 , .
(10.1),
8. 4

9.3

8.4
9.3
17500

+ 290 = 175003 + 290 = 0.061 .


V1 =
i
p
30 10
400
+

- (10.2):
Pr1 = 5 0.26 ln V1 = 5 0.26 ln 0.61 = 5.73 .
. 10.1 , P1 0.77. . 10.1.
2. P2
,
.

. 10.

312

(10.3) (10.4):
7.4

11.3

7. 4
11.3
40000

+ 460 = 400003 + 460 = 13.3 ;


V2 =
i
p
30 10
400

+

Pr 2 = 5 0.22 ln V2 = 5 0.22 ln 13.3 = 4.43 .

.10.1
. 10.2 ,

0.28.
2
1 2 3
. 10.2
1
,

,
0.1

1000 , 1
10
100
,
.
3.
. 10.2. :
P3
1 ;
(2 ; ) 3 (

5070 % )
m = 80 .
(10.6)
p
30 103
p = 1+ = 1+
= 1.3 .
p0
105
,
100
(10.7),
0.5
P3 = 0
i+
0.9
i+ = 1 +
=
0.1
0.99
p0 3 m
0.2
10
400
= 1+
= 1.29 .
105 3 80
(10.5):

4.2 1.3
1
+
=
V3 =
p
i+
0.1
1
10
100
4.2 1.3
i
=
+
= 4.24 .
. 10.3. P3
1.3 1.29
()
(10.8),

10

10.1. 313

Pr 3 = 5 5.74 ln V3 = 5 5.74 ln 4.24 = 3.29 .

1
1.3 109
7380 +
=
V5 =
i+
p

0.01
10

100
,

1000

. 10.4. P4

1000
,

= 12.6 + 1.524ln(30103 ) = 3.11.


10.1 .
10.1 , P = 0.03.

. 10.4.
5. P5
.
(10.10)

P4

Pr, . , .
. 10.3 ,

. , , , ..
, .
1
4. .
(10.9) -:
0.1
Pr 4 = 12.6 + 1.524ln(p ) =

100
10
1

0.5
0.3
0.1
0

P5 =
0.99
0.9
0.7

1.3 109

7380+
400 = 108.6 .
0.1
=
30 103
1000
100
1
10
,
-
, (10.11):
. 10.5. P5

Pr 5 = 5 2.44 ln V5 =
= 5 2.44 ln 108.6 = 6.44.
- , , , P5 = 0.
. 10.5 . ,
, . , 0.

. 10.

314

, , .
p .
. 10.2. ,
p. ,
,
.
1 0 . 2 .

pi

c=

p
p
p

pi
p

1
0.85
0.75
0.6

Pi
0.5
0.22
0.083

0.005

, [40] . 10.2,
. k- S(k) ., ,
p i+, P(k)(p, i+),
P ( k ) ( L | p, i+ ) = S ( k ) P ( k ) (p, i+ ) .
(10.12)

:
n

P ( k ) ( L) = P ( k ) ( L | p, i+ )Ps (p, i+ ) ,

(10.13)

s =1

Ps(p,i+) , , ,
.
. 10.6 ,

[71]. ,
, . 10.3.
, , , , .

10.1. 315
P,

20
19

100

18
17
16

10

15

14

16
14

13

10

12

11

5
4
3
2
1

1
1

10

. 10.6.
1 0 . 3 .

. 10.6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15



10 % ,
50 %
,
75 %
,
,




50 %



. 10.

316

. 10.3


. 10.6
16
17
18
19
20

. 10.4
,
.
1 0 . 4 .

, ,

, ,
,

:



:

()


p,
35

R , /1/3
0.286

35

0.286

50
50

0.232
0.232

60
70

0.208
0.190

50
35
60

0.232
0.286
0.208

60
52

0.208
0.226

31
90

0.310
0.164

200
60
100
35

0.102
0.208
0.154
0.286

35
170

0.286
0.113

10.1. 317
. 10.4

, ,

1.5
2
2.5
:


:




:
11
11
:


p,
70
70

R , /1/3
0.190
0.190

15.4

0.490

40

0.264

15.4
17.0
15.4

0.490
0.580
0.490

28.0

0.330

30.0
42.0
28.0

0.317
0.257
0.330

22.0
28.0

0.385
0.330

25.0
45.0
53.0

0.335
0.246
0.224

400

0.069

215

0.098

53.0
55.0
28.0
15.4
20.0
7.0

0.224
0.219
0.330
0.490
0.410
0.891

3.5
7.0

1.6
0.891

28.0
15.4
400

0.330
0.490
0.069

. 10.

318

10.1.2.

, . 10.1.1. R ()
R1
[40]:
1
R = KR1 ,
(10.14)
K ,
0.01
,
. 10.5; R1 .
10.7
10 4
10

13
R1 = Q
1 + (3180 Q )

2 1 6

, (10.15)

Q , ,

10
. 9.2.
10 2
10 4
10 6
1

Q ,

. 10.7. R1
Q, E
E , 4520 / [.
(9.20) (9.67)].
8

1 0 . 5 .

A
B
C
D
E



;
,
,

,

p,

100

3.8

70

5.6

20

9.6

14
2

28
56

,
, .
10.2.
. [21, 71]. , , ,
. , , ,

10.2.

319

: , , , , .
.
10.2.1.

,
. , .
( 1 ), /.

.
- ( , , , .), ,
. ,
, .
,
.
. , [21, 71]
, .
, .
, .
() n = 210,
( ) n 100.
, ,
,
. , .

[21, 71].
: ;
(L/D 10); , , L/D = 1. , , , .
: V0,
m, p, T0 .

. 10.

320


( p p 0 )V0
, (10.16)
p=
m a12
p0 ,
(. 10.8);
a1 ,

(9.57),
T1 = T0,

p0,

100
80
60
40
0

3
4
,

. 10.8.

a1 = RT0 ,

1 0 . 6 . R
[21]

1.400
1.400
1.670
1.670
1.225

R,
2/(2)
4124.0
287.0
208.1
2078.0
188.9

n = 100
n = 10

0.1

n=2

n = 100
n = 10
n=2

0.01
0.001

0.01
0.1
p

. 10.9.

[21]

(10.17)


; R

(. 10.6).
. 10.9

v ,
v
v
v=
,
(10.18)
ka1
k , ;
, k = 1.
(10.18) v.
. 10.9 , ,
. ,

. -

321

10.2.

0.2


, .
[21]
( 10)
. , , .
.
, . , ,
k (10.18),
m
k = 1.25 + 0.375 ,
(10.19)
m
m ; m .
6. )
,
. 10.10,. :

m = 100 ; V0 = 0.063 3;
2
T0 = 300 K;

)
(p p0) = 2 .

(10.17),
= 1.4, R = 287:
a1 = RT0 =
= 1.4 287 300 = 347 (/).

p=

( p p0 )V0
=
m a12

2 106 0.063
= 0.01 .
100 347 2
0.25m
0.75m
, . 10.10.
:
(n = 10)
, - ;
; (. 10.10,).

,
=

322

. 10.

10 . . 10.9 : v = 0.12 .
v (4.75)
( k = 1):
v = ka1v = 1 347 0.12 = 41.6 (/).
, , : m1 = 0.25mc = 25 ; m2 = 0.75mc = 75 (. 10.9,.).
, .
. 10.9 ,
v = 0.03 .
(10.19), ki m1 m2 :
k1 = 1.25 0.25 + 0.375 = 0.6875 ; k 2 = 1.25 0.75 + 0.375 = 1.3125 .
:
v1 = k1a1v = 0.6875 347 0.03 = 7.16 (/);
v2 = k 2 a1v = 1.3125 347 0.03 = 13.66 (/).
.
-,
( 10).
.
,
10. , , .. , ,
.
-, : , .
10.2.2.

, , [21]. . , , ()
, (),

p(t).
. 10.11. t1 -

323

10.2.

p(t)

pr. , t1 = 0.
,
q(t), , pr
. ,

q(t)
p2
t1 = 0,
.

0 t1 t2 t
t3
i+ b 2
t3 =
,
(10.20)
b
. 10.11. p b 1 + e

b ,
. 10.12.

101

bt

t
q(t ) = CDQ 1 e t3 , (10.21)
t3
Q ; p 3.5

100

5 p2
p0 ;
(10.22)
2(7 + p )
101
104
102
100
102
CD

p

(. 10.7). - . 10.12.

b
p
q (0) = p2 = C D Q .
(10.23)
Q=

0.12

7. 0.065

() 0.250.120.065 .

0.25
: p = 0.15106 ,
4
i+ = 0.110 .

p 1.5 10 5
p=
=
= 1.5 .
p0
1 10 5

. 10.13.
pr = (2 p + 0.75 p 2 ) p0 =

2
5
6
= (2 1.5 + 0.75 1.5 )1 10 = 0.32 10 ().
(10.21), CD . 10.7.

324

. 10.

, : CD = 1.6.
1 0 . 7 . CD
[21]

(
)

CD


( ).

1.20

0.82

0.47

1.17

1.05

0.80

2.05

1.55

1.98

10.2.

325

(10.22),
5 p2
5 1.52
Q=
p0 =
1 105 = 0.66105 ().
2 (7 + p )
2 (7 + 1.5)
(10.21),

bt

1.5t
t
t 0.02

q(t ) = CDQ1 e t3 = 0.106106 1


().
e
0.02
t3
(9.25):

D = 340 1 + 8.3 10 6 p = 340 1 + 8.3 10 6 0.15 10 6 = 509 (/).


p(t),


300
, t1 = 0. t2 200
t, (9.28),
100
H* = 0.12 ( ):
0
0.01
0.02
3H* 3 0.12
t2 =
=
= 0.0007 .
t,
D
509
. 10.14.

5
q(t2) = 0.9410 .
,
, . 10.14.
:
i = 580 .
10.2.3.
, , v, .. . ,
.
. :
q q0 = I ,
(10.24)
q ,
q = mv ,
(10.25)
m ; q0
( , q0 = 0).

326

. 10.

Ap(t)

(10.24) . i
, A
, ,

I = iA .
(10.26)
(10.24)(10.26) ,
A
v=i .
(10.27)
m
. , , . 10.2.2. m = 3.5 , 0.250.12 , A = 0.03 2.
i = 580 . (10.27),
A
0.03
v = i = 580
5 (/).
m
3.5
. ,
, , Ap
, R:
Ap(t) R.
(10.28)
R
t0, , .. (10.28)
:
R
t3
0 t0 t1 t2
t0 =
t1 .
(10.29)
t
Ap r
,
. 10.15. ,
,

. 10.15 .
, , , ( )
:
Rt A

(10.30)
v = i 0 ,
2 m

, (10.29):

R 2 t1 A
.
(10.31)
v = i

2 Ap r m

, -

327

10.2.

,
( p i+), [21].
10 1
v = 0.5
p

10

10

50

10 1
10 2
10 3
10 4
v = 0.1
10 5
10 1

0.05

0.01

0.005

0.001

10 0

10 1
10 2
10 3
10 4
10 5
i
. 10.16.
, [21]

10 6

. 10.16 ,
.
C D a 0 i+
)
)
,
(10.32)
i=
pr ( kh + x )
h
p ,
(10.17). x

ma0
v =v
. (10.33)
. 10.17.
p0 A( kh + x )
:
(10.32)
;
(10.33) ,
: a0

( a0 = 340 /); k ( ,
, k = 4, k = 2); x (. 10.17,); h

. 10.

328

,
(. 10.17,); .
p i , , v ,
( , ).
(10.33),

v p A(kh + x)
v= 0
.
(10.34)
ma0
9. , , . 10.13,
p = 1105 , i+ = 2650 . m = 3.5 , 0.250.12 , A = 0.03 2. p0 = 1105 , a0 = 340 /.

p
1 105
p= =
= 1.
p0
1 105
. ,
, ,
(10.32) x = 0, h = 0.12 (
). , k = 4. CD = 1.6 (.
. 10.2.2). (10.32)
1.6 340 3100
C D a 0 i+
=
= 35 .
i=
p ( kh + x ) 1 105 ( 4 0.12 + 0)
v = 10 . (10.34),
v=

v p0 A( kh + x ) 10 1 105 0.03 ( 4 0.12 + 0)


=
= 12 (/).
ma0
3.5 340

10.2.4.
, . ,
, , . ,
. : FL, -

329

10.2.

v, FD, .

FL = 0.5v 2L AL , (10.35)
FD = 0.5v 2D AD , (10.36)

A1CD1
A1CN1

A2CN2
A2CL2

A1CL1
A2CD2

A2
v
x

A1
; v
2
. 10.18. ,
; 0.5 v
; AL, AD


; CL, CD ,

. , , CL << CD,
.
, ,
,
CL >> CD, .
. 10.18
10
,
CLD = 100 50 30

1
(),
v.
0.1
1,
2,
0.01
.

CLD = 10 5 3 1 0.5 0
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
10
100 1000
FD1 = A1CD1
v
FD2 = A2CD2,
. 10.19.

[21]
FL1 = A1CL1
FL2 = A2CL2. ,
(. 10.8).

FL = FL1 + FL 2 = CL1 A1 + CL 2 A2 ,
(10.37)

. 10.

330

FD = FD1 + FD 2 = CD1 A1 + CD 2 A2 .

(10.38)

1 0 . 8 .


CL1
CD1
CL2
CD2

CL1
CD1
CL2
CD2

CL1
CD1
CL2
CD2

0
0
0
0
2.05
60
0.59
1.01
1.11
0.64
120
0.56
1.01
1.11
0.64

10
0.42
0.075
0.36
2.02
70
0.4
1.1
0.8
0.29
130
0.75
0.9
1.8
1.09

20
0.8
0.29
0.7
1.93
80
0.2
1.15
0.42
0.075
140
1.3
1.09
1.32
1.57

30
1.11
0.64
1.03
1.78
90
0
1.17
0
0
150
1.11
0.64
1.03
1.78

40
1.3
1.09
1.32
1.57
100
0.2
1.15
0.42
0.075
160
0.8
0.29
0.7
1.93

50
0.75
0.9
1.3
1.09
110
0.4
1.1
1.8
0.29
170
0.42
0.075
0.36
2.02

R
m, v0, ( = 1.225 /3).

F v 2
v= D 0
(10.39)
mg

F
C LD = L .
(10.40)
FD
. 10.19
F R
R= D .
(10.41)
m
CLD ,
.
R ,
R=

mR

FD

(10.42)

10.3.

331

, , ..
CL1 = CL2 = 0.
10.
(), . 10.13.
: m = 3.5 ; :
1 = 0.250.12 = 0.03 2; 2 = 0.250.065 = 0.01625 2.
v0 = 12 /, = 40.
. 10.8 = 40: CL1 = 1.3;
CD1 = 1.09; CL2 = 1.32; CD2 = 1.57.

FL = C L1 A1 + C L 2 A2 = 1.3 0.03 1.32 0.01625 = 0.0176 .

FD = C D1 A1 + C D 2 A2 = 1.09 0.03 + 1.57 0.01625 = 0.0582 .

F
0.0176
C LD = L =
= 0.3 .
FD 0.0582

FD v02 1.293 0.0582 12 2
= 0.32 .
=
v=
3.5 9.8
mg
. 10.19 . CLD 0 0.5,
, v = 0.32
. , R = 0.3 . ,
3.5 0.3
mR
=
= 14 ().
R=
FD 1.293 0.0582
10.3.

, , .
.
( , ) .
, , ,
,

. 10.

332

[21]. , ,
.
R [21]:
0.27

R
(10.43)
p = 1410 R 1.66 0.64 , ,
x
R , (9.3);
x ( ); , . (10.43) , :
0.01 0.13; 0.69 (R/x) 4.55; 1.16 R 8.45 /1/3.

0.008

R
0.45
i = 791 Q R
(10.44)
, ,
x
Q , (9.4); , (10.43). (10.44)
: 0.008 0.13;
1.16 (R/x) 4.55; 1.16 R 5.95 /1/3.
(10.43) (10.44) m; = 0.2m.
,
. ( . 9.4,), :
0.98

0.262

2i
R
=
0.14 , ().
= 0.11 10 2 3 Q R 0.68
(10.45)
p
x
,

, . k i

k
1
1
= ,
(10.46)

i =1

. 10.20
. . 10.20,

333

10.3.

A
,
(10.47)
A
A , ; A . .
10.20,
n
s
(10.48)
A = l i ,
i =1 N i
l ; n ; Ni
,

a)

si

2, cos 45o b ;
Ni =
(10.49)
si
b
4,
;
cos 45o 2

si b .
. 10.18,

si

si
si
)

c2

c1

cn
bi

A = l si .

(10.50)

i =1

ai

(10.48), (10.49)
. 10.20.
(10.50) ,
. 10.20, 2 4

, . 10.20,.
. 10.20,
1

A
2l

1
2
1

,
+
+
A1 A2 A3

A1 = a i ;
i =1

A2 = bi ;
i =1

(10.51)
n

A3 = ci .
i =1

ai, bi i .

(10.52)

11



, , . , .
11.1.
11.1.1.
, , (,
..), .
, ,
.
, , .
, -, ,
. 7. .
11.1.2.


.
, -, . .
. ( . 7).
,
(. . 2.2.1) , .
.
m v0 k- , mk. ,
. , (. . 6.1.1),

11.1.

mv0 = ( m + mk )vk ,

335

(11.1)

vk , k- .
m
vk =
v0 ,
(11.2)
( m + mk )
: ,
, k-, , k-
vk.
. , , , .
,

(. . 6.1.2).

, . 3.2.1.
, , . ,
,
, . 3.2.4.
.
.
)
mg
1849 .

h
(.
11.1). , [53].
l
. v0 )
,
a
b
f .
mg
f
:
mv02
kf 2
+ mgf =
.
(11.3)
2
2
. 11.1.
:

;
f
, mg;
; k , -

336

. 11.

( , . 4.2, , ).
(11.3),
f = f +

f 2 +

mv02
,
k

(11.4)

mg
(11.5)
k
mg (. 11.1,).
, () .

:
f
k =
.
(11.6)
f
(11.4)
f =

v02
.
(11.7)
gf

, v0 = 2 gh , ..
k = 1 + 1 +

2h
.
(11.8)
f
, h = 0, .. , k = 2. , h = 0 , ,
.
,
k 2. , ..
f, .
, ,
.
m,
( . 4.2 , ,
). , . v1 k = 1 + 1 +

11.1.

337

, ..
(7.15):
m
v1 = v0
.
(11.9)
m + m
(11.3)
kf 2
( m + m )v12
+ mgf =
.
(11.10)
2
2
, ,

:
f = f +

f 2 +

k = 1 + 1 +

f v02
;
g (1 + m m )

2h
.
f (1 + m m )

(11.11)
(11.12)

m v0 , ,
(11.3) ,
v
k = 0 .
(11.13)
gf
f mg.
f = v0

f
.
g (1 + m m )

(11.14)

, -,
, ( ) . , . 3.1.4, , .. .
-, ,
. k ,
(
. 4; ).
1. , m = 1500 , h = 0.5 -

338

. 11.

.
a = b = 6 s = 0.4 .
= 2200 /3, E = 0.31010 ,
= 0.3.
.
. 4.2 , m = 7920 , k = 0.49109 /.
:
mg 1500 9.8
f =
=
= 0.3 10 4 ().
k
0.49 109
, (11.8)
k = 1 + 1 +

2h
2 0.5
= 1+ 1+
= 183.6 ,
0.3 10 4
f


F, = k mg = 183.6 1500 9.8 = 0.27 107 ().
(7.25):
k = 1 + 1 +

2h
2 0.5
= 1+ 1+
= 73.9 .
4
0.3 10 (1 + 7920 1500)
f (1 + m m )


F, = k mg = 73.9 1500 9.8 = 0.11 107 ().
,
2.5 .
, m, . 4.2, , . .
, F, .
.
, , ..
,
,
.
, , ,
[135]. m h m. -

339

11.1.

, , v0 = 2 gh . v1, V1.
:
mv02 mv12 mV12
=
+
.
2
2
2

mv0 = mv1 + M V1 .

(11.15)
(11.16)

, (.
. 7.1):
V v
e= 1 1 .
(11.17)
v0
, .. , .
v1 = V1, .. e = 0. ,
V1 v1 = v0, .. e = 1. . . 11.1.
1 1 . 1 .
e [31]


, ,
, , ,
(, )

0.6
0.35
0.4
0.55
0.2
0

0.35
0.15
0.2
0.3
0.1
0

0.4
0.25
0.3
0.4
0.1
0

0.25
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.05
0

(, , ,
.)
0
0
0
0
0
0

, A (.. ) T :
A T,
(11.18)
, .
(11.15)(11.17)
:

340

. 11.

m
;
1 + m
e
v1 = v0 m
,
1 + m

V1 = v0 (1 + e)

(11.19)
(11.20)

m
.
(11.21)
m
, ,
m =

mV12
m e;

.
(11.22)
T = 2 2
2
mV1 + mv1 m > e.

2
, . , (. 11.2).
: Q , ; Y0 ; Y , .
, k
,
Q
Q
k = ;
(11.23)
Q
Y0
K , Y
:
Y0
Y Y
0
Y
K = .
(11.24)
. 11.2.
Y0
( )
K
. 1.

QY0
Q2
+ Q (Y Y0 ) = (K 0.5) .
(11.25)
2
k
, Q A
A =

Q =

A k
K 0.5

(11.26)

11.1.

341

, , (11.22), T A,
(11.26) Q.

F, = Q,
K. (
, , ), . . 1.
m, . . 4.1,
.
. ,
,
. Fc m
, . 4.1. [135]
, s/2.
, .
2.
, 1. , d = 0.5 .

