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2010

.. .. .. ..
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, . .: , 2010. 47 .
ISBN ????????

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, , .
: , ,
, .

ISBN ????????


, 2010

1.

2.

3.

14

4.

28

5.

34

39



- ,
.
,

-.

- .
, ,
.

.

, , ,
.

1.

1.1. M1 (4; 2; 6) , M 2 (1; 4; 0) .


uuuuuuur
M1M 2 .

uuur
uuur
1.2. , AB = (4; 12; z ) , AB = 13 . z.
r
1.3. a 600 1200.
r
, a = 2 .
r
r
,
,

1.4.

a
i
r
r
r
j k , , a = 2 3 .

1.5. ABCD : A(3; 4; 7) ,


B(5; 3; 2) , C (1; 2; 3) . D .
1.6. A(3; 1; 5) , B(4; 2; 5) , C (4; 0; 3) .
, A .

r
r r r r
r
1.7. a = 2i + j b = k 3 j .
.

r
r
r
r
r
1.8. a , a = mi 3 j + 2k
r
r
r
r
b = 4i + 6 j n k .

1.9. ,

r
r
r r
r
r
r r
c = 3i + 2 j k d = 2i 2 j + 4k .

r
r
r r
1.10. (4;-2;4) b (6;-3;2) . ) (a + b )2 , )
r r
r
r r
r
(a b ) 2 , ) (2a 3b )(a + 2b ) .
r

1.11. ) (m + n )2 , m n -
r
r r
r
300; ) (a b )2 , a = 8 , b = 4

1350.
r
r
r r
1.12. a = 13 , b = 19 , a + b = 24 .
r r
a b .
r
r r
r
1.13. a b = 600 , a = 3 , b = 8 .
r r
r r
a + b a b .

1.14. ,
A(2;1; 3) , B(5; 2; 1) , C (3; 3; 3) .

r
r
r r r r
r
r
1.15. a = 2m + 4n b = m n , m n -
r
0
.

120
r
b.
1.16. yOz.

r
r r r
1.17. a = i + j + 2k
r r r
r
b = i j + 4k .
r
r
r r
1.18. a (m;3;4) b (4; m; 7) . a b
?

r
r
r
r
1.19. m a = mi 3 j + 2k
r r
r
r
b = i + 2 j m k .

1.20. r
r
r 0 m
r
r
r
a = mi + k b = 4i + m k 180 ?

r
r
1.21. x(4, 3, -2) e1 (1, 1, 2) ,
r
r
e2 (-3, 0, -2) , e3 (1, 2, -1) .
r
r
1.22. x(2, 2, -1) e1 (1, 0, 2) ,
r
r
e2 (-1, 2,1) , e3 (-1, 4, 0) .
r
r
1.23. x (2; 2; 3; 3) a (1; 2; 3;1) ,
r
r
b (2;1; 2; 3) , c (3; 2; 4; 4) .
r
r
1.24. x (4;1; 3;1) a (2; 0;1;1) ,
r
r
b (1;1; 2; 2) , c (2;1; 3; 3) .

1.25. ,
2 , .
( ) = 2 3 . T ( x)
.
1.26. ,
2 = 1 , - .
( ) = 2 3 + 2 .
T ( x) .

1.27. ,
2, T ( x) = 3 x 2 + 2 x + 1

P( x) = 4 x 2 + 3 x + 4 , Q( x) = 3 x 2 + 2 x + 3 , R( x) = x 2 + x + 2 .
T ( x) .

1.28. ,
2,
T ( x) = 9 x 2 + 10 x + 4 P( x) = 3x 2 + 2 x + 3 , Q( x) = x 2 + x + 1 ,

R( x) = 3 x 2 + 3 x + 2 . T ( x)
.

2. .

2.1. ,

uuuuuuur
M 0 (2; 4; 2) M1M 2 , M1 (1; 3; 7)
M 2 (4; 1; 5) .
2.2. , Ox
M1 (0;1;3) M 2 (2;4;5) .
2.3. , Oz
M1 (3;1;0) M 2 (1;3;0) .
2.4. , Oz
M (2; 4;3) .

2.5. , Ox
M (0;5;6) .
8

2.6. ,
M (5;4;3) .

2.7. ,
M (2; 3;3) Oy Oz ,
Ox.
2.8. ,
M (2;3; 1) 5 x 3 y + 2 z 10 = 0 .

2.9. ,
M (14;2;2) x 2 y 3 z = 0 .
2.10. x + 2 y 2 z 8 = 0
x + y 17 = 0 .

2.11. x y + z 2 6 = 0

x + y z 2 + 12 = 0 .

2.12. ,
M (1; 1;2) x 2 y + z 13 = 0 ,
x + 2 y 2z + 2 = 0 .

