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-

( )

-
-

05.13.18 ,


.-..

2012


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.2. - . . . . . . . . 20
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.5. PML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.

- -

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.1. . . . . . . . . 60
2.2. . . . . . . 61
3.

. . 89

3.1. CFmaxwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.

. . . . . . 103

4.1. CFgeo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103


4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.3. . . . . 107
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
2



-
. :
- - (LRnLA) [1]

FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) [2].
,
, .
(
)
.
LRnLA
FDTD
, FDTD.

, .

.
, , ,
, .

, ,
, [38].

[9, 10], ,
[11
3

18], [11], [1923] ..



.
,
, .

. ,
,
-
(10-30 100)
( 2) [2426].
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
.

.
) (
), ) (
,
-
), ) , ,
,
, .


4

, -
.
, -
-
.

, ,
, , ,


.
-
,
.
,

.
,
[16, 18],

(, ,
,
, ,
..),
.
,
.
, ,
5

, , ,
.
-
, . -

, .
-
,
.
- .
, ,
. ,
,
.
(
)
.
, ,
.

, ..
,
, . ,
, ,
.

. , ,
,
6


,

( 50)
.
-
, ,
FDTD [2], 1960
[27]. ,
,
[28, 29]. FDTD
, , ,
, ,
, .
:
;
;
[30];

FDTD [2, 3150] .
,
.

FDTD.
, ,
[41, 4851].


7

.
, .
, FDTD
(
) / ( ) [52].
(-
)

. FDTD,
(CST MicroWave Studio, Lumerical FDTD
Solutions, XFdtd, CrystalWave FDTD, OmniSim, FullWAVE), opensource
(Meep, EM Explorer, EMTL) [53, 54].
:
. ,
.
,
, .
, ,
.
-

[26, 55].
,
( -
)
,
.
.
8




.
- (LRnLA) [1] ,

.

LRnLA,
.
, ,

(
) [5660].
.
,

. ,
.

, , ,
.

, , ( )
. ()

[56]. ( )
-
9

[6165].
,
, .
PML (Perfectly
Matched Layer) [66], .-. 1994
[67].
, [6877]
.
,
PML
PML [7881]. PML
.
-

. ,

. PML
, PML
.
FDTD 2- .

20
. FDTD
.
4- [52].

6- . ,
PML 4-
10

2- .
, ,

, .

1.
- .
.
2.

- .

.
3. PML
, .
- , .
4.
PML
FDTD 2- 4- .
5.
LRnLA :
, , ,
,
.
, 2-
.
6.
4- .
11

PML.

1. FDTD ,
, ,
, .
,
.
,

.
2.
PML FDTD
2- 4- . ,
PML,
, .
3.
,
,
. 4.

50
.

1.

.
- - (LRnLA) ,

12

.
2.

.
,
.
3. ,
, ,
, , .
4.

, , ,
.
.
,
.
,
1. - - (LRnLA)
FDTD 2- 4- ,
PML, .
2. PML
.
3.
,
.
4. -
.
(
13

) .
.

, ,
.
2- 4-
. .
.

;
;
.
, ,
- :
50-, 51-, 52-, 54- ;
Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS2009 in Moscow,
PIERS2012 in Kuala-Lumpur, );
2010 (-);
First Russian Italian joint seminar on mathematical and physical models
applications to condensed matter and preservation of the cultural heritage
(On the occasion of ICIAP 2011, , );
(-2011), ;
-
, , , 2011;
-
(, 2012);
XIII - . ..
14

(, 2011);
XI -
(, 2009)

- (, 2012);

-2008 ().

-
. .. , ,
(-).

: ,
Intel 2011 .
09-07-00236, 12-01-00708, .
02.740.11.0475.
CFgeo

.

, 5- 6-
... .
15 [78, 8295],
4 , [78, 8284].
137 , 51
123 .

15

1

1.1.
:
1 2
=

2 2

(1.1)

(, , , ) , ,
.
2

1 2

=
.
2 2 2


[30].

, (1.1)
:

1
=

; =

; =

(1.2)

; =

.
(1.3)

(1.2)
.
, ,
.
(
). ,
.
16

, ,
, , (1.2),
.
2 (
). ,
(1.2)
.
.
1.1.1.

:
B

= E,

= H,

D = 0, B = 0,

(1.4)

B , D , E
, H . ,
,
, D E (
) B H ( ).
( )
( ):
D = E,

B = H.

(1.5)

.
(1.4),
,

17

= . 1/ .

:
1,
(,
1), ,
.
, (1.2) (

). (1.4),
2

2E

= ( E). E
2
, ( E) = E,

(/)

(1.1): (/)

2E
= E.

1.1.2.
,
[96]:
(), (1 , 2 , 3 ) =
(, , ):

(1.6)

, ,
.

18

(3 3 ):

=
+

(1.7)
,
=+3

, (12 = 3, 13 = 2, 23 = 1).

.
+
, ,
( =
, = , = 23 , , , , = + 2),
(1.6) (1.7) :

+
+
;
+

=
+
+ +
,

.
=
+

(1.8)

, (1.2) (
,

).
(, ):

= ( + 2) (
) (
);

(1.9)

)
( ) ,

19

(
) =
, (
) = 0, (
) =
(
) = 0,
(1.9)
(1.1):

=
.

+2

,
,
.

= ( + 2)
;

1.2. -
-

FDTD (Finite-Difference Time
Domain) [2], . [27].
, ,
:
2- , ,
,
, .
FDTD
,
,
, ,
.
FDTD [2, 31
50], FDTD
, [28, 29,
97]. ,
,
, , ,
20

,
. , , ,

( ),
( ).
,
, (E H),
3 3
( 3 ,
).
,
, ,
(
). FDTD
, .
1.2.1. FDTD
:
= {(, , ) : 0 , 0 , 0 }.
:
= { = , = , = , = ;
= 0, 1, . . . , , = 0, 1, . . . , , = 0, 1, . . . , , = 0, 1, . . .}.
FDTD
.
.

.

21

FDTD . FDTD
.
.
(i, j+1, k+1)

(i+1, j+1, k+1)

(i, j, k+1)
(i+1, j, k+1)

Dx, Ex
Bz,Hz
Dy, Ey
By, Hy
(i, j, k)

(i+1, j+1, k)

Dz, Ez
(i+1, j, k)

Bx, Hx

. 1.1.

.
E D ,
. ,

. ( , , )

,,
. ,,
= ( , , , ).

,,
,,

,,
1,,
,



,, . ,, =

,, =

,,
,1,
,

,, =

,,
,,1
.

, . 1.1,
(1.4) :
+1

+0.5

+0.5

( )+0.5,, = ( )+0.5,+0.5, + ( )+0.5,,+0.5 ,

+0.5

( ),+0.5,+0.5 = ( ),+1,+0.5 ( ),+0.5,+1 .

22

(1.10)

(1.11)

+0.5

+0.5
( )+1
+0.5,, = ( )+0.5,, ( )+0.5,+0.5, + ( )+0.5,,+0.5 , (1.12)
+0.5
( ),+0.5,+0.5
= ( )0.5
,+0.5,+0.5 +


( ),+1,+0.5


( ),+0.5,+1 ,

(1.13)

.

:
1. D +0.5
D 0.5 H .
2. ,
,
E + 0.5.
3. B
+ 1 B
E + 0.5.
4. ,
,
H + 1.
5. .
2-
+1
. (1.10).
( )+0.5,,

( + 0.5, , , + 0.5) ( 2 ).

23

+0.5
2
=
( )+0.5,+0.5, + ( ),

(1.14)

+0.5
2
=
( )+0.5,,+0.5 + ( ).

