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Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

Master of Business Administration Semester 3 MU0011 MANAGEMENT &ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT


ASSIGNMENT-Set 1

Question 1: What is the role of power and politics in the practice of OD?
SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

Answer:
Levels of Management refer to the segregation between the different managerial positions in an organization. Depending on the size of the business and the size of work force the number of levels of management increases or decreases. Levels of management decide the chain of command, the amount of authority & responsibility assigned. There are three broad categories: 1.Top level / Administrative level2 . M i d d l e l e v e l / E x e c u t i v e 3.Low level / Supervisory / Operative / Firstline managers We will refer to low level management as junior management.

Fig. Levels of Management1 Top Management The top management would consist of the board of directors, CEO (Chief Executive Officer) and or the MD (Managing Director). The top management is the highest authority of the organization. The top level management sets goals and policies. As thinking body, it devotes more time on planning and coordinating functions. Top management is responsible for: Decides the vision, mission, goals and objectives apart from policies Provides guidelines and schedules for department budget preparation. Facilitates strategic plan & policy development. Appoints leadership team members. Ensures all departments work well with each other. Continuously keeps a check through teams on the external environment and its impact on the business. Ensures necessary corrective and preventive action is taken in time. Provides guidance and direction. Top management is responsible to all shareholders for the performance of the organization.

2 Middle Management Branch managers and departmental managers form the middle management. They report to the top management. They spend more time on organizational and SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development directional functions. Depending on the organization size, the existence and the no. of layers of middle management are decided. Middle management is responsible for: Executing organizational plans as per the policies and directives of the top management Planning for the sub-units of the organization Employing & training of junior management Interpreting and explaining policies Coordinating the activities within the division or department. Reporting to top management Performance evaluation of junior managers Inspiring junior managers to perform better. 3 Lower Management or Junior Management Lower level is also known as junior management, supervisory / operative level of management. It consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc. According to R.C. Davis, Supervisory management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely with personal oversight and direction of operative employees. In other words, they are concerned with direction and controlling function of management. Their activities include: Assigning tasks Guiding and instructing workers for day-to-day activities Ensuring quality and quantity of production as per targets Maintaining good relations with colleagues Communicating worker issues, suggestions and recommendations to top management Communicating goals and objectives set by middle and top management Solve employee grievances, supervising & guiding team members Training colleagues and team members, motivating employees Arranging necessary resources (materials, machines, tools etc.) for getting the job done. Preparing reports about employee performance Ensuring discipline amongst team and colleagues

QUESTION 2:WHAT ARE THE MAJOR TYPES OF CHANGES IN AN ORGNIZATION?


SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

AnsWER:

The history of organization development will help to clarify the genesis and the evolution of this term organization development. It would also enable to clarify some of the issues or confusions that have surrounded OD.Between 1950 and 2000 lot research work by eminent researchers has led to the development of organization development. There are 5 key inputs that have contributed to the genesis and development of OD. They are: Laboratory Training Action Research/Survey Framework Normative Approaches Quality of Work Life Strategic Change 1. The first was the growth of the National Training Laboratories (NTL) and the training groups, which were also known as sensitivity training or T-groups. 2. The second was the classic work on action research that had been conducted by the social scientists. These social scientists were interested in applying research to manage change. Kurt Lewin was the person who instrumental in the development of action research and hence OD. We all have realized that change is the only constant. The only way to move forward positively is to learn to manage change. If there is a scientific way to manage change, then it should be leveraged, hence the development of OD. 3. The third was the normative view of organization development. Essentially saying that there is only one best way to design and operate organizations. 4. The fourth input was the approach focusing on productivity and the quality of work life. 5. The fifth input was the development of strategic change and organization transformation. Let us understand each one of these a little bit more in detail. 1 Laboratory Training Background Laboratory training or the T-group is a small, unstructured group in which the participants learn from each other. They learn from their own interactions. They learn from the evolving dynamics about issues such as interpersonal relations, personal growth, leadership and group dynamics. Essentially during the event the participants were provided feedback in private, but participants requested to be allowed to listen into the feedback being offered to others. Reluctantly the facilitators agreed. The experiment paid off with many potential benefits.1. Feedback about group interaction was a rich learning experience2. Process of group building had potential for learning that could be transferred to real life situations. 2 Action Research and Survey Feedback Background During the research in 1940 it was learnt that research needed to be closely linked to action if organization members were to use it to manage change. A joint effort by organization members and social scientists was undertaken to collect data, analyze it and to devise and implement solutions. The result of action research was: members of organizations were able to use research on themselves to guide action and change; and social scientists were able to study the process to derive new knowledge that could be used elsewhere.

