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Copy of ED 408 Assessment Portfolio-Portfolio

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Copy of ED 408 Assessment Portfolio-Portfolio


by Hannah McComie

Philosophy of Assessment
Works Cited
Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world. (1st ed., pp. 276-295). San Francisco: A Wiley Imprint.

McMillan, J. H. (2007). Classroom assessment: principles and practice for effective standards based instruction. (4th ed., pp. 228-336). Boston: Pearson.

Stiggins, R. J., & Chappus, J. (2008). An introduction to student-involved assessment for learning. (6thed., pp. 11-78). Boston: Pearson.

Standards
HI-HTSB.SS.5 HI-HTSB.5.2 HI-HTSB.SS.6 HI-HTSB.6.1 HI-HTSB.6.2 HI-HTSB.SS.8 STANDARD STATEMENT V. The effective teacher consistently demonstrates competency in content area(s) to develop student knowledge and performance. Teaches mastery of language, complex processes, concepts and principles unique to content area(s). STANDARD STATEMENT VI: The effective teacher consistently plans and implements, meaningful learning experiences for students. Plans and implements logical, sequenced instruction and continually adjusts plans based on learner needs. Provides learning experiences and instructional materials that are developmentally appropriate and based on desired outcomes, principles of effective instruction and curricular goals. STANDARD STATEMENT VIII. The effective teacher consistently applies appropriate assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social, physical and emotional development of the learner. Evaluates students performances and products objectively and fairly. Uses a variety of appropriate assessment strategies to enhance knowledge of learners and appropriately modifies teaching and learning strategies. Involves students in developing assessment standards and criteria. Engages students in self-assessment activities and encourages them to set personal achievement goals. Uses assessment data to monitor and evaluate students progress toward achieving the Hawaii Content and Performance Standards. Maintains appropriate and accurate records of student achievement and communicates students progress to students, parents and colleagues as needed.

HI-HTSB.8.1 HI-HTSB.8.2 HI-HTSB.8.3 HI-HTSB.8.4 HI-HTSB.8.6 HI-HTSB.8.7

Reflection on Portfolio
Creating this portfolio was fun and exciting as well as challenging. This portfolio correlates with the Hawaii Teacher Standards Board (HTSB) standards V, VI, and VIII. This portfolio demonstrates my knowledge of assessment and the importance of quality and summative assessment. As a teacher I plan on incorporating formative and summative assessment through all the different forms of assessment in my classroom. This reflects that I value different types of learners and that I will set high expectations for my students. I have learned how to develop quality and valid assessments. My philosophy depicts a brief but detailed overview of my values of what assessment means. It acts as evidence that I have approached STANDARD STATEMENT VIII: The effective teacher consistently applies appropriate assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social, physical and emotional development of the learner. Although I have yet to practice applying these concepts in a classroom I understand how and when to do so. I know what to look for within my students. I understand what consists of a good or bad assessment. Writing out my philosophy allowed me to hone my values and beliefs of assessment. I was able to develop my ideologies and my professionalism by deepening my

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understanding through research. Through my description of the different forms of assessment I have demonstrated content knowledge. The descriptive analysis correlates with STANDARD STATEMENT V: The effective teacher consistently demonstrates competency in content area(s) to develop student knowledge and performance. My ability to describe and differentiate the four types of assessments reflects my knowledge ability of matching assessments with appropriate targets. This skill is essential for validity and maintaining clear records. I have learned that thorough planning is essential. Waiting until the last minute is bad ethics. Quality assessment stems from a well-researched and planned lesson, which sets high standards for the students. STANDARD STATEMENT VI: The effective teacher consistently plans and implements, meaningful learning experiences for students. This is also filtered through my philosophy of implementing formative and summative assessment. The various assessments I created for this portfolio demonstrates a well thought out plan to implement a meaningful learning experience for my students.

