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# PUMP SHAFT DEFLECTION

29/09/12 00:12

SUBJECT: Bending of the pump shaft 1-6 When a centrifugal volute type pump is operating at its best efficiency point (B.E.P.) the bending forces are evenly distributed around the impeller. If the pump discharge is throttled from this B.E.P. then the fluid velocity is changed and you'll experience an increase in pressure at approximately 240 degrees from the cutwater in the direction of shaft rotation. It also follows that if the pump capacity increases because of a lack of sufficient head, then this change in flow will cause an increase in pressure in the opposite direction, or at approximately 60 degrees from the cutwater. The following illustration shows these forces.

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## PUMP SHAFT DEFLECTION

29/09/12 00:12

The formula for the calculation of a multi-diameter shaft looks like this:

Y = Shaft deflection at the impeller center line measured in inches F = Hydraulic Radial imbalance, pounds ( "P" in the previous calculation) M & N = Distances from the impeller centerline to the steps on the shaft, inches L = Distance from impeller centerline to centerline of the inboard bearing, inches X = Span between bearing centerlines, inches IL, IM, IN, IX = Moments of inertia of the various diameters, inches E = Modulus of elasticity of the shaft material (psi.) How much the shaft bends depends upon the length of the shaft and its diameter. The strength of the shaft has nothing to do with this. The strength only determines if the shaft will break. The following formula is a simplified version of this longer formula. It is the formula we use for a single stage centrifugal pump with a solid, round shaft and an over hung impeller. You will note that shaft strength does not enter into the formula. The important number is the Modulus Of Elasticity (E), and as you will learn just about every shaft we use in the pumping business has the same modulus.

F = The force we calculated in the previous formula plus the weight of the impeller. L = The length of the shaft from the center of the inboard bearing to the center of the impeller. 3 = A factor used for an end suction centrifugal pump. A double-ended design would use a different number E = Modulus of elasticity; 28 to 30 x 106 psi. ( 0,196 to 0,201 X 106 N/mm2) for most metals with the exception of Titanium I = Moment of inertia for a solid, round shaft =

## Substuting the Moment of Inertia in to the formula gives us:

Since the F is the same in both pumps, along with 3, and 64; and since the Modulus of Elasticity is just about the same for all shaft materials, we can cancel out those terms and we are left with Y = L3 /D4 This ratio then becomes a logical method of comparing two competing pumps that have different shaft sizes. This ratio is often called the stiffness ratio, slenderness ratio, or the flexibility factor. If we assume that the length of the shaft from the center of the inboard bearing to the center of the impeller is a fixed amount (8 inches or 200 mm.) then we can easily see the affect of varying the shaft diameter in the stuffing box area. The following table shows the relationship:

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29/09/12 00:12