3 Normative Background SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development Primarily the belief here is that, there is one best way of managing organizations. Usually managements are either exploitative and authoritative; or benevolent and authoritative; or consultative; or participative group based. Organizations are such because their systems are designed in such a manner. Survey and research proved that the participative group method management is the best way of managing organizations. 4. Productivity and Quality of Work-Life (QWL) Background The first phase in this was development of work designs aimed at better integrating technology and people. Management unions got together to design work and the work designs created provided discretion, task variety and feedback about results. Perhaps the most distinguishing part of QWL programs was the discovery of selfmanaging work groups as a form of work design. These groups were composed of multi-skilled workers who were given the necessary autonomy and information to design and manage their own task performances. This worked well in the USA from 1950-1970 but as business evolved so did the competition. Organizations realized that the work practices in USA led to manufacturing of merchandise, but this merchandise was not able to compete with the low cost, high quality merchandise from other countries like Japan. Organizations realized that the systems used in Japan were different. 5 Strategic Change Background Strategic change is focused on improving the alignment amongst organizations efforts. In other words the organization should think and communicate the same messages. These messages should be reinforced by appropriate actions. Here organizations chose to focus on businesses where they had core competencies. They moved out of businesses where they did not have core competencies. The business acquired was to ensure that there was a strategic fit. The latest example in India is the acquisition of a major stake in Reva Electric Car Company by the Mahindra group. The Mahindra group has been into the automotive segment for decades and wanted the electric capability to build hybrid cars. This it would get from Reva and hence the acquisition of a major stake. 6 The New Holistic Approach in Organization Development In todays dynamic business world, most organizations experience change on continuous basis and have come to a conclusion that change is a never ending process. As soon as one organizational problem is rectified, another one presents itself. The cycle therefore goes on despite the best efforts by the leaders and managers.

QUESTION 3: WHAT ARE THE FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF OD PRECTITIONER STYLES?


SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

AnsEWR:

These interventions focus on an organizations technology (for example, task methods and job design) and structure (for example, division of labor and hierarchy).These change methods are receiving increasing attention in OD, especially in light of current concerns about productivity and organizational effectiveness. The following three techno-structural interventions are concerned with restructuring organizations: Structural Design This change process concerns the organizations division of labor how to specialize task performances. Interventions aimed at structural design include moving from more traditional ways of dividing the organizations overall work (such as functional, self-contained-unit, and matrix structures) to more integrative and flexible forms (such as process-based and network based structures). Downsizing This intervention reduces costs and bureaucracy by decreasing the size of the organization through personnel layouts, organization redesign and outsourcing. Each of these downsizing methods must be planned with a clear understanding of the organizations strategy. Reengineering This recent intervention radically redesigns the organizations core work processes to create tighter linkage and coordination among the different tasks. This work-flow integration results in faster, more responsive task performance. Reengineering is often accomplished with new information technology that permits employees to control and coordinate work processes more effectively. Reengineering often fails if it ignores basic principles and processes of OD.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

QUESTION 4: EXPLAIN THE LIFE CYCLE OF RESISTANCE TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN DETAILS? AnsWER:
Let us list and illustrate the major OD trends in this topic. These trends are the means of organizational challenges. Following are the OD trends: Learning organization Knowledge management Organizational reengineering Change management

I) Learning organization Organizations should strive to learn constantly and enhance learning activities. Learning organization is one that facilitates continuous learning and development of its employees. This learning enables organizations to survive in the competitive world. A learning organization has five main features: Systems thinking: This is a framework according to which business is considered as bounded objects. System thinking is used to assess a companies performance using information systems. As per this theory all the features of a learning organization should be visible simultaneously. Acquiring these features is a slow and steady process. They cannot be developed or acquired simultaneously. Personal mastery: The employees of learning organizations are committed to the learning process. This is called as personal mastery. Staff training and development facilitate the learning process. Mental models: These models refer to the assumptions of employees and organization regarding various processes. These models differentiate between the processes employees follow and the process they are supposed to follow.

