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. .

2003

511
49

. .
. -:
, 2003, 176 .

.
,
,
, .
, , .
( : .: , 1981 .).

ISBN 5-93972-252-0

22.13

, 2003



. .
. .
. .
22.02.03. 84 1082- .
1. . . . 9,24. . . . 9,81.
. 105.

426034, . , . , I.
084 03.04.00.
http://rcd.ru Email: borisov@rcd.ru


I.
2.
3 .
4.
5.
6.
I
I

7
7
9
12
13
15
18
22
24



1. [ ] , {*}
2.
3.
4.
5.
II
II

25
25
26
28
29
30
32
40

I.
2. , . .
3.
4.
5.
6.

111

41
41
42
44
45
46
47
48
53

54

I .
2.
3.
4, . . .
5. . .
IV
IV

54
54
57
58
60
63
67

68

I.
2.
3.
4.
V
V

68
69
75
78
80
85

86

1.
2. 2
3. 1
4. 2
5.
6. 2 . . .
7.
VI
VI

106

1.
2.
VII
V I I

86
87
89
90
93
95
98
102
104

1
II
111
IV , , . , , , , . . .

106
106
111
114
115
115
118
132
142


V
VI
VII

147
156
159

165

I
II
III
IV
V

165
105
165
165
166

VI
VII

166
167


<4070

168

175


. .
,
, ;
,
.
. .

1.
a.
. 1, 2, 3, . . . ( ),
1 , 2, 3 , . . .
, , ,
.
, .
, ,
,
.
+, ab
. 4

ft ( )
, .
b. ,
, q, a^=bq, . . b . ,
, .
b, a b .
, b ,
: \.
.
21 = 7-3,

0 = 9-0,

85=17(5).

: 21 7, 0
9, 85 17, : 7 21, 9 0,
17 85.

:
1. , ,
, ^ = 11.
,
.
2. k+1+ ... -\-= p-\-q+ .. .-\-$
, - , , , .
, k.

k = p - \ - q - \ - . . . -\-s I . . . n

= *> (Pi + <7i+ + i h "i)-

, k b
p 1 + < j r 1 + . . . + s t / t . . . j
,
. , (
).

b
,
, bq , .
: = 6^1 + 1; 0 < ; , < 6 ,
,
Q^b(q-qi) + r-ri.
(1)
(2, ), , .
, , ,
, ,
, , b
, 0.
= 0, (1) ,
q?i = 0. ,
.

q ,
. , = 0
.
. 6=14.
177=14-12 + 9,
0<9<14,
64=14-(5) + 6,
0 < 6 < 14,
154=14-11+0,
.0=0<14.
2.
a. . , , , . . . , /, .

(, , . . . . /). (, , ..., / ) = 1 , , , . . . , /
.
, , ..., I ,
, , ..., I . ,
.

.
. 6, 10, 15, (6, 10, 15) = 1,
. 8, 13, 21, (8, 13)= (8, 21) =
= (13, 21)= 1, .
b. .
1. , b
; (a, b) = b.
, b
. , ,
(I, , 1) b
, . . b . ,
. b
, (a, b)b.
2.
b b ;
(, ) = , ).

, ,
b
(2, b 1) , ,
b . , ,
b , , .
, b ,
b ; , , . . (, ) = , ).
. ,

. .
b > 6 . , 1

0 < < ,
0 </,</

</</_

, + 1 = 0 .
, , , . . .
b
.
d. (1), , (), b
b 5 ,
2 ra, , . . . , _ , (), ,
.
(,

) = ,

/,) = (/

/)=... =(/_

/)=/.

.
1. b
.
2.
.

. (525, 231). (
)
525 231
462
63
231
3
189
63 42
42
1
42
42

525=231-2 + 63,
231= 63-3 + 42,
63= 42-1+21,
4221-2.

IT

4 = 2 1 .
, (525, 231)= 21.
. 1. ,
(am, )~(, ).
2,
, ( 4 , - ) "*.

(-. "', -.-) = 1, . .


\ , ) (a, b) J

.
, (1)
, , , ,

am, bm, rtm, ...,rnm.

(am, bm) rnm , , 1.


1,

2.
f. 1. (, )=\, (, b) = (c, b).
, (, ) be, , (1, d)
(, be) 1, . (; ) , (, ). , (, )
, (, ). ,
(, ) (, ) , ,
.

1 2

2. (, ) = \ , .
(1, ), , ,
(, b) = b 1 = (, ). (1, )
.
3. ^, 2
1 , ..., , alai.,.am
.. ..
, 1
, . . . , ) = (&... , bk) =
= - -, bk)= ... = (., 6)= 1,
, ^,.. , = ,

3.
a. , , .
.

.
b. (a, b) = d, a=dau b = ab1 ,
(2, , 2), (,, bl)=\.
--
. , M ak,
k. ,

ak

axk

~ ~ ,

, (2, f, 2), k
. k bj, t ,

M^^-t.

(1)

, , , (1)
t, , ,
, (1) .

,
, . , t=\.

-.

(2)

(1) :
M=mt.

(3)

(3) (2) .
1.
.
2.
, .
4.
a. 1 , 1. 1 .
, 1, , 1 ;
,
. , 1,
1 ,
.
b. , , .
, q 1
, 1, q , qt 1 <qx<q,
, q,
(1, , 1) qt. q.
c. ( ) Va,
, q , = qa^,
, ^,
q,
q^Y
, .

1 4

,

, ,
, .
pj}a...
...pk+l,
,
, . . . , (2, , 1).
. , N, , . .

1, 2

N.

(1)

1 2. 1 , ,
.
(1) ( ) ,
2, 2. 2 3. 2 (
). , 3 1 , .
(1) , 3,
3. 3
5. 2, 3 (
). , 5
1 ,
.
. .
,
, , , , . ,
s
, p , ,
,
< V ^ < P - :
1. ,
2 ,
2. , N, , , ^

'

5.

a. , .
, (, ), ,
1, .
, .
b.
, , , .
(),
, . ,
(3, f, 2) .
.
c. , ,
( ).
, , 1;
, ,
=
- > 1, , , ai = p,iai. 2 > 1,
= ,3 .., - , 1. -1 .
,
:
-Pn,
aqxq%qa., .qs.

q^ (), qlt , , 1
q1 ( ); 1 = <71 (pt 1
p j .
Pi = <7i PsP 3 .. . = <7<73.. .<7,.

16

,
3.. .pr! qa...qs
. . , , ,
, , .
, 1 = qn+i- -q,
<7+1, . . . , qs, 1, .
,
.
d.
.
Pi, ^ ..., a l f , ..., ah
,

. 588 000
: 588000 = 2 6 -3-5-7 s .
. , ,

.
1. p^'pZ'. -p1k .

5 5 j

(1)

, d . (b, 1) a = dq
, , d
,
,
d. d (11.
, d (1) .
4
. 720 = 2 -3*-5 ,
1

2 >5 p i ( f>it j33


= 0, 1, 3, 4; (5 =
= 0, 1, 2; \ = 0, 1. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 9, 18, 36, 72, 144, 5, 10, 20,
40, 80, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 45, 90, 180, 360, 720.
2. ,
, a a

,
.
3.
.
, d ,.. .,1.
a = dalt ..., l = dlu
, : )
d
, ..., I, : ) d ,
,
, . . . , / ; , d, ) ), ,
, . . . . /.
, . .
(, 2) ,
,
, ..., I.
, ,
.
.

3
s
s
3
s
6791 4 0 0 = 2 - 3 - 5 - 7 - l l , 178500 = 2"-3-5 -7-17, 27720=

=2'. -5-7-11 2-3-5-7= 420.


4.
,
,
,
.
5. .
6.
.
,
/.
=", ..., ',
, : )

18

, ..., I , : )
,
,
, ..., I; ,
, ) ), , , . . . . I.
, . .
(, 3), ,
,
, . . . , I.
, , ..., I , ,

, . . . , /, , ,
.
,
, .
. 1800 =
= 2 3 - -5 8 ,
3780 = 2-3-5-7, 8910= 2-3*-5-1J
3
2
2 -3<.5 -7- = 1247400.
6.

. .
<7, , .
a. = q1-\

...,

as_t

3>1.

19

(1)

. , 1 ( as (1) )
.
, ,

= -


. , :

It

20

qu qa, . . . .
,
( , ,
),

I 9J.

I <7i + "^-.

J_

'

.
.
, , 6 J ( s > 1) bs_t ,_ <7.,-t <7,_
. , =1, Q0 = 0, ( -g-=-^ , Ps,
Qs):

(?a+"^)Pl+Ptl
3==-

*+,
^ ______

=-^

, .

7)

~5~

( '

21

,
: =-?Is

?l

Ps

?l

Qs

?i

Qs

Ps-t

Ps-l

Ps

pn-l

Qs-

Qs-i

Qs

Qn-i

. -gg-.
105 38
76
38 29
29 1

105

3+-

29
27

:
4s

Ps

Qs

d.I. s > 0

3
il

47

105

17

38

P1Q1-1Q1P1^1=(l)t.

2. /7pu s > 1 6. V i =

hv^--

22

,
Q,P,-u

h, = P,Qs-i

S = l ht<=>qi'Ql-l

=1,

s > 1 (3) , = ' 1 J-I , = (1)*. s > 1,

. 1 < s,
a=~g ,
s<n. 6,_ 6
6 8,_t,
, (2) , qs + -,
a,+lPs+Ps-l

, ,
, ( Q, > Q , _ J . .
I
1. , , d =
axo + by0 +by (
). , d(a, b). 1, d, 2
, 2. ,

+bg+... + fu.

2. , b , ab. ( )
, , . ), ) 5.
3. . (, 6) 1 < s, = -^

s < (qn b). ,


, 6,,
d>Qt.

23

. ,
N , k , Qn^,N.
, ^ 5 + 1 .
Q s , Q a , Q.j, > Qn
, , gs 1, 1, , | , . . . , i " " 1 , 5
| ' = 5 - 4, . ^ 1 .
,
, , .
. , , X,
0 ^ < 1 ,
: , - . 2 ^ ,
, 0 + 1 1
-jjr=-n" >

' , - . .
i+<>i

0 1 1
- , , -

- ^ -

,
,

, adbc =1.