(1.15)

( + 0.5) , ,

)
, ( + 0.5)(. ,
) (1.12)

( 2 + 2 + 2 )

(( + 0.5) , , , ( + 0.5) ). ,
FDTD
( 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 ) . ,
2-
.
(
) [2]:

1
1
1
+
+
< 1.
2 2 2

(1.16)


[2]:

sin

sin

2
+

sin

2
+

sin

2
. (1.17)


:
1.

/ . ,
24

,
. , ,
. ,
20
.
2. (1.16).
, ,
.
1.2.2. FDTD
, FDTD
( ),
1976 [28],
1986 [29].
FDTD
.
, , ,

. ,

, 9 (
, ).

: , , (
),
, , ( ),
, , (. 1.2).
FDTD
, (1.8) .
, FDTD ,
25

(i,j+1,k+1)

(i+1,j+1,k+1)

(i,j,k+1)

(i+1,j,k+1)

x
y
z

vx
z
vy

(i,j+1,k)

(i+1,j+1,k)

y
(i,j,k)

vz
(i+1,j,k)

. 1.2.

(2- ), (
), , FDTD
. , - ,
2 ( ),

.
1.2.3. FDTD

.
FDTD
[52, 98].
FDTD

26


( 2- ).
()
( ):

+5/2 5/2
+3/2 3/2
+1/2 1/2

=

.

5
3

)
(
22
21

(
)

.
=
+ 322 + 522

=1
(2 1)! 222 21

(1.18)

(1.19)

,
1 = + + ;
1
0 = ( + 9 + 25) .
24

(1.20)

= 1, = = 0 (1.18) 2- :

+1/2 +1/2

=
.
(1.21)

, 4- 6- , (1.19)
, :
+ + = 1;
+ 9 + 25 = 0;

(1.22)

+ 34 + 54 = 0.
, 6- :
=

75
25
3
, =
, =
.
64
128
128

= 0 ,
4- :
9
1
= , = .
8
8
27

9
1

= (+1/2 1/2 )
(+3/2 3/2 ).

8
24

(1.23)

, 4-
, 2- , 6- .

( 4- , 6-
5 , 2- ).
FDTD

2-, 4- 6- :

sin
= sin
(2- );
2
2
2

1
3
(4- );
sin2
= 2 sin
sin
2
8
2
24
2

2
75

25
3
3
5

(6- );
= 2 sin

sin
+
sin
sin2
2
64
2
384
2
640
2
2

(1.24)
( 2-

).

), , , =

: 2 = 2 2 .

.
FDTD
:

28

sin

sin

= , ,

(2- );
2

9

1
3
sin
(4- );
sin
2
8
2
24
2
= , ,

75

25
3
3
5
sin
(6- );
sin2
= 2

sin
+
sin
2
64
2
384
2
640
2
sin2

= 2

= , ,

(1.25)

= = = , =
+
+
(
,
,

. 1.3

), =

(,
). ,
1

2-
4-
6-

0.1
0.01

K 3>1
()

K 3 > 6/7
()

K 3 > 120/149
()

0.001
0.0001
1e-05
1e-06
1

4 5 6 7 8 10

20

30 40 50

100

. 1.3.
( = 0.05, = 1, = 1).

( , = 1, = =
29

0), .

(. 1.4), FDTD.
2-
4-
6-
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
0.3

-0.2
-0.3
-0.3

0.2
0.1
-0.2

0
-0.1

0.1

0.2

-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
0.3

. 1.4.
( = 0.05, = 1, = 1, / = 7).

. 1.3, -
0.1% ,
40 2-
9 4- . 6-
4- ( 6 ).
, 4-
( ) 4 ,
43 , . ,
, 4- 6-
, 2- .
,
30


- (. 1.5).
, , 6-
4-. 6-
,
.
1

2- , K3 = 0.95 13
4- , K3 = 0.95 76 13
120 1
6- , K3 = 0.95 149
3

0.1

2- , K3 = 0.2 13
4- , K3 = 0.2 76 13
120 1
6- , K3 = 0.2 149
3

0.01

0.001

0.0001

10

. 1.5.
( = 1, = 0, = 0, = 1).

,
4- ,
(
)
2- . ,

43 /2 = 32 , 43 = 64 .
31

1.3.
1.3.1.
,
D E B H, ,
.
, , ,
,
,
.
.
.

FDTD, ,
E D H
B .
:
1
E=

D,
(, , )

1
H=

B.
(, , )

(1.26)

(, , ) (, , )
. ,
. ,
, ,
2-
(, , ) ,
.

32


,

, [99].

.
:

=1+

2 /

(1.27)

, , , , ,
. .
, , ,
.
(1.27) ,
, .
,

[99, 100]:
D = E + P,

P=

P ;

(1.28)

2 P
2
=

+ P = E.

(1.29)

, P ,

(1.29) .
-
.

33

, , ,
, .
, D = E + P
D = E + P, ,
> 1.

:
1. D
+ 0.5.
2. (1.29) P
+ 0.5. P
0.5 1.5, E 0.5.
,
0.5 2- ( ).
3. E + 0.5 E = D P.
, .
, ,
(1.29) E
:

. ,

[101].
[101].



(1.29), 2 P .

34

, (1.27),
.
, , ,
:
2
= 1 2,

2
.

(1.30)

,
,

.

,
, ,
[102]. < 0
< 0 E, H, k,
< 0. ,
.
S k .
,
:
=1

2
,
2

=1

.
2

(1.31)


,
,
. E D H B
35

, D B
. 2.2.2.


, 2.2.5.
1.3.2.

(1.7), .

,
(1.8).

(, , ) .


. ,
,
. ,
, ,
( ,
).

.
.

36

1.4.
,
,
. , ,

, .
.

. , ,
-
( ),
. ,
, , , ,
, .

. ,

.
.

, ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
,
37

- PML (Perfectly Matched Layer) [66].


-
.-. [67].
, ,

,
. ,
.
, , ,
.
PML
.
2 :
= + , = + ,
(1.32)

= + , = + ,
= + , = + .

(1.4) 12 :

+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =

,
,
,
,
,
,

38

+ * =

+ * =
+ * =
+ * =
+ * =

,
,
,
(1.33)
,
,
.

* .
, .
,
.
PML ,
.
, .
[66] ,
, 0
,
. , , X
PML,
, , * , , * , *
:
= * ,

(1.34)

, ,
Y, , * , , * * = , ,
Z, , * , , * * = .
,
,
PML ,
. PML
, . 1.6, *
.
[66] ,

39

(x > 0, y > 0, z > 0)

(x = 0, y > 0, z > 0)
(x > 0, y > 0, z = 0)
(x = 0, y > 0, z = 0)

(x > 0, y = 0, z > 0)
(x > 0,
y = 0,
z = 0)

. 1.6. , PML

PML :
= 0

( cos + cos + cos ) cos cos cos

(1.35)
-
, , , ,
. , PML
,
. PML . ,
PML - ,
, . ,
PML-, ,
, , ,
40

, .
1.4.1. PML

PML-
.
,
. , (, , )
24 :
= + + ,

=
+
+
,

=
+
,

= + + ,

=
+
+
,

=
+
,

= + + ,

=
+
+
,

=
+
,

:
:
)
(

+ = ;
(
)

+ = ;
)
(

+ = ;

)
)

=
=

+ =

+ =

+
= 11
;

+
= 12 ;

+
= 13
;

+
= 21
;

+
= 22 ;

+
= 23
;

+
= 31
;

+
= 32 ;

+
= 33
.

+
= 12 66
;

+
= 12 66 ;

+
= 21 55
;

+
= 21 55
;

41

+
= 12 44 ;

+
= 12 44
.