2.13. ,
M (3; 1; 5) 3 x 2 y + 2 z 6 = 0 ,
5 x 4 y + 3z + 3 = 0 .

2.14. (
), M1 (1;2;3) M 2 (2;6; 2) .

2.15.
, x + y z 2 = 0
2x y + z 7 = 0 .

2.16. ) l1 l2

x + 3y z 2 = 0
2x + y z 2 = 0
; l2 :
l1 :
. ,
x + 2 y 2 = 0
x y + 2z 2 = 0
.
) l1 l2

x + y + 3z 5 = 0
3x + 3 y + z + 1 = 0
; l2 :
. ,
l1 :
x + 2 y +4 z 5 = 0
x + 2y + z +1= 0
.
2.17. ,
M (3; 5;2) Ox.

2.18. )
x = 2t 1 , y = 2t + 3 , z = 2 .

x +1 y + 3 z + 2
=
=

0
1
1

x 1 y + 2 z 3
=
=

1
1
2

x + y + z 2 = 0 .

2.19 )

x =3+ k
x = 3 + 3t
y = 2 + 3k
y = 2 t

l1 :
l2 :
z =1 k
z = 1 + 2t
k (;0]
t [0;+)

10

x = 2 + 2k
x=2t
y =3+ k
y =3t

l1 :
l2 :
z = 2 + 2 k
z = 2 + 4t
k (;0]
t [0;+)
x = 2,5 + 2t
y = 3,1 + 2t

2.20 )
z = 1,1 + t
t [1;1]
x=5

y = 2,3 + 5t

)
z = 5 + 12t
t [2;1]
x 1 y z + 2
= =

1
3
1
2 x + (a + 2) y 2 z + 11 = 0 ?

2.21. ) a

x3 y +2 z
=
=
2
8
6
x + (a + 1) y + 3 z + 5 = 0 ?
) a

2.22.

x 3 y + z 8 = 0 .

2.23.

3x + y 2 z = 0 .

x 1 y + 5 z 1
=
=

1
4
2

x y 3 z 2
=
=

1
0
2

2.24. ,
(1,1,1) (1,2,3) x y 3z 11 = 0 .
11

2.25 a x + y + az 4 = 0
x 2 y 1 z 1
()?

=
=
3
2
1
2.26. ,
x 2 y 1 z
M (2;3; 4)
=
= .
0
1
1
2.27. ,
x2 y 3 z 4
=
=
M (3;4;5) .
1
2
3
2.28. P(-1; 2; 0)
4x 5 y z 7 = 0 .

2.29. P ( 2; -1; 1)
x y + 2z 2 = 0 .
2.30. ( 0; 5;10 )
5 x + 2 y z 10 = 0 .
2.31. M (2;3;4) x = y = z .

2.32. P(0; 2; 1)
x 4 y +1 z 2
=
=
.
2
3
1
2.33. ,
x +1 y 1 z
M (1;0; 1)
.
=
=
1
2
3

12

2.34.

x + 6 y 3 z +1
=
=
.
1
3
2

2.35.

x 1 y 6 z 2
=
=
.
5
1
2

x 1 y 2 z +1

=
=
3
2
1

x 1 y 2 z + 2
=
=

2
3
1

2.36. ,
P1 (1; -2; -3) P2 (3; 4; 9) .
2.37. ,
P1 (-2; 1; -3) P2 (6; 5; 5) .
2.38. , P(0, 1, 3)
2 x + y 2 z 2 = 0 .
2.39. , P(2, 1, 1)
2 x y + z 8 = 0 .

13

3.