. , : T S S 1,

. b , 2, d, 6.
5. . 4 + 3,
. 6 + 5.
6. ,
, N, , p i , , . , , , ^,
7.
. ,
, + 1, . , . , -\-I,
.
8. , ,

<V+ rt1i-"-l-f . . . + , > 0, 0 , , , . . ,


0 > 0,
.
, . ,
*,

*>0,jr>0,

>0,

(, , ) = 1

(1)

, , ,
9.uv, * ' , , ~|--,
STOM > > 0, (u, v) l,
uv.
. at

, , 4 + '

24

10. : + 1 " ' + + 0,


> 0 ai
, ,
.
11,. S = - ( - - ( - . . . - ; > 1. , S
.
. S = - g - j - 5 " + + 2-\ ' > 0 - , S
.
12, , > 0. ,
(+)
, 2*1.
1
1,. , (6188, 4709).
. (81 719, 52 003, 33 649, 30 107),
125
2, . a=-q=-
(, 6), : a) 6d, ) ,
4, , = 20.
L. ,
<
5391
, a=o?v7c H
, : ) 6 , ) , 4, , =1000.
3. ( 4) 0 1, 1,
, 8,
4. , 100.
5, . 82 798848.
. 81057 226 635 000.

II

1. [] {}
a.
, :
1. , [],
, .
2. , {},
[]
.
.
[7] = 7, [2,3] = 2,
[-4,75] = - 5 ,
{7} = 0, {2,3} = 0,3, {-4,75} = 0,25.
b. ,
! ,

+++-

<

, \,
, [ , "
I ~ , '
4 , . . (1) ,

\, ,
+ 1 ,
, ,
, , . . . , , .
. , 3
3671,

[f]+[!]=
= 122 + 40+13 + 4 + 1 = 180.

(,

2.
a. () ,
:
1.
.
2. at
:
9 (0,0,)= 9(0!) 9 (4).
. ,
1 , s
.
b. 6 ()
9(1) = 1. , 9() .

1=9(1).
. 2, 9 ()
k > 2
, 3, . . . . . , :
. ) = 9 (aj
= 6 ( ) 6 (2) 9 ( , . . .*) = . . . = 9 (aj 9 () 9(,).. .9 (,).
,

( > - -)= (ft) 9 (8*) (/*).. .9 ?). (1)


d. , 9 (), 9(1) = 1 9( ), ,
(1).
, = "1.. -%
^ 1 2,

9 () = . 9 ( ^ ) 9 ( 0 , ) ,

9 (?*), ,
, -

27

,
9 (,) 0(*), *
9( 2 ) 9 ( p " s ) ,
pfs .
. , 9(1) = 1 9 ( ) = 2, > 0.
k > 0 9 ('.,. "*) = 2*. ,
:
=1,

9(2) = 2,

9(3) = 2,

) = 2,

9(5) = 2,

9() = 4.

. 9 () = 9 f () 9 () 9, () 9 8 () .
, 9(1) = 9 1 ( 1 ) 9 ( 1 ) = 1.
, (Oj, ,) = 1
9 {) = (^,) 9 (^,) = Q1 () Q1 (,) 9 (,) 9 (,) =
= 9, (,) 9, (,) 9, ( a j 9, (2) = 9 (,) 9 ( 8 ).

k > 2
9,(), 9 (),

,(), . . . . 9,().

, , :
9, () 9 () 9 3 () (9 t () 2 ()) 9, (),
9 () 9 () 9 3 () 8, (a) = (ft () 9 2 () , ()) 9, (),

9, (a) G2 (a)... 9 t _, () (a) * (, () 9, ( ) . . . _, ()) % ().


f, ()
^
= ? ' . . . ** . , 2 ,

28

d ,

( = 1 1.)
,
. (
)
(?1) (?0...9 (pg*) = 9 (pbp>'...pj)

(1, e, 5, . I) ,
.
3.
a. 1. 9()=1 ( , 2) f, 2
(a) = (aj + 1 ) . . . (a t + 1 ) , () .
. (720) = (2*-3"-5) = (4+1)(2+1)(1 + 1) =
= 30.
2. () ,
> 0 ( ) = + 1 .
() d, 2.
b. 1. 9 ( a ) = a ( , 2) d, 2

S(a) .
B
. S<720) = S(2-3 -5) = ^ i - ^ 5 y - . ^ b i = .
= 2418.
2. S (a) ,
> 0 S () = <* ~ .
S(a) d, 2.

29

4.
. ,
: \i(p)=1, () = 0 , > 1 .
, , , :
) = ? ' . . . " *
, . . . , ah
1 ( ,
1), () = 0.
) , , . , a = pt, ..pk,
.
1,
= -1,
(3) = - 1 ,

(5) = - 1 ,
(6) = 1,
(7) = - 1 ,

(9) = 0 ,
(10)=1,
|*(11) = - 1 ,

b. 1. 9 (a) =
= pf1... />"* .
:
/

( 1 1).

, 91() = ()9(), () 9 (),


.

f, 2 , 94 () = 9 ()
91(<) = 0, > 1,
.
2. , 9{)=1, )
0, > 1,
1, = 1.
3. 9 ( ) = ,
[-V..(l ~ ) .
1,

>1,
1.

30

. = 8 . . . , 8 , f = flt .--,/, S' f, 6, 1, 8 /, , d,

d , 6.
(2, ),

sf=h

2 ii(o+ +/ 2 ii(d).
lt\6t

d\6n

d
p.(d) ,
/,
6, d, .. Sa.
5.
a. ()

0, 1

(1)

a-U

.
.
(1)=1,. (4) = 2,
<(2)=1,
(3) = 2,
b. 1.

a~fi4fr...ft

(2)

31

,
-1.
(5)
, , 4.
f :
(1); =(, ) f\.
S' 6 = (, ), 1, . . (). A Sd
8~(, ), d. (, ) d
, d . Sd ,
d, . . -j.

P()

ZR()T'
d\a

( 3, , 4) (3), ( 2)) (4).


.
(81) = 8127 = 54,
<(5) = 5 1 = 4 .

2. () ,
> 0 ( ) = - 1 .
(4) d, 2.
.
,
f, 2, 6() = ()
2 () = (1 + () + +> (Pi'))-
d\a

(5)

32


. =12,
(1) + (2) + (3) + (4) + (6) + (12) =
= 1 + 1+2 + 2 + 2 + 4=12.
II
I, . Q^xeSR
. ,

/ ()

( )
: Q < * < # , 0 < < / ( * ) .
, Q .
,

. > + ^ 2.
,

. > 0 JC > 0, > ,


. ,

=2

0<<

. ,
.
S = 2 ^ ~ ' ' ,
, 6 = 1 6 = 0 , 5
. , T = S,
2. > 0, , . > 1 , m- , 1, ,

II

33

3. ,
lax);

x^l,

2, . , . ;

[pi/],

( / - 1 , 2, . . . ,

, , . , ,
,

4, . [] 1, ~ [ ] -,,
; 1,2, .... I,
,
, { * ! } , {ow a }
{our,}, I
. 4, , , I,
.
. 1 ? 2 , . . . , 4 , 1; alt , . . . , /,. , Ji, | , . . . , |fc, , ,
:
(Si, *. . . . , 1, |) = 1,

l<
5, , , > 0. ,

6, . , , . . . , .. ,
. , , , , . , / , o f + - + ' ~ "
, 1, ,
\
\ ...
.
7. h, h > 0,

h h = paum + pm-iUm^i+.
.. + 11+,

us,
h, pmum
, h, Pm-ium-i- _ 1 ,
, _ - _ 2 ,
hpmuapa^lum_1,
. ., , , \
, ,
< -\>---> ft. Po ,

= +1 + Pm-iP'"+ \ P
' : 0, 1, . . . , 1.

34

8, . Q < x < # f(x)


.

,
2

/ W = / W dx+p (R) I () - (Q) f (Q)

. >
R, V | f (x) | dx . ,
Q

2
Q<x<R

/ () dx+p (R) f (R)-a (R) f ()- (*) f(x)dx,


J
J

R.
.
'

, = (),

^.

, > 1. ,
In (nl) = n In n + (In ).
9, . ^ 2 , (z, z o ) =

'

>

. , , () (, 0) > 0.
,
) 1([]1)
) () < 2;

. > 2 ,

.
. 8 . ,

, p B + i pn + i < (1+).

3 5

II

d. > 2. ,

.
. > 2, ,

.
f. s 0 > 2 ,
s> s0 s-ro ps 2, 3, 5, . . .

, < 1,5s Ins,
g. ,

- - = (In In a),
()

10, . 6 () . ,
8i(e) = 5 ] 8 ( d ) .
. () i|)(a) J ] 0 ( u ) . ,

(f\a

6 () .
11. m > 0 r() xvi2 ... = {, , ...,
); , , Ti(a) = l, ()().
,
a. Jm(o) .
b. , <5=0 m > 1.
{

>

1-2...(m1)

c. ,

d.

() !.

xlt %, ..., .
12. R (s) s.
(1) > 1 C(s) = ^ - j - m > , /--.

36

13, . R (s) > 1 ,

.
b. , ,
.
c.
, ,

(2) = -= ,

1
14. () = 1 = , /
; () = 0 .
R (s) > 1 ,
()
2+ '
=\
15. R(s) > I. ,
'()_
(s) ~

I WvtM
7)~ =1
.


16, . 5= I. , 4, ,

b. (, )=

I1 (")' () = (, 0). ,

. ^ 1, I, / > 1, Tir 0 < ^, 1- , I. , 4, ,

3 7

11

17, . , > 0, xi, , ...,


f(x). ,

d\a
S' /(*), , , S^ / (), , d.
. > 1

', 4

>

'; 4, 4, .... 4 ; ...; 4 , 4">, .... ,

,
.
/(*1> > > **) ,
S' / f a , xit . . . , xk), , Sd f(xi, , ..,, ), , d. d
.
. , > 0,
F ().

G(6)= S f W-

d\t
, ( )

d.
i. * , . . . . 6
, :
,

,/.

..-./-

' /, ,
1, /, , d, d
, 6.
18. , > 1, ( ) = I m + 2 " + . . . + , ^, ()
- 1, 2, . . . , , ;
Pit , ..., .
. 17, , ,
m

6\

<' ( 4 )

38

, ,

. ,

, = (+^- ,.. .) > ().