, = (, , ):

=
,
=
,
= + ,

>

+ =

+ /

/
1
=
.
2
/
>

,
, 24 5 :
(
)
(
)

= + + ,

+ =
,

+
,
=

+ =
,

+ =
.

+ =
,

= + ,


,
.
, PML
( ):

.
PML ,
( ).
2 (
). 17 ,
.
= + ,

=
+
,

= + ,

=
+
,

=
+
,

= + ,

=
+
,

=
+
.

42

= + ;

(
)

+ = ;

= + ;
(
)

+ = ;

= + ;
(
)

+ = .

= 11
+ 12 ;

+
= 13
;

= 21
+ 22 ;

+
= 23
;

= 31
+ 32 ;

+
= 33
.

= 12 66
+ 2 66 ;

+
= 12 55
;

= 12 55
;

+
= 12 44 ;

= 12 44
.

:
)
(

+ =
=
+
,
= + ,

+
(
)

= + ,
+ =
,

=
+
,

+ =
,
=
+ +
,
= + ,

+ =
,
=
= + ,
+

= + ,
+ =
,
=
.

)
(

=
+
.

+
11 .

1.5. PML
,
PML,
43

.
= (, ) = (, ).
:

= 1 ;

= 2 .

(1.36)

PML (* = 12 ):

= 1
+ 1 ;

= 2
+ 2 .

(1.37)

FDTD
PML ( = 0, 2, 4, . . .), :
(
)
+1

1 ;
+1
1 =

( 1
)
1

+1

= +1 +1 2
+1 ;
+2

(1.38)

+1

0 01 .
0 2
(21 ) = 0

4-
:

1
)
(
)

= +1 1 ;
+1 1
1

+3
3

8
24

9 (
1 (
)
)
1
1
1
1

(1.39)
+1

= +1 +1 2
+1 ;
+2

+4
2
2
8
24

9 (

1 = 1 ;

3 = 3 ;

2 = 2

( = 0).

1 2 ,
PML.
. ,
, = 0. PML
44

, , 0 < 1 2
= ,
.
FDTD PML :
2
= = = 2 + , = = = 2 + 2 .

(1.40)

,
.
.
:
inc (, ) = exp{( + ( ))};

inc (, ) = 12 exp{( + ( ))};

(1.41)

( ):
ref (, ) = exp{( ( ))};

ref (, ) = 12 exp{( ( ))}.

(1.42)

, ,
:
sin

= 1 2
sin
2

(1.43)

(2- )

1
3

sin

sin
= 1 2
sin
=
8
2
24
2

2
1 3
= sin
+ sin
2
6
2
(4- ).

45

(1.44)

, 0 < 2 +1
+1
, :
+1 = exp{/2} exp{/2},
+1 =
+1 exp{/2}.

(1.45)

(1.38), (1.39) exp{/2},

= (0 , 1 , 2 , ...) :

= 0,

(1.46)

2-
:

0 2
0
1 1 1

0 1 2
.
..
..

.
.
= 2 = ..
. . . 0 1

.
..
..
..
.
.
............

...............
0 . . . . . . . . . . .

1 0 . . . . . .
..
..
..
..

.
.
.
. ,
1
0 .

..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
0 1 2 1

4- :

9
1
0
0

0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4
12
1
9 1 13
0
24
0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
12

9
1
0 76 2
0 24
0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
1

9
9
1
24

0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3
8
8
24

1
9
9
1
0
0 8
4
0 24
0 . . . . . . . ,
24
8
= 4 = .
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . . 0
1
9
1
0
98

0 24
0 . . . .

24
8
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
9
1
............. 0
0
98 2
0 24
24
8

/2

1
(

/2

/2

)
,

/2

;
(1.47)


,
.

2- 2 2
=

46


2 +1 ( (1.41) (1.42)):

2 = (1 + );

(1.48)
(
)

1
1

2 +1 =
2 exp{/2}
2 exp{/2} .
4-
2 +2
2 +3 :

2 +2 = (exp{} + exp{}) ;

(
)

1
1

2 +3 =
2 exp{3/2}
2 exp{3/2} .

(1.49)

, 2 4

, = 0
:

2 =

.........................
0 (/2) 1 +

(1.50)

................................................

0
(/2)
1+
0
0
;
4 =

0 (
+
)
0
1+
0

0
(3/2)
0
0
1+

1
(exp{} exp{}) .
() =
2

(1.51)

(1.52)

2 4 ,
(1.46): det = 0,
PML
,
.

47

1.5.1. PML
PML (1.37)
:
= 0 exp{} exp{

1 2 } exp{

1 2 },

(1.53)

.
,
()(PML )(
) :
Z

= exp 2 1 2 () .

(1.54)


, 0, 0, , = =

const, / < 1 2 .

. (1.36) ,
, 1 , 2
. ( ),
, 1 1/ = 1/(2 ), 2
(S-) ,
( ), , 1 1/ = 1/(2 ), 2
(P-) .
1.5.2.
PML
, . 1.7.

(0.5 0.5 cos )4 , 0

48

2/

0.5 + 0.5 cos , ,


. .

Y
PML

PML x>0,
y>0,
z=0

EB PML

>0,
=0,
y
=0
z

B
L

x=0,y>0,z=0
EC

EA

>0,

PML

PML x>0,

x=0,y>0,z=0

z=0

. 1.7. . Z.

,
, .
FDTD 2-
. , ,
PML-,
.
,
1.1:

1

1

509

50

0.0914

74
2/()
135
/
0.5484
PML
500 (10 )
1.1.

49

, () = max

PML

)2

0 .
, (1.54),
PML ,
, PML 2-

PML

.
1

Rdiscr Rcont
3D

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.0001

1e05

1e06
1e14

1e12 1e10 1e08 1e06 0.0001


0.01
PML

. 1.8.
()(PML )( )

, .1.8
, max 0.92.
1.5.3.

, . 2
1.5
1.5 (. 1.9).
50

PML

Rdiscr(Rcont)
Rdiscr(Rcont) 1.5
Rdiscr(Rcont) /1.5

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.0001

1e05

1e06
1e14

1e12 1e10 1e08 1e06 0.0001 0.01


PML

. 1.9. .

1.5.4.




. 1.7.
(0.5 0.5 cos )4 , 0 2/
1 + cos , ,
, 0.45 .
,

PML ( = = 100). ,
11.5 X
,
. C . 1.7
51

.
.
,
.
(. 1.10), (
).
1

0.01

0.0001
1e-06
1e-08
1e-10
1e-12

0.01

0.1

10

. 1.10.
PML, .
.


= = =
50 . 512x512x527
, ,
(. 1.11). Y Z 25
, X 10
.
52

Z 64 , 190 .

.
(256,
256, 224) (256, 256, 288).
inc1 ,
PML ,
ref1 . inc2 ref2 .
PML =

ref2
inc1 .

- ,
,
0 PML (. 1.12).

Y
PML

PML L
y

PML

2
1

Lx

0
PML

PML

Ly

. 1.11. . = 10 , = = 25 .

1.5.5.
PML,

, PML ( )
.
.
53

PML

100

Rdiscr Rcont
(R)
(R/R0)

10
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
1e05
1e06
1e14 1e12 1e10 1e08 1e06 0.0001 0.01
PML

. 1.12. PML,

= 50 , = 0.0914 ,
433 585 .
103 .
(
)

: () = max PML . max ,


PML.
PML,
.
.
. (1.13) PML
4 , ,
, : max = 2.3, = 2.7.
1.5.6.

PML- ,
54

n (x) = (x/LPML)nmax

10

50 +

12

4.5

14

45

40

3.5

35

30

2.5

25

20

1.5

15

10

0.5

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
maxtc

3.5

4.5

. 1.13. PML ( )
103 () max .

,

.
,

PML
.
, ,
PML,
. ,
.