( d + 2 s / 2) 2
(0.5 + 2 0.4 / 2) 2
m = s
= 2200 0.4
560 ().
4
4

m 1500
m =
=
= 2.68 .
m 560
. 11.1 ,
e = 0.15.

v0 = 2 gh = 2 9.8 0.5 = 3.13 /.
(11.19):
m
2.68
V1 = v0 (1 + e)
= 3.13 (1 + 0.15)
= 2.62 (/),
1 + m
1 + 2.68

. 11.

342

(11.20):
e
2.68 0.1
v1 = v0 m
= 3.13
= 2.19 (/).
1 + m
1 + 2.68
m > e,
(11.22):
mV12 + mv12 560 2.62 2 + 1500 2.19 2
=
= 5519 ().
2
2

A, (11.26) Q,
F, .
1, k = 0.49109 /.
, ,
( K = 1):
T=

A k

5519 0.49 109


= 0.23 107 ().
K 0.5
1 0.5
, 1
, , .
, 1 14 , .
, , , K. , K = 3, [29].
F, =

A k

5519 0.49 109


= 0.1 107 ().
K 0.5
3 0.5
,
.
* (). ,
,
.
, .

.
F, =

[115, 135] Upper Bound Impact Theory (UBIT).

11.1.

343


[115, 135], .
. 7 - , -
() :
= v0 c ,
(11.27)
v0 ; ;
:
c= E ,
E .

t = 2l c ,

(11.28)

(11.29)

l .

F = A
(11.30)
t.
T1 , Q ,
(. . 11.2),

t T1 2 F Q 1.2
(11.31)

. ,
, . 4 5.
(11.31)
, ( ).
(
) ,
, ,
( ).
,
,
, , .
,
, :

344

. 11.

,
;
;

;
.
:
.
. , , .
, , b; s. , F

u . M ,
, [115, 135]
12 M
u=
.
(11.32)
F
u, , :
b+s
,
(11.33)
u=
2
.
. ,
V ,
V
Ft = ( 2u ) ,
(11.34)
2
.
F t
(11.35)
V = .
u
,
, .. . Y .
2
Vt Ft
=
,
(11.36)
Y =
2
2 u

2Y
= .
(11.37)
u

11.1.

345

,
. 1, , , .. .
, ..
.
Y, F
Y ( ) Q Y (. . 11.2):
FY = QY.
(11.38)

F Y
Y = .
(11.39)
Q
Y K.
,
Y .
K Y0:
Y +Y
K= 0 .
(11.40)
Y0
, ,
K , . 1.
.
r (. 11.3).
, . a.
,
, [115].
F, (11.30), a. t (11.29). , ..
,
12 M t F (Q B ) 1
(11.41)
V=
(3r 2 r 2 ) ,

2
1


Vt
Y = ,
(11.42)
2
Q , . , a
r,

346

. 11.

Q = 4M,
(11.43)
M , (11.32). (11.41):
; r1 r2 ;
1
=
;
B = 1 2a (3rs ) ,
(11.44)
1 + ln(r2 r1 )
rs Q.
r1 r2 . 11.4. rs
2a[1 + ln(r rs )] = 3rs .
(11.45)
a r, rs 2a.
)

r1/r

0.10
0.08

r
)

0.06
0.04

F
r1
r2
)

F/Q
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
3
5

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05 /r

r2/r
F/Q = 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
0.8
2 3 5 7
0.6
0.4

. 11.3.
:
; ;

0.2

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05 /r

. 11.4. r1 r2

, Y,
(5.89) max . , . 1,
,
.

347

11.1.

max , , ,
. , : ,
(11.39), , .
, , .
,
.
11.1.3.

, . 8, :
,
.
[10]. , , , ,
, , (, .). , .
a)

12.1
11.8

= 1.8

l = 12

A, 2

b = 0.25

0.3
0

. 11.5. :

0.455

; ;

348

. 11.

(. 11.5) m = 6800 , l = 12 , b = 0.25 , = 1.8 .


Rb = 7.5106 , = 1270 /3. H = 18 .
, , . . 7.2 , B-25
Rb = 0.18108
0.25 . ,
,
.

, . 8. , , .. .

v0 = 2 gH = 2 g 18 = 18.8 (/).

(11.46)

1. (. 11.5,).

, , ,
. 8.1.3.

m 6800
1 = =
= 566.7 (/);
(11.47)
l
12

P1 = bcR = 1.8 0.25 7.5 10 6 = 0.34 10 7 ().

(11.48)

( ), max l << 1 , a
(8.36) = /2 ( ):
P
0.34 107
a = g sin 1 = 9.8
= 490.2 (/2).
(11.49)
m
6800
(8.41),
v2
18.82
max = 0 =
= 0.36 ().
(11.50)
2a
2 ( 490.2)
,
max 0.36
=
= 0.03 << 1 .
(11.51)
12
l
, , .. . (8.40):

11.1.

349

v0
18.8
=
= 0.038 ().
(11.52)
a
490.2
t tmax, .. &(t ) 0 ,
(8.39):
t max =

R,

t (at + 2v0 )g sin + 2(at + v0 ) 2 =


2
(11.53)
= (135t 2 10.3t + 3.6) 106 ().
t > tmax ,
R = gm sin = 9.8 6800 1 = 0.67 105 ().
(11.54)
, Rmax = 3.5106
( t = 0) Rmin P1 = 3.3106 ( t = tmax).
. 3.26.
4
0.251.8 .
3
,
1

2
2
(3.53.3)106 3
1
0.04 .

0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0
Q = 0.67105 .
t,
,
. 11.6.

:
(11.53), ..
. - 1 18 - ; 2
18 - 6 ; 3

6 %. ,
. 8.2.3 (. . 8.23), , .
. 11.6
, : H = 6 .
v0 = 10.8 /. tmax = 0.022 .

R(t ) = (315t 2 5.95t + 3.4) 106 (),
(11.55)
(11.54). , , R(t ) = P1 +

350

. 11.

. , , ,
, .. (11.53), .
2. , (. . 11.1,).
(8.43)(8.56)
.
H = 6 , ..
v0 = 10.8 /. :
, .
, , .
l = 12.1 (. . 11.5,).
0 0.3;
1.52

A( ) = 0.455
(11.56)
0.3 11.8;
1.52 + 18.15 11.8 12.1.

:
P( ) = Rb A( ) = 7.5 10 6 A( ) (),
(11.57)

( ) = A( ) = 1270 A( ) (/).
(11.58)
( ), 0.3 .
A( ) = 1.52 ,
(11.59)
.. :
P( ) = 7.5 106 1.52 = 11.4 106 ();

( ) = 1270 1.52 = 1930 (/).


(8.42):
a p = 11.4 106 /; a = 1930.4 /2.

(11.60)
(11.61)
(11.62)

, (8.43)(8.56).
(8.43),
a 2
m1 ( ) = = 965.2 2 .
(11.63)
2
0.3 m1() 87 , ..
.
, .. (8.49)(8.56). , (8.51) (8.54),
:

351

11.1.

aP
11.4 106
=
= 40.9 ,
(11.64)
m
6800
9.8
g
= arctg
= 0.022 .
= arctg
(11.65)
10.8 40.9
v0
(8.50) (8.55) :
1
= 2 v022 + g 2 sin(t ) + g sin =

= 0.26sin (40.9t 0.022) + 0.59 102 ;

& =

(11.66)

v02 2 + g 2 cos( t ) = 10.8 cos ( 40.9t 0.022) .

(11.67)

& = 0 , ..
40.9t max 0.022 =

.
(11.68)
2
:
1

t max =
(11.69)
+ 0.022 = 0.039 ().
40.9 2

tmax (11.66), , 0.27 , .. 0.3 . , .


)

25
20
15

(t),

0.4

10

R,

(t), /

30

(t)

(t)

5
0

0.02
t,

0.04

0.3
0.2
0.1

0.02
t,

0.04

. 11.7. :

(8.7).
,
&(t ) 0 , .. t tmax:
R(t ) = P[ (t )] + gm1 [ (t )] sin + & 2 (t ) [ (t )] =

352

. 11.

(11.70)
= 1.4 106 (t ) 1 + 0.16 cos 2 ( 40.9t 0.022) + 9459 2 (t ) ,
(t) (11.66).

. 11.7,, . 11.7,.
(. . 11.6)
(. . 11.7,) ,
, .
, . ,
, .

0.45 2, 0
0.41 2, .. .
, , 0.3 . ,
. , = 0.3 ,
, .
11.1.4.

. , ,
, ,
, .. . , , ,
.

( ). ,
. 11.1.3. , ,
,
1212
0.3 . 25, . [29]. 108 000 . ,
.
(. . 8.7). , , . 4.1, : = 81.8 / (13 ); m = 14708 ; k = 0.98108 /.

353

11.1.



(8.79), (8.80). ,
, tmax = 0.035 ,
max = 0.274 . . 11.6.
3.58 , 3.41 .
,
, , , .
, ,
, ..
. , = 101.7 / (16.2 ). m = 16717 ; k = 0.17109 /. ,
, ,

11.1.5.

.
. 11.2 . , . 11.1.2 11.1.3,
18 , . 11.1.2.
1 1 . 2 .

1.
,

2.
,
3.

,
x

8.7

153.2

202.9

6.8

119.7

159.1

117.8

156.6

1 : -, .

354

. 11.

, , . 7.3, 8.7 .
2 : , . . 11.1.2 (.
. 11.7). R 3.4106
= 0.039 .
, R ,
. 4.9 ( 1) ,
. 4.3.
= 81.8 /
2, 6.8 . . 11.2.
3 :
. ,
, . 11.7,
.
, , ,
, .. ,
. ,
, , t = 0.037 , 0.035 . ,
. 11.7, ,
.
. 11.2
,
:
. , , .
1 , , ,
, (. . 11.1.3).
2
. ,
1.
, , ,
, :

11.2.

355

1 , 2 .
, ,

. , .
, 1
, ,
. , ,
1.
, 3, , , ,
.
( ), . 11.2.
3,
1. ,
.
.
,
() .
,
. . 16.4.
11.2.
11.2.1.
, .
: , (), ;
, , ; ,
.
. , .
, . ,
, . ,

. 11.

356

, . ,

.


:
l
1)
;
Amid
2) ;
3)

h 0
;
4) ,

;
h0
5)
.
,

.. ,
z
.. ..
. 11.8.
(
) [72].
(. 11.8): h ; h0 ; l ; Amid ( , ). .
11.2.2.
P

,
, (. 11.9).
P = aV ,
(11.71)

. 11.9. (. 11.3);
a (-

= 1000 /3,
a = 1400 /); V
( ),

11.2.

V = V0

,
a + a
V0 ,
V0 = 2 gh ;

357

(11.72)

(11.73)

g = 9.8 / ; a
, /,
a = E. . ,

(11.74)

E. , ; . , /3 ( a = 5000 /, a = 3000 /);


, /3,
= M W ,
(11.75)
M , ; W , 3.
1 1 . 3 .
,
0
4
20
40
60
80
90
99

,
/3
999.9
1000
998
992
983
972
965
959

104, 2/
0.0179
0.0152
0.0101
0.0066
0.0048
0.0037
0.0033
0.0028

103,
1.79
1.57
1.01
0.65
0.48
0.36
0.31
0.27


M
, ,
(11.76)
+ =
A a
A .
0 t +

t
P(t ) = P 1 .
(11.77)
+
, P. z
(11.78)
P = gz .
.

358

. 11.

P = P + Pmax ,

(11.79)

P (. 11.10).
M g
A
Pmax = + kP mid ,
(11.80)
Amid
A
A , 2; k
, k = 0.082.

= 15+, .
(11.81)
P
k (11.80)

:
Pmax
0.4 A Amid 0.7 A ;
(11.82)
P
0 h 4 ;
(11.83)
h0 > R ,
(11.84)

0
t
R . . 11.10. - , (11.84),

.
(.
11.11). , ,
2 gh
= arctg
.
(11.85)
Amid
a

< (11.79), (11.80),


. 11.11. P = M g + kP Amid cos 2 . (11.86)
max

A

mid
A
11.2.3.
h0 h, Vt
:

Vt = 2 g ( h + h0 ) .

(11.87)

Amid < 0.4A



V + Vh
,
(11.88)
V = 0
2
Vh h0/2 ,

11.2.

Vh = 2 g h + 0 .
2

359

(11.89)

gM
V2

,
gW
C
A

(11.90)

x

2

, , M W ;
; ,
; Cx ,
. 11.4.

a=

dV
=
dt M

1 1 . 4 .
Cx

Cx
,

1.28
,
1.10

0.45
1.35 ,
0.60
1.8 ,
0.075

( ), , 4, ,
0.025
, , ,

0.090
, 1.20
,
, ,
2.0
, , 45
1.5

11.2.4.

V 2 + 2ah A < 0.4 A ;
0
mid

Vt = 0
(11.91)
0.1Vmax
0.4 A Amid 0.7 A .
[72],
1 , ..
(/) .

360

. 11.


. 11.12 ,
F = Vt 2 + gW ,
(11.92)
W
.
( ).

:
0
+ t
2
l
. 11.12.
+ ,1 = min ; + , 2 = min ,
(11.93)
2a
a

lmin ( ) ; min
; a a .
F(t)
F

11.2.5.
, . 11.2.2
11.2.5, .
, , , .
. 4.
.
11.2.6.
, W
W. W :
W = W W .
(11.94)
:
, .

hmax = 1.12

V2
g

(11.95)

11.2.

361

V (11.26).
> ,
.

(11.96)
Vmax = 2 g h + 0 ,
2

.
= 0.5. (11.82) (11.83),
l < h0 < (3 4)l .
(11.97)

V A
(11.98)
V ,max = max mid ,
A Amid
Vmax (11.96).

V2,max

hmax =
.
(11.99)
2g

h
t 0 .
(11.100)
2Vmax
Amid 0.4A, .
11.2.7. .

, - (). ,
() .
,
, .. ,
, , .

,
.

362

. 11.

h0

h2

h1

, .
, . ,

D
.


. 1
1
(.
11.13).


.



.

.
1-1


, D
.

l
,
,
. 11.13.


.
( . 11.13):
() D = 2.3 ;
l = 6 ;
M = 120 000 ;

363

11.2.

() D = 2.9 ;
h = 15.5 ;
= 1.5 ;
b = 1 ;
h = 8.7 ;
l= 1.7 .
h1 = 0.5 ;
h2 = 0.5 ;
( )
Amid = 4.15 2;

W = Amid l = 4.15 5.6 23.2 (3).
()
A = 6.6 2,
( )
A = 6.8 2.

W
23.2
h = + h1 + h2 =
+ 0.5 + 0.5 = 4.4 ().
A
6.8
, ,
(11.83), .

V0 = 2 gh = 2 g 4.4 9.3 (/).


V, ,
(11.26),
.
a = 1400 /;
P = 0.12108
= 1000 /3; a = 5000 /;

M
W

120000
5170 (/3).
23.2

0.02

t,

. 11.14.


a
5000 5170
= 9.3
8.8 (/).
V = V0
1400 1000 + 5000 5170
a + a

364

. 11.

, (. 11.14):
P = aV = 1000 1400 8.8 = 0.12 10 8 ().

M
120000
+ =
=
= 0.02 ().
Amid a 4.15 14001000
()

,
(11.34):
M g
A
120000 9.8
4.15
=
Pmax = + kP mid =
+ 0.082 0.12 108
4.15

6.6
Amid
A
= 0.8106 ().
(11.81):
= 15 + = 0.3 ().
( ) , (11.34), :
A
M g
4.15
120000 9.8
=
+ 0.082 0.12 108
Pmax = + kP mid =
4.15
6 .8

A
Amid
= 0.77106 ().
= 0.3 .
(11.92)
. Amid = 0.63A, .. , (11.91). Vt

Vt = 0.1Vmax = 0.17 = 0.7 (/).
= 120000 /,
W = W = 23.2 3 ( ). (11.92), :
F = Vt 2 + gW = 120 000 0.7 2 + 1000 9.8 23.2 0.29 106 ().

+ (11.93). () -

11.2.

365

lmin = D = 2.3 ; min = = 1.5 . () a = 5000 /, () a = 3000 /.


(11.93), F = 0.29106
:
2.3
l
+ ,1 = min =
= 0.00023 ();
2a 2 5000
0
+ = 0.00023
2
2 1.5
+ , 2 = min =
= 0.001 ().
. 11.15.
a 3000


, .. + = +,1 = 0.00023 .
. 11.15. ,
.

. ,
~ = + f ,
f , (. . 4.2).

. 11.16.

. 11.17.


, .. 1 . f f1.

366

. 11.

f1 = 18.3 ,
. 11.16. = 0.3 c,
,
~ = 0.3 18.3 = 5.49 .
,
. 4.2.1, ,
1

k = 21 ~ arctg 2~ = 1.91 .
2

, , ,
P = Pmaxk = 0.771061.91 = 0.147107 ().
f1 = 65 ,
. 11.17. , , , ~ = 19.5 , k = 2.
,
P = 0.771062 = 0.154107 ().
, , [84], f1 = 577 . + = 0.00023 c, ..
~ = 0.00023 577 = 0.12 .
. 4.2.1
k = 2 sin ~ = 0.37 .
,
F = Fk = 0.291060.37 = 0.1106 ().
2.3 .
.
,

(. . 1).
,
h2 . .
( ) hmax, , (11.95),
V2
8.82
hmax = 1.12 = 1.12
= 8.9 ().
9.8
g

11.3.

367

, hmax >> h2. ,


.
(11.99) (,
).
h0 = h + h1 h = 15.5 + 0.5 4.4 = 11.6 ().
(11.65)
h
11.6

Vmax = 2 g h + 0 = 0.5 2 9.8 4.4 +


= 7 (/).
2
2

(11.98):
7 4.15
V A
= 11.9 (/).
V,max = max mid =
A Amid 6.6 4.15
(11.99),
V2,max 11.9 2
=
= 7.2 ().
2g
2 9.8
h2, , , .
(11.100):
h
11.6
t = 0 =
= 0.8 ().
2Vmax 2 7.2
,
0.8 .
, Vmax
= 0.5, (11.52), .
.
=
hmax

11.3.

. [28]
.
(, ), ,
. .
, , -

368

. 11.


.

R(t) .
. 11.18. h, M, (x).
(t) . .
gt 2
=
.
(11.101)
2

(11.102)
v = & = gt .
(8.7), = /2.
(11.103)
R(t ) = P[ (t )] + gm1[ (t )] + & 2 (t ) [ (t )] .

P[(t)] = 0. m1(t) (8.1),
(11.101),
gt 2
x
2
m1 (t ) = ( )d .
(11.104)
0

,
h
G

gt 2
. (11.105)
R(t ) = gm1 (t ) + ( gt ) 2
2

tmax
h:

2h
.
(11.106)
g
R

Q = gM.
. 11.18.

,
R(t) (,
).
, t = 0 m1(0) = 0,
R(0) = 0, .. .
,

t max =

11.3.

369

R,

, .
, 100
,
gt 2
m( t ) =
.
(11.107)
2
50
(11.103),

3
R(t ) = ( gt ) 2 . (11.108)
0
2
0
1
2
,
. 11.19.


. ,
M = 0.35107
h = 18.4 .
= 0.18106 /. (11.108)
:
3
R(t ) = ( gt ) 2 0.18 106 = 0.259 108 t 2 ().
2
(11.64), tmax = 1.94 .
R(t) . 11.19. Rmax = 0.98108 ,
R = Mg = 0.34108 .

12

.
() () [42]. ,
. [42]
, [111].
12.1.

. , ,
,
. .
,
.
, ( ) .

. ,
,
v b v b
Re = = ,
(12.1)

, /3; v , /; b , , ; , /(); ,

(12.2)

: 1 = 104 2/.
20 = 1.004 =
= 1.004104 2/, = 0.15 = 0.15104 2/.
20
Re 67000vb ( v b
).
()

12.1.

371

(. 12.1).
)
)

.
Re

)
(. 12.1,).
,

)
)
(.
12.1,).
Re . 12.1.

:
, ; ; ; ;
-

(. 12.1,),
(,
).
, . 12.3.2.
Re (. 12.1,), , , (. 12.1,). ,
.
.
.
, (, ,
, , ..).
Sh, :
bn
,
(12.3)
Sh =
v
n ; b v , (12.1). Sh
. 12.1.

372

. 12.
12.1. Sh
c,0 [111]
Sh

c,0

0.18

. . 12.3

. 1)

. .
12.2

1.1
0.5 d/b 10

1.0
1.5
2.0

0.11
0.10
0.14

0.8
1.2
0.3

1.0
2.0

0.13
0.08

1.6
2.3

1.0
2.0

0.16
0.12

1.4
1.1

1.3
2.0

0.11
0.07

0.8
1.0

d/b

. 2)

. 12.1:
1)
Re
v,i.
2)
d/b . d/b .
Sh

,0
b

0.1

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

0.05
0

10

d/b

. 12.2. Sh

105

106

107 Re

. 12.3.

c,0

12.2.

373

12.2.

12.2.1.
, , . 12- , . (. 12.2).
12.2.


0
1
2

,
/
0
0.9
2.4

4.4

6.7

9.3

12.3

15.5

18.9

22.6

10

26.4

11

30.5

12

34.8



,
.
, ,
- ,
,

,
,
, , ,
, , .

, .

,
,
,
. .

374

. 12.

, , .
. ,
,
().
, .
()
,
. , , ,
. , :

30

10

, /

26

27.3

31.3

35.8

41.1

42.5


( ),
.
:
- ,
, .
,
[42, 50, 86].

: , .
[42] (
):
A , , , , , ;
B , ,
10 ;

25 .
h 60 , , 30h . 2 .
.
[42]
v0 (/), 10

12.2.

375

,
1 50 , 10 .
[42] ,

. w0 ,
1
(12.4)
w0 = v02 , ,
2
, /3. 1.22 /3. [42]
w0 = 0.61v02 , .
(12.5)
w0
, , w0, . 12.3.
12.3.