Attachments

Reflection_Portfolio.docx

Philosophy of Assessment
Assessment can serve many masters, take many different forms, reflect many different kinds of achievement, and fall prey to any of a variety of problems that may lead to inaccurate results (Stiggins and Chappus, 2008). If a teacher understand how to implement assessment then they can identify who is using the assessment and for what purpose the assessment is being used. The teacher can identify how the assessment will be used and the results should be clear and accurate. In the process, the students should know and understand these same concepts which will increase student motivation and participation. Meaning of Assessment Assessment is more than identifying if a student knows the material and procedures; and it is more than showing that a student has meet a standard. Assessment is evaluating the quality of a students understanding; it is "the collection, evaluation, and use of information to help teachers make decisions that improve student learning" (McMillian, 2007). Teachers should conduct formative and summative assessment in order to acquire a significant sum of information to represent the collection. Throughout the academic time frame the collection is evaluated to identify the quality of students' understanding. The results of the collection determine if changes need to be made with the teachers teaching methods. The teacher should be able to identify student misunderstandings and accommodate their needs. From this collection of information, evaluations of student understandings can be made and judged (without bias). The collection of information should show some sort of progress. If no progress is identified, the student was assessed multiple ways, and formative and summative assessment was used, then another factor could be affecting the student's learning such as a learning disability or impairment. Assessment informs us (teachers and students) about the things we do and do not know. Purpose of Assessment -to collect information about student achievement in order for teachers to make decisions that will enhance student understanding -to motivate students and foster their learning experience -to provide students the ability to assess their own work. We assess so that students can get to a place of understanding where we (the teacher) are no longer required. We want students to have the ability to assess their own work. Example: performance target: writing a paper with a beginning, middle, and an end. If we do not assess the student, then we are unable to obtain any information if the student is able to write a paper with a beginning, middle, and an end. Thus, the student will not know if they are writing with a beginning, middle, and an end which will make them dependent on the teacher. And eventually the students will become dependent on anyone else who contains the skill to write a beginning, middle, and an end. Assessment allows the student to hone their skills and become independent learners. How We Should Assess According to McMillian, Stiggins and Chappuis the components of implementing assessment are having a purpose, clear targets, high quality, and measurement. Having a purpose entails that we must first identify why this assessment is taking place. We also need to identify who the assessment is for. The goal of the assessment must be clear and identifiable. Having clear targets entails understanding what is being assessed and what success looks like. One needs to understand if they are assessing knowledge, reasoning, performance skills, products and/or dispositions. Having high quality entails that the assessment provides dependable information and minimizes bias. Having measurement entails containing the tools to identify how much understanding the student possess. A variety of techniques can be used such as selected response, essay, performance assessment, and personal communication. These understandings will help one teach more effectively and productively.

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Student Involvment Studies show that students who are involved in the assessment process become better performers. When students engage in the assessment process they participate in thoughtful analysis of quality work to identify its critical elements (Stiggins and Chuppius, 2008). Students are able to gather a deeper understanding of what is required of them. They are able to identify the intended goals. Students develop the ability to evaluate their own work and each others work. Students develop self-efficacy and high assurance. An individual with self-efficacy and high assurance believes in their capabilities and tackles challenges with confidence and persistence. The student is more motivated, they understand where their goal is and how they can get there. Thus, they do not allow frustration or the difficulty of the problem to hinder them from trying to conquer it. People who doubt their capabilities shy away from difficult tasks which they view as personal threats(Stiggiins and Chuppius, 2008). Student involvement is based on the culture of the class. Classroom instruction should engage students in learning activities mastery of basic skills and concepts by incorporating real goals for learning: communication, problem solving, and reasoning (Darling-Hammond and Bransford, 2005). Assessment and instruction go hand-in-hand. If your instructional curriculum does not reflect high expectations and real goals then how can you assess it? We incorporate student involvement by helping them understand how they are going to be evaluated. Students can design tasks and questions to evaluate their own or others work. [Engage] students in developing assessment exercises, creating scoring criteria, applying criteria to student products, and self-assessment (McMillan, pg 12, 2007). Ex. students are given multiple examples of a product that display good and bad quality. In groups the students develop a criterion of what good quality, of the given product, looks like. We know the importance of allowing students to participate, so lets get the students involved and keep them involved. This goes a little beyond having the students create or design the rubric. Students also need feedback, constant feedback. Students need to be able to identify why and how they did not meet the required targets. This in turn allows them to create stronger rubrics. This cycle increases a students motivation to learn. These factors are important elements of self-efficacy and self-confidence. Assessing Multiple Learners Research tells us that our students are not cookie cutters. A method that might work for one student, might not work for another. Our students make up a diverse group of learning styles based on the variations of culture, religion, and ethnical backgrounds. Traditionally, education was targeting one group of people. With our melting pot, that method will not work anymore. Every student has the right to master lifelong proficiencies. One needs to know how to diversify their curriculum. Diversified Curriculum One needs to get to know their students. Who are they? Where do they come from? What are they interested in learning? Teachers should introduce their students to different cultures. Allow them to work together and learn from each other. The important factor is to set high goals for each student. Improve Teaching Skills This is where formative assessment comes in. Formative assessment informs one about the content of their students understanding. Teachers are able to identify what their students understands, how well they understand it, and if they can apply or perform it (or both). Formative assessment informs the teacher if their teaching style is effective or ineffective. It evaluates how the teacher ask questions, introduce a topic, set up a project/activities, and it evaluates the effectiveness of their procedures and routines. Note: the same type of assessment should not be used over and over again.

References Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world. (1st ed., pp. 276-295). San Francisco: A Wiley Imprint. McMillan, J. H. (2007). Classroom assessment: principles and practice for effective standards based instruction. (4th ed., pp. 228-336). Boston: Pearson. Stiggins, R. J., & Chappus, J. (2008). An introduction to student-involved assessment for learning. (6thed., pp. 11-78). Boston: Pearson.