Shared vision: Employees of learning organizations have a shared vision. This provides the staff energy and motivation required to learn. Team learning: Organizations follow two types of staff learning: individual learning and team learning. Team learning motivates employees and helps them grow more quickly. Team learning also facilitates the problem solving process.

II) Knowledge management Knowledge management (KM) is a system that consists of various organizational strategies and practices. Every organizational process and strategy comprises of knowledge. This knowledge is used to recognize, design, represent, and distribute these practices or strategies. KM efforts and activities concentrate on organizational objectives. These objectives could be attaining competitive advantage, shared vision, innovation, and improved performance. KM helps in continuous improvement of an organization. SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

III) Organizational reengineering Organizational reengineering is a process of redesigning the existing process, practices, and strategies for improved results. Organizations reengineering is also an important trend in OD. This redesigning process provides a competitive advantage to organizations in order to attain the same organizational goals and objectives. IV) Change management Next important trend in OD is change management. Organizations undergo changes such as strategic changes, technological changes, structural changes, and attitude and behavioral changes. Strategic management of these changes is very important. Change management is a process of implementing changes in process and strategies in a pre- planned way. This transforms individuals, teams, and organizations into a desired future state.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

QUESTION 5: WHAT ARE TREE LAVELS OF WORK GROUPS? AnsWER:


There are different types of culture just like there are different types of personality. Researcher Jeffrey Sonnenfeld identified the following four types of cultures. 1 According to Jeffrey Sonnenfeldi) Baseball Team Culture Employees are "free agents" who have highly prized skills. They are in high demand and can rather easily get jobs elsewhere. This type of culture exists in fast-paced, high-risk organizations, such as investment banking, advertising, etc. ii) Club Culture The most important requirement for employees in this culture is to fit into the group. Usually employees start at the bottom and stay with the organization. The organization promotes from within and highly values seniority. Examples are the military, some law firms, etc. iii) Academy Culture Employees are highly skilled and tend to stay in the organization, while working their way up the ranks. The organization provides a stable environment in which employees can develop and exercise their skills. Examples are universities, hospitals, large corporations, etc. iv) Fortress Culture Every organization undergoes massive reorganization. There are many opportunities for those who are timely, organized and have specialized skills. Examples are savings and loans, large car companies, etc. Organizational culture contributes a lot to organizational effectiveness. 2 Four Academic Models The issue of organizational effectiveness or OE, has been one of the most sought out yet elusive research subject since the early development of organizational theory. Although it seems intuitively apparent that a measure of organizational performance should be readily available in management literature, but quite the contrary is true. Four key models have been identified in the literature. One model used production, commitment, leadership, and interpersonal conflict to measure organizational effectiveness. Production was defined as the flow of output from the organization. A second OE model was proposed based on interrelated organizational processes and was developed primarily as a tool for management consultants. This model uses organizational survival and maximizing return as key variables of effectiveness along with self-regulation, which is responsible for orchestrating a balance between eight other minor variables including internalexternal boundary permeability, sensitivity to status and change, contribution to constituents, transformation, promoting advantageous transactions, flexibility, adaptability, and efficiency. A third model chose six selected indicators of organizational effectiveness including management experience, organizational structure, political impact, board of directors involvement, volunteer involvement, and internal communications. The fourth and final academic model was used to compare for-profit and non-profit organizational effectiveness and is termed the competing value framework. This model used four quadrants representing (1) human relations, (2) open systems, (3) rational goals, and (4) internal process.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