Ia
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII

w0,
v0, /

0.17
16.7
0.23
19.4
0.3
22.2
0.38
25
0.48
28.1
0.6
31.4
0.73
34.6
0.85
37.3

w0,

0.43
0.58
0.75
0.95
1.2
1.5
1.83
2.13

v0, /
26.4
30.7
35.1
39.5
44.4
49.6
54.7
59

[50, 86] , ,
, : 1 10 000 . [42] 2.5.
. 12.3.
, II ( ) , VI ( ).

376

. 12.

,
( . 13).
. 12.3.
12.2.2.
(12.4), .
,
, .. . , , .
, -
- .
, , [26, 43, 73, 76].
[42]
, .. , .
.
a)

)
B

)
B

. 12.4. :
,

;

() , -,
. -, -

12.2.

377

: , ,
, (
). , , - (),
.
, -, , -, .
.
[42]. , , . , , B
. 12.4,, (, ),
2H,
. 12.4,,
2B. ,

(. 12.4,), .
[42],
,
.
(),
. [42]
, . [111], 12.3.
12.2.3.

, .
[42] .


:
) we, ;
) wt,
(, .) ;

378

. 12.

) wi,
, .
[42],
k


w0 z

2

wm ( z ) = w0 k ( z )cm ,
(12.6)
1

ce = 0.6

ce = +0.8

cm , ,
: 0
(10
100
1
z,
), (. 12.5. k(z) - ); k(z) , [42]

(. . 12.5). we, wt wi m
(12.6) e, t i. ce, ct ci 4
[42]. , (12.16) , ,
[42], wm k z.
[42],
w0
f = 1.4.
vm,
,
(12.5). z ( )
vm = w0 f k ( z ) 0.61 = 1.51 w0 k ( z ) . (12.7)

, , .12.6. ( ).
e - , , . we , .

(), . 12.6.
[42], 15, -

12.2.

379

ce = +0.8,
ce = 0.6.
,
(. . 12.1,,).
we
ce1
ce2

.
. 12.7 ce
ce3
h
( ce

ce3
ce1, ce2 ce3).
ce , ..
.
,
ce
l

, .. . ,
ce3
,
.12.7.
, e


h l
. 4 [42].
ce ,
ct ci.

wx wy,
. x y

, . (12.6), cm cx cy.

(, , )
4 [42]. , [111], . 12.3.
[42].

380

. 12.

,
, . ,
, ..
12.2.4.
, [42].
.
[59].
,
, . , [42], fl, . 12.4.
12.4.
.12.11.

Ia
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII

fl,
= 0.3 = 0.15
0.85
2.6
0.95
2.9
1.10
3.4
1.20
3.8
1.40
4.3
1.60
5.0
1.70
5.6
1.90
5.9

[42]

2.0

1.5

1.0
0.5
0
1

10
100
z,

1000

.12.8.


, ..
f1 > fl, wp
, .. . ( z)
w p ( z ) = wm ( z ) ( z ) ,
(12.8)
wm(z) (12.6); (z) z, .12.8; , -

12.2.

381

, .
12.5.

z
x

h
a
0

.12.9.



(. .12.9):
z0y
z0x
x0y

b
0.4a
b

h
h
a

, . , ,
(. 12.9), . 12.10 ,
.
1
12.5. = 5 10 20
0.9
0.8

, 0.7

0.6
.
0.5

= 40 80 160 350

0.4
.
0.3
0.1
1
10
100
,
, .. f1 < fl, .12.10.

.
( ), , . 2. , ,
(
).
, (

382

. 12.

),
.
, ..

. 4.2.


= 0.05 0.15 0.3
4

w p ( z ) = wm ( z ) ( z ) . (12.9)
3

2
1
0.001

0.01

0.1

.12.11.


(12.8) , . 12.11

w0 f

(12.10)
940 f1
. w0
.

wm(z).
: , = 0.3; ,
, , , , = 0.15;
( . 12.3)
[73] = 0.05. , [111], 12.3 ,
.
h
, z
z
w p ( z ) = 1.4 1w ph ,
(12.11)
h
wph , (12.9) h.

12.2.

383

, , m
, fm < fl < fm+1.
, , = 1 [73].

, ( ), (
).
n (. 12.12), .. n . [M] , s- ,
.. , zs, ms.
As (
, ). k ( ) zs,
c
.
s- ks,
z
s, s s.
n
w(t)
,

{j}
(12.12)
{Rw } = {J }w(t ) ,
s

{J} ,
.
s-
J s = As k s cs s s .
(12.13)

js
zs
1

y
{wp,j} , j- . - .12.12. j-
, (4.56)
:
{ j }T {J }
{w p , j } = [ M ]{ j }
j w0 ,
(12.14)
{ j }T {M }{ j }
[M] ; {j} j- ; w0 ,
; j ,
,

384

. 12.

(12.10) f1,
j- fj.
k- {J} w0
k- ,
w pk = Ak kk ck k k w0 .
(12.15)
, (12.14),
s- , j- ,
n
n

w p , j = ms js j jk w pk mk jk2 .
(12.16)
k =1
k =1

( ) [42].
(12.14)
l (z)
(/) b(z). j(z) fj
j- ,
, ,

q p , j ( z ) = ( z ) j ( z ) j ( z )b( z ) w p , j ( z )dz
0

w p , j ( z ) = wm ( z ) ( z ) ( z ) j .

( z ) j2 ( z )dz , (12.17)

(12.18)

(z)
1 .
b , - . (12.17) :
l

q p , j ( z ) = j ( z )b j ( z ) w p , j ( z )dz j2 ( z )dz .
(12.19)
0

. 4.1.
, , (12.14)
n , .
, :
, .

12.2.

385

l = 18

* 1. x
+60.0

, . 12.13. d=1
,
III
, B. +42.0 . : l = 18 ;
d = 1 ; = 0.01 .
, +42.0
E =1011 .
y
1.
. 12.3, III - .12.13.
w0 = 0.38 .
2.
. 12.2.3 , :
wy,
. (12.6), m = y. f = 1.4:
w y ( z ) = w0 f k ( z )c x .
k(z) . 12.5.
z +42.0 + 60.0 1.1
1.3. :
k ( z ) = 1.1 + 0.01( z 42) .
, z .
cx . 14 4 [42]:
c x = k c x , .
cx,
Re . [42]
,
[. (12.5)]:
Re = 0.88 105 d w0 k ( z ) f .
k(z) ,
k = 1.2:
*

[70],
, .

386

. 12.

Re = 0.88 105 1 0.38 1.2 1.4 = 0.7 105 .


[42]
= 0.001 . cx, = 1.2.
k cx .
. k = 0.853.
,
c x = 0.853 1.2 = 1.02 ,

w y ( z ) = 0.38 1.4 [1.1 + 0.01( z 42)]1.02 =
= 0.54 [1.1 + 0.01 ( z 42)] , /2.
,

, .
, 1 :
q x , = 0.54 (1.1 + 0.01x ) , /.
x ,
x = z 42.
. 12.14,.
)

16

16

14

14

12

12

10
8
6
4
2
0

18

qx,
qp1,x
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
, /

x,

x,

18

1-
1(x)

10
8
6

wp,1(x)

4
2
1
0
0.5
1- 1(x) wp,1(x),

. 12.14. :
,
; 1(x)

12.2.

387

3.
, ,
.
(
): EI = 0.76109 2;
= 245 /. (3.33) . 3.1
i fi ():

1 =

12
l2

EI

1.8752
182

0.76 109
= 19.1 /; f1 = 1 = 3 ;
2
245

4.694 2 0.76 109


= 119.8 /; f 2 = 2 = 19 .
2
l
18
115
2

. 12.11, = 0.15. . 12.4 , III


fl = 3.8 . ,
f1 < fl < f2, , , .

xs ,
. (12.16), y1s = 1(xs). 1-
1(x) . 3.1:
2 =

2
2
2

1 ( x ) = sin

EI

1.875x
1.875x
1.875x
1.875x
sh
+ 1.3622 ch
cos
.
l
l
l
l

. 12.14,, , 1. ,

( ), 1(x), ,
.. .

, :
. , ,
(12.19), b = d = 1 .
z, , (12.18):
w p ,1 ( z ) = wm ( z ) ( z ) ( z )1 ,
wm(z) = wx(z), .. ,

388

. 12.

. . 12.8. B
0.8 0.74. :
( z ) = 0.8 0.0033( z 42) .
. 12.10.
( ) z0y (. . 12.9). . 12.5 , .. = d = 1 . , .. = 1 . . 12.10 ,
: 0.94. , , .
1 (12.10):
w0 f

0.38 1000 1.4


= 0.008 .
940 f1
940 3
. 12.11 1 = 1.4.
,
w p,1 ( z ) = 0.54 [1.1 + 0.01( z 42)][0.8 0.0033( z 42)] 0.94 1.4 ,

x :
w p ,1 ( x ) = 0.71(1.1 + 0.01x )(0.8 0.0033x ) , .
wp,1(x) . 12.14,.
wp,1(x) 1(x)
qp,1(x) (12.19).
, , 0.886 (
).
qp,1(x) . 12.14,.
,
. .
12.2.5.
SCAD Office
[42]
SCAD Office [35]. () .
() -

12.3.

389

.
, ,
, . ,
fl (. . 12.4),
.
12.3.
12.3.1.

[42] .
, ..
,
. ,
, .
(), .
, , ,
.
(
, , [55, 76]).

.
[42]
, . ,
[41] () . , [73, 76].
[111].
,
.
,
- .
,
[111] [42] .
[111], .

390

.12.

12.3.2.
,
(. . 12.1).
, . , ,
.

, .
,
.
[111] . , , ,
.
. ,
.
.
. , .
[111], ,
, ,
6.
[42] ,
2/3 10.
. ,
vm
> 1.25 ,
(12.20)
v,i
vm , (12.7),
,
( .
12.15); v,i , i- , .. i- .
,
(12.3). ,

bf
(12.21)
v ,i = i , ,
Sh
Sh ; b , , ( -

12.3.

391

b d); fi,
i- ().

() , i-
, ..
bf
v ,i = i ,o ,
(12.22)
2 Sh
b , ; fi, i-
, .
. , x:
F ( x ) = m( x )(2f i ) 2 i ( x ) y F ,max ,
(12.23)
m(x) , /; fi i- , ; i(x) i-
, , 1; yF,max ,
, 1.
, (12.23)
yF,max. [111]
,
. ,
,
.
, , , .



. , yF,max
y F ,max K w Kc
,
(12.24)
= 2
b
Sh Sc
Kw ; K
; c .
; Sc , , ,
:
2 mi ,
,
(12.25)
Sc =
b 2

392

.12.

(. . 12.3.5);
( =
= 1.221.25 /3); b
, ; mi, i- ,
l
l

mi , = m( x )i2 ( x )dx i2 ( x )dx ,


(12.26)
0
0

m(x) ;
l . m(x) = m = const, m1, = m. 1-
(,
), m1,
. 1- , , m1,
l/3
, i(x) .
(12.24)
c,0
v ,i v ,L j < 0.83;

c = c,0 (3 2.4v ,i v ,L j ) 0.83 v ,i v ,L j < 1.25; (12.27)


0
1.25 v ,i v ,L j ,

c,0 , (.
. 12.1, . 12.3); v,i
i- ; v , L j
Lj.
Lj

. 12.15. b (

).

, . Lj b

6
y F ( x j ) b < 0.1;

(12.28)
= 4.8 + 12 y F ( x j ) b 0.1 y F ( x j ) b < 0.6;
b
y F ( x j ) b > 0.6,
12
yF(xj) . Lj
.
Lj

393

12.3.

1-
r = 1; s = 1

yF,max

v , L1

v , L1

L1
l1

yF,max

v , L1

L2
l1

L i li

n=1
m=3

yF,max
L1

l2
L2
)

yF,max
l1

1(x)

L2

l1 L 1

L 3 l3

b
l2
L2

r = 3; s = 6

(x)

L1

l2

v , L2

l1

L1

v , L1

l2

v , L1

v , L2

r = 2;
s=2

1(x)

l1

1(x)
x

1(x)
y

r = 2;
s=2

v , L1

l1

L1

2(x)

r=1
s=1

L1

v , L2

1(x)

2-
r = 2; s = 2 yF,max

l4

b
l5
l2

. 12.15. Lj

l6

394

.12.

(12.24)
r

K w = | i ( x ) | dx
j =1 L

| i ( x ) | dx 0.6 ,

j =1 l

(12.29)

r
r

K = | i ( x ) | dx 4 i2 ( x )dx ,
(12.30)
j =1 l
j =1 l

j
j

lj (
lj ); r , ; s () i- ; . r s
. 12.15
12.16. . 12.16 K
, Kw , 1- .

F2

L1

1(x)

L1

L2
F1 F3

L3

r = 1; s = 1;

r = 3; s = 3; K = 0.10
K w = | i , y ( x ) | dx
j =1 L j

1(x)

L1

1(x)

i, y

j =1 l j

( x ) | dx

b
1

r = 1; s = 1;
K = 0.10
L j

K w = cos 1
l
2

Kw =

K = 0.13

2
3L j L j 1 L j

l
l 3 l

L1

1(x)

r = 1; s = 1;
Kw =

Lj
l

b
1

K = 0.11

L j

sin 1

l
1

. 12.16. K
Kw

12.3.

395

, (12.24)(12.28)
: yF(xj)
yF,max, c,0, yF(xj).
(12.24)
: (12.28) yF(xj)/d,
yF,max .
. , ,
. . [111],

2
v 2
v
N = 2Tf i 0 ,i exp ,1 ,
(12.31)
v*
v *
T ( ,
3.2107); fi i- (), , ; v,i ; v* ,
( v* = 0.2vm, vm
, (12.7), ); 0 , , (0 = 0.10.3; ). [111] N 104.
2. , 1 (. 12.13).
(12.7) vm.
. 12.2 , III , , 380 . . 12.5,
(. +60.0)
k = 1.3, ( .+50) k = 1.2.
(12.7),
vm ,60 = 1.51 w0 k ( z ) = 1.51 380 1.3 = 33.6 (/),

vm ,50 = 1.51 w0 k ( z ) = 1.51 380 1.2 = 32.2 (/).
1: f1 = 3 ; f2 = 19
(12.21) ,
1- 2- .
Sh = 0.18 (. . 12.1); b : b = d = 1 . , 1- 2-

396

.12.

bf 2
1 19
bf1
1 3
= 8.3 (/); v , 2 =
=
= 52.8 (/).
=
2 Sh 2 0.18
2 Sh 2 0.18
(12.20)
. 1- vm
:
vm,60 = 33.6 /.
vm ,60 33.6
=
= 4.04 > 1.25 .
v ,1
8.3
v ,1 =

1.25, (12.20) 1- , .
2- vm = vm,50 = 32.2 /, ..
vm
32.2
=
= 0.61 < 1.25 .
v , 2 52.8
, 2- .
1- , (12.23):
F ( x ) = m( x )( 2f1 ) 2 1 ( x ) y F ,max =
= 245 ( 2 3) 2 1 ( x ) y F ,max = 0.87 105 1 ( x ) y F ,max , (/).
1(x) 1 (.
. 12.14). 1.
yF,max (12.24).
(12.25).
. 12.3.5 ( 8): = 0.025. m ,
1- m1, = m = 245 /.
= 1.22 /3. (12.25),
2 m
2 0.025 245
Sc = 21, =
= 10 .
1.22 12
b
(12.28)
L1. . 12.16
1- . (
),
yF(x1)/b < 0.1. (12.28) , L1/b = 6, .. L1 = 6 .
, (12.27),
c. L1 (. +57.0) v ,L1 33.2 /. ,
v ,1
v ,L1

8.3
= 0.26 < 0.83 .
33.2

397

12.3.

Kw =

3L j L j 1 L j
1 +
l
l 3 l

2
3 6
6 1 6
=
1 + = 0.704 .
18 18 3 18

(12.29)
Kw = 0.6. . 12.16 K = 0.2.

(12.24),
y F ,max K w Kc 0.6 0.13 0.2
= 2
=
= 0.048 .
b
Sh Sc
0.182 10

y F ,max = 0.048b = 0.048 ();

)
18
1-

x,

14
10
6
2-
2
40
80
0
F (x), /

)
18
14

1-
2-

x,

c
(12.27), .. c0, . 12.3
Re.
(12.1),
v = v,L1 = 33.2 /,

= 0.15104 2/. ,
33.2 1
vb
Re = =
= 2.2 106 .
0.15 10 4

. 12.3 ,
Re c = c0 = 0.2.
Kw
, . 12.16:

10
6
2
0

400
200
M(x),

. 12.17.


:
;

, (12.23):
F ( x) = m( x)(2fi )2i ( x) yF ,max= 245(2 3)2i ( x) 0.048 = 4180i ( x) (/).
. 12.17,,
. 12.17, .
L1. , yF(x1)/b < 0.1, , L1 = 6 . , yF(x1)/b > 0.1,

398

.12.

,
(, (12.28) ) .
(12.31) . vm = vm,60 = 33.6 /. v* = 0.2vm =
= 6.7 /. 0 = 0.3,
T = 30 = 303.2107 c.
2
8.3 2
8.3
9
N = 2 30 3.2 107 3 0.3
exp
= 0.57 10


6
7
6
7
.
.


, -
.

, . 12.6, . (12.24) .

, (12.24)
a
a

0.1 + 0.085 log b 1 b 9;


Sh =
a
0.18
9 < .
b

c (12.24) c :

(12.32)

1.5 1 b 10;
=
(12.33)
a

15 .
b

10 < a b < 15 c . c c,0, . 12.1, :


c,0

= c,0 3 2.4 v,1 v,L1


0

v,1 v ,L1 0.83;

(
1.25 (v

)
).

0.83 v,1 v,L1 1.25;


,1

v,L1

(12.34)

399

12.3.

12.6.

n (12.37) . 12.18

Kiw

a/b = 1

1.5

4.8

4.8

a/b 2

1.5

3.0

3.0

a/b 1.5

1.5

6.0

1.0

a/b 2.5

3.0

2.0

: a/b .

, 1 a/b 3
= K iv ,0 ,
(12.35)
Kiv
(. 12.6); c,0 . 12.1.
Sh 1/Sh

n=4
. 12.18, Sc
15
, (12.25), n=3
10
:
5
n=2
2 mn ,
0
Sc =
,
(12.36)
b 2
0
1
2
3
a/b
mn ,
. 12.18.
n
.



,
.
, .

400

.12.

. [111] , .
-, .
1- 1(x),
, 1.
, 1(x) = 1,
ymax = y kp,
(12.37)
*
y ; kp -.
y

1
Sh 2

Cc

b 2 b

,
(12.38)
2
m h

Sc
K a 1 y
4
ba
L
, , Re (. . 12.7); Ka
( 12.7.
); aL


, Ka,max aL

5
(.
0.02
4
0.4
Re 10
.
12.7);
m
0.4
Re = 5105 0.005 0.5
, ,
0.01
1
0.4 (12.26); h b
Re 106
(
0.04
6
0.4
: b
5
10 Re 5105 5105 Re 106 -
Ka,max - ); .
log(Re).

(12.38):
2

y
= c1 + c12 + c2 ,
b
*

(12.39)

,
.

401

12.3.

c1 =
c2 =

a L2
Sc
;
1
2 4K a

(12.40)

b2 aL2 Cc2 b

.
(12.41)
me Ka Sh4 h
Ka
.
Ka = Ka,max (. . 12.7),
Ka,max .
(12.37) -

0.75 Sc
.
k p = 2 1 + 1.2 ctg
(12.42)
4K a

, (12.31), 0 = 0.15.
3. 2-
, 1 2.
(12.40) (12.41) 1 2.
2: Re = 2.2106;
Sc = 9.64. . 12.7 : = 0.01; Ka,max = 1; aL = 0.4. Ka = Ka,max. (12.40) (12.41) .

Sc 0.4 2 9.64
1
=
1
= 0.0163 ;
2 4 1
4K a
b 2 a L2 Cc2 b 1.22 12 0.4 2 0.012 1
=
= 0.42 10 5 .
c2 =
245
1 0.184 18
m1,e K a Sh 4 h
c1 =

a L2
2

(12.39)
( y b) 2 = c1 + c12 + c2 = 0.0163 + 0.01632 + 0.42 10 5 = 0.033 ,
:

y = b 0.033 = 0.18 ().


- kp , (12.42):

0.75 Sc

0.75 10
= 2 1 + 1.2 ctg
k p = 2 1 + 1.2 ctg
= 3.9 .
4 1

4 K a

y kp (12.37),
ymax = y kp = 0.183.9 = 0.7 ().
, (12.23):

402

.12.

F ( x ) = m( x )(2f i ) 2 i ( x ) y F ,max =
= 245 ( 2 3) 2 i ( x ) 0.7 = 60935i ( x ) (/).
. 12.14,,
. 12.14, .



. -,
, , ( 14 ). [109],
, -
,
.
-, -,
. , [111] (.
. 12.3.5), ,
[42]. = 0.05, . 12.11, = 0.025,
[111],
.
,
[41] ( ) .



(12.26), (12.29) (12.30), m,1 Kw K, .

(). n , i- i(x),
{i} 1n.
:
{F } = [ M ]{i }(2 f i ) 2 y F ,max ,
(12.43)
[M] . ,
k-

12.3.

F ,k = mkik ( 2f i ) 2 y F ,max .