Attachments

Assessment_Philosophy_pdf_1.pdf

Types of Assessment
Appropriate Uses of Different Assessment Types

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(I went to into grater detail about each assessment. Please refer to the specific type of assessment ) Achievement Targets Knowledge: The content of the subject matter to be mastered. This includes knowledge and understanding. The three import traits of mastering knowledge content are: knowing and understanding are not the same, there are two ways of knowing; memorizing and researching, and there are many ways of coming to know. To help our students know and understand content, we ourselves must be masters of the disciplines we expect them to master. Reasoning: Students should be using their new found knowledge to reason and solve problems. Reasoning is identifying relationships and patterns. To reason is to analyze, evaluate, classify, compare and contrast, and draw inductive and deductive inferences. Performance Skills: The ability to do the required task. Ex. singing or speaking a foreign language. Products: The ability to produce tangible products. Ex. term paper or a shoe rack.

Dispositions: The development of feelings, emotions, attitudes, and interests which increase their motivational desires to learn.

Table 4.1: Matching Achievement Target to Assessment Methods (Stiggins and Chappuis, pg 78, 2008) TARGETS TO BE ASSESSED Selected Response Extended Written Short Answer Response Exercises can tap understanding of relationship among elements of knowledge. Performance Assessment Personal Communication

Multiple choice, true/false, matching, and Knowledge Mastery fill-in can sample mastery of elements of knowledge

Not a strong choice Can ask question, for this evaluate answers, target-three other and infer mastery, options preferred but a for knowledge time-consuming targets. option. Can watch students solve some problems or examine some products and infer about reasoning proficiency Can ask student to think aloud or can ask follow up questions to probe reasoning Strong match when skill is oral communication proficiency; also can assess mastery of knowledge prerequisite to skillful performance

Reasoning Proficiency

Written Can assess descriptions of application of some complex problems patterns of solutions can reasoning, but not provide a window all into reasoning proficiency

Can assess mastery of the knowledge Can observe and prerequisites to skillful performance, evaluate skills as Performance Skills but cannot rely on these to tap the skill they are being itself performed

Ability to Create Products

Can probe procedural Can assess mastery of the knowledge knowledge of and prerequisite to the ability to create 1. Proficiency in knowledge of quality products, but cannot use these carrying out steps attributes of to assess the quality of products quality produces, 2. Attributes of but not the quality themselves. the product itself of products themselves Can assess: Selected responses Open-ended questionnaire questionnaire items items Can infer dispositions from behavior and products Can talk with students about their feelings

Dispositions

Selected Response Assessment


Selected Response Assessment

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Selected response is an objective test. Regardless of who grades the test each assessor will acquire the same results. If one is not careful, the test can become bias against certain individuals. When using selected response one has to be certain that each student contains the reading skills to comprehend the test items. Selected response assessment are quick and easy methods to assess knowledge and reasoning. Although, the assessment is not easy to make it is easy to use for grading. It is very convenient when a teacher wants to assess knowledge of key terms, dates, important figures, labels, etc. Selected response is unusable for performance skills and products. Three steps one should use when creating a selected response assessment are: 1) blueprint the test: One should plan out the materials they want their students to master. The teacher should attain complete mastery of the material they want their students to know. They should understand what successes looks like. Then they can design a table of test specifications or formulate a list of learning targets leading to the standards. 2) find the focus for each item: Create a list of propositions related to the standards that the students are supposed to meet. The challenge is to state propositions reflecting important inferences [one] expect them to be able to draw that [one] would not have explicitly covered in class (Stiggins and Chappuis, pg 107, 2008). 3) write out the test items: Make sure the questions are clear, focused and grammatically correct. The item needs to be written as a complete question. Do not do this: From x to y: Also aim for the lowest reading level. This way no one is being discriminated against based on their reading ability. When creating tests one should avoid providing cues to the correct answers. Critical information: one needs to be sure the test is doable in the allotted time frame. The test contains clear instructions. The test is also identified with clear targets. Bias can occur if the three steps above are not followed. One has to make sure the questions are clearly written. Directions are clearly written. For T/F questions, the answer is 100% true or 100% false. All parts of the question should be on the same page.

Attachments

Selected_Response_Assessment.docx

This Assessment is aligned to these Standards


NCSS.1.6 THEME SIX -- Power, Authority, and Governance: Social Studies teachers should possess the knowledge, capabilities, and dispositions to organize and provide instruction at the appropriate school level for the study of Power, Authority and Governance. Teachers of Social Studies at all levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of power, authority, and governance. ...help students to explain the purpose of government and how its powers are acquired, used, and justified;

NCSS.1.6.b

DIrections for Administration


Separate the students so that they can not see each others test. If the students can not be physically be separated, have barriers put up so that the students can not copy off one another. The assessment(s) should not take more than 15 minutes.