55

1.6.
(1.4)
(1.8) (
0) , ,
.
.
.

,
.
,

= 0. ,
( ),
FDTD ((1.10), (1.11))

D = 0.5
B = 0,
p = 0.5 = 0.
, ,
,
(, ).
,
, .
.

56



, (
),
. ,

.
,
, .
, ,
PML- . ,
, ,
.
, . ,
, . ,
PML
, , .

.
Total Field/ Scattered Field, TF/SF

, ,
. , ,
, ,
(
).

57

, (Total Field/
Scattered Field, TF/SF) [2, 103].

(TF) (SF).
, ;
, .
.
,
,
.

. , ,
.
,

. SF, ,
, TF/SF,
. ,
,
.
TF/SF .

, ,
( ). TF/SF ,

.

58

2
-
-
-


.
:
1. .

(
).
2.
( ).
3.
.
4.
.
5. .

.
,
. , ,
,
59

,
.


- -
(LRnLA) [1], .

2.1.
,
,
, .

( ): ,
1-, 2-, 3- , ,
.

.


( ). ,

.

:
(128- 256 ),
,
,

60

, GRID-. , ,
.

2.2.



0 < < .

( ),
.
, ,
,
. , ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.

,
, .
,
. ,
, .
, ,
,
.
( ).
61

, ,
,
, ,
, . (
, ) , ,
, .
,
, , -
,
, .
,

. ( )
,
, . ,
, ,
,
. ,


.
,
, , ( )
() .
,
. ,
,
,
62

, (
) ().


(, C). , ,


.
.
domain decomposition,

. ,
, ,
( -,
). -

[104].
.
,
: ) ; )
; )
.
.
2.2.1. -

, - (
) .
63


().
- ( ),
,
, 1966 . [105].

.
. :
(1 ... , 1 ... , 1 ... ), , , , 1 0 (1 ),
1 ... , 1 ...
, 1 ... .
: 1 1 1 2 2 2 ... ...1 1 1 . ,

(,
C)
: 1 2 ... ...1 1 2 ... ...1 1 2 ... ...1 . . (2.1)
.
(
), ( ).

C++:
1
2
3
4
5
6

t e m p l a t e <i n t dim , c l a s s T, i n t rank> s t r u c t cubeLR {


cubeLR<dim , T, rank1> d a t a s [1<<dim ] ;
};
t e m p l a t e <i n t dim , c l a s s T> s t r u c t cubeLR<dim , T, 1> {
T d a t a s [1<<dim ] ;
};

cubeLR. , cubeLR
:
64

15
1111 10101010 10101011 10101110 10101111 10111010 10111011 10111110 10111111 11101010 11101011 11101110 11101111 11111010 11111011 11111110 11111111

14
1110 10101000 10101001 10101100 10101101 10111000 10111001 10111100 10111101 11101000 11101001 11101100 11101101 11111000 11111001 11111100 11111101

13
1101 10100010 10100011 10100110 10100111 10110010 10110011 10110110 10110111 11100010 11100011 11100110 11100111 11110010 11110011 11110110 11110111

12
1100 10100000 10100001 10100100 10100101 10110000 10110001 10110100 10110101 11100000 11100001 11100100 11100101 11110000 11110001 11110100 11110101

11
1011 10001010 10001011 10001110 10001111 10011010 10011011 10011110 10011111 11001010 11001011 11001110 11001111 11011010 11011011 11011110 11011111

10
1010 10001000 10001001 10001100 10001101 10011000 10011001 10011100 10011101 11001000 11001001 11001100 11001101 11011000 11011001 11011100 11011101

9
1001 10000010 10000011 10000110 10000111 10010010 10010011 10010110 10010111 11000010 11000011 11000110 11000111 11010010 11010011 11010110 11010111

8
1000 10000000 10000001 10000100 10000101 10010000 10010001 10010100 10010101 11000000 11000001 11000100 11000101 11010000 11010001 11010100 11010101

7
0111 00101010 00101011 00101110 00101111 00111010 00111011 00111110 00111111 01101010 01101011 01101110 01101111 01111010 01111011 01111110 01111111

6
0110 00101000 00101001 00101100 00101101 00111000 00111001 00111100 00111101 01101000 01101001 01101100 01101101 01111000 01111001 01111100 01111101

5
0101 00100010 00100011 00100110 00100111 00110010 00110011 00110110 00110111 01100010 01100011 01100110 01100111 01110010 01110011 01110110 01110111

4
0100 00100000 00100001 00100100 00100101 00110000 00110001 00110100 00110101 01100000 01100001 01100100 01100101 01110000 01110001 01110100 01110101

3
0011 00001010 00001011 00001110 00001111 00011010 00011011 00011110 00011111 01001010 01001011 01001110 01001111 01011010 01011011 01011110 01011111

2
0010 00001000 00001001 00001100 00001101 00011000 00011001 00011100 00011101 01001000 01001001 01001100 01001101 01011000 01011001 01011100 01011101

1
0001 00000010 00000011 00000110 00000111 00010010 00010011 00010110 00010111 01000010 01000011 01000110 01000111 01010010 01010011 01010110 01010111

0
0000 00000000 00000001 00000100 00000101 00010000 00010001 00010100 00010101 01000000 01000001 01000100 01000101 01010000 01010001 01010100 01010101

10

11

12

13

14

15

0000

0001

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1000

1001

1010

1011

1100

1101

1110

1111

. 2.1.
. .

int dim ;
class T , ;
int rank , ( ).
cubeLR: 2

rank dim

( T). ,
cubeLR, .
cubeLR , , ,
65

, , ,
.

.
cubeLR ,
. ,
( )
cubeLR.
, NUMA
(Non-Uniform Memory Access,
) [106]. ,
cubeLR.

- ,
.
. ,
,
.
, , () = () () = () , ,
() = () , () = () () = () () = () , = .
, . 2.1,
(
).
, ,

,
. , (() , () , () ) ,
(() +1, () , () ), (() , () +1, () ) (() , () , () +1) + ,
66

+ + , (() +1, () +1, () )


+ + , (() + 1, () + 1, () + 1) + + + .
PML
, .
cubeLR
, T( cubeLR) 6 (
, E H) 12 ( , E, D, H B)
( ). PML
.
. PML
8 (, , PML ,
, , , , , , , ; ,
. (1.33)). PML
12 . (
).

fieldDDD, PML filedSDD,
PML fieldDSS, fieldSSS.
.
- cubeLR
PML . ,

, PML
cubeLR .
PML cubeLR :
cubeLR<2, cubeLR<3,fieldSDD,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank> (
),
67

cubeLR<1, cubeLR<3,fieldDSS,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank> (


),
cubeLR<0, cubeLR<3,fieldSSS,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank> (
).
(, ,
) cubeLR<3, fieldDDD, MaxRank>. MaxRank
PMLank
3 MaxRank
(2
), PMLrank PML ( 2
).
2,
1 0 (. 2.2).
2.2.2. -

LRnLA
.
-. + 1-
( - ) ,
, .
.

. ,

( ,
).
, .
,
,
, , ( ),
68

cubeLR<2, cubeLR<3,fieldDDS,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank>


cubeLR<3,fieldDDD,MaxRank>
cubeLR<1, cubeLR<3,fieldDSS,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank>
cubeLR<1, cubeLR<3,fieldSDS,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank>
cubeLR<0, cubeLR<3,fieldSSS,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank>

Z
Y
X

cubeLR<2, cubeLR<3,fieldSDD,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank>


cubeLR<1, cubeLR<3,fieldDSS,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank>
cubeLR<0, cubeLR<3,fieldSSS,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank>
cubeLR<1, cubeLR<3,fieldSSD,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank>
cubeLR<2, cubeLR<3,fieldDSD,PMLrank>, MaxRank-PMLrank>

. 2.2. PML cubeLR


(MaxRank-PMLrank = 3)

( ) ..
(0 ). , ,
.
,
, 2
.
69

.
().
, LRnLA

, .