403

(12.44)


n
n

mi , = mkik2 ik2 ,
(12.45)
k =1
k =1
mk , k- ; ik k- {i}.
Kw
(12.29)
r rj

s s j
K w = | ik | | ik | 0.6 ,

j =1 k =1
j =1 k =1
K (12.30)

(12.46)

s s j 2 s s j

K = 4 ik | ik | ,
(12.47)
j =1 k =1 j =1 k =1

, (12.29) (2.30), lj ( ); r , ; s () i- (. . 12.15 12.16). j- Lj, rj . (


); sj , .
4. ,
. 12.19. : l = 18 ; l1 = 8 ; d = 1 , d1 = 2 ; s = 0.01 . ( ) E = 1011 . , 2: (. +60.0)
v60 = 33.6 /, (. +50) v50 = 33.2 /.
18 (19
, ). . 12.8.
: f1 = 5.3 , f2 = 25 .
, 1- 2- , , (12.21),
, 1, Sh = 0.18, b = d = 1 :
bf
bf
1 5.3
1 25
v ,1 = 1 =
= 14.7 (/); v , 2 = 2 =
= 69.4 (/).
2 Sh 2 0.18
2 Sh 2 0.18

404

.12.

(12.20)
1- . vm : vm = v60 =
= 32.5 /.
vm
33.6
=
= 2.29 > 1.25 .
v ,1 14.7
, 1- .
2- vm = v50 = 32.2 /:
vm
32.2
=
= 0.46 < 1.25 .
v , 2 69.4
(12.20), 2- .
+60.0

12.8.

l1

d1
+42.0
y

. 12.19.

k
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
15
17
18
19

mk,
238
475
443
414
382
353
321
291
260
245
245
245
245
245
245
245
245
245
245

1- {1}
0.0000
0.0025
0.0089
0.0197
0.0355
0.0572
0.0858
0.1223
0.1687
0.2259
0.2929
0.3680
0.4496
0.5361
0.6261
0.7183
0.8119
0.9059
1.0000

{F},
0.0
0.6
1.9
3.9
6.5
9.7
13.2
17.1
21.1
26.6
34.4
43.3
52.9
63.0
73.6
84.5
95.5
106.5
117.6

{M},
3168
3168
3159
3128
3070
2979
2853
2694
2506
2295
2056
1781
1478
1161
845
551
297
107
0

(12.24) yF,max,
(12.23). (12.24) ,
2, .. Sc = 10.
L1 (12.28) ,
yF(x1)/b < 0.1. ,
(12.28), L1/b = 6, .. L1 = 6 . c (12.27) ,
2, c = 0.2. Kw
(12.29): Kw = 0.784. , -

12.3.

405

, Kw = 0.6. K , (12.30): K = 0.12.


(12.24)
y F ,max K w Kc 0.6 0.12 0.2
= 2
=
= 0.044 ,
b
Sh Sc
0.182 10
.. yF,max = 0.044 . , yF(x1)/b < 0.1,
.
1-
(12.43):
{F } = [ M ]{1}(2f1 )2 y F ,max = [ M ]{1}(2 5.3)2 0.044 = 48.8[ M ]{1} .
(12.44) k-
F,k = 48.8mkk ,1 ,
mk , k- ; 1k k- 1.
. 12.8.




. . , .
, . , , , ,
Sc > 8 [111].
()
,
33 40 % (. 12.20,).
5D (D
) t = 0.1D (
t = 0.13D). , 0.005D.
, , ,
(.
12.20,, [76]) , , (. . 12.2.3).

406

.12.

(. 12.20,). ,

,
25 %
D
.
,
D
20
36 %
(

s = 0.0520.07D),
)

1.5
= 0.12D.

t/D = 0.12 0.06
1.0


, :
0.5
. , D

t
, 0
, 5
10
107
106
Re
.
. 12.20.
, : ,
;
;
[76]
. , . , , [53, 84].

c

0.33-0.4H

a)



- ,
, , [42], ,

12.3.

407

.

R = R2 + ( R + R ) 2 ,

(12.48)

R (, ,
); R ; R
R [73].

12.3.3.

() ,
. . , ..
, .
[76].
, [111].
.

D-, L-, I-, U- T- . ,
[76], , , D- ( ). . 12.9.
. ,
v. .
2 Sc
v =
f1b (/),
(12.49)
a
Sc , (12.25); f1 ; b
, . 12.9; a , .
12.9 ( , a = 10).
,
(12.50)
v < 1.25vm,
vm , , (12.7).

408

.12.
12.9. a

d/b
2.0
1.5
1.0
2/3
1/2
1/3

a
2.0
1.7
1.2
1.0
0.7
0.4

2.7
5.0

5.0
7.0

3.0

7.5

2.0

0.7

3/4

3.2

2.0

1.0

4
d
b

5
d

1.0

1.0

b
t = 0.06b
l
l b

9
l/3

l/3

4.0

l/3

: d/b a . d/b .

12.3.

409

v
v
0.7 < < 1.5 ,
(12.51)
v,1
v,1 ,
[. (12.21)],
. [111]
, ,
.

. , , [73, 76]. ,
,
.
(12.49) (12.50), . , . ,
.
, .
5. , 2.
, ,
(. . 12.9, 8).
2, ,
( +60.0),
vm = 33.6 /. d = 1 ( b).
f1 = 3 ;
Sc = 10. (12.49) ,
( . 12.9,
a = 1):
2 Sc
2 10
v =
f1b =
3 1 = 60 (/).
a
1
(12.50) , v vm 25 %.
:
1.25vm = 1.2533.6 = 42 / < v = 60 (/).
, .

410

.12.



, . 12.6. v (12.49), f1 ; b ,
. 12.6 ( ); a
, b a (. . 12.6).

(12.50), vm , .



, (
). .

(. 12.21). [76] . .

. 12.21. ()

. (.12.22),
, ,

12.3.

411

.
. ,

.
- 10
b

a/b <3, ,

a
[111]:
v, = 3.5 f1

ab Sc
, /,
a,

(12.52)

. 12.22.

l = 18

f1 ;
a, ( a, = 3.0).
(12.50): v, > 1.25vm. (12.52), v, ,
d, a.
: .
+60.0
x
6. . 12.23
. d = 1.5

. +60.0,
d = 1.5

, vm = 32 /.
d = 1.5 ( b); a=2
m = 245 /; a = 2 .
f1 = 3 .
+42.0 y
. 12.3.5
( 8), = 0.025. (12.25)
. 12.23. : Sc = 9.22.

,
. (12.52)
, :
ab Sc
2 1.5 9.22
v, = 3.5 f1
= 3.5 3
= 31.9 (/).
a,
3
(12.50):
1.25vm = 1.2532 = 40 / > v,.

412

.12.

,
.
, .
, ,
(12.49). a
. 12.6: a/b = 1.33 < 1.5, a = 1.5.

2 Sc
2 9.22
v =
f1b =
3 1.5 = 55.3 (/).
a
1.5
(12.50):
1.25vm = 40 / < v.
, ,
.

12.3.4.
.
. (, ).


v
(. 12.24).

k
,
, - . 12.24. - ( ),
. (
k).
, ( ), - , ..
, ,
, , . - , .
, ,
.

.

12.3.

413

, .
-,
.. [23].

, .
, ,
:
, , - , , : , ,
, , ,
.
:
.

, ,
, . , ,
,
, , -
.
: , , , ,
.
(
flutter ), , ,
, , ,
-.
,
. 1940 .

. 650 ,
12 . ,
,
, . . . , , ,
, .

414

.12.
)

. 12.25. ():
- ;

4 .
- ,
(. 12.25).
, ,
.
, .
, ,
, . (, , -

12.3.

415

, ).
. , :
x v
(. 12.26). [76].

x
,
,
. 12.26.
. ,
, ,
, .
. ,
. , . , , .
,
.
1.
( ) b/d < 0.25 (. 12.27).

l
2. , b
v


d
l 0.25d ,
. 12.27.

. ,
( ), , , (, ).
3.
, , , 2 , .

416

.12.

, , ..
, , , .
. ,
2k
,
(12.53)
d 2CM
k
1.4
(. . 12.24);
; M 1.2

,
1
2M
0.2
0.1
b/d
0
CM =
;
(12.54)
v 2d 2
. 12.28.

M
;
d (. 2 . 2.26); CM
( ),
2
dCM
b
b
CM =
= 6.3 0.38 + 1.6 .
(12.55)
d
d
d
CM . 12.28.
,

(12.56)
v < 2vm,
vm , .
7. , ,
. 12.29.
:
b = 0.1 ,
b
d = 2.5 . k = 0.2106 .
b/d = 0.04.
(12.55)
dCM
d
CM =
= 1.57 .
d
. 12.29.
, (12.53):
v =

C M

v =

2k
2 0.2 10 6
=
= 182.8 (/).
2
1
.
22

2
.
5

1
.
57
2 dC M
d
d

12.3.

417

(12.56)
,
vm > 0.5v = 91.4 /.
, ,
F3, . 13 (. . 13.1).

. .
, , ,
( [76]).

[76]. ,
.
.
1. . :
H- ( .
12.24); ; . , ,
.
2. .
- .
, ,
,
. , H-
.
3. :
, .

12.3.5.
. . 2 3.
[111] , -

418

.12.

,
.
12.10.


0.10

0.05

0.08

0.03
0.012


0.020

h/d < 18
0.020
0.040
20 h/d < 24
1

0.014
h/d 26
h/d < 18
0.020
1
, -, 0.04

0.02
2
0.03


0.05
,
0.04

2

0.10
3
0.060.12
2
0.04
2
0.02
,
0.040.08
2

0.006


0.020
:
1
h , d . h/d .
2
0.75.
3

. , ,
.

1- :

12.3.

419

= + +,
(12.57)
;
; (, .).
12.11.



. 12.10.

,
,
0.0015
,

0.0042
[42] (.
0.006
. 12.11), 0.02
-

0.05
(. . 17, . 17.3).

0.2

0.2

0.2
,
1.0

0.5
-
2.0
, -

2.0
.

3.0
, ,
(., , [73]).

c v b
= x m ,
(12.58)
2 f1m
, , f1
; m
, . 3.3.6;
vm , ; b ; cx
, 4 [42] [111], .
,
, .
8.
, 2.
. 12.10 , = 0.012.
(12.58). : -

420

.12.

b = 1 ( d);
m= m = 245 /. , 2 :
f1 = 3 ; vm = 33.6 /.
cx
1 [42].
[111], ( [42]):
(12.59)
cx = kcx .
cx (. 12.30).
.
1: Re = 2106. . 12.11. , . = 0.02 = 2105 . /d = 2105.
. 12.30 , cx 0.6.
x

/b = 102 103 104 105

1.2

= 0.1
0.9

0.8
0.4

0.8

0.5 0.9

0.7

0.95
1.0

0.6
105

106

. 12.30. cx

Re

10

100

. 12.31. k

k (12.59) ,
A
b
.
. 12.31
. 12.32. - .

. 12.12.
A
, , A . ,
. 12.32 A , A = bh.
h

12.3.

421

12.12.
( )

bl
l

l
b
z 2b

zb
b1 1.5
b

bl

b1 1.5
l

b0 2.5b
b/2
b

l/2

,
,

:
l 50 = 1.4l/b,
70;
l < 15 = 2l/b,
70.
:
l 50 = 0.7l/b,
70;
l < 15 = l/b,
70.
l

l
b

b1 2.5b

l
b
z 2b

b
b

l 50

:
= 0.7l/b = 70.
l < 15
: = l/b
= 70.
l

l = 18 , l/b = 18.
. 12.12 , = 17.5 ( 15 < l < 50 ). = 1. . 12.31
: k = 0.76. , x = kcx = 0.760.6 0.46.

422

.12.

, 1 cx ,
[42], 1.02, .. 2.2
. cx, [111], , ,
.

c v b 0.46 1.22 33.6 1
= x m =
= 0.013 .
2 f1m
2 3 245
= 0, , .
(12.55),
= + + = 0.012 + 0.013 + 0 = 0.025.
cx
.
a (.
. 12.33). [42] , [111]:
cx = k n cx ,
(12.60)
cx k , , n , b a (. 12.13).

a
b

a
b

1 2 . 1 3 . n

a/b < 3.5
3.5 < a/b < 30

. 12.33.

30 < a/b

1.15
a
180b
1.00

1.17

. , . 12.3.6, [111], [42]. , ,


[111], .
.

13

13.1.
, [90],

.
, ,
, ,
. .
, ,
, ,
. , , , .
[50], 1 10 000 : ,
. ,
.
[42], : = 2.5,
= 2.
, .
, .
13.2.
13.2.1.
( , ) [17, 44, 45,
50, 69, 76, 90]

, (. 13.1,). .
, ,
( ).
, .

424

. 13.

. 13.1, .
:
, .
, . , . .
)

. 13.1. :

; ,

13.2.

425

F- , . 13.1 [90]. ,
12 . , Vm.
VFk, k- Fk,
VFk = 6.3( k + 1)1.5 , /, k = 1, 2,,5.
(13.1)
, ,
. 13.1,
150 ,
.
1 3 . 1 . F-

F0
F1

F2

Vm
Vm 33 /. . ; ;
.
33 < Vm 49 /.
.
;
;
;
;

. (32.6 /
).
50 < Vm 69 /. .
(

);

; ; ; ; ; .

426

. 13.
. 13.1

F3

F4

F5

F6
F12

Vm
70 < Vm 92 /. .

;
; ;


;
; , .
93 < Vm 116 /. .


,
;
;
;
; .
117 < Vm 140 /. .

; ;
;

.
140 / < Vm (330 /). .
, F6,
. ,
, ,
.

427

13.2.

. 13.2
P- . , 5 , Lk Wk
[90]. , k- Pk,
Lk = 1609100.5(k 1), , k = 1, 2,,5,
(13.2)

(13.3)
Wk = 1609100.5(k 5), , k = 1, 2,,5.
1 3 . 2 . P-e

P0
P1

P2
P3
P4
P5

Lk,

Wk,

1.6
1.6 5.0
5.116.0
16.1 50.9
51 160
161 507

16
16 50
51 160
161 509
510 1600
1601 5070

,
(. 13.2). ,
.

. 13.2.

(, ,
, , ) ,
. , ,

428

. 13.

300 ,
30 100 /, 15 . , , 100 /, ,
. (- )
: 50 , 4050 /, 3 , 55 /.
13.2.2.
1844 2001 .
367 , [69]. ,
, - -.

, ,
160 . 50 /,
,
100 /, , .

. 13.3.
[69]

429

13.2.

. 13.3 [17, 69].


, . 13.3.
. 13.2.1 13.2.2. ,
.
, -, , .

Ps,
1/, 1000 2


Vm, /


Vtr,, /


p,

1 3 . 3 .
[69]

I
I
I
I
I
II
II
III
V

30104
87104
12104
1.6104
3.6104
39104
14104
6.6104
5.6104
24104
19104
1.4104

2.58
3.58
1.93
0.56
1.75
3.69
2.75
2.12
2.01
2.71
1.07
1.47

72
94
59
34
55
97
76
62
60
75
43
50

18
24
15
8
14
24
19
16
15
19
11
12

6.4
10.9
4.2
1.4
3.7
11.5
7.0
4.8
4.4
6.9
2.2
3.0

. 13.2 , . 13.2,
Ps 1000 2 [69].
. [69], , Ps
P0.
13.2.3.
, . 13.4, ( ) [76, 90]. , -

430

. 13.

. r Vm,
r = Rm, r.
, F-
: Vm,
(F0) 33.5 /, rD. . 13.4, , j- , Vj Vj+1. ,
, 2rD.
)
V
Vm

)
V

Vj+1

33.5 /

Vj

Rm
0

Vm

Rm

rj+1

rj

rD

Vr
Vtr

. 13.4. :
r ( ,
j- ); Vm
Vtr

Vm V Vr (. 13.4,). [76]:
r
Vm 0 r < Rm ;

V = Rm
(13.4)
Rm Vm Rm r < .
r
Vtr.
[90] (-, ),
Vtr 0.25Vm.
(13.5)
, , . ,
, .
Rm.
Wk. (13.4), r > Rm

13.2.

Rm = r

V
.
Vm

431

(13.6)

, rD, V = 33.5 /, Wk,


33.5Wk
Rm =
.
(13.7)
2Vm
, Rm 100 , ,
-, (,
Wk).
Rm = 150 50 .
(13.8)
13.2.4.
:
1) ;
2)
;
3) , .
.
. , [42]
, . 12,
. ,
, , [42],
, .
, , .
, p .
r
1
p = V2 , ,
(13.9)
2
3
= 1.22 / . (13.4),
V 2 r 2

m
2 Rm
p =
2
2
Vm Rm

2 r

0 < r Rm ;
(13.10)
Rm < r < .

432

. 13.

.
1
pmax = Vm2 ,
(13.11)
2
r y
p
(13.12)
Cq =
pmax
(13.10) :
(r Rm )2 0 < r Rm ;
(13.13)
Cq =
2
(Rm r ) Rm < r < .
Cq . 13.5.
[76],
p w = q F C p + q m C pi ,
(13.14)
qF qm ; Cp ,

; Cpi
1
0.8
,
CSF

0.6
( Cq

0.4
). 0.2
Cp Cpi
. 0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
L/Rm, r/Rm,

. 13.5. CSF C q
[42].
, , .

qF = pmax CSF ;
(13.15)
qm = pmax CSM ,

(13.16)

C SF . 13.5. L/Rm, L , -

433

13.2.

, , . ,
, L . (, ), L
.
, C SF .
C SM , , , C SF ; L
. C SM :
) L/Rm
, . 13.5;
) . 13.5 ,
,

2

L
r1
L
1
+ 4 ;
(13.17)
=
+

Rm 2 Rm
Rm

) A0i qi;
) C SM

M
S

Cqi

01

i =1

A01

(13.18)

i =1

n .
.

,
. 13.6. A = 2700 2.
A = 540 2
(
).

60

30
45

. 13.6.

434

. 13.

1 (. . 13.3). .
13.2, k = 3.69; Vm = 97 /; Vtr = 24 /.
, , Rm = 50 .
(13.11)
1
1.22 97 2
pmax = Vm2 =
= 5740 ().
2
2
(13.15) (13.16)
qF qm. CSF CSM .
, .
L = 60 , L/Rm = 1.2. . 13.5
CSF = CSM = 0.58 .
(13.15) (13.16),
qF = qm = 5740 0.58 3330 ().
pw , (13.14),
Cp Cpi
e i 4 [42]
( 9).
Cp = e = 0.8.
[42],
Cpi = i = 0.8.
(13.9),
pw = qF C p + qmC pi = 3330 0.8 + 3330 0.8 5330 ().
.
.
r
[76]
dpa V2
=
.
(13.19)
dr
r
(13.4)
Vm2
r2
2 2 0 r < Rm ;

(13.20)
pa ( r ) = 2 2 2 Rm
Vm Rm
Rm r < .
2 r 2
(13.11),
pa ( r ) = pmaxCa ,
(13.21)

13.2.

435

Ca
,

r2
2 2 0 r < Rm ;
(13.22)
Ca = 2 Rm
Rm
Rm r < .
r 2
Ca .
13.7. , , . r = 0
pa ,max = Vm2 .
(13.23)

Ca = pa/pmax

, ,
,

, . ,
0
,
. -1
,



-2
.
r/Rm
0
1
2
(. 13.7.
)
[76].
(13.20) . pa(t) , ,
Vtr.

,
(13.24)
r = Vtr t .
(13.20),
Vm2 Vtr2t 2
R
R
2 2 m t m ;

2
Rm
Vtr
Vtr
pa (t ) =
2
2
R
R
Vm Rm
t < m t > m .
2 Vtr2t 2
Vtr
Vtr

(13.25)

436

. 13.

. 13.8,
1, (. .
13.6). , .
Vtr = 25 /,
.. , . 15.3.
,
. 13.8, [76].
)
)
-3 -2

-1

2 r/R m

-6 -4

-2

4 t, c

pa(t)

3Rm/Vtr

-4

pa,max

pa,

-8

-12

Rm/Vtr

Rm/Vtr

. 13.8.
1:
;

.
,
. , , [76]. . , , : (, ,
- ); ; .
,
.

:
, ,
;
, ;
,
.

13.2.

437

[69]
:
1800 ;
200- ()
125 ;
2.5 .
[90]
(U.S.
NRC) [139]. ,
0.35Vm.
1 3 . 4 . ,
[139]
, % *
1 1030365 , 52
80
2 2.54 , 90 , 3.6
60
3 15.2 , 460 , 130
40
4 30.5 , 460 , 340
40
5 34 , 1050 , 675
40
6 521.3 , 1810
20
*
.

U.S. NRC [139]


, , .
. 13.4. , ( 2), 70 %
. ,
,

. ,
5 6,
,

9
800
.

, , . 13.9. , , [45]
.

438

. 13.

. , ,
,
,
. ,
, . 13.9 , [45].
, , . .
. Q . , Q, Q Q. Vmax, , Q Q r = Rm. pa,max, .. Q, r = 0, r = Rm 0.5pa,max (..
0.5Q). , [139].
1) Q = Q. r = Rm,
.
, , ,
() ;
2) Q = Q + Q. r = Rm, ; . ,
,
;
3) Q = Q. , , . , ,
[76];
4) Q = Q. , r = 0.
, , ,
;
5) Q = Q + 0.5Q. r = Rm,
, .
;
6) Q = Q + 0.5Q + Q. r = Rm, , . , , , ,
.

13.3.

439


5 6. , , , p
pa, .
, 1
Cq

, .. 0
, .

Ca
Ca Cq
(13.11) - -1
p (13.23)
Ca + Cq
pa,
-2
, 0 r Rm
r / Rm
0
1
2
pa = 1 p ,
(13.26)
Rm r
pa = p ,

(13.27)

. 13.10.

. 3.10 Cq Ca,
pmax, . 0 r Rm
(.. ) 2 ,
Rm r . 2,
.
Q Q , p ,
. , , 5 r < Rm , Q,
.. 4, r > Rm
. r Rm Q,
.
, 6 . Q + 0.5Q
, .. 3.
13.3.
5 20 , [45,
76, 89]. (
), ( ). -

440

. 13.