19. > 1, , > , 7*
*<, (*, o) = li e .
. ,

b, ,

c. > I, () , ,
,
I.
,

20. R (s) > 1, , > 0. ,

,
,
.
21, . , k
,, -1, . . , , & ,
N * ,
*i> *> > > 1, 2, . . . . , . 17, , , P = (S(ft)) 1
.
, 6 = 2, ,

22, . r s = 2 (* 9)
, * + ! </*. ,
=4-0

(rlnr),

. =2 (, , ) , + ^ + 2 < 2. ,

23, . 2, , 4 , ,
, 1, 1, 2, . . .
.
b. , > 1, d ,
m . , m
2 [1 (A S> 0, m 2 1 1 ) < 0.
c. , J 4, /
d , m
, ,
, m .
d. , ,
17, , / () ,
17, , f ( , ..., ) .
24. 0 < < --,
N^8,
6
r = lntf, 0 < ? < J V l - e , 0 < / < 1 ? > (?, /) = ' . n(N, q, I)
: p<,N, p ql-\-l, f . ,
n(JV, , , 0 = ();

, ft=fi-.B8,
,
, q. 23, d ( 17, )
2 [[ 2 +
1+1
] ]
25. k; k > 0,
1.,. d
0 < d < ~. ,

2, k, k > 0,
<P(<Q = k. ,

27. (),
.

40

28, . , 5 , ,
, .
/"
, < I -^
, ():
) 10, ;
) 17, .
29. R (s) > 2. ,
1,2

= 1

30. , =2. ,

3
=1

II
1. . , 5 52581 (. ).
. 1251
2. . (5600) S (5600).
. (116 424) S (116 424).
3. [1 () 1,2, . . .
. . . , 100.
4. : ) (5040), ) (1294 700).
5. tp () = 1, 2, . . .
. . . , 50, (5), 5
().

III

1.
a.
, .

(, 1, . I);
b ,
.
b.
:
= (mod .),
: b .
c. :
1. a = b-\-mt,
t .
2. b .
, a = b (mod m)

a*=mq-\-r, b mql-\-r\

0^r<m,

ab = m(q17J,

a b + mt,

t = qqt.

, a = b + mt, b
b mqt + r,

a
. e.
1.
1 2,

42

2, ,

a. , ,
.
, 1.
b. .
,
ajs^modm),
as==bs(mo<im), . , . , ak = bk(modm).
(1)
(1, , 1)
a1 = bl+mtlt

as==62-fm^

ak=^bk-\-mtk,

(2)

0,40,+ ... +a f c =6 s +6 s + ... + + (tx + tt+ ... +


(1, , 1)

. +aks*bl+bi+

... +bh(modm).

, - ,
, .
, a+&3==c(mod m)
6 = 6 ( m o d m ) , =
==b (modm).

, .
, a = b(modm)
mk=0(modm), + ==
= 6 (modm).
. .
, (1) (2).
(2),

N. (1, , 1),
, 4 . . . a k =e bjbi...bh

(mod /).

43

.

.
, a==b(modm)
k^k
(modm), ak =

= bit(modm).

d. b ( )
.
S = 2 .... *"' *** ,

afc, xlt

...,xh

Bai
ak, > >
, S
.
,
1
*k = S,
ah (mod m),
jtj ^ y^ (mod m),

...,

x,, s yk (mod m)

()
x?^?(modm),

...,

x kb

, ,

24

*?* -

x^xt

(modm),

TO
1

- + ... +bn(modm).
.
.
, .
, = 6 (mod m), a = a^il, =
(d, ) = \ , 6, (%bjd,
. (2, f, 2, . I) a, bt
, . . ai==b ( (modMi).

44

3.
a.
.
, = 6 {mod m)
a = b-\-mt, ak = bk-\-mkt
, , ak = bk(modmk).
b.
.
,
:= (modm),

= ,

b = bld,

=^.

, , a J ^ 6 1 { m o d m 1 ) .
c. =
, , .
, = &(mod), a==b(mod),
...
,.., a = b(modmk) , b
^, . . , , mk. (6, , 5, . 1)

, . . a = b(modm).
d. ,
d,
.
, a = fi {mod m) ,
; (1, , 1, . I)
d ,
. , a=sfc(modd).
e.
- ,
.
, a = b (mod m) a = b + mt;

d, (2, , 1, . 1) b
d, .
f. azsb (mod m), (, /)=(, ).
, 2, , 2, . I

a=b+mt.

4 5

4.
a. , , ,
, .
,
,
, mq-\-r q .

.
b. . , <7=0, ,
.
, , .
, r < - j

= ; > -

= ; , = -~,
-g- - ^ = ^ .
,
.
0, 1, ...,1
; ,
,

m -
. 1

n 1

2
1

. , m,
,

46

, ,
,
, . . , ,
.
d. (, ) = 1 , , + b, b ,
.
, -\- ,
, . . . , ,
, axi + b .,-\-,
,
/.
, 1 + =^'..1\- (mod ),
axl=ax2
(mod m), ,
(, / ) = 1 , Xt = x2 (mod m),
xv ,.
5.
a. f, 3
. ,
, , , ,
, .
,
.
, , , . : ,
I, . . . , I.
(), , , ,
, <p(m).
. 42

1, 5, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 25, 29, 31, 37, 41.
b. () ,
, .

47

, ,
, , , < (.), . . ,
,
.
. (, ) = 1
,
.
, ,
, . . (). b , ,
,
. d,
4 + b, (, )= I, (, )= I.
6.
a.

/ > I (, ) I ( ):
' " " = 1 (modm).

~
/ . . . , ;
=(),
,
, 2 , , . . ,
, , , (, 5).

ar

i Pi(niodm), = = ( ( 1 ) , . . . , arc = p c (modm),

acrlri...

re = p t p a . . . (mod m),

, 1,,. = 12.

= I (modm).

.,

b. , ,
( ):
' - 1 =1 (mod ).

(1)

48

= .
.
, (1) ,

== (mod p),
,
, .
III
1, .
, 3, 9, 11.
b. 100,
101.
c.
1000, 37, 7, 11, 13.
2. > 1, (, ) = 1, , , |
. ,

I
3, . > 0, (a, m)--l, ft^O, ,
m-I
x~ 0 t,
ij) {) c=Si|)(.t)<;c-f-/j. ,
S-1/

"2 '

. , m > 0, (, ) = 1, ,
+-1

,
S-lm

III

49

. , > , (, ) \,
+-1

^^+
1 /(*) /' () f (x),

/ '

,
S ~

k+3

4.
, , , > ,
. ,
M+m-i

{+ ] =jm

+ O (in m).

5, . -4 > 2, ASsl ( ? < * <


/ {) ,

,
Q<x<R

. 0 < ( < 1 , Q 7?.


, () {/(*)}; x = (J + l , . . . , R
0 < { / (,v)} <

6, . (, ) * -f g1 < r'
,

50

b. , > 2,

. ,
L

(
\
3
(1) + (2)+ ...+()=.(1+2 1) + U (In n)V .
c. N^2 / ,

Mi<(lnJV)".

(I)

0 <a<JV

:
(()<()().
. JV^2 / ,

(T(a))'^tf(lnA!)''-i.

(2)

0 < < N

7. ,
2, , s s , 2 , , ,
s .
, ,

.
8, . ,
*, * - ! *i> * I, 0, 1,
, . . . . 1 , 0, 1, . . . . ;

31

,
, mi, , ..,, / . , 4, ,
, /, ,
*i, X], . . . , xf,
9. mlt /, . . . , /
/j/72g . . . fflfc ^^ Miftli

^ j/ ^= . . . = MfcMjf,

. , 4, ,
m 1 m a ...niA ,

. . . +

*i, X}, . . . ,
, , . . . , tn/f.

5 1

111

. b 5, . II , 5, ,
miitia.. . ,

, , ..,, mi, m%, . . . , ,


c. , 5, . II ,
.

d. ( ) ,
if (), ().
10. /,, 2, . . . , ^ , 1,
^., .,
. 1 %, . . . , , , | 1 ( Ej> > S*. 6
mit , . . . . , . ,

J\.L4-
rnt~

i-l-^
' " ~

< -^ > , < - 1 - ) - . . . 4- * (


I
{ "U

i > .
. f (
, . . . , (>1):
/(*, ...,=

S
*
, . . . . 6

^afi

\-,

, . . . , ws , | . . . , ,
,;
w , \, ..., . ,
< " ' "

{
1

: J i - + . . . + -=-i-=!

}
)

(af (
) I
<
'- > ( ).
11, . , > 0, ,
. ,
, ,
.

52

b. , >0.
()
* ( ), ,
M+P-l
2 ,

Z *

' ()A

(a) i

. , > 1 () () , 2, . , . , ~-1
{) > 0, ,
ra-I

Ai (a)+P l

*<

mlnrn,

m
in mm =~
^60.

!2, . , > 0, | . ,

b. , ,
4, . II (. 28, , . II).
c. , 17.
, . 11.
d.

fix, .... )= 2

, , .., S

...

, ...
...,w{r^\),
, , m > 0, , . . . , w , | , . . . , .

a

= 1..,)1, mj, ,.., 4 , I, /^,. ,

III

53

. d
()*=- % Sa,'<

' im) = m-r S'^

.
,

A (mi),..A (mk) = A(m), ' ()...' [^' (),


13, . ,

.
. ().
14. ,
1
0<*<'

, ak

*=

6 = 1 6 = 0, ,
.
15, . hi, /t3, ...,ha . ,
b. .
c. .
III
1, .
(!2371 s +34) se 111.
. 10932 2 1 0 2?
2, . 1, 244943325,
. 282321246671737,

IV

1.

:

/ () = 0 (mod ); / () = ^-1"~ +

.,. +.

(1)

,
.
,
. ,
, .
(]) -
=
(d, 2, . III) , ^ :
x = xt (mod/).
. (1)
,
.

= 0 (mod 7)
, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
7 : = 2 = 4.
:
= 2 (mod 7),

= 4 (mod 7).

2.
.
( )

ajr==t (modm).

(I)

55

b. , (, )~ 1.
1 ,
.
,
(d, 4, . III), ,
, ,
. , (, ) \ (1)
,
c. (a, m) = d > 1. , (1) , (, 3, . III),
d, (1)
. b d, a=ald, b ^d, ^. (1) ( Had):

alx^bl(modm^,

(1,1) = \,

/,. Xj

1 , ,

(2)

= Xt (mod .

(2) ,
, , (2) 0, 1, 2, . . . , / 1 . (2);
xit jfj + mi, x1-\-2ml,

...,

x1 +

(d\)m1,

. . d (2); , (I) d .
d. , :
(a,m)=d.
ax = b(modm) , b d. , d,
d ,
e. (1),
, ,
(, ) = 1.

56

;,
m
a

3.+

:
<? n -i'

Qn

(d, 6, . I)
_1 == ( I)" 1 (mod m),
( I ) " " 1 /_, b ^ 6 (mod m).
,
/)_1


, , 6, . I.
.
111 = 75 (mod 321),

(3)

(111, 321) = 3, 75 3. .
3,

37* ^ 2 5 (mod 107),


(4)
.
107 37

74
37 33
33 1
33 4
32 ~8

ii

36

107

57

, = 4, ^1 26, fc = 25,
(4)

= 2 6 25 == 99 (mod 107).