(. 2.3).
t

. 2.3. -
.

. ,
( ),
,
. , FDTD 2-
(
) 6- .
70

6
5- ,
1.2.
,
. (
)
,
.
(
,
).
ConeFold,
- ( ).

(. 2.4).
ConeFold 2+1
ConeFold (). , ConeFold
(, , )
. , (
) ConeFold.
ConeFold
, .
ConeFold 6-
, 18- 36 ,
, ConeFold =
36/18 = 2, .
ConeFold ( )
2 , ConeFold
71

X
. 2.4. -
ConeFold .

( = 0, 1, 2, ...).

( ):

,
,

LRnLA .

.
, ,
.

72

+ 1- ,
. (. )

.

,
.

.
,

.


. .
1 2
21 2 ,
.

,
, -.
ConeFold
ConeFold.
C++. ,
. ,
.
.
ConeFold (
) ,
73

:
D ConeFold
cubeLR.
4- ConeFold 1
D 4-;
S PML (
S , PML).
4- ConeFold,
1, S 4-;
L PML (
), ( ).
4- ConeFold 1
, : L,S,D,L;
R , PML,
4- ConeFold : R,D,S,R;
P cubeLR,
ConeFold: P,D,D,P;
I ,
( PML); 3 ConeFold: I,I,S;
X ( PML),
; X,S,X;
Y (PML
), ;
Y, D, Y.
: DRS ConeFold,
PML ( Z),
PML Y Z. ConeFold
74

16 ConeFold 1 ,
:
DRS DRS+DRS+DDS+DRS+DDS+DRS+DDS+DDS
+

DSS+DSS+DDS+DSS+DDS+DRS+DDS+DDS.

,
. ConeFold
,
.
,
ConeFold (
) .
. .
,
ConeFold 2 ,
( , ;
).
,
2 ( ,
- ) (
). , cubeLR,
. ,
4 (, ), ( + 1, ), (, + 1), ( + 1, + 1). ,
p (, )
dx dy (), ( + 1, ) p+dx*sizeC,
(, + 1) p+dy*sizeC, ( + 1, + 1) p+(dx+dy)*sizeC,
sizeC . ,
cubeLR ( ),
cubeLR
75

( ).
.
. 2.5 LRnLA- ( ,
, ), 8 LRnLA-,
ConeFold (). . 2.6
FDTD .
4- :
1. D ( )
H, LRnLA-;
2. E D
1 );
LRnLA- (
3. B ( D);

1 ).
4. H ( E
LRnLA-,
(. . 2.5).

2.2.3.
S = [E H] :
= ;
= ;
= .
. . (2.7)
.
2 .
76

Z
Y
X
Bx

Ez

By
Bz

Dx

Dy

Hz

Ey

Ex

Z
Y

Hy

Dz

Hx

. 2.5. LRnLA- LRnLA-, ConeFold.


: , ; : ConeFold
8- ,
D
=H

Dy

Dx

Dx

Dy
Dz
Hy

Hx

Dx

Dx

Hy

1 D
E =

Dz

Dx

Dy
Ex

Ey

Dx

Hz

Dy

Hx

Dz
Dz

Hz
Hz

Ez

Dx

Dy

Dz

Dz
By

Bx

Bx

By

B
= E

Bz
Hz

Ey

Ex
Ez

Ez

Ez

By
Bz

Ey
Hx

Bz
Bz

Bx
Bx

Dy

Dz

Hx
Hy

Dy

Bx

By

Ex
Ey

By

Bx
Hy Hx

Bx

By
By

Bz

Bz

Bz

1 B
H =

. 2.6. FDTD 2- .
( ).

77

(0,1,1)
s+0.5
z

(1,1,1)
s+0.5
z

(1,0,1)

(0,0,1)

Eys+0.5

Eys+0.5

Y
s+0.5
y

Eys+0.5

Ezs+0.5

(1,1,0)

Ezs+0.5

X
(1,0,0)

(0,0,0)
Z

(0,1,1)

(1,1,1)

(0,0,1)

(Hys+Hys+1)Ezs+0.5

(1,0,1)

(Hzs+Hzs+1)Eys+0.5
(Hzs+Hzs+1)Eys+0.5

Sxs+0.5

(Hyk+Hyk+1)Ezk+0.5
(1,1,0)
(0,0,0)

X
(1,0,0)

. 2.7.
.
2 . (
) ( ). (
) ( ).

,
. ,
, H.
,
D .
.
, ,
, , H
E. S
78

, .
LRnLA
.
(
) (. 2.8)
()
. FDTD
L-t (. 2.9, ).

ConeFold.
L
Sx

<EHy>z
<EHz>y

Sy
Sz

<EHx>z
<EHz>x

Z
Y

<EHx>y
<EHy>x

. 2.8. LRnLA-

. 2.10
4- .
Z.
2.2.4. TF/SF
TF/SF
FDTD 2-
. , TF/SF
. , ( )+0.5
,+0.5,+0.5 =
( )0.5
,+0.5,+0.5

)
( ),+1,+0.5 ( ),,+0.5
79

t
S
H
B

S
H
B

<EH>

S
H
B

<EH>

S
H
B

E
D

S
H
B

<EH>

S
H
B

<EH>

S
H
B

S
H
B

<EH>

E
D

S
H
B

<EH>

E
D

E
D

S
H
B

E
D

<EH>

S
H
B

<EH>

E
D

<EH>

E
D

E
D

S
H
B

<EH>

E
D

E
D

S
H
B

S
H
B

<EH>

E
D

S
H
B

<EH>

E
D

L
. 2.9. FDTD Lt.

)
( ),+0.5,+1 ( ),+0.5, ( ),+0.5,+0.5 , ( ),+0.5, ,

( ),+0.5,+1 ( ),,+0.5 SF ( ( + 0.5)


SF), ( ),+1,+0.5 TF (
( + 1)). TF
, (inc ),+1,+0.5 :

+0.5
0.5
( ),+0.5,+0.5 = ( ),+0.5,+0.5
SF

SF

( ),+1,+0.5

TF

( ),,+0.5

SF

(inc ),+1,+0.5

)
(

( ),+0.5,+1 ( ),+0.5,
.
SF
SF

( )+1
+0.5,+1,+1 = ( )+0.5,+1,+1

( )+0.5
+0.5,+1.5,+1

( )+0.5
+0.5,+0.5,+1
80

(
+
( )+0.5
+0.5,+1,+1.5

(2.1)

j+6

j+6

j+5

j+5
vy

j+4

vy

j+3

vy

j+2

vy
vx
vx

vy
vy

vx

vy
vx
vx

vy
vy

vx

j+4
vx

vz

vz

vz

vz

vz

vz

vz

vz

vz

j+3
vx
j+2
vx

j+1

j+1

j
i

i+1 i+2 i+3 i+4 i+5 i+6

i+1 i+2 i+3 i+4 i+5 i+6

j+6

j+6
y

j+5
y
j+4
vz
j+3
vz

x
x

y
y

x
x

y
y

vy

j+4

vz vz
y
y
y
x
x
x
vz

j+5

vy

j+3

vz

j+2

vy

j+2
vz

vz

vz

vy
vx
vx
vx

j+1

yz

vy
vy

yz
z vy z
x
vx
yz vx
z vy z
vx

vy

vx

yz

yz

yz

z
z
z

yz

yz

yz

vx
vx

j+1

j
i

i+1 i+2 i+3 i+4 i+5 i+6

Y
j+5

j+4

j+3

yz

yz

yz

z
z
z

yz

yz

yz

z
z
z

j+6

yz

y
j+5

yz

y
j+4

yz

y
j+3

j+2

j+2

j+1

j+1

X
i

i+1 i+2 i+3 i+4 i+5 i+6

j+6

x
x

y
y
y

x
x
x

y
y
y

x
x
x

i+1 i+2 i+3 i+4 i+5 i+6

i+1 i+2 i+3 i+4 i+5 i+6

. 2.10. 4-
( Z = 1.5, = 2, = 3, = 3.5, = 4.5, = 5,
= 2.5, = 4.0 = 5.5 = 1.5, = 3.0, = 4.5
). ,
.