.
100
. , (
90 ) .
, 12 150
. , ,
100 /, . .
,
120 / (33 /), .
, , . , -, . -,
( ), . ,
, , , , .
20 .., , , , ( 33 /). ,
, .
. 12.2,
[50], ,
, , 1 10000 . (13.11) Vmax, ,
,
. [50] [42],
w0 [
(13.11) pmax]
K = 2.5. w0 ( )
, [42].
. 12.3, v0, (13.11).
-

13.3.

441

,

.
, . 12.3, , (33 /) VI VII (
, ).

, I Ia. ,
, , .
- [26, 42],
. , , .
, .

III


14


(), , . ,
,
().
.
, , , .
, , (., ,
[12]).
14.1.
, ,
, , ,

. [48, 51, 75], ,
, .

:

;
;
, .

[86].

14.1.

443


[8890, 113, 114]. , ,
. .

[51],
.
, ,
, .
, , , .
, ,
, .
, (Screening Distance
Value, SDV), , ().
, (Design Basis
Probability Value, DBPV),
, . [112]
, [86] .
, (Conditional Probability Value, CPV),
(1/), ,
. [86]
. [112] .
,
.
(Initiating Event)
,
.
(Design Basis Event) ,
, / .

. 14.

444

(Design Basis Human


Events Design Basis Natural Events).
,

, ,

.
( [112]
Design Basis)
( , ),

. .

. , , , 107 1/,
.. 10 . *.
() , , , , ,
.
, (Screening Probability Level, SPL)
(1/), ,
. [86],
(, -)
, 10 000 ,
= 106 1/.
SPL = 107 1/, ** [112].
*

: , 1
2 . . ,
, 5 10 .
**
,
101 1/, 102 1/. ,

50 , .. 2102 1/ [82].

14.2.

445

, (,
, ).
,
, , .
14.2.
, ,
, , ,
. , , , , .
,
.
,
.
, [112], . 14.1, . ,
[86] , .

,
.
. ,
. ,
.
(
1 ).
; ; ,
,
; ,
, .
, ,
. , .
( 2).

. 14.

446

1.
2.

5.
()?

6.
()?

7. ,

?
8.

4.
?

3.
()

9. ,
?
10. ,
?
11. / , ,

. 14.1.

.
(), -

14.2.

447

(
3)
, . .

( , ).
,
( 4). , .
, , ,
,

( 5). [86, 112].

. 15.
, , .
, , .
. , [86], : 5 ;
10 1 ; 0.1g; 1.5 .
, . , 1/, ,
().
. = 0.1 [112].
,

< ? ,
( 6).
,
[86], , ,
. ,
, ,
:
, ;

448

. 14.

,
, ;
,
, 106 1/;
107 1/.
[112]. , ,
-
. , ( 7).
,
, , ( 8). [86], ( ) 0.95.
,
( 9 10).
,
/ ,
, ( 11). , ,
;
, , ..
[86]
- () . , , .
14.3.


(-). .
-

14.3.

449

. , :
(, , , );
,
,
;

, .
, -
, :
,
;
,

, .
- , (, ,
).
-
.

.
[112] :
- 1 (-1) , ; ,
;
- 2 (-2) , , , -1;
;
- 3 (-3) ,
, ,
(,
);

, -1;
, - (-4), .

450

. 14.

, -1:
( ), ,
.
, , , , .
,
,

, , .
, .

, .
, , .
, .
-2 .
,
, .
-3 ,
, .
, ,
.
-1 ,
. (
, , , .).
-2 ,
,
,
-1.
-3 ,
, , -1.
-4
. -

14.3.

451

, .
-
, .

:
,
, ,
;
,
(, , ).

, ,

.

: , , , ,
. , .
, . ,
, ,
.

.

.
, .
,
(, ,
..), . ,

.
.
, , . ,
(, ),

452

. 14.

. , , (, ) ,
.
. ,
48 .
( ,
),
.
, ,
,
. , ,

,
.
, - : ,
, .
, , .
,
.
[51]. ,
.
; ; , ;
( ). , . , . ,
[112].

14.4.

453

,
-1 , , .
(, , ,
, ).
(.. )
.
, (, ),
, .
,

, ( ) ,
. .
14.4.


,
, . (. . 14.1).
.
:
(,
. 14.2), ,
( , ). , . ,
(, ) , ,
.
(-), -

454

. 14.

, .
.
,
, ,
, . . ,
, ,
,
.
,

.
-
,
.
,

(). ,
. 14.2.

(. . 14.2).
.
,
- () , , , (),
.
.
.
() .

14.4.

455

0.4 , 100 .
,
,
. ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
( , ).
. 16.

, .

*.
, ,
, .
.
. 17.
,
, , ,
. ,
,
. . 9.3.2 . 16.
,
.
, . , - , ,
, .
*

, . -, . -, , .

456

. 14.


,
.

, , , , , .. .
. .
,
.
. (,
), (,
).

.
(,
, ). , .
,
.

(,
;
..).
. , , .
:

, , ;
,
,
;
, -4, , , .

14.5.

457

, ,
,
, . , ; , , , ..
,
. ,
( ).
14.5.
. 14.3 .
, , ( 1 ). . 14.2.
, ,
( 2): , , ,
, , .
( 3).
, , ( 4). , , , .
(
). , ,
.
, , , . ,
,
-, , ,
.
, .
,

458

. 14.
1. , ,
2.

3.

4. , ,

5. , ? -

6.
?

7.
?

8.

9.

. 14.3.

.
,
, .
, , , ,
( 5)?
- (. . 14.3).
, ( 9).

14.6.

459

, , , ( 6)? ,
( 9).
,
( 7)?
, ( 9).
, ,
( 8). :
, ;
( )
(, , );
, ;
.
,
, (,
), , . ,
. , ,
.
(, ), , .
,
, .
( 8).
14.6.
,
(, ,
. .). (, , , .).
,

460

. 14.


, . .
, . ,
. (, ) ,
.
, , ,
(. II ). ,
.

.

/ .
,
, .
14.7.

, ,
,

. , . ,
, . , , , / (. . 8);
,
, .
(, , .) -.
(, , ,
, ).
, , , .

14.8.

461

, , . ,
(, )
, . [50],
, , . , ,
.
14.8.

,
. ,
, . ,
- ,
.
,

. ,

.
(). - (-), ..
,
. , , ,
(. . 9),
. -
.
, , , , . ,
,
, .

462

. 14.

.
. , .
,
-. , ,
. -,
, .
.
(, ) (. . 7). ,
,
( , ).
,
. (), , , .
(, ), .
. 17.
.
. ,
, .
14.9.
. 1.
.
-, (, ) (.
. 1). ( , ) .
-, , . ,

14.10.

463


,
( ) 0.95.
, ,
0.95 .
,
(.. ), , ,
.

, .
14.10.

( ). , ,
( ),
. .
-2.


. , , :
, , , ; ; ( ) .;
, - ;
;
,
;
: ,
;
, ;
.
, , . , ,
. ,
, .

464

. 14.

14.11.

14.11.1.
, .
. ,
,
(.. ).

. ,
, .
.

,
. . ,
, .
, , , , .

.
(, , ),
, . ,
, ,
.
14.11.2.
Qi. : ,
,
. . , , , .. - , , , .. ,
.

14.11.

465

, ..
Rk.
.
. ,

. , .. , , , , ,
.
Q R,

(
). ,
Q R.
(14.1)
,
(14.1) . , ,
, , (14.1) .
.
-, . , , , ,
1. , [42], . ,
(, , , ),
. ,
,
( ): nq > 1.
-, , .
, : kr < 1. , [80]

. 14.

466

,
,
1. [4]: 1.
(14.1)
,
:

qi

Qi mF (k r1 R1 , k r 2 R2 ,...) ,

(14.2)

; F ;
m , ( ).
14.11.3.
,
. .
[14, 64, 72, 81], , .
, , .
. 20- . XX .
. [122] . . [93].
, ,
(, , .).
, , . , .
[1, 12 14, 59, 63, 82, 90, 94, 123, 131],
.
, -

14.11.

467


. . , . . , . . .
. , .
.
.

, ,
, , . , , ,
. , .
, -, (,
, ..). -, (
, .).
.
. :
, ,

. , , .
, .
,
,
. ,
, , . - ,
.

. 14.

468

. F, C. , .. C = F ,

(14.3)
P (C ) = 1 P ( F ) .
.
Q R , . ,
q r. ,
Q(q)
R(r). , , .
, ,
(14.1), .. Q > R.

P( F ) = R ( x) Q ( x)dx .
0

(14.4)

,
. , , [64].
,
, .
. ,
,
, , , .
,
, , , . , (. . 14.2)

, , , . .

(. . 14.1).

14.11.

469

(, , ) ,
[51]; .

,
, .
.
B1 (: ; ;
.).
B2i , i- . B2i
- , . -
,
.
, B3i
i- .
B1
P1 = P( B1 ) ;
(14.5)
B2i ,
B1,
P2i = P ( B2i | B1 ) ;
(14.6)
, i- , B1 B2i,
P3i = P( B3i | B1 , B2i ) .
(14.7)
i- Pi :
Pi = P1 P2i P3i = P( B1 ) P( B2i | B1 ) P ( B3i | B1 , B2i ) .
(14.8)
( , , ,
.),
.
Rik Pcik k- i- .
Rik = Pi Pcik .
(14.9)

. 14.

470

k- ,
:
n

i =1

i =1

Rk = Rik = Pi Pcik ,

(14.10)

n .
P1, P2i P3i
(
). P1. ,
(. . 14.1),
.
, Rik, i- ,
, .

. 15.3.

15




, , .
15.1.
15.1.1.

60- . XX . ,
, [112].
[86],

, .
(, [62]).
(, ; ;
..).
, , , .. .
-, 11 2001 ., .
, .

.
,

.
, [86], .
.

472

. 15.

15.1.2.

. 15.1. P0
( 1 ). . P0 ( . . 14.1),
[86],
( 2). (), ( 3).

. ,
[86],
, ( 4).
( 5), (
. . 14.1). .
,
( 6).
,

( 7).
.
(),
( 8).
,
, ,
( 9).
, ( 10).
, ( 11)? ,
.
, , , ,
, ,
( 12).
15.1.3.
(). -

473

15.1.

, .

2. P0

()?

3.
(),
4.
, [43]?

[22].

1. P0

5.

7.

8. , ?

9.
,
10.
,

11. ?

12. ,


,

6. ?

. 15.1.

474

. 15.

, ,
. 105106.
,
7.5 - , 34 30
[112].
[112]
[138]. , :
4 ;
10 ;
16 500d 2 , 16 1000d 2
( d );
30 , (,
, ..).
15.1.4.
,
, . , ,
, .
, .
[112], ,

:
;
;

,
;
(, ,
.).
P
:
P = P0 + P1 + P2 + P3,
(15.1)

15.1.

475

P0, , ; 1 - ; 2 ; 3
.
P0
. [112] ,
100200 , 0.11.0 2. P0
,
.
1 5 . 1 . [18]

1976
1980
1985
1990
2000
2015
2050
1976
1980
1985
1990
2000
2015
2050


10 -7

1
2
3
4
24.2
16.3
23.0
79.4
17.1
13.4
20.4
68.5
11.1
10.5
17.6
57.0
7.20
8.24
15.2
47.4
3.00
5.07
11.4
32.6
0.82
2.44
7.30
18.9
0.10
0.73
3.60
7.40

5
6
7
8
370
400
275
574
350
380
261
548
324
353
241
504
306
333
228
476

216
235
161
336
153
167
114
238

,
[18, 19].
:
1 1- 2-
800 / (-86, -62, -154,
-134, -42);
2 ,
, 500 /. 3- (-24, -26, -30, -40),
2- 4- ;

. 15.

476

3 -2 - ;
4 ;
5 - ;
6 ();
7 (, );
8 .
19761990 .
(. 15.1) 1 (. 15.2).
1 5 . 2 . [18]

1990
2015
2050
1990
2015
2050
1990
2015
2050

1990


1 10-7

1
2
3
4

0.028
0.318
4.18
13.0
0.014
0.089
2.00
5.20
0.015
0.80
1.41
6.1104

0.700
1.16

0.076
0.41

0.0052
0.079


4.10
9.30

0.51
3.06

0.03
0.62


5
6
7
8

0.073
0.074
0.039
1.55

1.12
4.9
1.24


1.76
6.81
0.54

. 19762000 . ,
3106 .
[18].

15.1.

477

20002015 . . , , ,
, .
(15.1). , (15.1). ,
, .
P1 , ..
, (15.1).
1 5 . 3 . Cj [138]
(108) 1 2
1
-

16.7
84
8.3
5.7
01
4.0
15
1.1
2.3
12
0.96
6.2
0.33
1.1
23
0.68
3.8
0.31
0.42
34
0.27
1.2
0.2
0.4
45
0
56
0
67

0
78

89
0.14
0.12
9 10
* ,
, .

,

[138]
(US NRC) P1
L

P1 = C j N ij A j ,

(15.2)

i =1 j =1

L - , (.. ) ; ,
; Cj j- 1
1 (1.605 ) ( Cj, , . 15.3;
. 15.2.); Nij j- i- ; Aj
(1 2 = 2.576 2), j- .

. 15.

478

[127] , 5 (8 ) :
L

P1 = N ijk Ajk R jk Dk ,

(15.3)

i =1 j =1 k =1

. 15.2.
-

L M , (15.2);
K ;
Nijk
j- i- ; Ajk
, 2,
j- k-
; Dk - :

0.22 R / 2 / 80
e e
;

(15.4)
Dk = R
0.31 R / 2.5 / 43

e
e
;
R
R , , -
(.. ); , , ,
(. 15.2); Rjk j- k- :
1.8 10 6 1 ;
R jk =
(15.5)
6
4.9 10 1 .
, Rjk (15.5) 1964
1968 .
, . ,
,
c = 6.5 10 8 e 0.05t ,
(15.6)
t , 1975 .
(15.6)
(, .). ,
,
. ,
(15.3)(15.5) .

15.1.

479

R = 5 (8 ) , ,
, [119]:
1
P1 =
PN c A ,
(15.7)
2R
P ; Nc
; A (2).
P2
, .
( ). US NRC [138] , :
CNA
,
(15.8)
P2 =
w
w , (
,
); N
; , 2;
C 1 ( C = 41010 1/ [138], 100 ,
).
(15.8)
,

F(x)

.
,

x


. [119] . 15.3.

, :
P2 = CNA F ( x ) ,
(15.9)
C, N , (15.8); F(x) x
(. 15.3):
F ( x ) = 0.5ke kx ,
(15.10)
k, 1/, :

480

. 15.

1.0 ;
2.0 ( );
k=
1.0 ();
1.6 .
,
.
3 ,
.
(. 15.4).
)

H0

D0

. 15.4.
:
;

[119]
P = Ph N t A ps dt ,

(15.11)
5

Ph (210 /); Nt
(1105 /); A
(100100 ); ps
,
d | |
6
1
(15.12)
ps = 2 1
;
D0 D0

d ; D0 = CdH0;
= CgH0 (d = 12 / ; H0 ; g= 0.1 / ).
(15.13) .
(. 15.5). ,

481

15.1.


,
[119]
2

1 k
kd
exp , (15.13)
2 z
z
k (k =1.125);
d
:
ps =

d = ( x x0 ) 2 + ( y y0 ) 2 , (15.14)
(x, y) (x0, y0) .
v
(15.13),
P3 = Ph ACt f ps dv ,

(15.15)

y0
y

x0 x

. 15.5.

Ph A , (15.11); t ; f
, /3.
,
.
15.1.5.
. 15.1.4 , . A0. , ,
= 106 1/
A0 = 104 2. , .
, A :
P = P PA ,
(15.16)
P ; PA A.
,
, (
) [20], :

;

;

. 15.

482

.
,
, , n ,
an
P(n) =
exp( a ) ,
(15.17)
n!
a ,
.

,
, , , ,
, . (n = 1)
P (1) = a exp( a ) .
(15.18)
*
, (.. n = 0),
P ( 0 ) = exp( a ) .
(15.19)
1
A0 , , .. ,
a = A A0 .
(15.20)

= 1 .
a = A A0 .
(15.21)
, (15.18),

A
A
exp .
(15.22)
P (1) =
A0
A0

(A / A0 ) << 1 , exp( A / A0 ) 1 A / A0 .
(15.22)
,
A A A
1
.
(15.23)
P (1)
A0
A0 A0
, , , = 106 1/, A0 = 104 2,
<<1010 2
*

, 0! = 1.

15.1.

483

P (1) 10 10 A .
(15.24)
A.

,
. (15.23) A :
A A
exp .
(15.25)
A0
A0 A0
, , (15.24)
P (1) = 10 10 A .
(15.26)
P (1) =

, , . . .
[112] , , 104 4104 2 10 45.
[62]
.
, , = 104 2. ,

P(1) = 1010 = 1010104 = 106.


= 107, .. , .

(US NRC) [138],
, (. 15.6,).
. , , [138],
, .
,
(. 15.6,, ),
(15.26). : (. . 15.6,, ),
, ?
[138] (15.25) . < 45, > , ..

484

. 15.


, .
:
, ,
(. . 15.6,). , .
)
,
,
,
,
A
. ,
,


, )

,
.
,


, A,

, ,

, . 15.6.
,
A [138]:

;

.
15.1.6.

, , [106, 107].
.
R ,
(. 15.7): -

485

15.1.

0x.
,
. .
p1() p2() .

R
p1(), p2()

0
x

. 15.7.

2.0

p2() = 0.072exp(2.2)

1.0

p1() = 1/(2)

, ,

. 15.8.

, , . .
(0; 2):
p1 ( ) = 1 /(2 ) .
(15.27)
p2()
[100].
0 /2
p2 ( ) = 0.072 exp( 2.2 ) .
(15.28)
z
.
d
15.8. ,

r =1
p2()

,

0
y
- x
.

d

. 15.9.
p(,),

dP ,
R , , +d, , +d (. 15.9).

. 15.

486

(, , ,
):
dS = sin d d .
(15.29)
,
0.072
dP = Cp1 ( ) p2 ( )dS = C
exp( 2.2 ) sin dd .
(15.30)
2
C
2 / 2

dP = 1 .

(15.31)

=0 =0


p( , ) = 1.315 10 2 exp( 2.2 ) sin .

n
S0

r =1
A

. 15.10.

f ( , ) =

,
R S0, n (

) (. 15.10).
f ( , ) =

p( , )dd .

()
,
L,
S0.
2

2.2
2.2
e sin dd = e ( ) sin d ,
0

(15.33)

( S0 )

2 ( )

(15.32)

(15.34)

1 2 ,
y0z.
,
x0y, , ..
2 = ( + ) /2.

, , :
P ( | ) = f ( , ) + e( 2) ,
(15.35)

487

15.1.

e( /2) ():
0 2 ;
e=
1 > 2.
P ( | )
0.9

(15.36)

= 90 50 40 30 20 0

0.7
0.5
0.3
0.1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 ,

. 15.11. P ( |)
1 5 . 4 . f(, )

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

,
0
0.000
0.000
0.002
0.004
0.008
0.015
0.025
0.038
0.057
0.082
0.115
0.158
0.213
0.284
0.373
0.484
0.623
0.793
1.000

10
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.006
0.011
0.018
0.029
0.043
0.064
0.091
0.128
0.177
0.242
0.326
0.437
0.582
0.729
0.840

20
0.000
0.001
0.003
0.006
0.010
0.015
0.023
0.034
0.050
0.071
0.100
0.140
0.194
0.265
0.361
0.457
0.543
0.629
0.704

30
0.000
0.001
0.004
0.009
0.016
0.025
0.037
0.052
0.073
0.101
0.140
0.191
0.260
0.326
0.383
0.440
0.499
0.560
0.617

40
0.000
0.002
0.006
0.014
0.025
0.039
0.058
0.083
0.114
0.156
0.211
0.262
0.305
0.345
0.386
0.429
0.473
0.518
0.563

50
0.000
0.003
0.010
0.021
0.037
0.060
0.089
0.127
0.177
0.221
0.257
0.291
0.324
0.357
0.390
0.423
0.458
0.495
0.532

60
0.000
0.004
0.015
0.031
0.056
0.089
0.134
0.174
0.210
0.243
0.276
0.306
0.335
0.364
0.393
0.422
0.451
0.482
0.514

70
0.000
0.006
0.022
0.047
0.083
0.115
0.149
0.182
0.215
0.247
0.279
0.309
0.339
0.367
0.394
0.421
0.449
0.476
0.505

80
0.000
0.010
0.032
0.053
0.080
0.109
0.140
0.172
0.205
0.237
0.270
0.302
0.333
0.363
0.392
0.420
0.447
0.474
0.501

90
0.000
0.005
0.017
0.036
0.059
0.086
0.116
0.148
0.181
0.215
0.250
0.284
0.318
0.351
0.383
0.414
0.443
0.472
0.500

. 15.

488

0 /2 f(,) P( |) .
f(,) . 15.4, P( |) . 15.11.
P( |) [, , f(,)] , .. (. . 15.10). , , . 15.11, 7273

,
y

. n
f(,) ,

, x
. 15.12.

( = 0),
(. . 15.8), ,
. , (. . 15.6), (.. = 0) ,
, , (. 15.12). , .
,

1 ( = 90), 1. ,
0.5.
,

0
5
10
15
20
25
30

1 5 . 5 . f ( , )

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

0.000
0.003
0.010
0.020
0.033
0.051
0.074

0.000
0.006
0.016
0.021
0.034
0.051
0.073

0.000
0.009
0.025
0.040
0.053
0.069
0.098

0.000
0.013
0.038
0.063
0.088
0.116
0.150

0.000
0.019
0.055
0.093
0.134
0.183
0.236

0.000
0.027
0.079
0.137
0.200
0.273
0.360

0.000
0.039
0.116
0.200
0.295
0.406
0.540

0.000
0.055
0.171
0.294
0.433
0.432
0.405

0.000
0.082
0.249
0.306
0.325
0.350
0.370

0.000
0.055
0.149
0.224
0.280
0.325
0.358

489

15.1.