1 7 2
3 4 0
3.1. A = 3 4 2 B = 2 3 1 .
1 1 2
1 0 4

C = 2 A 3B .
3 2 1 6
2 1 9 0
3.2. A = 8 3 4 1 B = 2 6 4 1 .
5 7 0 4
3 4 5 2

C = A 2 B .
2 4 0
1 3 7

3.3. A = 6 2 4 B = 2 0 5 .
0 8 2
4 5 3

X,
A + 2 X 4B = 0 .
7 2 1 5
5 4 3 0

3.4. A = 3 2 4 3 B = 2 3 2 1 .
2 1 1 1
1 0 2 4

X,
5A + 3X B = 0 .
3 2
f ( x) = x 2 3 x .
3.5. f ( A) , A =

1 4
3.6. A B

1 5
3 1
) A =
, B=

3 2
5 2
14

4 0 3
2 1
=
) A =
,
B
1 5 3

7 3
1 8
6 2
) A = 3 1 , B =

1 3
2 4

0 0 2
5 4

) A = 1 2 4 , B = 2 6
2 2 5
3 1

2 0
1 3 0
) A =
, B = 1 5

2 1 3
4 6

1 2 2
2 4 1
, B = 3 2 1
) A =

3 1 7
1 2 2

2 3 2
1 3 0
) A = 1 1 3 , B = 2 1 3
0 2 4
1 2 3

2
) A = (1 2 3) , B = 1
4

2
) A = 1 , B = (1 2 3)
4

15

5 2 4
3
) A = 1 1 3 , B = 2
1 0 3
5


5 2 2
) A = (1 2 5 ) , B = 7 0 1
5 3 1

6 3

1
3
2

, BT = 1 3
) AT =

4 5 1
2 4

3.7. ,
B.
1 0 0
1 2 3

) A = 0 0 1 , B = 4 5 6
0 1 0
7 8 9

5 2 4
1 0 0

) A = 0 1 0 , B = 1 0 3
0 0 8
1 3 2

3.8. , B
A X. X
: B = A X B = X A .
342 211 645
645 211 342
) A = 457 992 719 , B = 719 992 457
123 403 842
842 403 123

16

342 211 645


457 992 719
) A = 457 992 719 , B = 342 211 645
123 403 842
123 403 842

332 211 123


996 633 369

) A = 457 992 719 , B = 457 992 719


123 403 842
123 403 842

111 203 343


333 812 343

) A = 209 121 514 , B = 627 484 514


221 106 678
663 424 678

3.9. A n
1 2
) A =
,
3
4

n=3

4 1
) A =
, n = 5
5
2

2 1
) A =
,
3 2

n = 10 ,

1 1
) A =
,
0 1

n = 10

n = 15

a 1
) A =
, n -
0 a

17

3.10.
2 5 1
) 3 8 2
1 2 0

3 1 2
) 6 2 4
9 3 6

2 1 4 3 7
) 4 15 8 7 1
2 17 4 13 9

3 1 1 0 2
) 1 5 0 2 1
0 1 3 3 1

3
1

)
1

4 3
3 1
1 1

2 1

2
1
)
4

1 3
5 2
11 7

4 1

18

1
2
)
3

2 3 4 5
3 4 5 1
4 5 1 2

5 6 3 3

1 0 0 5
1 3 0 1

)
2 9 4 2

5 18 8 1
1 3 5 1
2 1 3 4

)
5 1 1 7

7 7 9 1
1 1
1 1
)
2 1

3 1

1 2
3 0
0 3

5 2

3.11.

r
r
r
) a1 = (7; 5;19) , a2 = (5; 7; 7) , a3 = (8; 7;14)
r
r
r
) a1 = (1; 2; 2) , a2 = (0; 1; 4) , a3 = (2; 3; 3)

r
r
r
) a1 = (1; 8; 1) , a2 = (2; 3; 3) , a3 = (4; 11; 9)
r
r
r
) a1 = (1; 2; 3) , a2 = (2; 1;1) , a3 = (1; 3; 4)

19

r
r
r
r
) a1 = (0;1;1; 0) , a2 = (1;1; 3;1) , a3 = (1; 3; 5;1) , a4 = (0;1;1; 2)
r
r
r
) a1 = (1; 7;1; 2) , a2 = (2; 3; 2;1) , a3 = (4; 4; 4; 3) ,
r
a4 = (1; 6; 1;1)
3.12. -

r
r
r
r
) a1 = (1;1; 2) , a2 = (3;1; 2) , a3 = (1; 2;1) , a4 = (2;1; 2)
r
r
r
r
) a1 = (1;1;1) , a2 = (3; 5; 5) , a3 = (3; 4; 1) , a4 = (1; 1; 4)
r
r
r
r
) a1 = (1;1; 0; 1) , a2 = (1; 2;1; 0) , a3 = (1; 3; 2;1) , a4 = (1; 4; 3; 2)
r
r
r
) a1 = (1; 0;1; 0) , a2 = (2;1; 3; 7) , a3 = (3; 1; 0; 3) ,
r
a4 = (4;1; 3;1)
3.13. -
0 2
.
L. =
2
3

.
) L - 22
) L - 22
0
21

) L - 22

20

12

22

3.14. ) 22
3 2
4 3
3 2
A =

=
,
=
e
e
1

2 2 3 ,
2 1
3 4

1 1
e3 =
.
1 2
) 22
9 10
3 2
1 1
A =
e1 =
, e2 =

,
10
4
2
3
1
1

3 3
e3 =
.
3
2

3.15.

3 4
1 2

2 7
3

2 3 4
) 5 2 1
1 2 3

2 4 6
) 5 12 19
3 9 17

2 0 5
) 1 3 16
0 1 10

21

2 3 1
) 6 6 2
2 1 2

3.16.

3
a

0
b

1 1
c d

1 1 1 1
1 3 2 4

3
x

3
y

2
z

2
t

2 3 3 2
2 2 0 1

3.17.