What is government?
Name_______________________________ Date ________________________________

Test 1: Defining a Government True or False Directions: Write TRUE on the line if you believe the answer is true. Write FALSE on the line if you believe the answer is false; one point for each question. _______ 1. Adult family members represents a government because they make, apply, and enforce rules for their children and manage disputes about them. _______ 2. A school represents a government because teachers, principals, and school boards make, apply, and enforce rules and laws for their schools and manage disputes about them. _______3. A library represents a government because the librarians help you research and check out books, and they

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help keep the library clean and safe. _______ 4. A tribe makes up a government because the make, apply, enforce rules and laws for tribal members in Indian country. _______ 5. A group of friends makes up a government because the make friendship bracelets, personal websites, and they tell each other secrets.

I think my score is _________________

because_______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Actual score ________________

Answer Key
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE

Duties of a Government
Name_______________________________ Date ________________________________

Test 7: The duties of the government Governments have the authority and power to do certain things. What are some major things governments can do? Directions: Write TRUE on the line if you believe the answer is true. Write FALSE on the line if you believe the answer is false; one point for each correct answer.

_________ 1.Governments can make laws _________ 2.Governments can break laws _________ 3.Governments can carry out laws _________ 4.Governments can enforce laws _________ 5.Governments can manage conflicts _________ 6.Governments can change people's beliefs

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_________ 7.Governments can protects its citizens

I think my score is _________________

because_______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Actual score ________________

Answer Key
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FASLE TRUE

Vocabulary Quiz 1 and Answer Key

Attachments

Vocaublary_Quiz_1.docx

Vocabulary Quiz 2
Name_______________________________ Date ________________________________ Vocabulary Quiz 2 We have studied words related to government. Thinking in terms of government, circle the correct vocabulary word that relates to the statement. There is only one correct answer for each statement; one point for each correct answer. 1. Toms older brother took his toy without permission. a. b. c. d. Protect Power Values Rules

2.

Do not run in the hall ways. a. b. c. d. e. Rules Value Responsibilities Protect Power

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3.

Tracy keeps her area clean. a. b. c. Power Values Responsibilities

4.

Your grades are something that is important to you. a. b. c. d. e. Protect Responsibilities Rules Values Power

5.

A brother looks out for his sister when she is being picked on. a. b. c. d. Values Responsibilities Protect Rules

6.

John turns in his homework on time. a. b. c. d. e. Power Values Rules Protect Responsibilities

I think my score is _________________

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because_______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Actual score ________________

Answer Key
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. b a c d c e

Essay Assessment
Writing Response (Essay) Assessment
Essay assessment helps assess knowledge, reasoning, performance skills, and products. In order for the assessment to be successful the individuals taking the test has to be proficient in the language the essay is presented in; and the assessment accurately reflects the desired learning. The three steps of designing and developing an essay assessment are: 1. assessment planning 2. exercise development, and 3. scoring guide development. Assessment planning entails starting off with clear achievement standards. Understanding the achievement target that one is trying to achieve is essential. It prevents false results/reports from occurring. Exercise development entails investing quality time to prepare a well thought out writing exercise that will challenge the respondents. This requires three things: 1. Specify the knowledge students are supposed to command in preparing a response. 2. Identify what respondents are to write about. 3. Point the direction to an appropriate response without giving away the answer(Stiggins and Chappuis, 2012, pg 128). Developing essay scoring procedures entails clearly articulating ones evaluation criteria. A rubric is valid only if multiple assessors can come up with the same score. The differentiation between each rating must be clear and specific decreasing subjectivity. Prior to using the rubric one should test it and check for validity. Feedback should also come in the form of written commentary and points. If possible, it is best to have two individuals grade the assessment using the rubric, so the grades do not seem bias. Bias can occur through potential sources of mis-measurement. This is due to unclear targets, lack of writing proficiency from the respondents, poor-quality exercises, and poor-quality scoring guide. In result one is using the wrong target for the assessment, true knowledge and understanding is not being assessed, the respondents are unable to properly communicate their reasoning and understanding, and inaccurate records are formulated. Creating an essay assessment is not easy. Firstly, one has to make sure the question coincides with what was taught. The question also has to be specific but not too revealing for individuals who did not study. It also has to provide background knowledge and identify exactly what the teacher is looking for. The scoring guide has to be clearly articulated and usable. The best way to identify validity and reasonability is to answer the question oneself, score it, and have someone else score it.

Attachments

Essay_Assessment.docx

This Assessment is aligned to these Standards


HI-HCPS-III.SS.2.4 STANDARD: Political Science/Civics: GOVERNANCE, DEMOCRACY, AND INTERACTIONUnderstand the purpose and historical impact of political institutions, the principles and values of

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American constitutional democracy, and the similarities and differences in gove HI-HCPS-III.SS.2.4.1 Describe the different ways people gain authority and the limits of such authority

DIrections for Administration


The exit passes are to be handed out after the reading and discussion on "how to choose a leader". Give the students an opportunity to have group discussions prior to handing out the exit passes. The exit passes should be handed out 20 minutes before the class/block ends The students should have at least 20 minutes to complete the exit pass.