. 15.5

35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

,
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

0.105
0.149
0.203
0.279
0.382
0.521
0.714
0.987
1.382
1.993
3.047
6.386

0.103
0.143
0.195
0.268
0.365
0.496
0.677
0.933
1.304
1.872
2.064
2.642

0.134
0.183
0.248
0.336
0.453
0.611
0.830
1.131
1.091
1.017
1.135
1.579

0.195
0.262
0.351
0.468
0.627
0.838
0.766
0.654
0.643
0.674
0.755
1.012

0.306
0.395
0.517
0.684
0.617
0.512
0.481
0.473
0.479
0.499
0.547
0.686

0.469
0.607
0.543
0.448
0.413
0.397
0.388
0.387
0.389
0.403
0.427
0.498

0.501
0.436
0.408
0.388
0.369
0.354
0.344
0.343
0.343
0.349
0.362
0.395

0.399
0.395
0.387
0.377
0.366
0.353
0.341
0.329
0.324
0.324
0.329
0.343

0.382
0.391
0.392
0.390
0.382
0.373
0.361
0.348
0.336
0.325
0.321
0.326

0.384
0.400
0.410
0.415
0.414
0.408
0.399
0.384
0.371
0.357
0.346
0.333

, P( |) :
f ( , )
p ( | ) =
+ ( 2) ,
(15.37)

( /2) -, (3.69)(3.71); (15.37)


. 15.13 . 15.5.
f(, ), . :
,
, .
.

P(,1)
(.. = 0) (.. ),
. ,
, ,
. , A (15.23), f(0,). ,
P(,1 ) = f (0, )A A0 .
(15.38)

= 90 = /2. f(0,/2) = 1,
P(1) = A A0 .
(15.39)

490

. 15.

(15.39) (15.25), , , ,
A, = A .
(15.40)

. =/2. , , ,

P(,1) = f ( 2 , )A A0 .
(15.41)
=/2 (15.37).
f (/2,/2) = 0.5,
P(1) = 0.5A A0 ,
(15.42)
..
A, = 0.5 A .

(15.43)

,
, . , . ,
, .

z


R
r h, (. 15.13) ( dA
, , = 2). d

h
,
d.

,
dA = Rh d .
(15.44)
y
x
(15.41) . 15.13. -


dP(,1) = f ( 2 , )

A0

dA = f ( 2 , )

A0

Rhd .

(15.45)

491

15.1.

(15.45) ,

P(,1) = dP(,1) = f ( 2 , )
0

A0

Rh .

(15.46)


A = Rh ,

(15.47)

(15.46)
P(,1) = f ( 2 , )A A 0 ,

(15.48)

.. (15.41) .
, ( = 90 = /2)
P(1) = 0.5A A 0 .

(15.49)

A, = 0.5 A .
(15.50)


R,
(. 15.14).
rdA,
n
:

n
y

dAs

r
R

dA = R 2 sin d d . (15.51)

- . 15.14.

, , ,
dP(1,) = f ( , )

dA = f ( , )

R 2 sin d d .
A0
A0

2

P(1,) =

(1)
dP, =

=0 =0

A0

R2 d f ( , ) sin d =

(15.52)

. 15.

492

= 2R2

A0

f (, )sin d .

(15.53)

a ( , ) = f (, ) sin d .

(15.54)

a(,) . 15.15.
,

P(1,) = 2R 2 a ( , )

.
(15.55)
A0
= 900 = /2:

(15.56)
P(1,) = 2R 2 a , .
2 A0
,

A, = 2R 2 a , .
(15.57)
2
a(,)
90 80 70 60

101
102
103
104

= 50 40 30 20 10

105
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80 ,

. 15.15. a(,)

.
, P(1,) ,

r = R sin .
(15.58)
(15.58) (15.53)

15.1.

493

2
f ( , ) sin d .
(15.59)
A0 sin 2 0
= 0 (15.59) 0/0. :
2

2 f ( , )sin
lim 2 f ( , )sin d = lim
= f (0, ) . (15.60)
0 sin
0 2 sin cos
0

,
P(1,) = r 2

P(1,) = r 2 f (0, )

.
(15.61)
A0
r2 , (15.61) (15.38).

, .
.
, D = 50
R = 25 .
, ( ).

(15.50):
A, = 0.5 50 50 = 3927 2.

(15.57), a 0.383, = = 90.
A, = 2 252 0.383 = 1504 2.

A = A, + A, = 3927 + 1504 = 5431 2.
[138], .. ,
. 45 4463 2, 10 25 310 2. , , ,
.


.

494

. 15.

15.2.
[87], , ,
10 .


,
(). [40], , ,
,
,
5 . -
2 .
.
, , , ( , .).
,
( ,
..). , , .


(), .. ,
(. . 14.1).
.
[40]
10 .

10 ,
.
5 10
[112]. [137]
= 18 3 Q , ,

(15.62)

Q , (. . 9.2).

6.5 . ,
, ,
, .

495

15.2.

, [137] ,
[87].
Q ,
23 ,
60 , 4500 [137]. (. . 9.2). (,
;
).
, ,
. , .
( , , , , ).
, , .
1 5 . 6 . ,
k (15.63)
-


A


B

,

C
,

E
,
F

, /
1

0.43

0.89

0.26

0.92

0.20

0.92

0.13

0.92

0.08

0.94

0.05

0.94

496

. 15.

L (. 15.6).

1k
0.44r0
L=
(15.63)
,

r0 (
. 9.2.2); k (. . 15.6).
,
.
R L. R < L,
, .

,
.
[137]

(15.64)
r = nfs ,
. 15.16.
r , /; f [137]
; n
1 , /; s , (. 15.16).

,
n = n1n2 ,
(15.65)
n1 1 ; n2
.

, .
[137], (15.64)
(..
), r 107 1/.
(15.65), r 106 1/.
.
, , , ,
,

15.3.

497

, . ,
, .
15.3.

,
.
,
.
[126].
15.3.1.
, .

. .
. , , , , . , , , ,
(, )
, .
.
.
, .
. , .
. .
,
, , , .
. [126],
2 100 .
, , .
.

498

. 15.

, . , ,
, .

,
. , : ,
(, ). , .
,
. , ,
, .
, , [11].
. (, ) .
, ,
. , ,
, , .
.
(, , , ).
.
. , (, )
.
, ,
, , .. , ,
.
, .
,
. ,
. 9 10.

15.3.

499

, ,
(, , ).

(. . 11).
,
.
,
, . , . (,
, . . 7.3.1). .
, , -
, - , ( ,
) . , ,
.
15.3.2.
, .
.
P
:
P = P1 P2 P3,
(15.66)
P1 ; P2
, ; P3
.
. 14.1 , . [86] [R] = 107 1/.
R
(14.9), P. ,
P 107 1/.

. 15.

500

(15.66) , ,
.
,
(..
P1).
1. G

G1 Gi
Gn


mi

P(G)

f(sD|G)

f(sD |G)

f(M|G )

mj

mi

f(M|G)



F(M|G)


f(M|G)

mj
mi

f(M|G), P(G)
2. S

y
x

. 15.17.

501

15.3.

(.. P2). , , P3.


.
3. D


P(D|S,h)
M

:
M*

M
P(D|h)

f(M |S,G), P(S,G)

P(D|S,h)

M*

4.
P(M*|D,S,G), P(D|S,G)
P(N 1|D,S,G)

N 1
P(A)

P(N 2|D,S,G)

N 2
P(A) = 0

M*

R = P(G)P(S|G)
P(D|S,G)P(F1|D,S,G)P(A)

R = 0

502

. 15.

.
[127]. , (..
) , ,
. 15.17. ( ).
G*
(). .

(). , , ( ),
. P(G) (, 107 ), . mi (, , , , ) f(M|G).
f(M|G) , . ,

( . 15.17 ).
( ) S .
, , P(S|G) , ,
, .

(, .)
f(M|G,S).
D , .

( ,
, , ).
.
(. . 7): ,
, -

15.3.

503

, . P(D|S,G). , h, .

.
, ,
, .

,
( ). ,
: -, , ; ,
; -,
1.
R. ,
P(A) (, , , ..).
,
P(D|S,G),
, ,
.
- (. . 15.17,
N1),
P(N1,D,S,G) = P(G)P(S|G)P(D|S,G)P(F1|D,S,G).
(15.67)
,
R(N1,D,S,G) = P(N1,D,S,G)P(A).
(15.68)
( N2) ,
P(A) = 0, .. R = 0.
, (15.66). -
. , , . h,

504

. 15.

, , (, ) ..
, , , , .
, . ,
.

. (
) ,
,
, .
,
. , .
, : . , , , ,
.
,
.


. . 15.18 .
, .
B,
P(B). n , , ,
( F1 Fn).
i- ( Fi) P(Fi|B).
- ,
,
. , i- k
( M1 Mk),

505

15.3.

j- P(Mj|B,Fi). , M, , .
P(M|B,Fi). 1.
F1
P(F1|B)

M1

F2

S1
P(S1|B,Fi,M j)

P(M 1|B,Fi)
M2

P(Fi|B)
Fi

S2
Mj

P(M j|B,Fi)
P(M k|B,Fi)

P(Fn|B)

Fn-1
Fn

Mk
P(M |B,Fi)
M

P(Sq|B,Fi,M j)

Sq P(Sqi)

P(Sr|B,Fi,M j)
Sr
P(S|B,Fi,M j)
S

. 15.18.

j- , i- r
( S1 Sr). q- ( Sq)
P(Sq|B,Fi,Mj). , S, , . q- i-
P(Sqi) = P(B)P(Fi|B) P(Mj|B,Fi)P(Sq|B,Fi,Mj).
(15.69)
.
P(Sq|B) .

.
,
. , , , ,
.
, , (15.66), P1, P2 P3 . . -

506

. 15.

, (..
P1 = 1) . , ,
(.. P2 = 1), , .
,
, . 15.7.
1 5 . 7 . ,
[135]



















,
2
,

,
/

23
14
0.9

27.5
20
42

30
10
5

8.7
2.8
0.8

455
180
35
2.5

80
43
37
30

850
180
130
8

1456
166
24
1.1

55

92

16

233

3715
1860
90

130
160
245

5800
3640
440

31390
23808
2701

3715
1860
90

200
235
300

5800
3640
440

74300
51360
4050

15.3.3.
,
, ,
, .. P1.
, , , , ,
, .
,
, .. P2, -

15.3.

507

, , ,
. , ,
, , . , . ,
, , , .
. , .
P2 ,
.
, ,
.
,
.
, , ,
.
P2 . ,
. , ,
. , , , 25
.
,
.
, , ,
.
.
. , (,
, ).
. 7.
, P1 P2
,

, .. P3.

508

. 15.

.
,
. . . ( , ,
..) .
( , , .), .
, (,
, ). .

,
.

16



.
.
. 18.
16.1.
. ,
.
.
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,
- .
,
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(
) .
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. ,
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[12] .
[50],
-

510

. 16.


[29] (. . 1).
16.2.

16.2.1.

. , :

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( [19]).
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.
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3. ,
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4.
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.
5. / .

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,
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16.2.

511

,
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1.5 2-
[112].
, ,
,
,
,
.
16.2.3.

[50]. ,
,
,
.

,
( ), , .
,

. ,
0 10
, 0 45. ,
. 18.
- ,
.
.
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.
,
[112].
,
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512

. 16.

, . ,
, .
.
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, . ,
,
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, . . 16.3).
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, . ,
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. ,
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[50]
,
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16.3. 513

.
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.
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.
16.3.


- -1000,
(. . 14.2).
Boeing 474-400 (
. . 8.29 8.30).
(. 16.1). 54.4 , +40.6, +67.4.
2.2 , 1.8 .
MSC/PATRAN MSC/NASTRAN [123125],
The MacNealSchwendler Corp. , - . . , . . MSC/NASTRAN.
,

514

. 16.

1-, 2-
3- .

.
MSC/PATRAN.


.
. 16.1.

. . 16.2
.
. 16.1. - -

.


0.4
,

0.2
,
0
. t = 0.206 ,
-0.2
0.2
0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1 ( )
t = 0.56 .
, t
. 16.2.


. 16.3 16.4, .
. 16.3 t = 0.206. , ,
. . 16.4
t = 0.56 , . :
, .

16.3. 515

, /

, /

12700

12100

10100

9050

7510

5970

4910

2880

2310

2130

29.4

3300

2890

6390

5940

9480


, /

, /

17200

12700

11900

8930

6610

5130

1330

1340

3950

2460

9230

6260

14500

10100

19800

13900

. 16.3.
(t = 0.206 ); : +,

,
.
. 16.3. ,
.
. 16.4.

516

. 16.

, .

, /

, /

7390

8740

5090

6668

2800

4670

5080

2660

1790

6490

4080

1360

6370

3370

8670

5390


, /

, /

17800

10300

13300

7430

8830

4570

4330

1710

1580

1150

4650

4010

9140

6870

13600

9740

. 16.4.
(t = 0.56 ); : +,

.

(),
/ .
,
, . .

16.3. 517

.
.

.
.
45, AIII. , [50] , [29].
: . : [4],
[114] ,
. . [33, 34].
.
1. .
[4],
[5, 6], . [4],

:
)
;
)
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) .

( )
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.

( ), [4], . 16.1. ,

. .
2. . , . . [33, 34],
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518

. 16.

, ,
,
. .
. 16.1.

, [4].
3. .
,
[114], [4].
.
, , , . .
, (. . 16.1).
1 6 . 1 .

()


, %


- - -
0.8
1.0
1.3

0.9
1.0
1.3

0.4
0.4
0.8

0.4
0.4
0.9

18
18
16

0.250.25
0.250.25
0.250.38

4. . , , , . .

,
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(. . 16.3). (. . 16.4) . ,
, , .
, -

16.3. 519

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,
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Boeing 474-400
2.2 ,
. ,
- Phantom (.
. 8.3.3) 1.7 [112],
Lear Jet Cessna (. . 8.3.2) 0.8 .
5. .
Boeing 474-400.
M = 4300 , d = 0.91 , v = 150 /. ,
2.2 . fc = 26.9 ,
= 2350 /3.
. , Bechtel Corp. CEAEDF, . 7. ,
.
CEAEDF,
. Bechtel Corp. , . 2.6 . , ,

520

. 16.


, .
,
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6. .
75 000 ,
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.

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0.4 , , , ..
.
, , . 9.3.
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. ,

,
(. . 9).
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. , -

16.3. 521

pmax.
. 16.5. ,
, .. .

, /

, /

1030

406

617

248

20

90.6

217

67.1

634

225

1050

382

1470

540

1880

698


, /

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2760

1420

2030

911

1290

401

560

109

172

619

905

1130

1640

1640

2730

2150

. 16.5. ; : +,

, Boeing 474400. , . 5.2 10 000 , - Phantom. , , R = 28.3 .

522

. 16.

16.4.

[50], ,
. .
, ,
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16.4.

523

1
2
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( ),

3 .
1 1 , .
600 . :
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, (. . 16.2).
2
1 2, ,
3 .
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(8.79)(8.80).
1 100 /,
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41.5 /, 4.22 . 3 3.30 ; -

. 16.

524

. (. . 16.2) , ,
1 .
1 6 . 2 .

600


12

300
300
600

1
2
3

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19
15.7
15.7
15.7

16.5.
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,
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)
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k.
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; ,


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. 4.
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16.7,) , (.
16.7,) .
(,
)

16.5.

525

(,
).
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75 ( , ) .

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(. 2
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, .

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17



() , , . ( , ), (
), .
.
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17.1.
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.

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.
( , ), .

527

17.2.

17.2.

, .. . , - (),
. 4.3. ,
. 4.3.

* (),
( ). , .
17.2.1.
( ) . 17.1.

t
t

. 17.1.

( , .. ). ,
, f
. , . *

Floor Response Spectra Instructure Response Spectra, .. .

528

. 17.

, ,
f .
17.2.2.

.
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100200 . ,
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17.2.

529

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)

[112].

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.
Z
Y

X

. 17.2. -
,
.
. , , . , , ,
(. . 17.2), ,
, , .
[12]. .
,
, , /3;
E, , G, ;
. Vp Vs, /:
V
3 2 4
2 2
E = Vs2 2
; =
, = p .
(17.1)
2
1
2( 1)
Vs

530

. 17.


G = V s2 .

(17.2)



X
K
E
x
G=
.
(17.3)
Kz
z
2(1 + )


.
K
(, )
,
B

X

.

L

. 17.3. , , .
,
,
,
, Vs 1100 / [102]. , , .
*.

, , (. 17.3).

,
.
. 17.1 17.2

[102]. ,
. Kx

impedance functions .

531

17.2.


( ) ( ).
1 7 . 1 .
[102]

32(1 )GR
, /
Kx =
7 8
4GR
, /
Kz =
1

, /
bx = 0.576 K x R
G
, /
bz = 0.85K z R
G

K =

8GR 3
,
3(1 )

b =

,
0.30
K R
1 + B
G

K =

16
GR 3 ,
3

b =

1
1 + B

K I ,

2I
3(1 )I 0 m
; B = m5 , R 5
8 R
R
, ; I0m
, , 2; Im
, 2.

: B =

1 7 . 2 .
[102]

K x = 2(1 + )G x BL , /
G
Kz =
z BL , /
1


R = BL


G
- K =
BL2 ,
R = 4 BL3 (3 )
1

R = 4 BL( B 2 + L2 ) (6 )

: B , , ; L , , ;
x, z, , B/L (. 17.4).

, . 17.1
17.2, -

532

. 17.

[74]. ( )
Kx = CxA; Kz = CzA; K = CI0; K = CI,
(17.4)
Kx , /, )

(
z
z
); Kz , /,
1
2

0.5
1
); K , ,

0
0
(
L/B
1
0.1
); K , ,
)
x

( z
0.5
x
); A 4
0.4
, 2; I0


3
0.3

z
2
0.2
1
0.1
, 4; I
0
0

L/B
0.1
1
, 4; Cx,
. 17.4. - Cz, C C :
,
. 17.1; (17.4) (17.5) (
, /3.
, )
Cx, Cz,
C C [24, 26, 74]:

(1 )
zE
Cz =
; Cx =
C z ; C = Cz ; C = 1.5C x , (17.5)
2
(1 x )
z
(1 ) A
x, z , . 17.4, ( z :
).

17.2.

533

, . 17.2, 17.3 (17.4)(17.5),


, . ,
(17.4)(17.5) . 17.2,
B / L . , B/L = 1 ,
,
.
(17.5) [74]. , [92]. , (17.4),

A
Cz = b0 E 1 + 10 ; C x = 0.7Cz ; C = 2C z ; C = Cz , (17.6)
A

b0 , 1 ( b0 = 1.0; b0 = 1.2;
b0 = 1.5); E , ; A , 2 ( A > 200 2,
Cz A = 200 2); A10
, A10 = 10 2.
,
. ,
. , , - ,
. Kx Kz , .
(, Kz) kzi, , ( - ),
.
, ,
. [12].
, . ,
, kzi ri
(), k zi ri 2 . kzi ,
(17.4), : kzi=Czai, ai ,
i- .

534

. 17.

K = C z ai ri 2 C z I 0 ,

(17.7)

I0 , 4.
K, K, ,
:
K , = K K = (C Cz )I 0 .
(17.8)

= Cz C ,

(17.9)


K , = K .

(17.10)

. . 17.1 = 0.375, (17.6)


= 0.5.

:
K , = K ,
(17.11)
3(1 )
,
. 17.1 =
7 8
(17.6) = 1.
.
. , , (,

, Kz).
, ,
. , , 6 . , , 6- ,
. , ,
0.3,
.
[102].

17.2.

535


.

, .

.
,
[112]. , ,
.
,
, .
.
(. . 4.10): ,
.
(. . 17.1 17.2). , , , .
. 17.3 ,
[136]. .
. 1 67 %, 2 90 %
.
, . , , [12].
, , .
, .
, , ,
1. , .
,
. 17.3, .

,
, . 17.5.

536

. 17.
1 7 . 3 .
[136]



(-)




, ,


, (
)
, , ( )
(
)
,
(
)




1
2
0,04
0,04

0,07
0,07

0,03

0,05

0,03
0,05
0.03

0,04
0,07
0.04

0.07
0.05

0.10
0.07

0.05

0.07

0.05
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0.07
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0.03

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,
, . 17.5
. , ,

17.2.

537


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10
20
30

,
.
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.
.
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.
, , .

,
. , , .
, :
, .
,
.
[12],
. ,
. 17.3 2, 1.
: ? [12].

[C], ( ):
[C ] = [ M ] + [ K ] ,
(17.12)
[M] [K] ; .

538

. 17.


- i n. i n,
:
2 ( )
2( n n i i )
= i n 2i n 2 n i ; =
.
(17.13)
n i
n2 i2

1

min =
= + .
(17.14)
= 0, 0

=
0, = 0

. 17.6. 0

. 17.6. =

= .

,

.

,
.

0, 0

17.3.

*. , , ,
.

, .
. , .
. 8. ,
, *
: Phantom RF-4E
( 20 , 215 /) 20 60 , 100 /. Boeing 747-400 ( 390 , 100 /) 85 .

17.3.

539

.
,
.

, .
150200 .

1/4 ( 1/8 1/10)
. , ,
, . 150200 .
, (
)
3033 .

, . 14.2, - . 17.2.
.
. 14.4, ,
,
,
.
, ,
.
: - Phantom RF-4E Boeing
747-400. . 8.3.3 8.3.4.
0 45, 0 10 .