5 1 x 8
4 1 y 5
)
8 1 z 12
4

1 t

1 1 a
1 2 b

1
1

2
0

1
0

0
1

c
d

3.18.
22

0
7

3
1

0 1
2 2

5 5 0 0
4 6 0 2

0 0 1 1
3 0 8 0
)
2 5 3 4
3

7
3

0
3

1
0

0
0

2 10 2 3
1 6 1 0

3
3

2
5

0 1
0 4

0
2

3 0 3
4 2 0

1 3 2 0
0 1 4 7
)
2 5 7 5
2 5

1
5

3
8

1
2

2
7

4 5 3 2
7 8 4 5

23

1
0

5
6

7
3

2
7

2 8 7 3
1 6 5 4

2 0 3 1
1 3 1 0
3
3

0
0
) 0
5
0

0
2

0
0
0
0
6

4 1
2 2

0
0
4
0
0

0
3
0
0
0

2
0
0
0
0

3.19. a
r
r
r
x1 = (3; 7; 4) , x2 = (3; 8; 6) , x3 = (3; a + 5; 8) .
3.20. a
r
r
r
x1 = (1; 2; 6) , x2 = (a 4; 2; 2) , x3 = (3; 1; 1) .
3.21. a
r
R3 a1 = (1,4,3) ,
r
r
a2 = (2, 1 a, 1) , a3 = (5, 4,1) ?
3.22. a
r
R3 a1 = (3,1, 4) ,
r
r
a2 = (a + 2, 2, 5) , a3 = (5,1,9) ?

24

3.23. a A(1;1;1) , B(2;1; 0) ,


C (1; 0;1) D(a + 1; 2; 0) ? (
uuur uuur uuur
AB , AC AD )
3.24. a A(0; 3;1) , B (2; 8; 9) ,
C (1; 0; 2a 2) D(0; 8;11) ? (
uuur uuur uuur
AB , AC AD )
3.25. , A

3 6
) A =

4 9
7 3
) A =

4 2
4 3
) A =

6 5
3 4
) A =

5 8
2 1 0
) A = 0 2 1
1 1 1

1 2 3
) A = 2 2 3
3 3 4

25

4 2 3
) A = 1 1 0
1 2 1

4 1 2
) A = 1 1 2
0 1 3

1 4 1
) A = 3 2 1
6 2 1

3 1 3
) A = 5 2 2
2 2 3

3.26. a, b c, A
B

3
a 1 2
1 0 1
) A = 0
1 c 2 , B = 8 3 6
4 2 3
4
b
3

5
2 1
a 3 3
1
) A = 0
c
3 , B = 15 29 12
5 1 b 4
10 19 8

0
1
a 2
3 2 3
) A = 8 b + 4 6 , B = 0 1 2
4
4 2 3
2
c

26

2
1
4 3 5
a
) A = 15 b + 20 12 , B = 0 2 3

10
19 2c
5 1 1

3.27.

1 6
8 1 2
)
X
=

4 1 5
2 3

2 1
4 8 1
)
=
X

1 5 2
3 6

3 2
1 4 8
)
X =

6 1
5 2 1
1 4
2 3
) X
= 1 1

1 1 2 5

2 3
1 2
) X
= 4 1

3 5 5 2

2 2
3 2
) X
= 3 3

5 4 1 1

27

3 1 2
2 1
) 1 0 1 X = 1
1
4 3 0
10 2

1 2 2
1 1 1
) X 1 1 1 =

0 3 2 1 0 3

3 2
2 3 2 1
)
X

2 1
3 5 1 2
3 4
)
X
4
5

5 2 2 4

= 3 1
3

4.

4.1.

x1 + 2 x2 x3 = 3

) 2 x1 + 5 x2 6 x3 = 1
3 x + 8 x 10 x = 1
2
3
1
x1 x2 + 3x3 = 7

) 2 x1 + x2 4 x3 = 3
3x + x 3x = 1
3
1 2
28

4 x1 + 2 x2 x3 = 1

) 5 x1 + 3 x2 2 x3 = 2
3 x + 2 x 3 x = 0
2
3
1
5 x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 4

) 3 x1 + 5 x2 3 x3 = 1
2 x 4 x + 3x = 1
2
3
1
4.2. .
.
.

x 2 x2 + 4 x3 = 0
) 1
3 x1 5 x2 + 10 x3 = 0
x + 3 x2 x3 = 0
) 1
2 x1 + 12 x2 4 x3 = 0
x 2 x2 + 34 x3 = 0
) 1
3 x1 5 x2 + 79 x3 = 0
x + 2 x2 + 42 x3 = 0
) 1
3 x1 + 7 x2 + 109 x3 = 0

x 22 x2 + x3 + 250 x4 = 0
) 1
2 x1 44 x2 + 3 x3 + 180 x4 = 0
x + 33 x2 + x3 150 x4 = 0
) 1
3 x1 + 99 x2 + 4 x3 + 270 x4 = 0
29

x 40 x2 x3 + 120 x4 = 0
) 1
4 x1 160 x2 3 x3 + 640 x4 = 0
x 35 x2 x3 + 130 x4 = 0
) 1
3 x1 105 x2 2 x3 + 150 x4 = 0
2 x1 + x2 + 4 x3 2 x4 = 0