Assessment Items
Name: ______________________

Date: _______________________ Exit Pass 2

All people with authority have limits on what they can do. Can you describe a limit for each of the following?

1. Parent:

2. Babysitter:

3. School principal:

4. The president:

Answer Key
These are broad forms of limits. These are statements of what cannot be done. I do not expect the student to explain the following use my specific terms. The answer is acceptable if is correlates with what I have listed. The answer does not have to be exact.

1. Parent: No form of physical or verbal abuse (examples. Hitting the child and leaving marks and bruises, saying hateful things to the child, making the child feel small) Preventing their child from receiving an education Allowing their child to drink under age

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Allowing their child to do drugs Allowing their child to drive under age Killing their child Leaving their child unattended Allowing their child ride without being their seatbelt

2. Babysitter: Abusive-any form of abuse Yelling or screaming at the child Hitting the child Leaving the child unattended Not respecting the parents wishes, values, and beliefs Lying to the parents

3. School principal: Mistreating the students Recognizing diversity Taking preventative measures to pass the state test Specific programs that the school can have Budget

4. The president: -Make laws-Serve more than two terms of four years -Decrease the quality of life of the people.

Performance Assessment
Performance Assessment
Performance assessment is best used to for performance and product targets. If one is to use performance assessment to assess knowledge or reasoning and the respondent failed the assessment, it is difficult to determine why the respondent failed or where they went wrong during the assessment. A performance assessment promotes inquiry and hands on learning. Students are introduced to what success looks like and have the opportunity to discovery their own success. The students become partners in the task analysis Stigging and Chappuis, 2008. The studentsjourney through the process of defining what good and bad success looks like, developing those skills, assessing their skills, and then demonstrating their skills. In order for this to be successful the teacher has to contain a clear understanding of what success looks like. Also the rubric needs to be clearly defined, covers the right content, well organized, the number of levels fits the targets and uses, and the levels are parallel. The rubric will also need to be validensuring that bias does not affect a respondents score. A good way to check for validity is to have someone else review/use the rubric. Some things to consider when planning a performance assessment are ensuring that all of the students have equal access to the resources and materials needed to succeed; there is enough time for the performance assessment to be completed without being rushed; and to involve the students in the assessment process. While planning the vision has to be adequate for the achievement target, clear and correct performance criteria, a focused and unbiased task, and provide sufficient

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samples of the task. If these things are not included problems can occur and will jeopardize the results.

Attachments

Performance_Assessment.docx

This Assessment is aligned to these Standards


HI-HCPS-III.LA.2.4 STANDARD: Writing: CONVENTIONS AND SKILLS: Use the writing process and conventions of language and research to construct meaning and communicate effectively for a variety of purposes and audiences using a range of forms Range of Writing: Write in a variety of grade-appropriate formats for a variety of purposes and audiences, such as: > brief narratives with logical sequencing and some detail Sentence Structure and Grammar: Form and use the following grammatical constructions correctly when editing writing: > correct word order when constructing complete sentences STANDARD: Oral Communication: CONVENTIONS AND SKILLS: Apply knowledge of verbal and nonverbal language to communicate effectively in various situations: interpersonal, group, and public: for a variety of purposes Discussion and Presentation: Use oral language to obtain information, complete a task, and share ideas with others Discussion and Presentation: Give an oral presentation to share information with peers Discussion and Presentation: Use appropriate social conventions in various large and small group situations STANDARD: Political Science/Civics: GOVERNANCE, DEMOCRACY, AND INTERACTIONUnderstand the purpose and historical impact of political institutions, the principles and values of American constitutional democracy, and the similarities and differences in gove Describe the different ways people gain authority and the limits of such authority STANDARD: Political Science/Civics: PARTICIPATION AND CITIZENSHIP-Understand roles, rights (personal, economic, political), and responsibilities of American citizens and exercise them in civic action THEME SIX -- Power, Authority, and Governance: Social Studies teachers should possess the knowledge, capabilities, and dispositions to organize and provide instruction at the appropriate school level for the study of Power, Authority and Governance. Teachers of Social Studies at all levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of power, authority, and governance. ...help students to explain the purpose of government and how its powers are acquired, used, and justified; ...provide opportunities for learners to examine issues involving the rights, roles, and status of individuals in relation to the general welfare;

HI-HCPS-III.LA.2.4.1 HI-HCPS-III.LA.2.4.1.1 HI-HCPS-III.LA.2.4.2 HI-HCPS-III.LA.2.4.2.1 HI-HCPS-III.LA.2.6

HI-HCPS-III.LA.2.6.1 HI-HCPS-III.LA.2.6.2 HI-HCPS-III.LA.2.6.4 HI-HCPS-III.SS.2.4

HI-HCPS-III.SS.2.4.1 HI-HCPS-III.SS.2.5

NCSS.1.6

NCSS.1.6.b NCSS.1.6.c

DIrections for Administration


The students should have at least two weeks to formulate their project. The students should have four days to present their project. Every student should have access to the resources needed: computer, books, poster board, markers, clay, etc. Each team needs to submit a proposal of their project and the needed materials.->respond as soon as possible so the team will have enough time to formulate a new plan if needed. The students should have allotted class time to work on their project (about 90% of the project will be worked on in the classroom).