(3) :
. = 99; 9 9 + 1 0 7 ; 99 + 2-107 (mod 321),
. .
= 9 9 ; 206; 313(mod321).
3.
.
* = &! (mod m j ,
== (mod m a ),
(1)
x = bk (mod mk)
,
.
. (1), . . ,
, , :
Ms M's
m1mz...mll

= Mtms,

MsM'a == 1 (mod ms)


= ^'

+ ,'+

...+

'.

, (1),
= (mod ... mh).

(2)

, ms ,-, Ms, sl, 2, . . . , k


= MsM^bs =bs

(mod m,),

, , (1)
!), x = .v0 (modm 2 ), . . . , ss-x0 (mod mk) (3)

58

(. . (1) (3)
). (3), d 3,
. , , (2).
c. blt , ..., , ..., mh,
xt 1....
, 0 .. . , d, 3, . III, .. .mh.
d. .
4-5-7 = 35-4-= 28-5 = 20-7,
3 5 - 3 ^ 1 (mod4), 2 8 - 2 = 1 (mod5), 20- 6 = 1 (mod7),

, , , ,
= 105&! + 56, + 120fe3 (mod 140).
, , ,
x s s l ( m o d 4 ) , : = 3 (mod 5), xs=2(mod7),

5-1 + 5 6 - 3 + 1 2 0 - 2 = 93(mod 140),


x s s
,
x=3(mod4), x=2(mod5), x=6(mod7),

JC== 105-3 + 56-2+ 120-65=27(140),


4.
a. . ,
f(x) = 0(modp); f(x) = ax + aLx-l+...+an.
(1)
b. (1)
1.

59

, f () .*,
R () 1. = 0 (mod ),
f (x)^R(x)
(modp),
.
. (1) ,
f (x) .
, (1) , , + 1 . , .., ,
+1 , f ()

f(x) = a(xXl)(xx2)
+ (1)()

. . . (xxn_2)(xxn_l)(xxn)
... (x xn_J{xxn_1) +

(2)

+ .

, , "- 1 f (x) ,
"~ f () . .
(2) =
, ..., ,
xn+i,
, , I, k, ..., ,, .
, , , . . . , ( ,
).
. ( )
1-2 . . . { 1 ) + 1 = 0 ( m o d ) .
(3)
, = 2, .
> 2,
J

(1)( 2) ... (- (pl)) (xr- l)m0(modp);


2 1 ,

6()

1, 2, . . . , 1. ,
\ ,
,
(3).
. 1-2-3-4-5-6+ 1 = 7 2 1 ==0(mod7).
5.

. ,

f () == 0 (mod mi . , . )

(1)


/(je)s-0(modm x ),
/ () as 9 (modm a ), . . . , f(x)*=O (mod m^.
, Tit Ta, . . . , Tk

(1),

,
d, 3, . I I I . ,
/() 0 (mod m.)
(2)
,
,

bs (2),
...
(, 3)
...

,
(3)

61


/(je)s*0(mod5),

f () - 0 (mod 7).

( 1),
2 : = 1, 4(mod5),
3 : = 3; 5; 6 (mod7). (3) 2-3 = 6 . 6 , 6
==2(&7),

(4)

, = 1; 4,
&2 &2 = 3; 5; 6. ,
35 = 7-5 = 5-7,

7 - 3 = 1 (mod 5),

5 - 3 = 1 (mod 7),

, (4),
(, 3)
x = 21b t +15b r ! (mod35).
(3)
* = 3 1 ; 26; 6; 24; 19; 34(mod35).
.
f () = 0 (mod ptiF

...

pj*)


f(x) = 0(jaodp*y,

(5)

,
,
J(*) = 0(modp).

(6)

, , (5), (6).

= (mod p)
- (6). x = xl
fj .
2

/ ( j ) s O (mod p )
,

6 2


ik)

( , -jr f
, *)

f ( ) + Ptj'

() , -

(Jrj 0 (mod /?), LM + tj'

( X l ) ^ (mod p).

, /' (xj
, :
t1 = t[ (mod p); t1 =

/' (;) ,

:
"2 = ^ (mod p);

. . (6)
(5). , ^ ^ (mod p) (6)
, f () , (5):

.
f(x)= 0 (mod 27);
/ ( * ) = * * + 7 + 4 .

*''

IV

63

/ (.) -.= 0 (mod 3) = 1 (mod 3);


f (1) =2 (mod 3) , ,
3.
:

); 3 + 3^-2 = 0 (mod 9),

/ (4) 1-9// (4) = 0 (mod 27), 18 + 9^-2 = 0 (mod 27),


2^ + 2s=0(mod3), /2 = 2(mod3), /2 = 2 + 3/
= 22 + 27/,.
(7)
= 22 (mod 27).
IV
I, . , > 0, f(x, ..., w)
*, .. .,w(r^
1).

f{x
ui) = 0(modm)
(1)
=0, ..., ww0, ( 1) :
^ 0 (mod ), ...,

w = w0 (mod in)

(1).
(1). ,

. 12, , . III ,

c.
.
d. m, m > 0;
f, g,
+ 1 ( > 0): d = (a, . . . , /, m); T

64

, ,
nr~1d,

g d,
.

. d , axss b (modm).
2, . > 1, (, ) = \. ,
(mod ) = )-1 (mod m).
. , 0 < a < />. ,
b (mod /?)
(mod ).
, )
* = (modm); (2, m) = (2, ft) = l.
)
3**=sfc(modm);

(3, m) = (3, b) l.

) (, ) = 1, 1 < a < m. ,
) ), ,
(modm) b-\-mt3mO (), .
3. m, m > l , I ^ t < m, (a, m) \.
,
= (mod m),

0 < : < ,

0 < || < .

4, . (a, m) = I
,
<u=ft(modm). , ( ):
) a = ai, bszbx

= ,

Hi

) ft , .
, .
. ft d
)

bd

IV
, ) ,
,

> 2, ,

: )'

) ,
22

0 < < /> I . -

{I)" (mod/..

> 2. ,

, 1 . 1

__=,__+_

. ,

_(mod/.

5, . d , , 1, , , &. ,
1-2..., 2 - 3 . . . ( + 1 ) , . . . . ( + 1 ) . . . ( + 1 )

(1)

"
, d, .
. plt ^, . . . ,
,
. ,
(1), ,

(,_) (,_\...(._}.
6.

n>t,%,.mit

a. d=(mt,mt).

= f> I (mod mi) >

ES

6 a (mod mj)

, bt 6, d,
,
,
xit

(mod mlt

) ; 1 = -^- .

b . ,
is ftj (mod ^, xsabt (mod n/j), . . . , * = (mod m^)
, ,
7, , > 1, *,

/a,b\

.<,

66

(modm) ( 4, ). .
X

> ( V ) , i-r

,.

fa,

bh\

(ah,

V) (, m) = 1 =
6) mlt m2
mj ,
= 1 , , ,

8.
= ,
* n (modp).
,
a L ^ a 0 Si (modp),
a2^
a 0 Sj (modp),
o s =aa 0 S 8 (modp),
(-l)flbS B (modp),
S L xs, S2 , Ss
. .
9, . , , "
2, 3, . . . , 2, ' = 1 (modp).
. , > 1, 1-2..,( 1) + 1 = 0 (mod P). , .
10, . (0, ) \. - 1,
aoxn + aJxn~1+

..,-f-a n = O (modm).

b. , ,
/ ()= (mod ); / ()="-\-1-1+
... -\-; Sp,
, / ().
c. 1, > 1, (, ) = 1. , =( )
-1

" = 1 (mod p),


.
. , > 0 {,) = \,
= 0 (mod m) J C " S A (mod m). ,

0
= 1 (mod m).

IV

67

IV
1, . 256* = 179 (mod 337).
. 1215x^560 (mod2755).
2, . | , 1, 2, .
. 1296* s 1105 (mod 2413) 2, .
3, , , 47 111=89.
4, .
* = * ! (mod 13), = 6 2 (mod 17).
, , 13 17 1
12, 6 8, 11 4.
.
) , x=a6,(mod27), x = - 6 3 (mod 59).
, . ( , )
x s 3 ( m o d 8 ) , J B 11 (mod 20), x s l ( m o d l 5 ) .
.
1 (mod 3), x = 4(mod5), xa2 (mod 7),
x = 9(modll), x s 3 ( m o d l 3 ) .
6.
+429==iO(mod 143), 29+84^0
(mod 143).
7, .a

li
11
7
1
5

+ix +3x
++

+ 2x +x' + 2x* + 4x +x + + * + 4 + 2=*

, 0 (mod 5)?
.
11
7

10
7
3

2" +i 6 +

+ 5" + + 2 + + * + 2 + > + 4*+

+ 4 ++ ++ 4 0 ( d 7()
)?
+

8. 1
( 10, )
70x e +78x s -f25.t 4 + 68jt ! > -f52;t-f4;t+3s0(mod 101)?
9, .
/ ( ) ^ 0 (mod 27), /() = 7 + 19+25,

/ (JC) = 0 (mod 3).
.
+
+
()
10, . x 3 -f2x-f2 = 0 (mod 125).
. * + 4*
+ 2* + 2+ 12 = 0 (mod 625).
11, . 63 + 27 +17 + 20 = (mod 30).
. 31** + 57' + 96+ 191 = 0 (mod225).

1,
a. > 1
,
:
" == a (mod m);
(, )~\.
(1)
(1) ,
.
, , =--2 , = 3, = 4 .
b. /1=2

:
!

jc 3=a(modp),

(, / ? ) = 1 .

(2)

c. , (2) .
, , (2) , , xssx^modp).
, (;1)4 = ",
= x l (mod p)
, ^ ^ ( m o d p )
2x 1 ==0(modp), , (2, ) =
==(*1.)=1.

(2), , ,
(, 4, . IV),

6 9

d,
-^- ,

(~1

1 2 <
> * >

-
.
,


, ( )
~1

1 12

zJ

(4)

. . (3), (3)
, ' = / 2 (mod ), 0 < k < I ^.~~ ,
, 1 == (mod p), ,
(4) : /, k, k,l.
2.
. ( J (: ; , ). ,
. ( ) = 1 ,
,
) = 1, .
. f J ( ,

)
{ ).
, ,

,
f - = l (mod ],

( " " 5 " 1) ~2~ + 1 ) = 0 (mod p).

70

(
, 2 ).

-1

=l(modp),

(1)

-1

s= l(modp).

(2)


== 2 (mod p) , ,

(1).