) 2 x1 x2 4 x3 + 4 x4 = 0
6 x x 4 x + 6 x = 0
3
4
1 2
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 0

) 3 x1 + 2 x2 + x3 + x4 = 0
3x + x x x = 0
1 2 3 4
3 x1 + x2 x3 + x4 = 0
x + 3x + x x = 0

2
3
4
) 1
x1 + x2 + 3 x3 + x4 = 0
x1 x2 + x3 + 3 x4 = 0
3 x1 + 2 x2 5 x3 + 4 x4 = 0
3x x + 3x 3x = 0

1
2
3
4
)
3 x1 + 5 x2 13 x3 + 11x4 = 0
3 x1 + 4 x2 11x3 + 10 x4 = 0
4.3.

x + 2 x2 2 x3 + 5 x4 = 3
) 1
3 x1 2 x2 + 12 x3 7 x4 = 5
30

x + 3 x2 + x3 + 6 x4 = 8
) 1
2 x1 + 9 x2 + 5 x3 + 3 x4 = 7
2 x x + 3 x3 2 x4 = 1
) 1 2
4 x1 2 x2 + 5 x3 + x4 = 1
x + 2 x2 + 4 x3 x4 = 3
) 1
2 x1 + 4 x2 + 11x3 x4 = 7
2 x + 3 x2 + x3 + 5 x4 = 6
) 1
4 x1 + 6 x2 + x3 + 12 x4 = 10
5 x1 + x2 + 3 x3 + 5 x4 = 5

) 4 x1 + x2 + 2 x3 + 3 x4 = 4
x x + x + x =3
1 2 3 4
x1 x2 3 x3 x4 = 1

) 3 x1 4 x2 11x3 7 x4 = 2
3 x 5 x 13 x 11x = 1
2
3
4
1
2 x1 x2 + 3x3 2 x4 = 3

) 4 x1 2 x2 + 5 x3 + x4 = 8
2 x x + x + 8x = 7
4
1 2 3
2 x1 + 7 x2 + 3 x3 + x4 = 6

) 3 x1 + 5 x2 + 2 x3 + 2 x4 = 4
9x + 4x + x + 7x = 2
2
3
4
1

31

4.4. a
2
4
3
, 1
6
1 ,
2 a + 6 5

?
4.5. a
3 2 + a 2
, 1
1
1 ,
2 3 3

?
4.6. a
1 2 + a 2
, 2
9
2 ,
1
2
3

?
4.7. ,
(1; 2; 0; 34) (3; 5; 0; 79) .
.
4.8. ,
(1; 2; 0; 42) (3; 7; 0;109) . .

4.9. ,
(1; 3; 0; 31) (2; 5; 0; 107) .
.
4.10. 3 2-
. p = (6, 20, 100) ,
s = (38, 96) ,
1 1 7
A=

.
2 3 18
32

P -
q = (q1, q2 , q3 )
, .. P = p qT , q
A qT = sT . ,
q1, q2, q3 .
4.11. 3 2-
. p = (7, 20, 100) ,
s = (38, 96) ,
1 1 7
A=

.
2
3
18

P -
q = (q1, q2 , q3 )

, .. P = p q T , q
A qT = sT . ,
q1, q2, q3 .
4.12. 3 2-
. p = (8, 30, 100) ,
s = (28, 65) ,
1 2 8
A =
.
2
5
19

P -
q = (q1, q2 , q3 )

, .. P = p q T , q
A qT = sT . ,
q1, q2, q3 .

33

5.

5.1.

2 1
)

1 2
4 1
)

1 4
2 3
)

4 1
1 2
)

4 3
5.2. cos , - ,

3 1
)

2 2
1 6
)

2 2
3 6
)

3 10
8 5
)

2 5
34

5.3.

4 2 0
) 1 1 0
0 0 3

2 1 1
) 0 3 1
0 1 3

2 0 1
) 3 5 1
1 0 2

4 0 1
) 2 2 1
1 0 4

4 1 2
5.4. a 1 4 2
2 2 1

r
v = (3; 1; a 1) ,
= 5 ?
2 1 1
5.5. a 0 3 1
0 1 3

r
v = (2; 3; a 1) ,
= 2 ?

35

4 0 1
5.6. a 2 2 1
1 0 4

r
v = (1; 3; a 2) ,
= 3 ?
5.7. , X
A .