3 Deal and Kennedy's Model of Culture Deal and Kennedy's model of culture is based on characterizing four types of organization. The organizations are characterized based on how quickly they provide feedback and reward employees after they have done something and the level of risks that employees take. Feedback and reward A major driver of employees in companies (and hence their culture) is the general feedback and specific rewards that tell employees they are doing a good or bad job. If feedback is immediate or frequent, it will quickly correct any ineffective behavior and hence lead to a consistent culture. If the feedback is delayed or infrequent, it leaves mistakes uncorrected, but it also lets people look further out into the future. Either way, there is likely to be some substitute activity (such as process management) to help keep things on track until actual results are known. Risk Uncertainty and risk are something that some people hate and some people thrive on. In either case, it is another motivating force that leads people to focus on managing it. Where the risk is low, people may be willing to take risks up to their acceptable limit. Where they are high, the risks need to be managed or accepted. High risk companies are more likely to include people who enjoy the frisson of taking a gamble.

Fig.2: Deal and Kennedy's model of culture The Four Cultures Work-Hard, Play-Hard Culture Another type of organizational culture is the "work hard/play hard" organizational culture. This type of an organizational culture that doesn't take a lot of risks, but it does take a few, and all receive fast feedback. This is something most likely to be seen in Avery large company which is dependent on strong customer service. This type of organizational culture is often characterized by multiple team meetings, specialized jargon, and buzzwords. Tough-Guy Macho Culture One type of organizational culture is the "tough-guy culture" or "macho culture." One of the most common aspects of the tough-guy or macho culture is the quick feedback and high rewards. The pace can be break neck at times, but the obvious reward of the actions seen very quickly. From a corporate stand point, this type of organizational culture will be most often associated with really fast financial activities, such as currency trading, and brokerage.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development Process culture A process culture is most often found in organizations where there is actually no feedback. This is rarely a good culture. In this type of an organizational culture people are so obsessed with the process of how things are done that the focus is lost on what the goal is. Process organizational culture is a synonym for bureaucracy. It is good for public sector services. This has slow feedback/reward and low risk, leading to: Low stress, plodding work, comfort and security. Stress may come from internal politics and stupidity of the system. Development of bureaucracies and other ways of maintaining the status quo. Focus on security of the past and of the future. E.g. banks, insurance companies. Bet-The-Company Culture "Bet your company culture." This is a type of company where huge decisions are made over high stakes endeavors. In this type of culture, the end results of these decisions may not be seen for months or even years. 4 Culture Classifications in Indian Scenario A study was conducted by J B P Sinha dealing with cases from Indian organizations that concluded. The interplay of different forces in the Indian organizations, has led to the emergence of different patterns of organizational culture in Indian organizations. (Sinha,Jai B.P (2000). Patterns of Work Culture: Cases and Strategies for Culture Building New Delhi, Sage Publications.)The main patterns are: Soft Culture: This type of culture is commonly observed in the public sector organizations, there may also be certain exceptions. Such culture may emerge in any organization where the nature of ownership is not necessarily the determining factor. It emerges mostly in organizations which have multiple and conflicting organizational objective. Technocratic Culture: It is likely to develop in the organization which aims at providing the highest quality of product and services through the use of latest technology. Work Centric Nurturing Culture (WCNC): The WCNC is more oriented to content and here employee focus is on rewards, hard work, recognizing merit, establishing clear norms of performance and adequate workload. Formal systems are established to make the organization realize its goals.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

QUESTION 6: SUPPOSE YOU ARE AN OD PRECTITIONER.WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES THAT YOU HAVE BE PREPARED FOR WHILE CARRYING OUT ORGNIZATION DEVELOPMENT? AnsWER:
Designing OD interventions needs to pay attention to the needs and dynamics of the change situation and developing a change program that will be consistent with the previously described criteria of effective interventions. Current OD knowledge and practices can provide only a general prescription for change for the better. There is very little input or information on how to design interventions. There is also no research to show how the interventions are expected to interact with organizational situations to achieve specific results. Also the effectiveness of a particular intervention is higher or lower depending on the practitioners expertise and comfort with that intervention. Therefore the design of an intervention depends on the situation and the expertise of the practitioner. The last factor that impacts the design of the OD intervention is the target of change. In summary, there are 3 key factors affecting the designing of interventions. 1. The situation 2. The practitioners competencies (knowledge and skill) 3. The target at the end of the intervention