(1),
, ~

(2).
1,
5 " = 1 (mod 29).
f-sq-l = 1 5
2

29 ( == 5 (mod29) ).
2.
3 = 5 1 (mod 29).
/ 3 \
(-gg- ] = 1 3 2

29 ( je = 3(mod29) ).
( )
, ^ (mod ), \ j = ! J .
,

.

7 1

-rb=l.
, 1 = 1 , , 1 .
-1

b = 1 .
- ^ ^
, 4 + 1 , , 4 + 3, , 1
, 4 + 1,
, 4 + 3.

,
fab.,

l\

""'

"~

*' '

\ P J

\pJ

\PJ

. :
(
I )
. . .
g. ,
. = -"" ,

-\ 5= ^ , (mod p),
2 ( d )
(3)

=1.

7 2

, - \ , -2, ~-2, . . . a - p l t u p ,
(, 5, , III);
,^, e^j, e s r 8 , e a r a
e P ) r P i , e p / f t . , . . rt, rB, .. ., ,
1, 2, . . . , , (, 4, . III),
(3)

()

=^.11,.. ePi(mod),

(f)*A...e,,.

(4)

, ,

, . . 1 = 1 .
, ,

,-(-1)1 " 1,
(4)

, . ( + )

2\
/

/'d.\

(1+2\_[* 2 ) (
I ) ~ \ I \

-(-I)"1

aJ

rP \

2 U
/

=(-l) r

73

(5) , .
.
2\

IH-D

(5) = 1.
p = 8m + s, s
1, 3, 5, 7. <Sm+f~l
+

8m2 + 2ms +

, s = l = 7

s = 3 s = 5. 2 , 8 + 1
8 + 7, ,
8 + 3 8 + 5.
q , ( )

2 _ _ ,

q 4m-f3, ,
Am + 1, :
q 4 / + ,

4 + 1 ,

7 4

, h (5)

?-~. = 1, ^ ,
, qx,

=\,
2, . . . . Pl, =1, 2
Ql.
qx = py,
, q,
(, q)=(y, q)=l ( 0 < < (?) . p^i = S 1 + S2, St
qx < S2 < qx.
, S t < -
x^.plf

j/<-^

J^y] < [ - | ] =/!).

=1

(6)

7 5

3.
.
. , ,
P = PiPi . . .
( ). , , (, )= 1.
f-^-j

\^(.)(-)
(.
) U )" U

,

. a = ai(mo<iP), ( ^ ) = ( )
,
, ^ ,
a t , . . . , ,
.

. ,

, ,

(i)
_PiPi...pr\

76

(1)

,
(...1\_(...1\
(...1\_
\
)~\"\)=

(() (\ ()() (\-

\Pl/'"\Pl
J"
'\PrJ\PrJ'
"\Pr J '
\PlJ

,
. :
(

(2)

(2)

g. Q
,
-1

Q-1

, Q = qiq2- -qs Q
( -
).

3 f^-ll ,
2<

112.

, , D d,


-1

0-1

h.
,
,
, 2.
. ,
= 219 (mod 383).
( g, b, , g, b, e, f, g, b, d):

(\(

\219J

, .

78

4.
a.
5, . IV.
b.
x'ssaOnodp"); a > 0 , (a, p ) = l ,
(1)
.
f(x) = x*~ , f () = 2,
x^sXiimodp)
" a (mod ),
(2)
(, ) = 1 (xif ) = 1 , , (21 ) = 1, .. /' (xj . (1) , 5, . IV,
(2) (1).
,
(1) ,
,
.
c.
; > 0 , (, 2) = 1.
(3)
/' (1) = 21 2, ,
5, . IV ;
:
d. (3) ,
(, 2) = 1

(, 2 ) = 1 ; (h, 2), ; 1
8. , (3)
( 1) +1= a (mod 2"),
,
a ^ l ( m o d 4 ) a = 2; a ^ l ( m o d 8 ) > 3 . ( 4 )
e. , (4) , .
< : 3 ((
. ;= (mod 2)

79

: = 1 (mod 2), * = a (mod 4)


: = 1; 3 (mod 4), 2 = (mod 8)
: = 1 ; 3; 5; 7(mod8).
= 4, 5, . . .
:
= (1+4/3)
(5)
( l + 4 / 3 = l ( m o d 4 ) ; 14/3 = 1 = 3 ( m o d 4 ) ) .
,
(5)
= a (mod 16).

,
xa = a(mod32).
(x4 + 8i4) = a (mod 32),
*4 = <; + 2<5, = ( + 16/6),
. . , > 3
, (3),

=(

+ 2-).


(3)
= ; +2-1; ; 2"" 1 (mod2a)
( 4 1,
1).
.
xa = 57(mod64)
(6)
5 7 = 1 (mod 8) .
= ( 1 + 4 / 3 ) >
1I
(l+4/ 3 ) = 57(modl6), 8/3 = 56 (mod 16),
<,sal (mod2), / 3 = 1 + 2 / 4 , x = ( 5 + 8 g ,
(5 + 8/,) = 57 (mod 32), 5 16/4 = 32 (mod 32),
* 4 =0(mod2), /4 = 2/e, x = ( 5 + 1 6 / B ) ,
!
(5 + 16/6) = 57 (mod 64), 5 32/6 = 32 (mod 64),
/t=l(mod2), /5=l+2/, x=(21+32/,).

"

(6) :
=21;

53(mod64).

f. , d :

= a (mod 2 );

(, 2 ) = 1

: ^ 1 (mod 4)
= 2, = 1 (mod8) > 3 .
, : 1 * 1; 2 = 2;
4 ^ .
g. , f , 5, . IV ;

= a (mod/);

= 2/7?'/>?' . . . /?*;

al(mod4)

= 2, a ^

-- -1

2+

(, ) = 1

(*)-

5 , : 2* 0 = 1 ; 2* + 1 = 2;
> 3 .
V

.
1. ,
axa-\-bx-\-c&s0 (modffl), (2a, m) = l
2 </ (mod ml.
2, . , $ 2, (
)
= 4-\-.
b. h, 2,

1 ' 1 (mod p)\ - - 8 ! + 5 .
c.

1 ! (mod /'): = 84-1
, N ' .

XI

d. , ,

= 1-2 . . . 1 (mod ).
3, . ,
* 2 + 1 = 0(mod/>)

(I)

, 4;+1;
x a +2==0(mod/>)
(2)
, 8 + 1
8 + 3 ;
x2 + 3==0(inod/>)
(3)
, 6m-f-l,
b. 4-\-\,
c. 6/n-fl.
4, , 1, 2, . . . , 1 ,
, : , .
, , ,
.
5, .
x s * a (mod "); (, />) = !,
* .
.
* s = a ( m o d 2 ) ; (, 2) = 1,
2.
. ,
== a (mod /><); (, ) = \
= PQ' (iTiod p a ) ,

z* a (mod p),

QQ' = I (mod />a).

7, x s e s 1 (mod/), ,
: (JC1) <-\-1) ss 0 (mod

m).

8. f J- 0 (, )

82

. (k, />) = 1 ,

. 1 ,
, + 1, : = 1,2
(

2, [ ) = ,

) 1 - ,

. (, ) = 1,

{
X

,
/>. ,

Is| <

d. Q , 1 < Q < ,

J
) , S = {p Q) Q.
) X; 0 < *, < 1. ,
=+ l0,
1, ..., 1,
S J < ( ! ' i ' l ' l i , ^ pQ~^1) , Q = [V"p], 0 < , M+2Q<p. ,

, + \
M+2Q1
.
9, . , m > 1
(, ) = 1,

>0,

>0

(1)


(2)

V|

83

, = Y~in, = 4, , . I,
, (2) Q 2 .
b. 2 3. , % >
=* + , >0, >0
(3)

zz-f-a = 0 (mod.
(4)
c. im-\-l, (k, p) \.

,
a) S (ft) .

( W l ,

( ^ = 1

10. D ,
. , :
. k
1 Dy* = k
x=xlt

X,
)

= =,=,

Y, ( -

b. ( )

(I)

=\

, .
c, * 0 , g 0 , (,
, -\-yY~5), (1), , ,
,
= 1, 2, . . .

(2)

II. > 2, (, )=.1,


-1

m t

?L

* 0
. ,
I s e , I = V~in<
I So, 1 = 0,

" = 1 ( m o d 2)
m 2 (mod 4),

2m
\sa,ml
> m s 0 ( i t i o d 4 ) .
b. (, />) = 1, Af Q , 0 < Af <
) ,
P-l .- A l ' + a x

'

> 60, ), ,
M + Q-l

) 1 0 Q o , 0 < < A f o + Q o < ; p 7" ; = , -\-\, . , . , M-\-Q 1,


, 0| 1, ,.,, Afo-)-Q I- ,
> 60

6) {, ) = \. ,
-1

Sa = I I e
) 11, , | SutP | = .
, Sa> p 6,1.
) (a, p) \. , 8
| 6 | = 1, ,
QV~P"
) 6), ,
M+

Q-l

~~\.
X) R , N , Af-fl
Af-fQ 1. ,
2

"

85

),
-1
~\ \ Af+Q-l

+ Q l M+
+ QQ-l

(t)

v) 6 ) , > 6 0 , Q = [ J p
, , Af-|-1> , . . , M-\-Q 1
.
V
1,. 23
.
. 37
.
2, . , 2
a) x a = 3 (mod 31); ) * 2 = 2 (mod 31).
. :
) = 5 (mod 73); ) * ' = 3 (mod 73).
3, . ,
a) * a = 226 (mod 563); ) ==429 (mod 563).
. ;
) 2 =3766 (mod 5987); ) * s ^ 3 1 4 9 (mod 5987).
4, . 2, ; 2, ; 2, ,
) Xs = 5 (mod 19); ) Xs = 5 (mod 29); ) "- 2 (mod 97).
. :
) = 2 (mod 311); ) 2 s 3 (mod 277); ) 2 ^ 11 (mod 353).
5, . ss59 (mod 125) ) , 4 ;
) 5, a; Y) 6.
. * = 9 1 (mod 243).
, . 2 = 41 (mod 64) :
a) d, 4; ) 5, .
, = 145 (mod 256).

VI

1.
a. (, ) 1 ?= 1 (mod/), ( ) = >().
: ,
.
b. 6,
1 = , 1 , . . .1, 6'1 .
, = *(mod ), 0 =$:&</< ~ * = 1 (modm); 0 < / & < 6 , 6.
c. ,
^^"1 (modm) ,

Y = Y' (modfi); ( i>' = 0), a v = l ( m o d m )


, .
, ' ;

q qt y = 6q + r, -JJ' = ^ + !-
6 = 1 (mod m)
"1 = ( 6 )" = ar (mod m),

d>' = ( )? ' = > (mod m).