Performance Task Title: We Can Survive!


Performance Task The government is concerned about what will happen to the moral of individuals if a disaster occurred. The government asked the students to formulate a

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presentation persuading them that upcoming generations will be able to re-establish a government if a disaster was to occur. The students will work in groups of three and create a society based on a given situation (example situation: An invisible dome is place over a town. The town is unable to interact with the rest of the world. The dome does have small holes in it, and fresh air can come through) within that society the students have to construct the rules and laws that will govern the society; describe why those rules and laws are in place; and describe why they are good rules and laws. The group will have to identify the roles of the government and the people of the society. The students will also have to identify different individuals within the society that contain power, and those of which contain authority. The students will write up a report and create a model of how the society looked before and after the established government. The model can be 2D or 3D (power point, clay model, poster board, etc). GRASPS Goal: The government is concerned about what will happen to the moral of the individuals if a disaster occurred. Your task is to describe how the people kept their moral by developing a government. Role: Your job is to identify the roles and responsibilities of the government. Identify the rules and the laws that will govern the society and describe why those rules are in place, and define why they are good. You also need to identify who contains power and who contains authority and state why. Audience: The president of the United States, his cabinet, congress, house of representatives->Representatives of our government today. Situation: Your challenge is to identify and describe the traits of the government effectively communicate your ideas and beliefs provide a visual stimulus of the society Product, Performance, and Purpose: You will create a model (2D or 3D) representing the society of the given disaster in order describe to us what happened in the given situation and how the creation of the government occurred. You will need to develop a presentation (following the format) explaining your results, convincing the leaders of the government that the people will be able to maintain their moral after the disaster. You will need to write up a report explaining your results and reasoning. Your write up can contain pictures. As you speak to the audience be sure to maintain eye contact which reflects your confidence. Represent the people well. Standards and Criteria for Success: Your presentation must meet the following standards Identify what the government should do Explain the purpose of the rules and laws within the government and identify why they are good rules and laws Vocabulary is used appropriately: Government, authority, power Identify the authority and power figures State how the government was established

Rubric(s)
Oral Presentation Target (24-29 points) Acceptable (18-23 points) 3 points- The basic purposes (to protect the right of individuals and to promote the common good) were described as to why the people in the stimulated situation established a government. Unacceptable (17 points and below) 0 points-there is no clear description as to why the people in the stimulated situation established a government or the explanation is not realistic.

Purpose of a 4 points-The key components (to establish order, to protect individual Government rights, ExplanationNCSS.1.6 people become disorderly and NCSS.1.6.b violent, people can not prepare for the future) were described as to why the people in the stimulated situation established a government.

3 points-The illustration of how the Purpose of a 4 points-It is clearly illustrated as to how the people in the stimulated government was created is partially Government situation created their government. The realistic. Empathy HI-HCPSIII.LA.2.6 explanation tells realistic story.
HI-HCPSIII.LA.2.6.1 HI-HCPSIII.LA.2.6.2 HI-HCPSIII.LA.2.6.4

0 points- How the people created the government in the stimulated situation is not illustrated.

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Oral Presentation

Target (24-29 points)

Acceptable (18-23 points) 3-4 points- The group described only 3-4 things a government can do. The group receives one point per role described.

Unacceptable (17 points and below) 0-2 points- The group described 2 or less roles of the government. The group receives one point per role described.

5 points- The group described some of Roles of the major things that a government can Government do. ExplanationNCSS.1.6 (make laws, carry out laws, enforce NCSS.1.6.c laws, manage conflicts, provide for the defense of the nation)-wording does not have to be exact. Rules and Laws
NCSS.1.6 NCSS.1.6.c

4 points-The group explained the purpose of the rules and laws within the government. (describe ways people should behave; provide order, predictability, and security; protect rights; provide benefits, assign burdens or responsibilities, limit the power of people in authority)-wording does not have to be exact.

3-5 points- The group Explained only 3-5 purposes of rules and laws. The group receives one point per purpose explained.

0-2 points- The group Explained only 0-2 purposes of rules and laws. The group receives one point per purpose explained.

4 points- The group justified why the Rules and established rules are good rules and Laws ApplicationHI- laws by testing it against the criteria HCPS-III.SS.2.5 developed in class. (is it well designed HI-HCPSto achieve its purposes, is it III.SS.2.5.1 understandable, is it possible to follow, is it fair, is it designed to protect individual right and promote the common good)-wording does not have to be exact. Vocabulary 2 points- The vocabulary was used appropriately. The group also identified the difference between an authority figure and a power figure. Examples were provided. The model(s) reflects the stimulus disaster and how the government and society was formed. (ex, before and after visuals. Can include but not limited to (power point, poster, clay model, play) 3 points - Communicates effectively Effective Communicator and clearly through speaking, using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to convey ideas and information for a variety of audiences and purposes. The students uses eye contact with the audience. The students uses body language (e.g. hands) to help relay the message. The student is clearly heard by everyone in the class. Total Points Score (Circled)

3 points-The group partially justified why the established rules are good rules and laws using the criteria. (Not all of the points within the criteria were meet)

0 points- The group did not justify why the established rules are good rules and laws by using the criteria.