81

( )+0.5
+0.5,+1,+0.5

, SF

, (inc )+0.5
+0.5,+0.5,+1 :

( )+1
+0.5,+1,+1

=
TF

( )+0.5,+1,+1

TF

( )+0.5
+0.5,+0.5,+1

TF

( )+0.5
+0.5,+1,+0.5

+0.5
( )+0.5,+1.5,+1

+0.5
( )+0.5,+1,+1.5

TF

+
SF

)
TF

(inc )+0.5
+0.5,+0.5,+1

.
(2.2)

, . ,
LRnLA.
2.2.5.
1.3.1, E
D H B, (, , ) (, , )

. ,
2- FDTD.
, ,

.
D
E:
D1 n = D2 n;

(2.3)

E1 n = E2 n.

(2.4)

, D ,
E = +
, = = .
82

1
, =< > 1
>, < ... >
=<

. ,
D.
=< >1 ;

(2.5)

=< 1 > .

, , E
D [56]:
1 D,
E =

(2.6)

1 = P < 1 > +(1 P) < >1 ,

P ( = ).
, ,
, E
D.
D E , D
E. E D

, [57].
,
(, + 0.5, + 0.5) (. 2.11).
( )
( ) ( 1 )
1 : 1
,
1 :
D

83

Y
X

Y
X

Y
X

. 2.11. ,

84

( 1 )


+

=
,+0.5,+0.5
,+0.5,+0.5
,+0.5,+0.5
)
(
{

1 1 ( 1 )

+

+
+

0.5,,+0.5
+0.5,,+0.5
,,+0.5
2 2
)}
(

1 ( 1 )

+
+
+


+0.5,+1,+0.5
0.5,+1,+0.5
,+1,+0.5
2
(
)
{

1 1 ( 1 )

+

+
+

,+0.5,
0.5,+0.5,
+0.5,+0.5,
2 2
)}
(

1 ( 1 )

.

+
+

0.5,+0.5,+1
+0.5,+0.5,+1
,+0.5,+1
2

(2.7)

4- 4 ,
2 , .
(. 2.11).
2.2.6.
, 1.2
,
. ,


. ()
, .

.
2.2.7. ConeFold

, , ,
. , ,

,
85

. ( )
,
2 3, 1.
,

-
. . 2.12, 2.13
, ConeFold: ChessFold,
ChessTorre.
t

15

14

13

12

11

10

14

13

12

11

10

13

12

11

10

12

11

10

11

10

10

X
. 2.12. ChessFold.
.
: 1 2 3 ...

ChessFold, ChessTorre
, .

. , ConeTorre
86

11

10

10

X
. 2.13. ChessTorre.
.
: 1 2 3 ...


, ChessTorre .
,
, , ,
LRnLA-
.
2.2.8.
,
. (, ) C++,

.
,
, (

87

)
( , ).
, PML
63 = 216 .
,
(,
), , ,
,
,
, .
(
,
) ,
, .
Python .
-.
, ConeFold ,
( ), ,
- , .
,
- .
-
.
,
ConeFold ,
.
.

88


2 ,
.

.
,
, FDTD,
. ,
,
,
.

3.1. CFmaxwell

FDTD
- .
, (CST MW, Lumerical FDTD, XFdtd,
Meep, EMTL),
( ),

(, , ,
). CFmaxwell
,

89

(,

).
CFmaxwell
, .
C++ [107]
Python [108].
C++
: Signal Material , ,
.
,
.

3.2.
CFmaxwell
: ,

.
Meep [53] FDTD.


. ,
,
NUMA- [106], 4- 12- Opteron
6176 [109] ( 2.3 ), 256 ,
8 NUMA-.

90

, ,
:

, ;

;
.

25 FDTD 2-

. ,
9.2 107
4.4 109 48- .
128-
SSE [110],
4
2 .
.
CFmaxwell 28 ,
Meep 60 . , 10243
30 CFmaxwell 60 Meep.
,
( )
,
. ,
(
91

), , ,
, .
, ,
,
.
3.2.1. NUMA-
(
/
) NUMA-.
6 ,
6 . . 3.1, Meep
9
8
7
6
5

CFmaxwell
Meep

3
2

1
1

10 12 14 16

24


. 3.1. . Meep
5123 , CFmaxwell 2563 ( cubeLR 8 , nLArank = 4).

2 2.5 (
4 ). CFmaxwell 5
92

( 16- ). ,
ConeTorre.
,
,
, .
.
3.2.2.

NUMA-.
, NUMA- , ,
.
(. 3.2).
10243

10243

5123

0.9

20483
10243

0.8
1

0.7
0.6
0.5
CFmaxwell
Meep (4 )
Meep (6 )
Meep ( numactl)
Meep ( numactl)

0.4
0.3
0.2
1

8 108
10243
12 1618 24 30 364248


. 3.2. . 1 ,
( Meep numactl), .
.

, ,
93

. CFmaxwell
ChessFold
, ConeTorre . Meep
MPI.
Meep . 3.2 2 :
MPI NUMA- (
numactl [109])
NUMA- ( 48-
MPI ,
MPI-
,
).
,
, .
3.2.3.


.
( ,
). ,
, , 9.2 107
(. 3.3).
. 3.3 ,
CFmaxwell 30% (1.4 .
), Meep 7%,
4%. , ,
Meep 231 ,
94

108 /

107 /

( )

106 /
105

CFmaxwell
Meep (6 , 1 )
Meep (4 , 1 )
Meep (48 )

106

107

108

109

1010


. 3.3. , .


,
.

, . . 3.4,

. 3.4. (
) Meep CFmaxwell.

95

( 3 108
), Meep (
), CFmaxwell
( CFmaxwell
Meep).
Intel i5-2400 @ 3.10GHz, RAM 16.

3.3.
3.3.1.

, 2004
. (Minghao Qi) [3].
( = 12),
.
, ().

, ,
. . 3.5,

.
, ,
. -
,
. 3.6.

96

Y
X

+1

1
()

()

. 3.5. a) , , ; )

97

. 3.6. - ,
. 3.5,

3.3.2.


.


, ,
.
. 3.7 ,
, .
(
, X,
),
, /2 = 0.38 ( ).
98

X
Y
. 3.7. .
= 11, 0.4

X
Y

X
Y

. 3.8. 90 .

99

. . 3.8

.
3.3.3.
(
) ,
2 (. 3.9). . 3.10 ,
, (
).

. 3.9. .
= 11, 0.4.

c
arr3D (http://a-iv.ru/aivlib/).
3.3.4.

.
.
100

. 3.10. .

101

. 3.11 (
).
, -1.

. 3.11. ,
-1 ( = = 1). ,

, ,
. 3.12 [102].

. 3.12. .
,

102

4

4.1. CFgeo
- CF/Geo4 ( CFgeo,
)
.
,
.

.

,
, CF/Geo4,
, ,
,
.
.
API,
, - Python.
Linux, Python C++,

.
, ,
.

103

4.2.