^ aV (mod m) ,
a' = a r '(modm), . . (), 1.
d. m .
(v' = 0) <>= 1 (modm) ,
( ) . , ,
, <().
<(). ,
< () ( ),
.

2.

a. ^ 1 , 2.
b. ,
X .
, " 6.
( * ) s = I (mod ), 6 = 1 (mod/); (, 1), & ab, . . 6 .
, = 1 (mod m), (")= 1 (mod m);
(, 1), . 6 = 6.
c. ,
, (, ) \,
ab.
, .
()6 = 1 (mod ). = 1 (mod m) (, 1)
= 1 (mod/). (, 1) 66 ,
, ) = 1 6 . ,
. , (, ) 1 6
ab. , () = 1 (mod m)
(, 1), ab . 6 ab.
. .
,

Sr

(1)

, 1, 2, , . . , (1).

. q**
,
(1), , , s
: bj = aq^ . 1,-
1, 2, . . . , 1,
. b Tl/ = S/ q^s, g = T)ir)2- - q^q*'...?"* = . (d, 1)

-\.

(1) , 1, 2, . . . . \
(, 1) X = 1 (mod p);
, , 4, . IV, 1 <; .
, = 1 g
.
. g .
t , ,
(g+pt)p~1=\+pu,
.
g+pt

> 1.
,

= \ +pu,

(2)

, t, . t , . t (2)
= 1 +2,

, . . . , .
g + pt " .
(g-\-pt)6=a I (modp"), , ,
g * = l ( m o d p ) . (, 1 ) 6 1 ,
(d, 1) ( ) = ~ 1 ( 1 ) ,
= ~ 1 ( 1), 1, . . . , .
(2) (3) ,

(g+pty-1 (*-== 1 (modp*)


= < , (d, 1) =
~1(1) = ( ) g+pt

.
f. > 1 u g
. g0 g g+ pa
2,
, () <(2)
( (2 ) = <(2){ ) = <( ));
. , g = l ( m o d p a ) g j j s I (mod 2p a ) -

89

(gj1 2),
g 0 '*
<,

=
< g 0 2\
3.
2
2"\
^ 1, ,
:
= (/) qlt qa
qk~
. g, , , , g

S.

g*'==I(modm), g * ' = I ( m o d m ) , . . . , g**2=s i (mod/).


(1)
, g
,
, , (1)
.
, , g
(1). , g, , , q
--, 4- = ?,
= , g i ^ l (modp), . , = g .
1. / = 41. <p(41)=40 = 2 3 -5,
40

40

-ij- = 8, - j = 2 0 . , g,
41, 41, , g
g^=l (mod41),

*=1 (mod41).

(2)

90

, 2, 3, 4, . . . , ( 41)
28=10,

2 =1,

38=1,

4 " = 18,

4 =1,

5 8 ==18,

68=10,

5 =1,

6 ==40.

, 2, 3, 4, 5
, , , (2). 6 ,
(2).
2. / = 1 6 8 1 = 4 1 .
,
. , ,
2. ( 1),
41 6,
6*= 1 + 4 1 (3 + 41/),
( 6 + 4 ) 1 0 = 1 + 4 1 (3 + 41/
41, ^ = 0. 1681
6 + 4 1 - 0 = 6.
3. = 3362 = 2-1681.
,
. , f,
2. ( 2),
1681 6,
3362 6, 6 + 1681,
. . 1687.
4.

a. , a ^ l ; m
2; = (/), g

.
b. v
= 0, 1
1 , g
.
, g"1 ,
, , 1, .
c. , , , -

9 1

; ,
.

a = gv (mod m)
( ^ 0),
g
= ind (, = ind ? a).
b , , '
V = 0, 1, . . . .

-\.

', ;
, 1

V = v' (mode).

,
.
d.
indab.. J = inda + i n d b + . . . + ind I (mod)
, ,
ind an = ind a (mod ).
,
a ss gl"d ( m 0 ( j m) b = glnd b
, ,
ab.. ./ = g i n d n + l n d ( l + - + I n d ( ( m o d m ) .
, ind a + ind b+ ... + ind / ab...l.
.
(, )
. ;
, .

92

( )
( ) = >() = 1.
.
= 41. ( 1, 3), 41 g=6; . (
41):

6 2=5 1
6 ==10 6 1 6 =18 2 4 ^ 16
6 ' = 6 6' = 1 9 6 " = 26 1 5 = 14
6 = 3 6 10 = 32 1 8 = 33 2 ' = 2
6 s = 11 1 1 = 28 19 = 34 6 " = 12
20
28
6* = 2 5 1 2 ^ 4 = 40 = 31
IS
51
= 2 7 6 = 24 = 35 6 = 22
6 = 3 9 = 21 6 = 5 6 = 9
= 29 6 1 = 3 6 = 3 0 6 = 13

3 2 ^ 37
33 = 1 7
6 =20
35 = 38
36 = 23
6" = 1 5
6'8= 8
63>= 7


41,
? 0

1=2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0
0
1 8 3
2 34 14
3 23 2S
4 20

26
27
29
\0

15 12 22 1 39
31 25 37 4
36 13 4 17 6
18 19 1 2 32

38 30
9
7
35 6

16
1!

5, g = 6

2 3
6 36
28
35
13 37

25 27 39 29 10 19
2! 18 26 33 34
16 14 2 12 31 22
20 38 23 15

,
(). ,
, ().
, ind25 ,
2 5, . .
ind25 = 4. , 33,
, 3
3, . . 33 = ind 17.

93

5.
a. ; 5=1,
, 2 , , c = q>(m).
b. (, c) = d; :
1.
" = a (mod ); {, ) = 1
(1)
( ) , inda d.
d .
2.
-j .
, (1) :
nind^^inda(modc),

(2)

, Inda
d (d, 2, . IV).
(2) d indx; d
.
, 1.
0, 1, . . . , 1, , 4 d. 2.
1.
* 3 =23(mod41)
(3)
(8, 40) = 8, ind23 = 36 8.
(3) .
2.
1 2 ^ 37 (mod 41)
(4)
(12, 40) = 4, Jnd37 = 32 4. (4) ,
4 .
.

94

(4) :
12indx = 32(mod40),

ind x = 6 (mod 10).

indx 4 40
:
indx = 6, 16, 26, 36,
4 (4)
=.39; 18; 2; 23(mod 41).

3.

1, 4, 10, 16, 18, 23, 25, 31, 37, 40,

(5)

4,
( 4, 12,
28, . . . , (, 40) = 4),
41. (5)
10 = ^ .
. , 1 .

,

aT=l(modm).

(6)

, inda=0(modd)

: -jinda = 0 (mode).

(6).
.

g 1 (mod m) , g
q no . ,
g 8 = 1 (modm) , g
(. , 2, . V).
d.l. , , (ind a, ) = -^-; ,
(ind , ) = 1.
2.
, , (); , q>(c).

95

, 6 = \ (modm).
6* ind a = 0 (mode),

inda = 0 ( m o d 4 .
, 6* ,
ind a, , ind a,
. . 4- = (inda, ). 1.
0, 1, . . . , 1, , 4- ,
0, 1, . . . , 1 . (#, < = - | -
{, ) = 1; () . 2.
1. 41 , 10, 40
(ind a, 40) = - = 4, . .
4, 23, 25, 31.
4 = q>(10).
2. 41
(inda, 4 0 ) = 1, . .
6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 19, 22, 24, 26, 28, 29, 30, 34, 35.
16 = (40).
6.

a. 2 .
b. < = 1. 2 = 2. q> (2) = 1. 2 , , 1 =
535
1 (mod 2). 1= (1)= 1
2.

96

c. =2. 2 = 4. <(4)=2. 4 ,
, 3 =
=I(mod4). (1)"=1, (l) 1 = 3(mod4)
4.
d. . 2 > 8 . (2) = 2~1.
, ; : ,
2 , 2~3 =
= ( 2 ) . ,

, = 1 (mod 2 ).
, 2~2,
. , , 5. ,
5=1+4,
5=1+8+16,

, 51, 5 , 5 4
5 "
1 2".
, :
5,
5,

5\
-51,

...,
...,

* 1 1 " 8 - 1
5'1*-1-1'


2 .

, 2 . 2 - = (2 );


2 (, 1); ,
,
4 1, 1 .
. , , d ,
= 0.

97

=1> = 1 ,
= 0, = 1 ;
= 2, = 2- 2 , > 2
( 0 = (2 )), Y Yo

Y= 0

1 ; Yo = 0, . . . . 0 1

0 . (l) v 5v 2.
f.
(1)
,
, < = 0 .
, > 0. Y Yo
0, ' Yo ' rj. ,
1 {1 , 5
0 ), (1)
, (1)' 5 = (l) r ' 5 r (mod 2 a ), . . ( )
= ', = ||.
g.
= ( l) v 5v(mod2 a ),
Y, YO
2 .
, 2 (. . ), ', '
= (2 ) Y> YOI .
Y\ YOI
; f Yi YOI

Yo = Yo (mod ).
,
Y, Yo 2 .

98

II

h.
.
, (), (); . . . ; ( 0 . Y(0
, ..., I.
, . ./ = (

, () + . , . +(1),

...

()+ ... + Yo(0

7.
a. m = 2apfipft,. .* . , , 6; , = ( " 0 ; g, p " J .
b.

as(l)V5v.(mod2 a ),
a ES gl' (mod pf i)
aisEg^modp*),

*'

, y0, ylt ..., yk .


, , 0
2 , Yi, > Y*~
?>, . . . , **. (g, 6; ,
4) , (
2, ?>, . . . , *), ', ', ' , Y* ,.. .ck =
= ( ) , 0, ylt . . . , , , Yi Yo> Yi i Y*
, 0 , c l f . -., ,
, , . . . , ,
Y = vi (mod ),

(mod c 0 ),

Yi YO> YI> < Y*


(1),

99

(, 3, . IV),
.
. , 0, , ...,
2", pft, ..., *, :
, 0,
, , .
. = ( 2 ) < 2 = ( 2 ) > 2
h , cv ,.., ck.
, , = 1
2 , ?<, ..., *, ,
.
. ,
h < ( ) . > 2,
k > 1, = 2, k = 1. m > 1 = 2,4,
pft, 2pfi.
( 6, 2).

,
, 1,
= 2, 4, ,

2.