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

Master of Business Administration Semester 3 MU0011 MANAGEMENT &ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT


ASSIGNMENT-Set 2

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

QUESTION1: WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGNIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT? AnsWER:


The process of role negotiation was originally described by Harrison. This technique a real-world oriented one which can lead to a workable solution in cases involving competition, coercion and power struggles. What is the exact process in which role negotiation occurs? It provides a method for one person or group to negotiate and structure the role, or working arrangements, with respect to the other. It may include the nature of the activities that one expects out of the other, the reporting relationships, rules for escalation, who is responsible for what decisions, which will carry them out, the consequences for non-performance, etc. This process can prove useful in most situations involving competition, power, control and influence. 1 Advantage The most significant advantage of Role Negotiation is that is makes things explicit. The facilitator helps everyone understand that each participant has some degree of power, from the positive, rewarding good behavior in others during the contracting process. So that others dont need to keep guessing it is preferable that the expectations are clarified and defined. They understand the relationship with greater certainty than would be the case if things were still covert or underground. With this process, people better understand how to influence others in the group. 2 Negotiation After each person has clarified the messages he or she has received, issues are selected for negotiation. The facilitator needs to re-emphasize certain things so that there is no point in proceeding with the discussion on any particular item. In simple words, everyone must be prepared to make some sort of changes to get what he or she wants. If the behavior doesnt change on both sides, the status quo will prevail. By an iterative process, each person selects and communicates his or her most important issues and eventually the group comes to a consensus about which ones will be dealt with at this point. After this when all parties (two or more) are satisfied that an appropriate agreement has been reached, the participants write down the agreement to formalize it as a contract. Several negotiations may take place simultaneously, depending on the number of people or groups involved. All agreements are published for everyone to see and are discussed openly in the group (public commitment increases the chances for compliance). 3 Dynamics of Role Negotiation This process focuses on the working relationships between people, not their feelings about one another. As such, it is less threatening to most groups and more accessible than other techniques that place greater emphasis on interpersonal dynamics. People tend to be more at home discussing issues of power and influence on the job, rather than those involving feeling and emotion.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

QUESTION 2: EXPLAIN TEAM BUILDING INTERVENTIONS? AnsWER:


The Johari Window model was proposed by American psychologists Joseph Luftand Harry Ingham in 1955 while researching group dynamics, as a very simple yet useful tool for which could be used for improving self-awareness, and mutual understanding between individuals within a group. Assessment of one groups relationship with the other is something which can also be done using this model. The Johari Window is accepted as a concept which can be of great help in gauging an employee or employer relationships within the Psychological Contract. The four Johari Window perspectives are known as 'quadrants'. These four quadrants represent feelings, motivation, etc. known about the person, in terms of whether the information is known or unknown by the person. Refer fig. 8.1 Johari Window. First quadrant open area/open self/free area/free self implies what is known by the person about himself or herself and is also known by others. Second Quadrant blind area, blind self, or blind spot implies what is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know. Third Quadrant hidden area, hidden self, avoided area, avoided self or facade' implies what the person knows about him/herself that others do not know. Fourth Quadrant unknown area or unknown self implies what is unknown by