(. 4.1).
169.69.6, 5 ,
= 1.5 /c ( ),
= 8.5/,
20 .
12.5 , 0.5 , 4-
. ,
109 104 .
0.5 , 50 ,
1 .

z, km

PML.

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

-1
-2
-3
-4

y, km
4
3
2

-8

-6

-4

-2

3.5/1.0
3.6/2.2
4.7/2.7

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

5.9/3.4
5.8/3.3
6.4/3.6

-8

-6

-4

-2

x, km

. 4.1. . ,
.

. 4.2 . 4.3
.
.
104

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

z, km
z, km

6
0

6
0

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

6
0

8
2

2 , t=1.28 sec

6
0

8
2

6
0

8
2

2 , t=2.56 sec

. 4.2. .
( , , ).
, - .

105

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

0
2 , t=1.792 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

0
2 , t=0.512 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

8
2

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

0
2 , t=2.304 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

8
2

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

0
2 , t=1.536 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

8
2

z, km

0
2 , t=1.024 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

z, km

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

0
2 , t=0.256 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

z, km

z, km

-8 -6 -4 -2

z, km

z, km
0
-2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

z, km
z, km

6
0

6
0

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

6
0

8
2

2 , t=3.84 sec

6
0

8
2

6
0

8
2

2 , t=5.12 sec

. 4.3. .
( , , ).
, - .

106

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

0
2 , t=4.352 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

0
2 , t=3.072 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

8
2

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

0
2 , t=4.864 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

8
2

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

0
2 , t=4.096 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

8
2

z, km

0
2 , t=3.584 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

z, km

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

0
2 , t=2.816 sec -2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

-8 -6 -4 -2

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

z, km

z, km

-8 -6 -4 -2

z, km

z, km
0
-2
-4
-6
-8

-8 -6 -4 -2
y, km 8
6
24
-2
-6-4

0
-2
-4
-6
-8

. 4.4 .
0
0.5

, 105 105

1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
-8

-6

-4

-2

. 4.4. , .
, .
XZ,
. 4.1. . ,
, .

4.3.



. . 4.5
.
80 20 50 .
. 4.5. 25 .
3 / (
) 12 / (
107

). 20 .

= 25 , = 1 . ,
= 2.5 104
= 5 109 .
0.5 , 5 ,
250 .
0

50

100

150

200

Vp=3.1:8.5 km/sec
250
300
0

50
100
150

-10

0
-20
-10
-30
-20
-40
-30
-50
km

-40

-50

50

100

150

200

250

300

km

. 4.5. .
. .


,
.
. 4.6 ,
.
,
108

, .
,
.
0

, 106 106

10

12

14

t, sec

16

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

. 4.6. ,
. , .
X,
. ,
, .

109

4.4.


.

0.05 1.

[82, 83, 111114].
,

[115, 116].
5 ,
.
100 , 50 500 ,
100 (. 4.7).
0.5 ,
10 30 (. 4.8).
-
[117120]:

= ( + 2)
+
+
+

,
+ ( + 2 )
+
+

,
=
+
+
+

,
( ).
110

(4.1)

, .
,
[117, 118]: = ( + 2 )/22 .

V0.1

fsignal = 0.5Hz, Lslope = 200km, H = 5km, s = 0.3, Vsignal = 0.1cwater


, t = 100 2.27 = 227s
p

Vx , 100

Vy , 100

Syz , 10

. 4.7. .
: , .
84
, .

F0.06

fsignal = 0.06Hz, Lslope = 1000km, H = 4km, s = 0.1, Vsignal = 0.5cwater


, t = 500 4.62 = 2310s
p

. 4.8. .

[112]
Vx , 100

:
= 1000 /3 1 = 2500 /3 ,
111

Vy , 100

= 1500 / = 6500 /, = 3700 /.


0.1 (1/)
0.2 (1/) , .
.
: = 2600 /3 ,
= 4500 /, = 2500 /, : = 3000 /3 ,
= 6500 /, = 3700 /,
: = 2700 /3 , = 5500 /, = 3000
/, : = 3000 /3 , = 8000 /,
= 4600 /.

, / cos (
), 0 ,

= 10/0 = 10 :
[
]
(, ) = 0 exp (/ )2 ( / )2 cos[() 20 ],

(4.2)

() 20 /, = , =
= , = /0 , ,
.
0
.
() :
() = (20 /) cos (),
cos () = 1 [(1/2)(1 /3 )] , 0.

(4.3)

= 0 /30 50, = / 3 5 103 ,


112

(4.4)


. =
4 107 , = 1.4 105 ,
6 1012 .

,
( ) -
.
= 77
= 66 . . 4.7

,
84 .
.
: , .

. . 4.9
, ,
60
.
.
0.28 ,
2- . 2-
1-, . ,
, .
.
. 4.10 (17) 10
( )
113

F0.3

fsignal = 0.3Hz, Lslope = 200km, H = 5km, s = 0.3, Vsignal = 0.5cwater


, t = 200 2.27 = 455s
p

Vx , 100

Vy , 100

Syz , 10

. 4.9. :
, .

, .
0.28 , 2-
(. 4.10, 1 2). ( )
, . . 4.10 (3 4)
2-
. ,
.
. 4.10 (5 6)
.
( )
,
.
,
114

1
2
3
4
5

. 4.10. ( 10 )
( ) ,
.

(. 4.10, 7). ,
3.4 /,
(3.3 /).



(. 4.11). 200 , 5 ,
500 , 0.28
2- . x .
128 , x
( = 27 ).
.
. 100
. 228
. 356

115

0.002
surface x=-27
surface x=100
surface x=228
surface x=356
surface x=484
surface x=612

0.0015

0.001

0.0005

-0.0005

-0.001

-0.0015

-0.002
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

. 4.11. .
.
, .


. 484 ( )
,
( 612 ).
, , , ,
.


.

.

116

= 0.06
(1 = 0.1 ), 1000 ,
30 . . 4.12 ,
500
, .
, .

F0.06

fsignal = 0.06Hz, Lslope = 1000km, H = 4km, s = 0.1, Vsignal = 0.5cwater


, t = 500 4.62 = 2310s
p

Vx , 100

Vy , 100

Syz , 10

. 4.12. .
: , .

(
) ,
: ,
, ,

. . 4.13
.
117

( = 462, 554, 646 740 )


.

Syz , 100, t = 100 4.62s

Syz , 100, t = 120 4.62s

Syz , 100, t = 140 4.62s

Syz , 100, t = 160 4.62s

. 4.13.
: 462 , 554 , 646
740 .



.
, ,
,
.


.
, ()
118

/2 0.15 .

: ,
.
,

,
.

119



-
PML
.
FDTD PML 2- ,
4- . ,
.
CFmaxwell
,
( )
.
-
,
.
- -

-,
, -
().
(.. )
CFgeo
.

.

120


.


,

,

.
CFmaxwell
Meep,
FDTD.
Meep,
,

CFmaxwell, LRnLA-.
(
- -
) :
FDTD

(
4-)
-
- (LRnLA);

121

PML (
) LRnLA;
CFmaxwell
,
, , ,
;
LRnLA

, LRnLA
2- .

, ,

.

122


1. . . .
//
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137



CFmaxwell CFgeo

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python_examples .
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SWIG [121], Cython [122],PyBindGen,BoostPython,SIP .
SWIG,
src/Maxwell.i
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config.h
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4.4.2.

pars. getPars() .
setGrid(...)
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140


dx,dy,dz ;
dt ;
Tcount ;
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PML ,
2 , :
sigma_max (
);
attenuation_factor
PML-.

mapResolution ; ,
,
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deep1d deep3d ,

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averRx,averRy,averRz ;
:
#! / u s r / bin / python
from Maxwell import *
141

p a r s=g e t P a r s ( )
p a r s . s e t G r i d ( dx =0.5 , dy =0.5 , dz =0.5)


config.h .
MaxRank cubeLR,
. 2MaxRank 2MaxRank 2MaxRank (LRnLA
).
nLArank ChessFold.
PMLrank cubeLR PML, PML 2PMLrank
(LRnLA-).