.
,

, , , . . . , *
( , 0 , ..., ^).
1. 8.
= 2, c, = 2'~ J = 2 N
8
?=(l) T 5fo(mod8), 0, 1
( ) 0
0, 1 ( 0 ).

(,
5=1
5 = 7 (mod 8),

(O,
1

5 = 5,
51^3(mod8).

100

II

Yo

2. 40. 40 = 8-5,
N 40
0
8 1, Yi 5, . .

N
Yi

1
0

| 1


40:

11

13

17

19

Yo

Yi

21

23

27

29

31

33

37

39

Yo

Yi

3. 9
18. <(9) =
= 6 = 2-3. 5 -

101

9, 5 2 = l ( m o d 9 ) , 5" = 1 (mod 9).


( 9):
5 = 1 , 5 1 5 , 5 = 7, 5 3 ==8, 5 4 = 4, 5 6 = 2,
, 9
N

Vi

' 12

18
N

1!

13

17

Vi

4. 21.
21=3-7, N 21
Yi 3, . .
N

Vi

Ya 7, . .
N


21:
N

YI

10

11

13

!6

17

19

20

102

VI
.
1, . , > 1. ,
1 1 2-\-1.
b. , > 1. , + 1 + 1 2/>+1.
c. 2 + 1 .
d. , > 0. ,
2 " " + l 2 + 1 + 1 .
2, , > 1, , > 0. ,
< (1) .
3, . , > 1. 1,2, . . . ,

1, 3, 5, . . . , 2, , 1 , 3 , . . . , 4, 2;
1, 5, 9

7, 3

. .,
1, 3, 5, . . . , 1 , , 2 , . . . , 4, 2;
1, 5, 9, . . . , 7, 3
. . , k-
, 2 * = 1 (mod2I).
. , > 1 , m, m > 1.
1, 2, . . . , 1 ,
2, 1 ,
2 . . 1-, (+1)-, (2+1)- . ., . . .
, Jt-
,
/*== 1 ((12 1).
4, =- 2, d, 5 , * I (mod ) ( 10, , . IV) , 4, . .
5, . ,
2" + 1 , > 1, 3.
b. ,
+ 1 4 + 1 2, 4 + 3 2.
c. ,
4/J+1 2.
d. ,
2+1
6, . )

> 1
,

>
>0,

3.

S = 1" + 2 S + . . . +( 1)".

VI

,
S s s ~ ! (moip),
SssOOnodp)

1,
.

) 9, , . V ,

SO)(
. , , 4.
7. g ,
l(modp1). (, ) = 1 , ;
ind. a s s a i n d g a ( m o d

p1),

8. > 1, (, ) =!.
)
m-l^t
-=0 =0

-ait -*.

"i

, | S | < )/"AKm.
P) 2 '

s 0, 1, . . . , 1,
, 1,

, | S I ^ K y'TfT, if
" = 1 (modm).
) m=2 t VJ 1 .../> A * .
, )
x " s I (modm) 2 * + 1
0{),
.
9, . (, )(, />) = !, , 1,
| | = 1 . 0< ] < ,

104

,
3

. (, /)) = 1, , || nn| | =
= nnl fl f 0 < ! < , Q
,
< M
M-\-Q

, 0 < <.
+ Q < . > 60 ,

. (, ) = 1 , Qo, 0 < < A f o + Q o < / ? ,


Q, 0 < < Af-[-Q<p, , | | = 1 0 < 1 < ,
", x=M0, Af o +1, -..,
Mo+Qo1,
, / + 1 , ...,M-\-Q 1.
, > 60

T=-^f-+Q 4 njp~ (In /7)=; | |< 1.


VI
1, . ( ) , 7 43.
. , 5 \08.
2, . 17, 289, 578.
b. 23, 529, 1058,
c. 242.
3, . 17.
. 23.
4, . 71,
, 5.
. 191.
5, . ,
:
) ^ 79 (mod 97), ) = 17 (mod 97). ) " = 46 (mod 97).
.
a) 3* 1 2 =a31 (mod 41), ) 7:? = 11 (mod 41), ) 5 ^ = 37 (mod 41).
6, . ,
) **559 (mod 67), ) *= 17 (mod 67), ) ? 14 (mod 67),
b.
) 2 3 * * = 15 (mod 73), ) 37*0 69 (mod 73),
V) 44*" = 53 (mod 73).
s, a. , 5,

) 3 = 2 (mod 37), ) * l e =3l0(mod37).


.
a) x s E53(mod7l), ) A ^ S S S (mod 71).

VI

105

8, . ,
19 : ) , ) .
. 37 :
) 15, ) 8,
9, . 43 :
) , 6, ) .
. 61 :
) , 10, ) .
10, :
) 2. ) 4. ) 10. ) 12. ) 15. ?) 16. ) 25.

VII

1.
. , cOl clt ...,
, , 7, . VI, a R, Ro,
Rlt
. . . . Rk -

#=1,

/?" = !, # " ' = 1 , . . . . Rck=\*).

(, ) = 1

zde V. 7. Vi> . .
(, ) > 1 % () = 0.
( ) .
b. R = Ro = # ! = . . . = Rk= I, % ()
; I
(, ) = 1 0 (, ) > 1.
c. ,
.

2.
. :
*) ) = 1.
) X(flA)~X(fli)x(eO.
7) == a, (modm) % (,) = (2).
*) ( ? = 1

" ; 5 0 , 1 , .. . , 1 .

107

, ) (1), 1, 1. (^,, ) = \ ) (1),


1 , 7, . VI, (^, ) > 1
0 = 0. , )
, 7, . VI.
b. <(/).
, , 1
cCffy.. ,ck . <(/)> 1 , ' ( ) " (),
R' R"
R, #> ! #* , , ,
R' R", 1, %' () = R', %"() = R".
' () ,"() .
c.
1
~
I (/) ,
\
0 .
="
, (1), 1,
=0

Vi

Yfc

, Ym 7i> > 7t , 0 , clt ..., .


()

,

OCQCI ( ) %() ,
R, Ro, Rlt . . . , Rk
1
.
.
d. (/) ,

[ (/) a =5l (modm).


ZJX\ ) |
Q
.
, (, ) > 1,
() = 0.
= 1 (modm), . . Y = YO = Y I . . . = 7 t = 0;

108

), , 2 , 2.
(, )\, , 1 , . . ,
7 - 7i> > * ',
. (1), 1

, , ', .
.
:
) () % (), %0() ()
.
) () %() , ( ) X ( ) .
) (I, ) = 1
(fl

j ()

(0

a^l(modm),

, /?', R'o, R'u ..., R* R, Ro,


Rlt ..., Rk ,
() % (). %()%() ,
R'R, R'vR,,, R'iRlt .., R'kR/,. ,
R, Ro, Ru ., R/, , R'R, R'ORQ, R'lRi
R'kRi, .
) ) .
, /' '^ 1 (modm),

2* (0 " 2* (')
t

~ 2L * ^

| (/)

a = /(mod

7) .

1 0 9

f. i|>(a), :
) |) () = 0, (, ) > 1,
) |)() ,
)

) 4 ( I A ) = 1 ' W 1 K ) .
a

) ' ( i) =' ( 2). fli = (mod m).


, ) ,,
|)(0) . a o = a o -l 7)
^t>(ao) = i|>(a o )-i|)(l). ,
1)>(0), |(1) = 1.
(, )=\. ' a a ' = I (modm), ) ty () |> (') = 1. , |> ()
.

/, (/) ,

at,''

Zu

a>

='

(d), Ua = q>(m) a = l ( m o d m ) ^ = 0
, = (/), ,

=
Vv . aL (1, )=1
V

V () =

Xo ( ^ I )

) , ^(aL) ui ( a i) 1. <(5) = 4
5 ( ,
5).
1 = 1

t_

5 ( 2)
N

, 0 , PL p 2 , p s ,
N

Xi

Xs

2. (21) = 2-6 = 12
21. RCl R*,= l
2 : /?1 = "

; s = 0, 1, RCa

/?;,= ! 6 : RCl = e

; s = 0, . . . , 5.

VII

, - 12 RCt RCa, ( 4, , 7, . VI):


N
X
N

Re,

Re,

Rl.

Re,
1

Rl.

18

19

20

Re.

Rl.

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Re,

Re

<

Rl

Rl.

17

Rl.

Re,

Rl

,
-
/, 21, RCl RCi,
N.
VII
1. ()

p l
R = e
~
Rp~1=\
(, , , ( X () (X ())~ 1 ),
) (k, p) = 1 ,

2
Q , 1 < Q < ,

JtsO

2=0

, S~(p Q) Q.
2, ( ) .
U ,-

[)

) (. /))="1 , J(j' u ,p| ^


t / a / J = 1 .
fj) () (, ) = 1.

112

) /? = 4//

| 1 (,

1~4),

(. 9. 9, . . V), = -\-1,
, S = J 4 | B

6) 1, 1 < < 1, v = , (, )\,


, xs ind^Hss(mod ). ,
."
' i

2je
x

P = _ v + e s ( l - v ) Vp; |6,| = 1.

s
3. n, > 2, (, /) = 1,

je ,
(. 12, d, . III).
) 6 = (, 1). ,
|SfllPK(o-l
P) s, 1 <s<,n,

(, p) = l. ,

7) , s > . ,
) ,
\Sa.m\<Cml~,
.
4. Q , 0 < < M + Q-^,
.
) ,
M+Q-I

> 60, % ()

113

VII

) 1,1 < < I, v = , >36/ ,


, xs indxjss=s(modrt). , xs,
, . . , , \-Q 1,

) (J) ,
Q\bnY]
, ..,, 1|-Q 1
xs.
6) 1
,
At, . . . . At + Q 1. ,

) Afj Qj, 0 < < M1-\-Q1*S,p1, /


iudM, . . . , ind(M + Q 1),
Mlt . . . , Mi-\-Qil, ,

)) 0 :
> . 1, 1 < < 1,
< ; = (1) , = 2

".

5. > 1, (, i)=il, , > , ' .i"==l (modm)

, % () , ,

S < V".
. g- , , (, ) = 1, * 1 u S = V e

114

(1) Q , 0 < < M-\-Q<p.


,

VII
I. :
) 2. ) 4. ) 8. 6) 9. ) 10. )) 40.

,
M-\-Q 1,

I
1. -\- d, '-\-'
d, . d
-\- , , -\--0=
a-0-f * - 1 = . , d ,
d. d = ( a , b)
1, d, 2. , 2 :
-\- 0 + \
"*+-*"

- -\~- -

.
2. = 2 . > 2
, . .
, , , 1 o = o a p +
< < , ft = i a p + *i> 0 < i j < . , 2, 1
, . .
i*i = P"t* m .
1 \ , . ,
1
, .
3, . ,

uQs+i
QsQs+i
; > 6.

