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12

: . . ,
. . , .

12.1
10
:
U= IR+E
(12.1)

.12.1 ()
, (. 10.1)
:
F=BlIsin
(12.2)
- , I- , l- , -
.
, (.10.1) ,
. , .. d/2.
/2, N, :
=FNd/2
(12.3)
, 2 (10.5):

2p

2p

(12.4)

, :
=S=Bl
(12.5),
(12.4) (12.5) (12.3) :
=FNd/2=

pN
I
2 a

(12.6)

pN
k
2 a

(12.7)

a k
. (12.6) :

=kI
(12.8)

:
F=BlIsin

=kI

12.2
(. 12.1),
, , :
= vlsin
(12.9)

v- , l- , -
, - v .
, /2, .. sin=1.
.12.1 .
N. 2 .
, .12. =1, N=2.
, ,
. , :
N/2a
:
=N/2a=vlN/2a
(12.10)
:
v=

dn
60

(12.5):
=/l
,
(12.11) (12.12) (12.10) :
=

d n l N
d n N
=
l 60 2a
60 2a

(12.11)
(12.12)

(12.13)

, (12.4), (12.13)
:
=

d n N 2p
n N p

d 60 2a
60 a

(12.14)

n c:
=2n/60
n=60/2
(12.15)
(12.15) (12.14) :

60 N p
Np

k
2 60 a
2 a
pN
.. (12.7)k
2 a
=

(12.16)

:
=k
(12.17)

,
:
= vlsin
=k
12.3 . ,

:
U= IR+E
=kI
(12.18)
=k
.
U=I R =k0I
U,I ,R , k0-
.
k0 .

.
.
.
=U-IR
(12.19)
(12.19) (12.18):
k=U-IR

U I R

k k

(12.20)


I U.
.
.
.12.2.

I
.12.2 .
,
.
, ..
.
0 (12.20)
0=U/k
(12.21)
(12.18)
, ,
() ,
.
(12.8):
I=/k
(12.20), :

R
R
U
U

k k k k (k )2

(12.22)

, ,
:
,
.
.12.3

.12.3

.

.

.
(12.22) , U,
R
. ,

.

() U,
I .

() .
R/(k)2,
.
(k)2/R :
=(k)2/R
(12.23)
,
,
.
11.4 ( )


.

. 12.4
:

R
R
U
U

k k k k (k )2

( )
:
R=R0+R,
R0- , R
;
;
U.

.
, (12.22), (12.23)
.
,
(

0
R
R+R

. 12.5


,
.
.(.12.6)
=k I =const

. 12.6 n=n()
.

. ,
=(k)2/R

U
.
,
.(.12.7)

12.7


,
, .

, 2 , ..
.
,

(=, = ), -
(=0, = 0 ). 0

0= U/k=U/ (U-RI),

(12.24)

(U-RI)/=k

(12.25)

= I (U-RI)/
(12.26)

R .
: 0
, :
= 0[1- (R+R)I/ U]
(12.27)

, ,
,
.

.
12.5 .

. ,

.

. 12.8
. 12.8
R R .
,
.

() - ,
(. 12.3). ( )


38 % ( ,
). . .,
.
, R.
, :
= (U (R+R)I)/k
(12.28)
(I)
R,
() , ,
.
, I = 0
= k0 = U, 0
. ,
.
,

.
12.6
. 12.9 .

. 12.29
,
(=0) .

I=(U- )/ r =U/r
(12.29)

I- .
15-20 .
I,=(2-2,5)I
(12.30)

. ,
, , . .
I =(U- )/( r +r)
(12.31)
, ,
.

R
,
,
,
, .
.
0 .
m, ,
.
, .
, ,
.

1.
R=R1+R2+R3+R4+R.
- . ,
.
2, 3, 4.
.

. (
( 100
).

.
.12.30
,
, .12.31.

.12.31
.

.
(. 12.29)
1 2,
1 2. 1 2,
1 2.
:
, , ,
.