the person about him/herself and is also unknown by others.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development Third Quadrant hidden area, hidden self, avoided area, avoided self or facade' implies what the person knows about him/herself that others do not know. Fourth Quadrant unknown area or unknown self implies what is unknown by the person about him/herself and is also unknown by others. Fig. Johari Window1 The Johari Model Quadrants in details Quadrant 1 - 'open self/area' or 'free area' or 'public area', or 'arena' Region 1 is also referred to as the 'area of free activity'. This region gives an information about the person - behavior, attitude, feelings, emotion, knowledge, experience, skills, views, etc - known by the person ('the self') and known by the group ('others').The aim in any group should always be to develop the 'open area' for every person, because when we work in this area with others we try to be as effective and productive as possible and the group is at its most productive too. The open free area can be considered as the space where good communications and cooperation occurs, free from distractions, mistrust, confusion, conflict and misunderstanding. Quadrant 2 - 'blind self' or 'blind area' or 'blind spot' Region 2 of the model represents the blind spot or what is known about a person by others in the group, but is unknown by the person him/herself. By seeking feedback from others, the aim should be to reduce this area and thereby to increase the open area (refer to the model diagram below). This blind area is a non-effective or non-productive space for individuals or groups. This area could also be referred to as ones ignorance about one self. We are well aware of how difficult it is to work well if kept in the dark. Quadrant 3 'hidden self' or 'hidden area' or 'avoided self/area' or 'facade' Region 3, which is referred to as hidden area which implies what is known to ourselves but kept hidden from others. This hidden or avoided self represents information, feelings, etc, anything that a person knows about him/self, but which is not revealed or is kept hidden from others. The hidden area could also include sensitivities, fears, hidden agendas, manipulative intentions, and secrets - anything that a person knows but does not reveal, for whatever reason. It's natural for very personal and private information and feelings to remain hidden, indeed, certain information, feelings and experiences have no bearing on work, and so can and should remain hidden. Quadrant 4 'unknown self' or 'area of unknown activity' or 'unknown area' Region 4 which is referred to as the unknown area contains information, feelings, latent abilities, aptitudes, experiences etc, that are both unknown to the person him/herself as well as unknown to others in the group also. These unknown issues may take the form of feelings, behaviors, attitudes, capabilities, aptitudes, and more which can be quite close to the surface, and which can be positive and useful. Examples of unknown factors are as follows: a person not realizing a natural ability or aptitude that he possesses a person having any unknown illness A person not knowing that he has a fear or aversion. The ability of a person that under-estimated or un-tried through lack of opportunity, encouragement, confidence or training A persons repressed or subconscious feelings A persons conditioned behavior or attitudes from childhood Whether unknown 'discovered' knowledge moves into the hidden, blind or open area depends on who discovers it and what they do with the knowledge, notably whether it is then given as feedback, or disclosed.

QUESTION 3: WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF SENSITIVITY TRAINING?


SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

AnsWER:

Quality Circle is a small volunteer group of six to twelve employees doing similar kind of work. They voluntarily meet together on a regular basis to carry out frequent checks in their respective work areas for improvements. They use certain proven techniques for analyzing and solving work related problems coming in the way of achieving and sustaining excellence so that they can bring about a mutual enlistment of employees as well as the organization. So basically a volunteer group is composed of workers, under the leadership of their supervisor who are trained to identify, analyze and solve work-related problems are collectively called Quality circle. They present their solutions to management for the improvement of organizational performance. Tue quality circles become self-managing after gaining management confidence. If anything could battle the dehumanizing concept of division of labor, it is Quality circle. It has brought back the concept of craftsmanship, which doesnt work well on an individual basis because it is uneconomic, but it proves a boon when used in group form. The prime motto of QC is improving occupational safety and health, improving product design, and improvement in the workplace and manufacturing processes. 1 Key Features of Quality Circle: They are formal groups. They hold meetings at least once a week on company time and are trained by competent persons who may be personnel and industrial relations specialists. Quality circles are generally free to select any topic they wish, but they cannot select salary related topics or other topics related to terms and conditions of work, because these issues are dealt with via other channels. 2 The Concept The concept of Quality Circle primarily focuses on a workers value recognition as human being, as someone who willingly takes on his job, his wisdom, intelligence, experience, attitude and feelings. It is just another part of human resource management considered as one of the key factors in the improvement of product quality & productivity. Quality Circle concept has three major attributes:

Quality Circle is a human resource development technique. Quality Circle is a problem solving technique. Quality Circle is a form of participation management. 3 Objective of QC There multi-faced objectives of Quality Circles: Change in Attitude. Self Development Development of Team Spirit Improved Organizational Culture Benefits and Limitations of Quality Circles The quality control concept did not get an easy acceptance in India. It took two decades to get acceptance in India, after its introduction in Japan. The reason might be differences in the industrial context in the two countries. Japan needed it for its SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development survival in competitive market. India had a reasonably protected, sellers market, with consequent lethargy towards efforts to improve quality and productivity. However, with the policy of liberalization of economy and privatization of infrastructure development, contexts changed. The concept now needs to be looked upon as a necessity.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

QUESTION 4: DISTINGUISH BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ? AnsWER:


As discussed earlier, Politics may be defined as the pursuit of individual agendas and self-interest in an organization without putting much importance to their effect on the organizations efforts to achieve its goals. Behavior referred to as organizational politics takes place in varying degrees in all organizations. Not all behavior in the organizations can be categorized as political. The organizational political process can be described inn on-evaluative terms. 1 The Foundation Whenever we gain some organizational power, we should be more careful in using it to influence not to get our own way, but the way that will ultimately be best for the organization and for achieving our own personal mission. And this must be focused unmaking a difference beyond meeting our own needs. Whenever were struggling to get our way, we easily criticize others for being overly- political or playing dirty tricks. While it can be the other way round as well. As in, it might also be the case that just as others might be unfair in their practices; it can also be true that we ourselves lose sight of the value of diversity of thought and different ways of seeing. 2 Defining and exploring Organizational Politics To simplify everything lets consider organizations to be political systems. This term political will help us understand the power involved in relationships in day-today organizational relationships. Accepting the fact that power relations exist in organizations it will become easier for us to accept that politics is also an essential part of organizational life. The meaning of the term Politics can be put forward as a means of recognizing and, ultimately, reconciling competing interests within the organization. Competing interests can be reconciled by any number of means. Politics may also be considered as a means of creating a democratic work environment. Each type of organizational rule simply draws on different principles of legitimacy. Politics stems from a diversity of interests. Organizational actors seek to satisfy not only organizational interests, but also their own needs driven by selfinterest. According to Aristotle, politics stems from a diversity of interests. To fully understand the politics of the organization, it is necessary to explore the processes by which people engage in politics. Consistent with Aristotle's conceptualization, it is a given that, within the organization, all employees bring their own interests, wants, desires, and needs to the workplace. Though Organizational decision-making and problem-solving is seemingly a rational process, it is also a political process. Organizational actors seek to satisfy not only organizational interests, but also their own wants and needs; driven by selfinterest. Political behavior has been defined as the non-rational influence on decision making To practice successful organizational politics, it is perceived to lead to a higher level of power. Regardless of the degree to which employees may be committed to the organizations objectives, there can be little doubt that, at least occasionally, personal interests will be incongruent with those of the organization. Organizational politics arises when people think differently and want to act differently. Political means can resolve the tension created by this diversity In an autocratic organization, resolution comes through the directive: "We'll do it my way!". The democratic organization seeks to resolve this diversity of interests by SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development asking: "How shall we do it?" By whatever means an organization resolves this diversity, alternative approaches generally hinge on the power relations between the actors involved. For purposes of understanding organizational political behavior, Farrell and Peterson (1982) proposed a three-dimensional typology. The dimensions are: Functional Vs Dysfunctional Conflict, Sources and Types of Conflict: Individual, Group, and Organization The Process and Approaches to Conflict Resolution

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

QUESTION 5: STATE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGNIZATIONAL CULTURE? AnsWER:


How is OD helpful in the successful merger and acquisitions of organizations? Gaughan (1991) defines a merger as a combination of two corporations in which only one corporation survives and the merged corporation goes out of existence. Vaara, defines a merger as a combination of organizations of fairly similar size, which creates an organization where neither party can clearly be seen as the acquirer. The three main types of mergers are: Conglomerate merger In this type the two companies dont have to be related in any way at all, in fact the conglomerate may want unrelated companies in its portfolio because it allows spreading of risks. Two other types are vertical and concentric mergers. Vertical mergers are practically the same as forward or backward integration, which allows a company to control a bigger part of the whole product chain. Concentric mergers are mergers between two companies in different but somehow related industries, which allows the companies to share marketing or technical resources, related mergers occur when companies in the same industry merge their activities. These mergers allow a high level of synergy but they may also require a higher degree of integration than the other types of mergers The clash between the two cultures in a merger or acquisition can be focused into three major areas: 1.Structure. These factors from the two cultures include the size, age, and history of two firms; the industry in which the partners come from and now reside; the geographic location; and whether products and/or services are involved. 2.Politics. Where does the power and managerial decision making really reside? Corporate cultures range from autocratic extremes to total employee empowerment, and how this plays out among the partners will be important to cultural compatibility. 3.Emotions. The personal feelings, the culture contract that individuals have bought into to guide their day-to-day thoughts, habits, attitudes, commitment, and patterns of daily behavior. These emotions will be a major input into the clash or compatibility of the two cultures.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development

QUESTION 6: SUPPOSE A STEEL INDUSTRY WANTS TO FORM A QUALITY CIRCLE.WHAT WOULD BE THE CRITERIA THAT YOU WOULD SET TO FORM IT? WHAT ARE THE BENEFIT THAT YOU SEE IN FORMING A QUQLITY CIRCLE? AnsWER :
It is a process of regulation by which input from the public on matters affecting them is sought and solved. Its major goals are in improving the transparency, efficiency and public involvement in large-scale projects or laws and policies. It usually involves sending a notification to publicize the matter to be consulted on followed by consultation which is a two-way flow of information and opinion exchange and lastly participation which involves interest groups in the drafting of policy or legislation. 2 Principles for Effective Consulting An effective consulting has different perspectives. The following guidelines might be useful as you reflect on your own principles for effective consulting The answer to complex problems lies between you and your client The answer emerges during the project as you and your client work collaboratively to clarify current issues and address them, while learning at the same time. Encouraging and recognizing diverse values and perspectives An experienced organizational consultant is aware of the different perspectives on an issue in the organization. Those perspectives should be encouraged and explored because they often lead to more successful problem solving. When working with your client, start from where they are now Understand your clients perspective on their issues, including what they have tried, what has worked, what has not worked and what they think should be done now. It is better to go slower with your client than faster without them. No blame is to be put on consulting situations It is rare that anyone sets out to hurt someone else or an organization. An atmosphere of blame only serves to inhibit people in your clients organization from the trust, collaboration and commitment necessary for successful change. Come to the project with a basic consultation framework in mind Early in a project, the major purpose of the framework can be used as a common frame of reference when talking about the project goals, methods, evaluation and learning. Bewailing to modify that framework as you and your client work together. Your value is in the flow of the process, not in the details of the project If both of you continue to work together in a process that is collaborative, well understood, communicated to all and focused on results, your client will value you. The road to success is paved from who you are as from your expertise If youre perceived authentic, respectful, and consulting with focus on results and learning by the client then it paves the way for success. Similarly, one of the most powerful influences that can have with your clients is to model the behaviors that you want from them. Do what you say you are going to do SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development

Neelam ASWAL MBA-SEM-3 HR Management & Organizational Development While the client is confused, you can help a great deal by remaining grounded and centered, clear and consistent. Your consistency builds trust and commitment with clients, as well. Know yourself You are an instrument of change with your client, so you should be willing to suspend your overall biases, assumptions and beliefs when working with people. Be honest about them when they arise during a project. Avoid making your clients to do something just because you said so Always first explain the reasons for your advice and the benefits that might come to your client as a result. Then provide time for your client to respond to your advice. This is usually true even if you are a leader acting as an internal change agent. It is up to your client to use your advice or not This is sometimes one of the hardest principles for new consultants to accept. It helps if you remember that people learn only what they are ready to learn. Do not take it personally Often your client struggles with an issue, in part, because of their role in the issue. They may not want to change themselves and might resist your attempts to help them. In those instances, remember that those responses are their choices, not yours.

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Management & Organizational Development