15 5
33 13
A=
13 5

18 5

23 4
1
2
49 14
, X = .

1
21 4


23 7
1

5.8. , X
A .
15
7
A=
11

11

20 23 52
2
1
16 39 56
, X = .
2
20 27 52


20 33 58
2

5.9. , X
A .
1
20 4 28 24
1
40 2 54 64
, X = .
A=
1
16 2 6 16

0
26 3 23 28
5.10. v1, v2 , v3
1 = 2, 2 = 1, 3 = 3.

f ( A) = A2 + A
.
36

5.11. v1, v2 , v3
1 = 4, 2 = 2, 3 = 3.

f ( A) = A2 A
.

37

1. .., .., .. .

. .: , 1986.
2. .., . . . .:
- , 2001.
3. .. . .:
, 2007.
4. :
. . ... .: -, 2005.
5. .. .
. .: , 2001.

38

r
r
r
r
r
1.1. 9. 1.2. 3 . 1.3. a = (1; 1; 2) . 1.4. a = (2i + 2 j + 2k ) .

1.5. D(9; 5; 6) . 1.6. 7. 1.7. 3,

21 . 1.8. 17 . 1.9.

34 / 2

42 / 2 .

1.10. ) 161. 1.10. ) 9. 1.10. ) -184. 1.11. ) 2 + 3 . 1.11. ) 40.


1.12. 22. 1.13.

97 7. 1.14. cos = 43/(25 13) . 1.15. 1200 .

1.16. 600 . 1.17. 8

18

. 1.18. 4. 1.19. -6. 1.20. -2.

r r
r
r r
r
r r
1.21. x = e1 -e2 +2e3 . 1.22. (1;-3;2) . 1.23. x = a + 2 b c .
r r
r
r
1.24. x = 2 a + 2 b c . 1.25. )
1 = 2 , 2 = . ( ) = (1;3) , 1.26. )

1 = ( 1) 2 , 2 = 1. ( ) = (1;1) , 1.27.
(2;-1;-2) . 1.28. (-1;-3;5) .

2.1. 3 x 2 y 2 z 18 = 0 . 2.2. 2 y 3 z + 7 = 0 . 2.3. x + y 4 = 0 .


2.4. 2 x + y = 0 . 2.5. 6 y 5 z = 0 . 2.6. x + y + z 12 = 0 .
2.7. 2 x + y + z 4 = 0 . 2.8. 5 x 3 y + 2 z + 1 = 0 . 2.9. x 2 y 3 z 4 = 0 .
2.10. = . 2.11. = . 2.12. 2 x + 3 y + 4 z 3 = 0 .
4
3
2.13. 2 x + y 2 z 15 = 0 . 2.14.
2.15.

x2 y6 z+2
=
=
.
3
4
5

x 3 y +1 z
=
= . 2.16. ) . ) , (1;-2; 2). 2.17.
0
1
1

x3 y z
.
= =
. 2.18. ) = . 2.18. ) = . 2.19. ) 2
3
6
154
0
5 2
39

2.19. ) 5

9 2

. 2.20. ) 6, 2.20. ) 13. 2.21. ) a = 4 . 2.21. ) a = 3 .

2.22. (2; 1;3) . 2.23. (1;1;2) . 2.24. (1, 1, 3) . 2.25. a 1

, a = 1 . 2.26. y + z + 1 = 0 . 2.27.
x 2y + z = 0.

2.28. (1;-0,5; -0,5) . 2.29. (1,5; -0,5; 0) . 2.30.


2.32. (2;0;-1) . 2.33.

30 . 2.31. (3;3;3) .

x 1 y z +1
=
=
. 2.34. (-5;6;1) . 2.35. (3;1;1) .
5
4
1

2.36. x+3y+6z-23=0 . 2.37. 2x+y+2z-9=0 . 2.38. (4;1;-1) .


2.39. (6;-1;1) .

3.1. = 12

2
4
7 4 17 6

1 7 3.2. = 4 9 4 1

1 1 10 0
2 8

1 8 14
30

1
X
=

7
1
8

3.4. X = 13
3.3.
3

9
8 6 5

13

22

25

16

8
22 11
3.6.a) A B =

19 1

4
6

3.5. f (A) =

9
3.6. ) A B =
25
6

3.6. ) A B = 13

21

14 22

5 9
3.6. ) A B = 17 9

15 12
16 8

1 15

17
13

3.6.) A B =

11 14 10

3.6. ) A B =

7
6
7

3.6. ) A B = 0

40

7 3

8 6

6 6

3.6. ) A B = ( 12)

3.6. ) A B = 1

3.6. ) A B = ( 6 17 1)
1

3.7 ) A B = 7

B = 1

4
2
8

12

31

3.6. ) A B = 14

18

6 13

3.6. ) A B = 3 18

15 1

18

26

5 3.7 ) B = 1

8
8

2 3

3 2

8
5

6
9

9 , B A = 4

6
7

3 ,

24 16

2 32
0 0 1
0 24 3.8 ) X = 0 1 0 , B = A X .