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;
setCoffsIso(Ind, eps,mu,Deps,Dmu,gammaE,gammaH)
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Ind ( )
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;
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CFgeo.
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( make).
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. mkmodel.py, :
/home/aiv/crust/.
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dx,dy,dz

params.hpp.

(
X, Y
Z)
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( )

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)
, brick.
brick (3*
2 ) (3 * 2 ) (3 *
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nLArank

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3 * 2

Signal.hpp.
Xcnt,Ycnt .
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Rh .

Python
cvar.

mapNUMAnodes

nLAnet Python

Tcount

numa-

mapArray


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attenuation_factor

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g_max

146

cSrcP,cSrcS


F0

4.4.6.

(),
r0.
,
.
4.4.7.
run.py:
1
2
3
4
5

import os , sys , math


from Geo import * #
s y s . path . append ( " /home/ a i v / c r u s t / " ) #D i r e c t o r y f o r modules s e a r c h i n g
import mkmodel #Module f o r model s e t t i n g
from r a c s import * # Usage o f a i v l i b RACS

6
7

c v a r . cSrcP , c v a r . cSrcS , c v a r . Rho = 3 . 5 , 1 . 0 , 2 . 2 #S o u r c e parameters , and t h e


s p e e d s i n top l a y e r a r e must be t h e same
c v a r . F0 = 2 0 . e3 #C a r r i e r f r e q u e n c e o f s o u r c e ( h e r e 20 Hz )

9
10

c v a r . DropDir=c a l c . path #D i r e c t o r y where t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be saved

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

c v a r . mapNUMAnodes = mapArray ( ) # map o f numan e t s and nLAn e t s


#The s i z e o f t h i s a r r a y d e t e r m i n e s t h e t o t a l number o f b r i c k s
c v a r . mapNUMAnodes = \
[[[0 ,0 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,4 ,5 ,5 ,5] , [0 ,0 ,0 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,4 ,5 ,5] , [0 ,0 ,0 ,1 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,4 ,5]] ,
[ [ 2 ,0 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,4 ,5 ,5 ,5] , [0 ,0 ,0 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,4 ,5 ,5] , [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,4 ,5]] ,
[ [ 2 ,3 ,3 ,6 ,6 ,7 ,7 ,5 ,5] , [2 ,2 ,0 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,4 ,5 ,5] , [2 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,4 ,5]] ,
[ [ 2 ,3 ,3 ,6 ,6 ,7 ,7 ,5 ,5] , [2 ,2 ,3 ,3 ,6 ,6 ,7 ,7 ,5] , [2 ,2 ,2 ,0 ,1 ,1 ,4 ,4 ,5]] ,
[ [ 2 ,3 ,3 ,6 ,6 ,7 ,7 ,7 ,7] , [2 ,2 ,3 ,3 ,6 ,6 ,7 ,7 ,5] , [2 ,2 ,2 ,3 ,3 ,6 ,6 ,7 ,7]] ,
[ [ 2 ,3 ,3 ,6 ,6 ,6 ,6 ,7 ,7] , [3 ,2 ,3 ,3 ,6 ,6 ,7 ,7 ,7] , [2 ,2 ,2 ,3 ,3 ,6 ,6 ,7 ,7]]];

21

147

22

23

c v a r . a t t e n u a t i o n _ f a c t o r =2.0 #Index o f t h e power f u n c t i o n which r e p e r e n t s t h e


c o e f f i c i e n t o f a t t e n u a t i o n i n PML depending on t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e boundary
c v a r . g_max = 1 0 . 0 * ( 3 . * c v a r . cSrcP * 1 . 4 4 4 4 / ( 2 . * c v a r .PMLN* ( c v a r . accuracyZ 1)* c v a r .
dz ) ) ; # Max v a l u e o f t h i s f u n c t i o n . For r . * ( . . . ) t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a t t e n u a t i o n
i n e^r t i m e s .

24
25
26
27

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

#Function f o r model i n i t i a l i z i n g
d e f i n i t M o d e l ( Nx , delta_x , delta_y , delta_z , PVx, PVy ) :
S , L = mkmodel . mkmodel ( /home/ a i v / c r u s t / model2 , [ ] , mkmodel . m o h o _ p r o f i l e s [ A
] , 5 e4 , 0 , 0 , ( c v a r . cSrcP , c v a r . cSrcS , c v a r . Rho ) )
VS = mkmodel . v i e w s y s ( ) #View system ( r e c e i v e r p o i n t s ) ( )
M = mkmodel . middle ( ) #" Middle r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " o f model
M. step_x . i n i t ( mkmodel . Indx (Nx) ) ; VS . step_x . i n i t ( mkmodel . Indx (Nx) )
M. step_z . i n i t ( mkmodel . Indx (Nx) ) ; VS . step_z . i n i t ( mkmodel . Indx (Nx) )
f o r i i n r a n g e (M. step_x .N) : VS . step_x [ i ] = M. step_x [ i ] = delta_x
f o r i i n r a n g e (M. step_z .N) : VS . step_z [ i ] = M. step_z [ i ] = delta_y
M. delta_y = d e l t a _ z *2
M. i n i t ( S ) ; d e l S , L
VS . PVx, VS . PVz = PVx, PVy #C o o r d i n a t e s o f s o u r c e p o i n t

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r = mkmodel . v c t r 2 ( )
#addPP ( ) adds one R e s e i v e r P oi n t ( i n c o o r d i n a t e system a s s o c i a t e d with t h e
S o u r c e P oi n t )
f o r i i n r a n g e (Nx) : VS . addPP ( i * delta_xPVx, 0 .
, r )
f o r i i n r a n g e (Nx) : VS . addPP ( i * delta_xPVx, 40 * delta_x , r )
f o r i i n r a n g e (Nx) : VS . addPP ( i * delta_xPVx, 40 * delta_x , r )
f o r i i n r a n g e (Nx) : VS . addPP ( i * delta_xPVx, 150* delta_x , r )
f o r i i n r a n g e (Nx) : VS . addPP ( i * delta_xPVx, 150* delta_x , r )
f o r i i n r a n g e (Nx) : VS . addPP ( 0 .
, i * delta_yPVy, r )
r e t u r n M, VS

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nbrx=8
m, vs = i n i t M o d e l ( ( 2 * * MaxRank) *3* nbrx +2*(2**PMLrank ) * 3 , dx , dy , dz , Xcnt , Ycnt ) #( Xcnt
, Ycnt ) C o o r d i n a t e s o f S o u r c e Po in t
c v a r . Model , c v a r . VS = m, vs #The model i t s e l f

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I n i t i a l i z e D a t a ( ) #I n i t i a l i z i n g o f d a t a s
p r i n t "Data i n i t e d "
I n i t i a l i z e C o f f s ( ) #I n i t i a l i z i n g o f a l l c o e f f i c i e n t s
print " Coffs inited "
d e l m, vs #Now t h e model can be d e l e t e d
p r i n t " model d e l e t e d "
f o r iT i n r a n g e ( c a l c . Tcount+1) : #The main c y c l e o f count
Run( iT )
DropPP ( iT ) #Seismodrams dumping i n f i l e

1
1
:
2 + 2 +
.

148

1
2

<

6
7 ,

= /( 0 * max(dx,dy,dz)) > 6,
, 0 .

MaxRank-nLArank>PMLrank

API,
, - Python.
Linux, Python C++,

.
, ,
.

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