1 point- The vocabulary was used appropriately. The group only provided one example. Either it was for an authority figure or a power figure.

0 points- The vocabulary was not used appropriately. The group is confused, they can not clearly identify the difference between an authority figure and a power figure.

Product
III.SS.2.4 NCSS.1.6

3 HI-HCPS-points-

2 points- The model(s) only reflects 1 point- There is some form of model one aspect of the situation. (the created but no effort is shown. before-the disaster or the after-the built society )

2 points- The students looks only at the 1 point - The student is looking down teacher. The student is only heard by a throughout most of the presentation. majority of the class. The student can not be heard clearly by anyone in the classroom.

Written Report Purpose of a Government

Target (22-26 points) 4 points-The key components (to establish order, to protect individual rights, people become disorderly and

Acceptable (17-21 points) 3 points- The basic purposes (to protect the right of individuals and to promote the common good) were

Unacceptable (16 points and below) 0 points-there is no clear description as to why the people in the stimulated situation established a government or

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Written Report

Target (22-26 points)

Acceptable (17-21 points) described as to why the people in the stimulated situation established a government.

Unacceptable (16 points and below) the explanation is not realistic.

violent, people can not prepare for the ExplanationNCSS.1.6 NCSS.1.6.b future) were described as to why the people in the stimulated situation established a government.

3 points-The illustration of how the Purpose of a 4 points-It is clearly illustrated as to how the people in the stimulated government was created is partially Government situation created their government. The realistic. Empathy HI-HCPSIII.LA.2.6 explanation tells realistic story.
HI-HCPSIII.LA.2.6.1 HI-HCPSIII.LA.2.6.2 HI-HCPSIII.LA.2.6.4

0 points- How the people created the government in the stimulated situation is not illustrated.

5 points- The group described some of Roles of the major things that a government can Government do. ExplanationNCSS.1.6 (make laws, carry out laws, enforce NCSS.1.6.c laws, manage conflicts, provide for the defense of the nation)-wording does not have to be exact. Rules and Laws HI-HCPSIII.SS.2.4 HI-HCPSIII.SS.2.4.1 NCSS.1.6 NCSS.1.6.c

3-4 points- The group described only 3-4 things a government can do. The group receives one point per role described.

0-2 points- The group described 2 or less roles of the government. The group receives one point per role described.

4 points-The group explained the purpose of the rules and laws within the government. (describe ways people should behave; provide order, predictability, and security; protect rights; provide benefits, assign burdens or responsibilities, limit the power of people in authority)-wording does not have to be exact.

3-5 points- The group Explained only 3-5 purposes of rules and laws. The group receives one point per purpose explained.

0-2 points- The group Explained only 0-2 purposes of rules and laws. The group receives one point per purpose explained.

4 points- The group justified why the Rules and established rules are good rules and Laws ApplicationHI- laws by testing it against the criteria HCPS-III.SS.2.5 developed in class. (is it well designed HI-HCPSto achieve its purposes, is it III.SS.2.5.1 understandable, is it possible to follow, is it fair, is it designed to protect individual right and promote the common good)-wording does not have to be exact. Vocabulary 2 points- The vocabulary was used appropriately. The group also identified the difference between an authority figure and a power figure. Examples were provided.

3 points-The group partially justified why the established rules are good rules and laws using the criteria. (Not all of the points within the criteria were meet)

0 points- The group did not justify why the established rules are good rules and laws by using the criteria.

1 point- The vocabulary was used appropriately. The group only provided one example. Either it was for an authority figure or a power figure. 2 points- Writes narratives that follow a sequence and includes some detail and pieces that explain an event.

0 points- The vocabulary was not used appropriately. The group is confused, they can not clearly identify the difference between an authority figure and a power figure. 1 point-Writes narratives that does not follow a sequence and include some detail and pieces that explain an event.