, . ,

.
1. .
X (. . 17.2). ,
, .

540
15

. 17.

, /2

, /2

, /2

2.
X = 0.02
10

0.05
. 5
.
3.
0
50
100
150
200
,
45
= 0.02 0.05
XZ.
5
,
Y
: ,
50
100
150
200
0
,
7
,

20
10 Z
.
15
= 0.02
0.05

10
.
100 (1865
5
).

0.001 .
50
100
150
200 0
,
. 17.7. . +8.10
, :
+8.10, +14.55 +26.10 (. . 17.2). .
. 17.717.8. , . 17.2.

= 0.02 0.05, 0.005 0.3.
X

17.3.

541

, /2

, /2

, /2

15
X
.
= 0.02
10

0.05
. 5
,
, .
0
50
100
150
200
,
,
10
,
Y
= 0.02 0.05

5
,

.

0
50
100
150
200

,

10
Z
.
= 0.02 0.05
,
5
, .
. +8.10 50
100
150
200
0

,


. 17.8. . +14.55
X (

)
, 2.5 . Y ( ) , , 1.5 . , Z () , 1.5 , 5 .
:
3 4 , , ,
,
.

542

. 17.

15

, , = 0.02
10

0.05
, .
5

,
0
50
100
150
200 ,
,

Y
10

= 0.02
.
0.05
5


, ,

0
50
100
150
200

,
, ,

15
Z
,
, .
= 0.02
10

,
0.05
( 5
),

.

0
50
100
150
200 . , ,
. 17.717.11,
. 17.9. . +26.10 ,

X Y . Z : . +8.10, . +26.1 1.5 , . +14.55 2 . , , , , .

, /2

, /2

, /2

17.3.

543

, /2

, /2

, /2

25

X
(

20

)
15
().
10
, ,
[86], ,
5
,
0

1
10
100
0.1
,

20
0.1g ( Z
7
15

MSK-64 [12]).

10
, ..

5
,
0
1
10
100
0.1

,
.
30
Y
25

. . 17.10
20

15
Boeing
747-400

10
8
MSK-64 (5

2
2 / [12]). ,
0
(
0.1
1
10
100
10 )
,
,
. 17.10. () .+8.10
.
Boeing 747-400
8-

, ,
10 ,
, -

. 17.

544


. ,

10.60
4.80
,
0.00
.
3.60

7.20
36000
.
)


60
,


50

40
.

30

,
20
10

0
. 10
100
0.1
1
.
,
17.11,
. 17.11. . +4.80
-
-:
(), ;

(, ). . 17.11, Lear Jet-23 ( . 8.11,) 0.25g ( 8


MSK-64). , , .
)

, /2

18.00

17.4.
.
- , .

17.4.

545

.
,
(. . 9.1).
. ,
, ,
, (, 0.002 ).

(, , )
. 9.2.3. (. . 9.4,).
, ,
(, ,
. 17.11,).
,
. , (. . 9.4,).
, ,
, (. . 9.4,),
:
[. (9.29)].
, ,
(, ).
, . 17.2.2. ,
,
. 5 10 %.
. 17.10, , +4.8 .
[50]: 30 , 1 .

,
(0.0005 ). , , 8- .

546

. 17.

17.5.


. .
, , . , (). ,
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
, . .
- .
, , :
, ,
.
. 14 (. . 14.2 14.3).
. . 17.12, , .
17.12, . ,
, , . ,
20 0.001 .
, , ,
, , . [88]. , .
,
2030 . , [112].

17.5.

547

, /2

)
25

[88].
20

fs
15
Sd(fs),
10
. , 5
,
0
fs
0.1
10
1
100
,
. )

102

Sd(fs) = 0.51 .
103

. 17.12. 104


0.001 . 5
10
fs = 18 . 0.1
1
10
100

,

. 17.12. :
. 17.12, ;
, . fs

( . 17.2.1).
, .
, , . ( )
. , Sd(fs)
( ), ,
.

548

. 17.

( ).
. ,
-.

, , , .
:
, , .
)

30.5

32.5

R(t)

120
100

80
60
40
20
0

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08


,

0.1

0.12

. 17.13.
:
; : 1 ; 2 ; 3

,
, [120]. - ,
(. 17,12,). - - ( ). ( ) , ,
, (

[120] ).
.
, . -

17.5.

549

, /2

, /2

)
(),

-
(). -

.
.
17.13. . 17.13,
)
8
, .

17.13,
6

4
.
2
,
0

0
20
40
60
80
,
,
. 17.13,. )

8

.

6

. 17.13,, ,
4

2
0
0
20
40
60
80
, ..
,
. 17.14. :
. ,


;
: , ;


( ,
..), .
. 17.14 ( ),
. , .

, , -,

550

. 17.

, . ,
, ,
, .
-, ,
, , . ,
. 17.14, , .
.
,
.
. 4.4.5.

,
. 18.
.
, .
, , .

18




. , ,
,
.
, ,
, . .
. , : , ,
.

. , , . . , , , .
.

, [106, 107].
18.1.

18.1.1.

. . ( ),
. ,
, ,

552

. 18.

, , , ,
.

(.. ) , , , ,
. , ,
. , , - , .
, B,
P(B). (15.23),
P(B) =

A ,
(18.1)
A0
1
A0; ,
(
. 15).
, F, P(F). :
P(F) = P(B)P(F | B) =

A P(F | B).
(18.2)
A0

, ,
, .
18.1.2.

.
r
Fs s- , n
s (. 18.1).
Bs. (18.3)
P(Fs) =

A P(Fs|Bs),
(18.3)
A0
P(Fs|Bs) .

18.1.

R(t ) = Rmax R1 (t ) ,

(18.4)

Rmax

553

R1(t) ,
s
1; Rmax s
.
, (18.4) .
, Rlim= Rmaxcoss
As
:
(18.5)
P(Fs) = P(Fs|Bs) = 0,
. 18.1.
.. .
,
, Rlim . . P(Fs|Bs)
. , ,
( ), , (. . 18.1)
R
s = arccos lim .
(18.6)
Rmax
, s- , .
f(s,s), . 15 (. . 15.11 . 15.4):
P(Fs|Bs) = f(s,s).

(18.7)

(18.3):
P( Fs ) = f ( s , s ) As

,
(18.8)
A0
m :
m

P( F ) = P( Fs ) =

(18.9)
f ( s , s ) As .
A0 s =1
, , ..
s .
(18.9) , . 15.
s =1

. 18.

554

. s = 0; , (15.40), A. ,
P ( F ) = f (0, s ) A

.
(18.10)
A0
. s = /2. (15.43), A.
P ( F ) = f ( 2 , s ) 0.5 A

P ( F ) = f ( 2 , s ) 0.5 A

.
(18.11)
A0
. (15.50) ,
,
A (18.11)
A:
.
(18.12)
A0
.
R,
(. . 15.14),
P ( F ) = 2R 2 a ( , s )

(18.13)
A0
( a(, s) . . 15.15).
, , , : = 106 1/,
A0 = 104 2, (18.10)(18.13)

A0

= 10 10 .

(18.14)

18.1.3. , ,

.
,
,
.
. Phantom.
.
. 18.2
Phantom, [143].

18.1.

555

pv

pm

Pm

Pv

0.01
1
v0
70
pv
0.8
0.008
240 /.
0.6
0.006
0.4
0.004
Pv
0.002
0.2
v0 = 130 /

0
0
v = 47 /.
100
150
200
250
50
v0, /
m
13.5
)
20 . 1
0.5

Pm
0.8
0.4

0.6
0.3
m = 17.36
pm
0.4
0.2
m = 1.505 . 0.2
0.1
, . 2

0
0
, 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
m,
,
, - . 18.2.
20 , Phantom RF-4 :
215 /. ,
;
( ,
) .

. , .
-, , ,
(. . 8.18), , . -,
, 12 22 ,
, ; , . , , ( ) , , .

556

. 18.


.
,
vi mj
(8.5) Rij.
Rmax = 185 , 240 / 22 :
( ij )
Rij = k mv
Rmax .

(18.15)


0.17 kmv 1.
pk(kmv), kmv
m vi :
(bvi > 0) .

(18.16)
1

0.8

Pmv
3
2

0.6

pmv

0.4
0.2

Pmv

pmv

( vi )
k mv
= avi + bvi m

,

,

( vi )
p( k mv
| vi )

( vi )
kmv
= avi m + bvi -

( vi )
= bvi m .
mv
. 18.3.
kmv
. kmv

:

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1


kmv

(v)
| v ) pv ( v ) .
pmv ( k mv ) = pm ( k mv

(18.17)

pmv(kmv)
Pmv(kmv) . 18.3.
s- ,
. . 18.1.2,r s-
n , s (. . 18.1), Fs,

18.1.

557

Fs . , ,
.
, s- , Rlim.
(18.15)
R = kmvRmax
( i, j ). R Rlim,
, .. . , .
:
1
R
~ = lim ;
(18.18)

k mv =
Rmax
cos

kmv
= k mv cos .
(18.19)

0.17

Rn = Rmax .
(18.20)

/2
0

Rn > Rlim ,
(18.21)
. 18.4.

..
P( | s)
~
< .
(18.22)
, .. .
P( |s). . 18.4:

P ( | s ) =

cos

p ( | s )

0
2

mv

(k mv )dkmv d =

0.17


(18.23)
d .

cos
0
Pmv ; p( |) . 15 [. (15.37) . 15.5].
P (~ | s ) , ~
, .. ,
s,
Rlim. , , ..
(. . 15.12). B0.

=

p ( | )P
s

mv

. 18.

558

P(B0) = 1 f(s, /2).


(18.24)
, , s- ,
P( Fs | s ) = P (~ | s ) + P( B0 ) = P (~ | s ) + 1 f ( s | 2) .
(18.25)

P = P( Fs | s ) = 1 P( Fs | s ) .

(18.26)

. 18.1.
, = 0 (.. Rlim = 0) 1,
. = 1 (.. Rlim = Rmax) 0.

(18.10)(18.14), f(s,s) P(,s).
1 8 . 1 . P(,) = P(F |)

0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
0.99
1

,
0
1
0.79974
0.66413
0.52731
0.42525
0.34372
0.20501
0.12308
0.07281
0.04304
0.02560
0.01505
0.00873
0.00500
0.00279
0.00149
0.00075
0.00036
0.00015
0.00005
0.00002
2.5106
8.1108
4.8108
0

10
0.80150
0.71483
0.61782
0.49947
0.40547
0.32866
0.19744
0.11943
0.07116
0.04237
0.02539
0.01505
0.00880
0.00509
0.00288
0.00156
0.00080
0.00039
0.00017
0.00006
0.00002
3.4106
1.3107
7.6108
0

20
0.68110
0.62978
0.57656
0.51008
0.44579
0.38063
0.24525
0.15226
0.09224
0.05562
0.03375
0.02027
0.01203
0.00706
0.00405
0.00224
0.00118
0.00059
0.00026
0.00010
0.00003
5.6106
2.2107
1.2107
0

30
0.60380
0.57078
0.53540
0.49171
0.45131
0.40947
0.29763
0.19992
0.12759
0.07976
0.04935
0.03003
0.01799
0.01065
0.00617
0.00346
0.00184
0.00093
0.00041
0.00016
0.00005
8.7106
3.2107
1.9107
0

40
0.55620
0.53363
0.50790
0.47572
0.44598
0.41595
0.33331
0.24183
0.16366
0.10753
0.06924
0.04368
0.02689
0.01613
0.00941
0.00528
0.00281
0.00141
0.00063
0.00024
0.00007
1.3105
4.6107
2.7107
0

18.1.

559

. 18.1

0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
0.99
1

,
50
0.52800
0.51148
0.49125
0.46543
0.44135
0.41697
0.35188
0.27127
0.19161
0.13092
0.08757
0.05716
0.03638
0.02261
0.01362
0.00784
0.00419
0.00211
0.00093
0.00035
0.00010
1.8105
6.6107
3.9107
0

60
0.51240
0.49919
0.48197
0.45967
0.43865
0.41721
0.35994
0.28762
0.20875
0.14593
0.09999
0.06695
0.04366
0.02780
0.01730
0.01037
0.00580
0.00301
0.00136
0.00051
0.00015
2.7105
9.6107
5.7107
0

70
0.50450
0.49294
0.47723
0.45658
0.43686
0.41644
0.36085
0.29160
0.21424
0.15114
0.10463
0.07091
0.04689
0.03025
0.01910
0.01173
0.00679
0.00366
0.00174
0.00070
0.00022
3.9105
1.4106
8.3107
0

80
0.50120
0.49018
0.47476
0.45412
0.43399
0.41281
0.35464
0.28427
0.20811
0.14640
0.10113
0.06847
0.04529
0.02925
0.01848
0.01138
0.00664
0.00363
0.00176
0.00074
0.00024
4.9105
2.0106
1.2107
0

90
0.50000
0.48866
0.47197
0.44936
0.42720
0.40385
0.34015
0.26607
0.19104
0.13235
0.09009
0.06008
0.03915
0.02493
0.01551
0.00937
0.00534
0.00284
0.00134
0.00054
0.00017
3.3105
1.3106
7.3107
0

, ,
, ..
~ .

, . 15.
P( ~ ,s) ~ .
. s = 0. A

P ( F ) = P (~ | 0) A
.
(18.27)
A0
. s = /2,
A.

P ( F ) = P (~ | / 2) 0.5 A
.
(18.28)
A0

. 18.

560

. A.

P ( F ) = P (~ | 2) 0.5 A
.
(18.29)
A0
.
R,
(. . 15.15),
P ( F ) = 2R 2 b ( , )

A0

(18.30)

b ( , ) = P (~ | ) sin d .

(18.31)

b(,) . 18.5.
, , = 106 1/ A0 = 104 2,
(18.27)(18.31) /A0 = 1010.
1

= 50 60 70 80 90

10 1
10 2

b(,)

10 3
10 4
10 5

= 5 10 20 30 40

10 6
10 7

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

. 18.5. b(,)

18.1.4.


- , s-,
. .
P(F) :

18.1.
m

P( F ) = P( Fs ) =

561

P .

(18.32)
s
A0 s =1

[P]:
(18.33)
P( F ) [ P ] .
[P] . [86]:
[P ] = 10 7 1/.
(18.34)
, ,
. (18.34) .
(18.28) (18.30) (18.29), ,
s =1

(18.35)
Ps < 1.
A0 s=1
k P(Bk),
P(F | Bk) .
:
k

P( F ) = P( F | Bk ) P( Bk ) .
k =1

(18.36)

, .
, . , , ,
,

. :
, .
, .

. 18.

562

h = 45

.
.

.
1.
, . 18.6,
R = 20
Phantom.
Rlim = 12 , Lear Jet (.
. 8.11,). Phantom Rmax =
= 110 (. . 8.16,).
106 1/ 104 2.

, .. ,
. 18.1.2.
D = 40
(18.6):
12
R
. 18.6.
s = arccos lim = arccos
= 83.7 .

110
Rmax
(18.12),
A = 4240 2 (, 25 % ); = 90; s = 83.7:
P ( F ) = f (90, s ) 0.5 A 10 10 = f (90, 83.7) 0.5 4240 10 10 .
. 15.11 . 15.4 f(90,83.7) = 0.465. ,
P (F ) = 0.465 0.5 4240 10 10 = 0.99 10 7 .

(18.30), = 90 s = 83.7:
P ( F ) = 2R 2 a ( , s ) 1010 = 2 202 a (90,83.7) 1010 .
. 15.15 , a(90,83.7) 0.35.
P ( F ) = 2 20 2 0.35 10 10 = 0.88 10 7 .

P( F ) = P ( F ) + P ( F ) = 0.99 107 + 0.88 107 = 1.87 107 > [ P] = 107 .
, , , ..
. 18.2.2.

18.1.

563

(18.18) ~ :
R
12
~ = lim =
= 0.11 .
Rmax 110

(18.29):
P ( F ) = P (~ | 90) 0.5 A 10 10 = P (0.11 | 90) 0.5 4240 10 10 .
. 18.1 , = ~ = 0.11 P(F | 90) 0.39, ,
,
P ( F ) = 0.39 0.5 4240 1010 = 0.83 10 7 .
(18.14):
P ( F ) = 2R 2b ( , ~ ) 10 10 = 2 20 2 b (90,0.11) 10 10 .
. 18.5 b(90,0.11) 0.3. ,
P ( F ) = 2 202 0.3 1010 = 0.75 107 .

P( F ) = P ( F ) + P ( F ) = 0.83 107 + 0.75 107 1.6 107 > [ P] = 107 .
, ,
Phantom ,
[P] = 107. , -, ,
(18.34),
.

. -, , 25 %.
2. , 1 (.
. 18.6), ,
[P] = 107.
, 1. Phantom Rmax = 110 , . 8.16,.
, Rlim
, .

. (18.35),
, ,
P( F ) = P ( F ) + P ( F ) = 1010 [0.5 A f (90, ) + 2R 2 a (90, )] 107.

564

. 18.

A R :
2.12 f (90, ) + 2.51a (90, ) 1 0 .

2.12f(90,) + 2.51a(90,) 1 < 0
(. 18.7,),
0.5
= 53. 0
,

f(90,
)
a(90,)
, -0.5


- 1.0
7
10
1/,
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Rlim = Rmaxcos =
)
= 1100.6 = 66 .
1.0
2.12P(90,) + 2.51b(90,) 1 < 0

0.5

P(90,)

0
, , b(90,)
. -0.5
(18.35)

f(90,)

- 1.0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 a(90,) ~
. 18.7. P (90, )
~
:
b (90, ) .

, ; ,
, :
2.12 P (90, ~ ) + 2.51b (90, ~ ) 1 0 .
(. 18.7,) ~ = 0.2 .
(18.18).
,
, Rmax = 200 .
(18.18) ~ Rmax, ,

Rlim = Rmax = 20020 = 40 .
. 18.8. , 40 %,
)

1.0

18.1.

565

2.5 .
107 1/.
,

120

80

40


, ,

0.02

0.04

0.06 t,

. 18.8. Rlim
Phantom ( 2)

R = 30

h = 50

3. ,
2,
. 18.9, , ,
. 18.5.

A = 7070 2 (, 25 %
).
Rlim , 2.
,

3.54 f (90, ) + 5.66a (90, ) 1 0 .

D = 60

. 18.9.

= 35, , ,
Rlim = Rmax cos = 110 0.82 = 90 .

~
3.54 P (90, ~ ) + 5.66b (90, ~ ) 1 0 .
.
18.10. , . 18.8, , ,
, .

. 18.

566
,

120

80

40

0.04
0.02
t,

0.06


, ,

. 18.10. Rlim
Phantom ( 3)

18.2.

18.2.1.
, , ,
(). . 17. , , , .
, , , ..
, .
, , .. ,
,
. ,
, .
. ,
, (. . 17).

. , , , , , , .

, ,
.

18.2.

567

18.2.2.
( , ) ,
. 18.1: , ,
, , m v0.

. , ,
,
, . 18.1.
18.2.3.

(. . 17).

.
,
. , , , , ,
.
j- Bj.
, ( ), Aj, Bj (18.1).
, S
S*j (f ) Sj (f ) = S*j (f )

Sjk

S*jk = S*j (fk)



.
, Sjk = S*jk
,
f

fk
Rmax(t).
. 18.11.
,
, S *j ( f ) (
,
).

, -

. 18.

568

(18.21), .. Rmax
< 1, (18.20).
,
S j ( f ) = S *j ( f ) .
(18.37)
(
) fk. S *j ( f k ) ; S *jk .
(. . 18.11)
S jk = S *jk .
(18.38)
, Sjk .
j- (.. Bj). ,
S jk
1
p S jk B j = * p * ,
(18.39)
S
S jk
jk

S jk
S jk
S
1
P ( S jk B j ) = * p *jk dS jk = p ( )d = P S *jk j . (18.40)
S jk 0 S jk
0

Sjk/S*jk. P(x|) (18.26) . 18.12.
Sjk

P (S jk ) = P S jk B j P (B j ) = P S *jk j P (B j ) .

(18.41)

P(x|)

0.8

= 90 70 40 30 20 10 0

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.001

0.01

0.1

. 18.12.

Sjk/S*jk

18.2.

569

.
, n- ( Bn),
P(Snk) fk .
Bj Bn (.. ) ,

p(Sk) p(Sk) = p(Sjk) + p(Snk)
(. 18.13).
p(Snk)
m p(Sjk)
,

ps(S) S*jk Sk
S*nk
0
. . 18.13.
fk, ..
f

j- n- k
:

P (S j ) = P S *jk j P (B j ).
m

(18.42)

j =1

18.2.4.



Pf [P],
(18.43)
Pf ; [P] .
, [P], , .
. .
-, ,
.
, -
. , . 18.1.2
( = 106 1/),

570

. 18.

P ( S j ) = 10 6 [1 P ( S j )] .

(18.44)

-, ,
, .. .

(18.34), .. [P] = 107. ,
,
, .
(18.43) (18.44)
10 6 [1 Pc ( S j )] 10 7 ,
(18.45)

Pc ( S j ) 0.9 .
(18.46)
18.2.5.

,
. -
. 18.14.

Phantom.

: ,

.
. 18.15
,
( 1).
(18.46),
. 18.14. -
..
107 1/.
2 . 18.15 , , : , .
. , 3 4 8 7 MSK-64 ( 0.1g 0.2g).
, 38
8-

18.2.

571

. , , ,
30g.
8- ,
7-. ,
,
.
)

1
0.1
0.01

0.001

1
0

20

40 60
80 100
,

100
, g

, g

10

)
1 2 3 4

10
1
0.1

0.01

0.001

)
, g

100
10

1 2 3 4

1
0.1

0.01

0.001

20

40 60 80 100
,

20

40 60 80 100
,

. 18.15.
,
. 18.14:
1 ; 2
,
; 3
8 MSK-64 (
Amax = 0.2g); 4 7
MSK-64 (Amax = 0.1g)

18.3.