1 0 0
3 16

0 1 0
3 0 0

3.8 ) X = 1 0 0 , B = X A . ) X = 0 1 0 , B = X A .
0 0 1
0 0 1

3 0 0
13 14
) 3.8. X = 0 4 0 , B = X A . 3.9. ) A3 =
.
21

22

0 0 1

304 61
1 0 15 2 1
. 3.9. ) A10 =
3.9. ) A5 =
0 1 , A = 3 2 .

305
62

an
1 10
3.9. ) A =
. 3.9. ) A =
0
1

na n 1
. 3.10. ) 2. 3.10. ) 1.
n
a

3.10. ) 2. 3.10. ) 3. 3.10. ) 3. 3.10. ) 2. 3.10. ) 3. 3.10. ) 3.


3.10. ) 3. 3.10. ) 2. 3.11. ) .
3.11. ) . 3.11. ) .
3.11. ) . 3.11. ) . 3.11. )

. 3.12. ) 3,
1, 2 , 3 . 4 = (0,5;0,5;0) . 3.12. ) 3,
1, 2 , 3 . 4 = (7,75;0,25;2,5)
3.12. ) 2, 1, 2.
41

3 = (1;2) , 4 = (2;3)

3.12. ) 3,

1, 2 , 3 . 4 = (0;1;2)

3.13. )

1 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
, 2 =
, 3 =
, 4 =
.
1 =
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 1
= (0;2;2;3) . 3.13. )
1 0
0 1
0 0
, 2 =
, 3 =
. = (0;2;3) .
1 =
0 0
1 0
0 1

3.13. )
0 1
0 0
0 0
, 2 =
, 3 =
. = (2;2;3) .
1 =
0 0
1 0
0 1

3.14. ) (2; 1; 2) . 3.14. ) (1; 3; 5) . 3.15. ) 10. 3.15. ) -31.


3.15. ) -10. 3.15. ) 8. 3.15. ) 87. 3.15. ) 10.
3.16. ) 2a 8b + c + 5d . 3.16. ) x y z + 4t .
3.17. ) 8 x + 15 y + 12 z 19t . 3.17. ) 3a b + 2c + d . 3.18. ) 40.
3.18. ) -30. 3.18. ) 18. 3.18. ) -36. 3.18. ) -40. 3.18. ) -150.
3.18. ) -10. 3.18. ) 5. 3.18. ) 720. 3.19. a = 4 . 3.20. a = 2 .
3.21. a 9 7 . 3.22. a 8,8 . 3.23. a = 3 . 3.24. a = 2 .
3.25. )

1 9 6
1 2 3
1 5 3
.
.
3.25.
)
3.25.
)

.
3 4 3
2 4 7
2 6 4

1 8 4
3.25. )
. 3.25. )
4 5 3

1 1 1
1 2 2 . 3.25. )

2 3 4

1 1 0
1 5 3 .

0 3 2

1 4 3
1 1 0
1
1

3.25. ) 1 7 3 . 3.25. ) 3 12 10 .
3
5

1 10 6
1 4 5

42

3 1
2
3.25. ) 1,5 2,5 1 . 3.25. )
9
13 5

8
10 3
11 3
9 . 3.26. ) a = 2 ,

14 4 11

b = 2 , c = 4 . 3.26. ) a = 1 , b = 3 , c = 2 . 3.26. ) a = 3 , b = 1 ,
1 0 3 24
c = 3 . 3.26. ) a = 1 , b = 9 , c = 4 . 3.27. )
.
9 12 1 1

3.27. )

1 23 43 4
1 9 0 6
10 14 1 . 3.27. ) 9 18 45 .
9
9

3 5
1 1
7 . 3.27. )
3.27. ) 0 1 . 3.27. ) 17
3 4

19 8

10 1
3.27. ) 10 2 . 3.27. )
9 0

1
1
1,5 1,5 .

0,5 0,5

4 3 2
10 11 3 . 3.27. )

35 22
59 37 .