Product HI-HCPS-3 points- Writes narratives that follow a III.LA.2.4 sequence and includes all of the HI-HCPSrequired detail and pieces that explain III.LA.2.4.1 an event. HI-HCPSIII.LA.2.4.1.1 HI-HCPSIII.LA.2.4.1.2 HI-HCPSIII.SS.2.4

Total Points Score (Circled)

Personal Communication Assessment


Personal Communication as an Assessment
Personal communication as an assessment can be used to test all of the targets. But, before a teacher can think about using it in the classroom a special relationship needs to take place between the teacher and the students. The teacher and the students should share

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a common language and culture. Verbal and nonverbal cues each have their own meaning, and a common shared meaning is identified by both the teacher and the students. The teacher needs to understand the personalities of her students. Are there students that are particularly shy or out spoken? Also the students need to feel safe. Personal communication as assessment requires students to open up their feelings, and that is difficult if they do not feel safe in their environment. Personal communication as assessment can also contain bias and validity issues. Forgetting to write things down can jeopardize the results of the assessment. A teacher cannot remember everything that happened in the classroom. If the results are not written down right away then bias can come into play. The assessment results will be formulated on past experiences instead of the current ones. Teachers should not label there students or put boundaries on them. Expectations of all of the students should be the same regardless of the students ability. This is known as filtering, which is also bias. Personal communication can be used to gather information about students knowledge and abilities. Questions can be formulated and asked to identify if students know or understand the content of the material. Those results can then be evaluated, but this is a very time consuming method. Personal communication as assessment is a good tool for assessing reasoning. The students have opportunities to verbally explain their thinking; which in turn allows the teacher to fully understand where the student is having difficulty and mastery. Personal communication as assessment can assess prior knowledge of performance tasks and products. Dispositions can also be assessed through interviews, in-class discussion, facial expression and body language. Personal communication as an assessment is a good assessment tool to incorporate in the classroom because it helps maintain the sense of community within the classroom. Also the students are involved in assessment for learning. Students can be asked to paraphrase what another student said. Students can ask each other questions or help formulate questions for a test. Students can bounce information off one another through group discussions. Personal communication as an assessment can be taken to so many levels. The most important thing is that students feel safe and they understand that the teacher has high expectations for them.

Attachments

Personal_Communication_as_Assessment.docx

This Assessment is aligned to these Standards


HI-GLO.1 HI-GLO.1.I.3 NCSS.1.6 GLO #1: Self-Directed Learner (The ability to be responsible for one's own learning) Monitors progress and evaluates learning experiences THEME SIX -- Power, Authority, and Governance: Social Studies teachers should possess the knowledge, capabilities, and dispositions to organize and provide instruction at the appropriate school level for the study of Power, Authority and Governance. Teachers of Social Studies at all levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of power, authority, and governance. ...enable learners to examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relation to his or her family, social groups, community, and nation;

NCSS.1.6.a

DIrections for Administration


Each journal is worth 5 points It a credit or no credit assignment. (If the student complete the journal then they recieved credit and vise versa) -> refer to the scoring guide There is no length requirement for the journals The journals will not be graded for grammar The students will have 15-20 minutes to write their journals (15-20 for each journal) Students can draw pictures in their journal to help relay what they are trying to say.

Assessment Items

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Journals 1. Who are the authority figures at home and why? 2. Who are the power figures at home and why? 3. In relation to government, how do you fit in your family? 4. Do you think that the class rules and procedures are fair? Explain why or why not. 5. Did you enjoy the unit? Explain your answer. 6. Write a few things that you learned about the unit. 7. What would you change and why?

Scoring Guide
Journals 1. Who are the authority figures at home and why? The student is able to identify at least one authority figure in their home. The authority figure would be someone who has the right to tell them what to do. The student provides a few examples as to why that individual is able to tell them what to do. I have provided a few examples. The students are not limited to these examples. Parents: they provide food, clothes, and shelter. They are responsible for my welfare. They are my protectors. Older siblings: they look after me while my parents are not home. They cook for me and help clean the house. They help me with my homework. they pick me up from school Aunty or Uncle: they look after me, they are my parents brother or sister. grandmom or grand pop: they cook for me. they look after me. they provide food and clothes for me. I live with them instead of my parents. 2. Who are the power figures at home and why? The student is able to identify at least one power figure. They state the power figure has no right to tell them what to do. brother sister cousin They are not my parent, and they are not my guardian. 3. In relation to government, how do you fit in your family? This question can be answered various ways. The student uses vocabulary we learned in class and defines how they fit in their family. Examples Power figure: I boss my sister around Authority figure: I look after my baby brother when my mother is sleeping 4. Do you think that the class rules and procedures are fair? Explain why or why not. The student states yes or no and uses the criteria to explain their answer. Criteria describe ways people should behave provide order, predictability, and security protect rights provide benefits assign burdens or responsibilities limit the power of people in authroity (does not have to be exact) 5. Did you enjoy the unit? Explain your answer. states yes or no and why 6. Write a few things that you learned about the unit.

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answers will vary 7. What would you change and why? opinionated but the student stated why.

Record
Government Unit Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Student 9 Student 10 Student 11 Student 12 Student 13 Student 14 Student 15 Student 16 Student 17 Student 18 Student 19 Student 20 Student 21 Student 22 Student 23 Student 24 Student 25 Student 26 Student 27 Student 28 Student 29 Student 30 Student 31 Journal 1 Journal 2 Journal 3 Journal 4 Journal 5 Journal 6 Journal 7

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