: , , .
. , , : , , , . .

572

. 18.

, 1 . 18.2 ,
, .
, [86]. , .
.
. ,
,
, .


.
, ,
,
, ..
.


1. . : [. .] / . , . , . . . :
, 1988.
2. . : [. .] / . ,
. . . : , 1982.
3. : II-21-75 / ; . ., 1976.
4. : 2.03.01-84* / ; . ., 1985.
5. . :
52-01-2003. ., 2004.
6.
: 52-101-2003. ., 2004.
7. . . / . .
. . : . ., 1972.
8. . .
/ . . , . . , . . // .
. . . . 1991. . 225. . 92 100.
9. . .

/
. . , . . // -; . . .
. 1990. . 11. C. 8 10.
10. . .
/ . . , . . //
. 2008.
2. . 53 57.
11. . .
/ . . , . . . . : , 1989.
12. . . / . . . . : , 1998.
13. . . / . . . . : , 1979.
14. . . /
. . . . : , 1965.
15. . .
/ . . . . : , 1971.
16. . . / . . ,
. . . . : , 1967.
17. . . / . . , . . , . . // .
. . . 1989. 1. . 4048.

574

18. . . / . . [ .]. . : , 2005.


19. . . / . . , . . , . . . . : , 2006.
20. . . / . . . . : , 2003.
21. . / . [ .]. . :
, 1986.
22. : . 6 . . 1. . : ,
1981.
23. . . // . 2 . 1 / . . . . : , 1990.
24. - . . /
. . -. . : , 1953.
25. . . /
. . , . . // . 1979.
2. . 73.
26. / . . [
.]. . : , 1984.
27.
/ . . [ .]. . : , 1986.
28. . .
/ . . , . . // . . 2003. 6. . 4348.
29. : II-11-77* /
; . ., 2002.
30. . . / . . ,
. . . . : , 1972.
31. /
. . . . . : ,
1966.
32. . . / . . , . .
// . . . 1993. . 227. . 7580.
33. . . / . . , . .
, . . // :
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34. . .
/ . . . ., 1976.
35. . . SCAD / . . [ .]. . : , 2004.

575

36. . .
/ . . , . . , . . //
: . . 1985. . 93102.
37. . : [. .] / . , . . . : , 1979.
38. . . .
/ . . [ .]. . : , 1989.
39. . . /
. . . . : , 1975.
40. : 03-409-01 / . ., 2001.
41. : II-6-74 / . ., 1976.
42. : 2.01.07-85* / . ., 1996.
43. / . .
[ .] ; . . . . . : , 2005.
44. . . / . . . . : , 1984.
45. . . , / . . . . :
, 1969.
46. . .
/ . .
// : . . . : , 1965. . 318.
47. : 031-01 /
. 2001.
48. ( 2.6.1.758-89) : -99 /
. 1989.
49. : -7-002-86 / . . : , 1989.
50. : -5.6-86 / . 1986.
51.
( 88/97) : -001-97 ( -01-011-97) / . 1998.
52.
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53. . . / . . . . : , 1977.
54. . . / . .
. . : , 1976.
55. . . . , / . . , . . .
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576

56. . .
/ . . , . . . : , 2001.
57. . . /
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58. . . : 12.3.047-98. 2000.
59. . .

/ . . ; , .
. . , . ., 2000.
60. . . /
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61. . . /
. . , . . . . : , 1990.
62. REP ( ) : RCC-G / . 1988.
63. , , : . 3 . . 1 ; .
. . , . . . . : , 1968.
64. . . /
. . . . : - , 1988.
65. . . / . . , . . ,
. . . . : - ,
2007.
66. / . . [ .] / Scientific & Technical Translations
(SST). ; , 2004.
67. / . . [ .]. . : , 1974.
68. / . .
[ .]. . : , 1981.
69. / . ., 2001.
70. . . /
. . . . : , 1983.
71. : -05-039-96 /
. ., 2000.
72. , , : 95 1054-96 /
. ., 1996.
73. /
. . ; . . . : , 1978.

577

74. . .
/ . . . . : , 1964.
75.
: -88/93 / . 1993.
76. . : [. .] / . , . . . : , 1984.
77. . . /
. . // . . 1985. 6. . 1516.
78. / . . . . ,
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79. / . . . . ,
. . . : i, 1971.
80. : II-23-81* / ;
. ., 1990.
81. . .
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82. : II-7-81* /
. ., 2000.
83. . . -- / . . , . . ; .
84. . . / . . .
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85. . . / . . , . . . : , 1976.
86. : -064-05 /
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87. - - : -05-035-94
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88. , ,
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89. . 50-SG-S11B / .
, 1986.
90. . ( ).
50-SG-S11 / . , 1983.
91. . . / . . . . : , 1971.
92. : 2.02.05-87
/ ; . ., 1988.

578

93. . . / . . //
. 1929. 10. . 840844.
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95. . . / . . . . : , 1982.
96. . .
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97. . : [.
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98. . . /
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443
()
454
443
111
() 527
34
390

() .

191
373
96
189

38, 46
38
()
443, 472
494
474
111

() 443

() 443

~ 481
~ 474
~
484

377
377, 380
389
375

260
261, 266
~
262


281
261, 287
~ 290
~ 295
~
298
~ 261
() 261
-
() 268
~ 268
491
263
263

265
262
~ 269
~ 270
() 266
65, 70
443
463
() 442, 448
~ 442
~ 442
~ - 448

36, 53, 70, 80


35, 47, 66, 79

() 260, 266
~ 276
~
277
274
~ 280
~ 275
~ 265
~ 265
~ 261, 267
~ 261, 266, 272
~


269
189
275
274
189


89
. . 191

267, 272
267, 272, 274

~ 275
~ 296
.
505
- 69
.

86
86
77
33
89


535
35
35
33
538
331

276, 282, 291, 314


170

, 100
36

582

48
443
443

371
77

377, 390
390
407
410
412
412
412
35, 48, 66, 70, 79, 80
.
72

~ 77
~ () 57, 66, 70
33, 38, 57, 77
82
170
553
() 43

189, 339

~ 20
~ 21
75, 104
34
24
35
82
49, 54, 67, 68, 72, 81
266

33
33
58

2- 89
77

583

- ()
110, 527
34, 417

194
~
(spalling) 194
~ (perforation) 194
~ (scabbing) 194
214

537
38, 55
38, 55
56

96
110
43, 49,
54, 66, 70, 80
58, 78
98
58, 78
170
133
.

115
44
114
44
43, 114
114
38, 59
46
40
~
55

50, 118
~ 127
~ -

122
118
~ 124
41, 60, 79
42
41, 60, 79
~

468
128
34

40
60

454
() 454
454
367


104
33
154
~ 160

89, 98, 101
468
110, 465
110, 113
() 112, 116
36



334
~ 335
~ 342
~ 334
~
338
355
347



352
495
90
35
141

41
61, 79
.
309
,
210, 523
.
23, 155
188, 216
, 212
189, 216
225
21
132
24
444
- 309
41
444

18
18

176
464
318
.

299
.

- 269
266

584

289
- () 454
98
429
218
444, 468, 499


~ Cessna 241
~ Lear Jet-23 240
~ 242

~ Phantom RF-4E 216, 243
~ 247
~ FB-111 248

~ Boeing 707-320 249
~ Boeing 747-400 Jumbo Jet 250
~ -26 -24 252
111
- 189
191

110
37
38
57
.
.

.

.
.
427
.

546
41
.
111
, 111
111

585

() 111, 527
~ 544
~ 538
111
111

216
216
216

116
CQC (Complete Quadratic
Combination) 117
(SRSS) 117
NRL (US Naval Research
Laboratory ) 117
10% (10% Method) 117


111, 189
188
.
- 189
202
497
256, 436
~ 256
~ 258
188

224

222

() 170
31,
131

73
77
73
423

~ 425
~ 427

431
~ 431
~ 434
~ 435
~ 438
428
429
217
.
.

.
266, 305


216, 226

236, 238

230

39
59
439
() 444

37, 112
111
37

.
58, 77
38, 58, 77



Behtl Corp. 197
BRL (Ballistic Research Laboratory

, ) 214
CEAEDF (CEACommissariat
lEnegie Atomique
;
EDF Elecricit de France) 197


NDRC (National Defence Research
Committee ,
) 196
SRI (Stanford Research Institute

, ) 215
UK AEA (United Kingdom Atomic
Energy Authority ) 198


531
531

() 35
39
34
34, 39, 61
34
94, 96

370
391
38
371

586

36, 48
36
24, 131

88
84
82, 91, 102
392
82, 84, 85, 91, 102
91, 98, 102
94, 96

445
444
445

124
60, 79
60, 79

() 454

CONTENTS
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part I
ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED
TO IMPACTIVE AND IMPULSIVE LOADS
C h a p t e r 1 . Limit states and strength of dynamically loaded structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1. Materials strength in case of dynamic loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1. Strength standard notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.2. Materials stress-strain diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. Limit states of structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1. Limit states characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.2. Standardisation of limit states of reinforced concrete and steel
structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.3. On the failure criteria of reinforced concrete structures at inelastic displacements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 2 . Linear discrete systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1. One-degree-of-freedom system (linear oscillator) . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1. Free vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2. Forced vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. Discrete system free vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1. Specification of discrete design model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2. Differential equations of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3. Natural frequencies and modes of a system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4. Modes properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5. Solution of free vibration equations through modal superposition method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. Forced vibrations of discrete system under force excitation . . . . . .
2.3.1. Differential equations of motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2. Solution of differential equation system through step-by-step
forth integration method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3. Solution by modal superposition method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. Forced vibrations of discrete system under kinematic excitation . . .
2.4.1. Differential equations of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2. System integration via modal superposition method . . . . . . . .
2.4.3. Sum of normalized modes vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. Calculation of mass and compliance matrices via modes . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 3 . Linear continual systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1. Bending vibrations of beams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1. Free vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2. Forced vibrations of beam at force excitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3. Forced vibrations of beam at kinematic excitation. . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4. Transient vibrations of beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3.1.5. On the accuracy of modelling a building structure in a form of


a beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. Bending vibrations of rectangular plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1. Preliminary notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2. Free vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3. Plate forced vibrations in case of force excitation . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4. Plate forced vibrations in case of kinematic excitation . . . . . . . .
3.2.5. On the refined theory of plates bending vibrations . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. Approximate determination of structures dynamic parameters . . . . .
3.3.1. Single-span beams and plates with constant parameters . . . . . . .
3.3.2. Multi-span beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.3. Chimneys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4. More than 50-m high multi-storey building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.5. The first modes of structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.6. Equivalent bulk mass of structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4. Bending stiffness of reinforced concrete elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 4 . Quasi-static methods of building structures analysis . . . .
4.1. Schematization of structure as a one-degree-of-freedom system . . . .
4.1.1. Schematization techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2. Equivalent linear oscillator parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3. Assignment of approximated bending function as displacements in case of static loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4. Notes on a structure schematization as an equivalent linear
oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.5. Equivalent linear oscillator parameters for some simple structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. Quasi-static analysis of structure in case of force action . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1. Amplification factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2. Oscillators motion time histories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3. One-degree-of-freedom system quasi-static analysis . . . . . . . .
4.2.4. Quasi-static analysis of structure as n-degree-of-freedom system .
4.3. Quasi-static analysis for kinematic excitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1. Response spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2. Sequence of calculation using response spectra analysis method
4.3.3. Modal responses of structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.4. Calculation of resultant (design) system response . . . . . . . . .
4.3.5. Limitation of considered modes number in the subsystems
analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.6. Strength verification of structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4. Advantages and disadvantages of quasi-static analysis methods . . . .
C h a p t e r 5 . Structures analysis beyond elasticity limits . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1. On inelastic analysis using finite elements method . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2. Plastic hinge approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3. Inelastic analysis of beams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1. Reinforced concrete simply supported beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2. Reinforced concrete beam with one fixed and one simply supported ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.3.3. Reinforced concrete beam with two fixed ends . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4. Metal beams inelastic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4. Reinforced concrete plates inelastic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1. On the analysis of reinforced concrete plates using plastic
hinges models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2. Uniformly loaded simply supported reinforced concrete plate
5.4.3. Uniformly loaded reinforced concrete plate with rigidly fixed
four sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4. Point-loaded reinforced concrete plate with simply supported
four sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.5. Point-loaded reinforced concrete plate with rigidly fixed four
sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.6. Reinforced concrete plates of other configurations and different boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5. Analysis of structures modelled as an elastic-plastic oscillator . . . .
5.5.1. Preliminary remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2. Simply supported beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.3. Beam with one simply supported and one fixed ends . . . . . . .
5.5.4. Beam with two fixed ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.5. Simply supported uniformly loaded reinforced concrete plate . .
5.5.6. Uniformly loaded reinforced concrete plate with rigidly fixed
four sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.7. Point-loaded reinforced concrete plate with simply supported
four sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.8. Point-loaded reinforced concrete plate with rigidly fixed four
sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6. Conclusive remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 6 . Energy method of analysis of building structures subjected to short-term loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1. System points velocities in case of short-term force . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2. Sequence of structure analysis using energy method . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3. Examples of analysis of structure modelled as an oscillator . . . . . .
6.3.1. Preliminary remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2. Simply supported beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3. Beam with fixed ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.4. Simply supported plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.5. Plate with rigidly fixed four sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4. Conclusive remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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140
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142
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149
150
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154
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155
159
162
163
168
168
168
169
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170
173
174
174
174
177
181
185
187

Part II
LOADS ON STRUCTURES
GENERATED BY EXTREME ACTIONS
C h a p t e r 7 . Analysis of structures impacted by rigid missiles . . . . . . . 188
7.1. Rigid body impact on nondeformable target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.2. Linear- and nonlinear-elastic body impact on nondeformable target 189

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Contents

7.3. Local damages of reinforced concrete structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


7.3.1. Kinds of reinforced concrete target damages . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2. Evaluation of reinforced concrete target local damages . . . . . .
7.3.3. Successive perforation of barriers by rigid missile . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.4. Load on reinforced concrete target during a rigid body penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4. Local damages of steel structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 8 . Loads on building structures caused by destroyed missile
impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1. Impact on nondeformable target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.1. Normal impact on target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.2. Solution of equation of missile motion in quadratures . . . . . . .
8.1.3. Impact of missile with uniform lengthwise mass and strength
8.1.4. Impact of missile with linear varying mass and strength . . . . .
8.2. Impact on flexible target. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1. Normal impact on target. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.2. Impact under angle to normal less than friction one . . . . . . . .
8.2.3. Impact to flat target under angle to normal more than friction
one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4. Impact to spherical and cylindrical target under angle to normal more than friction one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3. Loads and actions generated by aircraft crash on NPP . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1. Considered kinds of aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.2. General aviation aircrafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.3. Military aircrafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.4. Commercial aviation aircrafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.5. Specific features of loads caused by aircraft impact . . . . . . .
8.4. Tornado generated missiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1. General missiles characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.2. Wood pole impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.3. Impact of automobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 9 . Action of explosions on structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1. Explosion classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1. Kinds of explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.2. Character of air-gas and air-vapour clouds explosion . . . . . . .
9.2. Detonation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1. Detonation of concentrated explosives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2. Detonation of explosive mix cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.3. Loads on building structures due to detonation in unbounded
space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.4. Flowing of air shock wave through enclosure apertures . . . . .
9.2.5. Loads on building structures due to detonation in confined and
partially opened chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3. Deflagration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1. Determining excess pressure of deflagration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9.3.2. Loads on structures in case of deflagration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4. Rupture of compressed gas vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1. Above-ground vessel rupture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.2. Underground vessel rupture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 1 0 . Damaging effect of explosion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1. Evaluation of air shock wave damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.1. Extent of damage suffered by people and building structures
10.1.2. Blast area evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2. Fragments scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.1. Primary fragments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.2. Loads on solid due to shock wave flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.3. Secondary fragments motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.4. Distance of fragments scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3. Protection from explosions by permeable screens . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 1 1 . Cargo drop and structures failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1. Cargo drop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.1. Preliminary remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.2. Rigid body drop on a elastic structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.3. Destroyed body drop on a nondeformable target. . . . . . . . . .
11.1.4. Destroyed body drop on a flexible target. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1.5. Comparison of design loads calculated on the different basic
assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2. Cargoes drop into reservoirs and basins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.1. Setting of a problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.2. Hydrodynamic loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.3. Body motion in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.4. Dynamic load caused by impact on bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.5. Equivalent static loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.6. Water overflow and splash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2.7. Example. Drop of spent fuel transportation container into
transfer well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3. Heap loads in case of building collapse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 1 2 . Wind loads on structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1. General information on aerodynamics of high-drag bodies . . . . . .
12.2. Wind loads specification according to Russian standards. . . . . . . .
12.2.1. Wind speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.2. Kinds of wind loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.3. Average component of wind load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.4. Pulsating component of wind load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.5. Analysis of wind loaded structures by means of computer
code SCAD Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3. Aeroelastic vibrations of structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.1. Aeroelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Contents

12.3.2. Vortical excitation of structures vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


12.3.3. Galloping of flexible structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.4. Divergence and flutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3.5. Logarithmic decrement of vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 1 3 . Extreme meteorological phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1. Kinds of extreme meteorological wind loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2. Tornado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.1. Tornado general characteristic and intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.2. Taking tornado into account in NPP project according to
Russian standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.3. Physical model of tornado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.4. Loads and actions on structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3. Hurricanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

390
407
412
417
423
423
423
423
428
429
431
439

Part III
NPP DESIGN WITH REGARD TO EXTREME ACTIONS
C h a p t e r 1 4 . General principles of NPP design with regard to extreme events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1. Basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2. Including of the extreme events in NPP design basis . . . . . . . . . .
14.3. Classification of NPP components with regard to extreme events
14.4. Specific features of NPP design with regard to extreme events . . .
14.5. Design sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.6. Specifying loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.7. Load combinations and suitability criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.8. General requirements to analysis models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.9. Material properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.10. Secondary actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.11. Methodologies of NPP structures analysis for extreme events . . .
14.11.1. Preliminary remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.11.2. Deterministic structures analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.11.3. Probabilistic reliability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 1 5 . Including of extreme events in NPP design base . . . . . .
15.1. Aircraft crash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.1. Preliminary remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.2. Sequence of analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.3. Screening distance value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.4. Probability of aircraft crash onto NPP site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.5. Probability of aircraft impact on NPP building . . . . . . . . .
15.1.6. Probability of aircraft impact on specified building structure
15.2. Influence of explosions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3. Accident missiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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442
445
448
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472
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Contents
15.3.1. Causes for accident missiles generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.2. Missile hazard analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.3. Methods and means for NPP protection against missiles . . . .
C h a p t e r 1 6 . Strength of building structures in case of aircraft crash
or explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1. Preliminary remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2. General provisions of taking into account of aircraft crash onto NPP
16.2.1. Loads and actions caused by aircraft crash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2.2. Objectives and methods of NPP protection against aircraft
crashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2.3. Requirements to aircraft impact analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3. Reinforced concrete containment analysis for aircraft impact . . . .
16.4. Taking into consideration inelastic deformation of building structures in case of aircraft impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5. Strength of building structures at explosion loads . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 1 7 . Building vibrations and loads on secondary systems
resulting from aircraft impact or explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.1. Preliminary remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2. Floor response spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2.1. Sequence of floor response spectra calculation . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2.2. Building modelling for floor response spectra calculation . . .
17.3. Floor response spectra in case of aircraft impact . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4. Floor response spectra in case of air-shock wave action . . . . . . . .
17.5. Ways of decreasing dynamic loads on equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C h a p t e r 1 8 . Probabilistic analysis of NPP building strength and
vibrations in case of aircraft crash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1. Probabilistic analysis of structures strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1.1. Probability of structure failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1.2. Failure probability with angle and point of aircraft impact
taken into account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1.3. Taking into account of impact point and angle, aircraft velocity and mass randomness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.1.4. Taking into account of load randomness in structure design . .
18.2. Probabilistic analysis of building forced vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2.1. Preliminary remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2.2. Random parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2.3. Floor response spectra probability distribution . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2.4. Allowed exceedance probability of spectral acceleration . . . .
18.2.5. Examples of floor response spectra probabilistic calculation
18.3. Conclusive remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2- ., 9/2, -, , 191036
: (812) 717-21-96, (812) 600-68-10,
e-mail: info@spbaep.ru, http://www.spbaep.ru

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Joint Stock Company
Saint Petersburg Research and Design Institute
ATOMENERGOPROEKT
(JSC SPAEP)
9/2a, 2nd Sovetskaya street, 191036 Saint Petersburg, Russia
Tel.: (812) 717-21-96, fax: (812) 600-68-10,
e-mail: info@spbaep.ru, http://www.spbaep.ru

St. Petersburg Institute Atomenergoproekt (SPAEP), famous in many


countries throughout the world, celebrates the eightieth anniversary.
Sphere of the Institute activity is a complex design of nuclear and fossilfueled power plants, gas-turbine power stations, industrial and heating
power stations, cooling towers of all types, turboset foundations, hydraulic
engineering structures.
More than hundred of power installations, based on designs issued by
Institute, have been constructed in our country and abroad. There are nine
nuclear power plants among them. They are Kola and Belojarsk in Russia,
Loviisa in Finland, Mochovce and Bohunice-1 and -2 in Slovak Republic,
Dukovany in Czech Republic, Tianwan and Experimental Fast Reactor in
China.
Nowadays a few dozen of designs for Russia and many other countries
in the world are worked out in SPAEP.