50 76
.
3.27. )
61
40

4.1. ) x1 = 1 , x2 = 3 , x3 = 2 . 4.1. ) x1 = 2 , x2 = 1 , x3 = 2 .
4.1. ) x1 = 1 , x2 = 3 , x3 = 1 . 4.1. ) x1 = 7 , x2 = 7 , x3 = 5 .
x1 0
0
r
4.2 a) x2 = t 2 , e1 = 2 . 4.2 )
x 1
1
3

43

x1 0
0
r
x = t1, e = 1 .
1
2
x 3
3
3

x1 12
12
r
4.2 ) x2 = t 23 , e1 = 23 . 4.2 )
x 1
1
3

x1 76
76
r
x = t 17 , e = 17 .
1
2

x 1
1
3

x1 570 22
22
570
x
0 1 r 0 r 1
2

=t
+s
4.2 )
, e =
, e2 =
.
x3 320 0 1 320
0


0
1
x4 1 0
x1 870 33
870
33
x
0 1 r 0 r 1
2

=t
+s
4.2 )
, e =
, e2 =
.
x3 720 0 1 720
0

1
0
x4 1 0
x1 280 40
40
280
x
1

0
1
0
r
r
2

+ s , e =
, e = .
= t
4.2 )
2
x3 160 0 1 160
0


0
1
x4 1 0
x1 110 35
110
35
x

1
0
1
0
r
r
2
+ s , e =
, e = .
4.2 ) = t
2
x3 240 0 1 240
0


1
0
x4 1 0
x1 0 0,5
0
0,5
x
4 3 r 4 r 3
2

=t
+s
4.2 )
, e =
, e2 =
.
x3 1 0 1 1
0

0
1
x4 0 1
x1 1 1
1
1
x
2 2 r 2 r 2
2

=t
+s
4.2 )
, e =
, e2 =
.
x3 1 0 1 1
0



0
1
x4 0 1

44

x1 1
1
x
1 r 1
2

4.2 )
, e =
. 4.2 )
=t
x3 1 1 1


1
x4 1
2
1

24
r r 21
e1 =
, e2 =
. 4.3 a)
0
9


9
0

x1 1 2
x

2 = t 24 + s 21 ,
x3 9 0

x4 0 9

x1 1 5 1
x

2 = 1 + t 1,5 + s 2 .
x3 0 1 0


x4 0 0 1

x1 17 2 15
x

3
1
3
2
. 4.3 )
4.3 ) = + t + s
x3 0 1 0

x4 0 0 1

x1 1 1 13
x

0
2
0
2
= + t + s
.
x3 1 0 10

x4 0 0 2

x1 5 3 7 2
x
0 1
2 0

4.3 )
=
+ t + s . 4.3 )
x3 1 3 1 0


x4 0 3 0

x1 2 3 7
x
2 = 0 + t 2 + s 0 .
x3 2 0 4

x4 0 0 2

x1 2 1
x
2
1
4.3 ) 2 = + t . 4.3 )
x3 1 3

x4 0 1

x1 2 1 3

x2 = 1 + t 2 + s 4 .
x3 0 1 0

x4 0 0 1

x1 4,5 13 1
x
0 2
0
2
+ t
+ s . 4.3 )
4.3 ) =
x3 2 10 0



x4 0 2 0

x1 8 9 4
x
1 0
0
2
=
+ t + s .
x3 0 0 1


x4 10 11 5

0 12
0 76
0 23
0 17

4.4. a = 2 . 4.5. a = 4 . 4.6. a = 3 . 4.7. . 4.8.


1 0
1 0

0 1
0 1

45

0 166
0 45
. 4.10. P = 518 , q = (3, 0, 5) . 4.11. P = 526 ,
4.9.
1 0

0 1

q = (18, 20, 0) . 4.12. P = 350 , q = (10, 9, 0) .

5.1 ) = 1 : (1;1) , = 3 : (1; 1) . 5.1 ) = 3 : (1;1) , = 5 :


(1; 1) . 5.1. ) = 2 : (3; 4) , = 5 : (1;1) . 5.1. ) = 1 : (1; 1) , = 5 :
(1; 2) . 5.2. ) 1 10 . 5.2 .) 4

65 . 5.2. ) 3 130 . 5.2. ) 3

58 .

5.3. ) 1 = 2 , (1;1; 0) ; 2 = 3 , (2;1; 0) , (0; 0;1) . 5.3. ) 1 = 2 , (1; 0; 0) ,


(0;1;1) ; 2 = 4 , (1;1; 1) . 5.3. ) 1 = 1, (2; 1; 2) ; 2 = 3 , (1; 2; 1) ;

3 = 5 , (0;1; 0) . 5.3. ) 1 = 2 , (0;1; 0) ; 2 = 3 , (1; 3;1) ; 3 = 5 , (3;1; 3) .


5.4. a = 3 . 5.5. a = 4 . 5.6. a = 3 . 5.7. = 2 . 5.8. = 4 .
5.9. a = 12 . 5.10. f ( A)
v1 , v2 , v3 .

1 = 6, 2 = 2, 3 = 12. 5.11. f ( A)
v1 , v2 , v3 .
1 = 12, 2 = 2, 3 = 6.

46


,
,
,

.
, .

. . . . 500 .

47