=1,618...;

0, 2, ...;

116

2< 5+2;

<5*+1.

4, . 0 - 1 = I .

-\-
g- AD = 1 '
(B-fD)B(A + C) = (A + C)D-(B

+ D)C^

1.

, . -j- < - <~ > ' < * .



I

-~ W'

I *"

Ibd

>

bd'

, , 0 < < I.
- - < < , -
, -
. :


1
b(b+d)'
b-\-d>% .
. , = - -

* < , -=- .

,
Ps
-- , , ^ < Qs+i5, . 4 1
3. 4/ + 1 4m-f-1.
ipi ... 1,
/, 4m-j-3,
4/+.
. . . , .
. , 3, 6 + 1
6 + 5 . 6 p j . . . p ^ 1, , . . . , /; 6 + 5 ,
q 6 + 5. q 1 ..., ^.
. 1 , . , , pft- N
2 < N, (3 In N)* < N. 1, 2
N,
a p*1...pkli,

117

;".. ,
1 2.

!-+1) < (3 In N)k < N.

In 2
}
1, 2, . . . , N , , \, . . . , .
7. ,
8. , *=> f U) > 1
/' () > 0, / (0) = X. ( X)
f(xB+Xt);
( = 1, 2, . . .
9. . (1) , , ,
;

(+

, , I -, ^ - \ = 1, v
+

, .
.
. .
, ,
*+* , > 0, > 0, > 0, (*, #, ) = 1 ,

. , * 2 = 2, ^2 = /2,
> /Sf 1, (, ) = 1, v ( ^ = 4 # + 1,
U* = 4N1, * = 4JVs+l, 4JV+l=4JVi4JV 2 1, ).
u = zf, = 22, j a - f - t o 4 = z}1 2sn2 = 2u1yi, U! = xi, 4! = ^?,
*i + yi = Zi, zt < .
* -* ? ,
, x 4 + y 4 = <4
, , t.
10. = --; (k, 0 = 1 ,

kn+a1k"-4+...

+ / = 0.

" I , , 1=\.
, . * 2 ' < , . 2ll~1PS
, , 2 S - 1 P ,
.
. k 3 * < 2 + 1
6 ,

118

2 + 1 . 3*~lAS , ,
3k~1P , .
12. < 8 .
,
> 8 +,
(-\-)%, ..., (-)-ft)"" 1 ,
( + ) . , 1,

(1)
( 1) . . . 2
1 '
2
' " 1-2 . . . (1)*
,
, ,
,
. ,
n = 2 n x + l ,
1

( 1)

'

1(11) ... 2

'

" "

1-2 . . . (nt 1) -

< ,
2*1, . . 2(2*1)+1
= 2*+> 1.
II
I, . y = f[x) *
[/ ()] .
b. 1 + = , Tv ,

Q

0<<,

0<</<Q-*;
Q

<

c .
7\, ,, ,, 4

~,

II
d. r ^ T j + Tj,,

(^,

0<xs-l;

, , ,
, .
.

.
2. , ,
[].
", ;

3. .
[ax]<,N

|-.; 0 < < ,

[$] < N
^-+. ( ) < ; * . ! < 4-
+ . + ^ - + .1 = , N

, N

" - = ' -

=-- ( > > 0) [6] = [( )\.


.
. . xt^+l

#=-7 + -

* > , > - , [] ,
*> [($#] , yt; 0 < | < 1,
0 < | < 1, | |. xt-\-yt = c+k+r\

'. ~

= 1. [axt]

] .
4,. {*/} > 0
{*,}, { U J *i)}

{a(v,A t _i)}. {-<W(}.

, 1, t + 1 .

. . < . {'} = ' ', '

120

0 < \' | < ' [']. , ft


1 1 , ' > 0, |'hy' | <
< . , ( Q hx'
hy' (hx\ ft/),
|

( 3

_ | < 1 ;

.
. <= [tx], <a = [tsl, . . . . / * = [] Xx.Xj, . . .
. . . . /,
Xl

= 0, 1, . . . ; tii

* = 0, 1

<3; . . . ; * = 0, 1

tk,

, {a-iXi-\-a2xi-\-,. .-]-/,) I. , , (<i+I) X


X ( ' + ' ) tffc+ 1) .

1+1) 2 + 1 ) . - * + ! )

,...-

{ 1 1+ *+ . . .-{-^, Xi, , . . . , * *
\[ | < T i , | * | 2
||<^,
. [01*1 + 05^3+ . . . +] '
l t |
*> ) xi, * s , . . .
.... ', ' ([, . . . , ', '),

-... -(-?*nl <

.
5. a=-cq+r + {a}; 0 s : r < c ,

,.

[a+p+...+] = [a]+[P]+.. .

. !, !, . . . , /!

121

7. , ,

+1

= ?** + <?-IPM- + <7iP +<7+?':


< qn < , 0 < ? _ ! < , . . . . 0 < ? 1 < , 0*? < , 0 < ? ' < .
, 1
s = l , 2, . , . ,
h
,
8,. *!, Q-Sa < , < < (3 < * j + 1;

= () / ()- () / ( ) - ()
, Q<xlt
' '

xl+\<,R,
1

^'

.
.
R
Q <x< R

.
. ,

In 1 + 12+.

9,, ) (, 1)

1,
(, s, )

122

> 0, s > 0, 0 < u i i - , ,


s , ( 1 / ) ; , ,
(*)
) =2 ),

| -^ I /, ([n] = 2m, [] = 2 + 1 )

) ( ) 8,)

= [] 1[]-[]-2 [ | ] In [ 4 ] +2 [ ] +([) =
= 12 + 0(1).
, ,sss2 ( ))

/ ' /""~\

I <2

{
-/)+-{-0

123

II

b. (1), , (5) 8,.


c. b

^!,

< <1

">>

< < "

, + < < / > + ! < 8


+1 > (1 + ),

.
d. , ,
.
v ( r ) =

()=

\,

, ( )
\. > 1
(/) = In In ( 1) + () ( 1),
V

' .4-

<<
r

(8, )
1 < <

V
I<

Y1
Z*

<

1(1)
<

()(1)
In

1 < <

124

e.

ta

ne0-ih-S7-L(5rhpr+-)-C-lnln. +

O^).

. , ' = 10, .
f. n = [l,5slns] () , , 9, , ) ( )
n In 2 /
s, s0 . ,
ps sS^ s0 , .
g. , . . . , qs .
: 2-3-4 . . . (s-j-l)<a, ( 8, )
(s + l ) l n ( s + l ) + O ( s + l ) < ! n c ,

s = 0 (Ina).

( t)

9i / \

%)

'"

Is

(In ps) = 0 (In In a).

10, . d, 2.
. 9(i) = i | ) ( l ) = l I, , 2 9 ()
. ^-

.

2 2

(1)

2, , 2 ,
, d-ius < 6 (d\di) = b (di) 9 (d s ). (1)
6 (! 8 ) = 0 (fli) 0 (2), . . 2, , 2
^, . 2, , 2
, 1. , .
11, . > 1; , ^ . . . _1*=

tm-i{

) .

II

125

, d =

. ,

()= 2 xm_!(d).

( 10, ) %,-.-[(),
().
! () = 1 ,

. ( ),

s=0

1-2 . . . m

, + ( ).

8 ( ) (

~j~ ) ,

.
. = 3 , e a = 2rj, = ' . . . p*ft , . . . . /,
. () = . ()

o,Ti

, < 1, ,
, ,
1

^~

> 2 1, ,

,.-111

= [ I

> 2, , , ( ) < (()).

d. ...,,

, [] 1, 2, . . . , [],
xt ... ;
\ ().

126

12. R (s) > 1 , (s), .


] . . . = ().
IS, . R (s) > 1 J J

= JH~"-

1__

raj

N > 2

0 < <

, N. N >- < ,
(s), .
. N > 2, , ,
Pi, ...,> > (. )

< <

1+-^- +
-^-+... N ,

. , 4Hceflj p l t . . . , , ,
( )
*

5 (2) -^ .
14. R (s) > 1 (s)
13, .

127

. ,
=

U$ ^\~P "~'~P ~W~"')^~~'5L

~ I

15. N > 2. , 4,
/,

< N

1\

v-

() . v"4' I* ( )

< <

, N. N > .
16, . , 4
6 = 1, 2
[], / = 1 , 1, . . . , 1 .
, , S' = l. Sa 6,
d, . . I - I.
, ) n(d), (d, u)
d > 0 , 0 < < - , , ,

ft)
(

. 1 = []; 6i, 6 a , , . . , 6 , : 6^
, 1- s, fs= 1. S' 1 =TttK,
Sa , , , . .

" 1

\~\ ' *-* 7j,.


, (2)=- Ti>n , , 1,

17, . , 4,
8, = ( ), /, = /(*,).
. , 4,

6,=(4 S1

. fs-fU"

4").

1 2 8

. , 4

6-6!,

6,

d.

2
/6

2 (
Ah

18, . 17, ,
1,2, . . . , / () .
b.

.
1, . . . , , , , . ,
, , <().
.
d\tt

19, . 17, ,
1, 2, . . . , [*) f(x) \. S' = TZ, Sj
, , d, . , S^ I -

.
d\a
.
20. 17, ,
1, 2, . . . . N, N > , f{x) = .

N .

II

129

21, . 17, ,
,
...,
/ ( * i , xt

xk)l.

PN=

, S r f = \~j\

. -

. I ,

Pf/ = (t{kj)-1+O{\);

= - k > 2, =

. (2) = .
22, . ,
3
a
a
(u, v) u + u ^ p ; > 0, (0, 0),

+ ( ) . 17, ,

, -\-*^ ,
(0, 0),
/*, #) = ! TS'-\-\, Sj
u s + " 3 = ( - ) . (0,0).

. ,

23, . d = " ' . . . * .


, 1, , (

) ; p,(d) = ( 1 ) ,

. , .
< ft.

-<-) ((.*,)-(.!.)+)

130

k
k
, *,- > 0, >
*
2
fl

;=0. m , < <0, > < 0 .


c. , , 4,
.
d. , 17, .
24. d a, Q (d)
d, Q(a) s. , ( ' )
a {d) < m
d

(tf) <

u{d)>m

....

, : ,

--2

nm +
+ ll
n-m

4-Y
^

i \ /

<C,^-r

* = ().

25. dj a dj < \^~


dt > )^~, dids = a.

22
if,

d\a

11

131

26. d, , 1,
(d) = ft, ,
d\ 2dj.

)+(2< = 0.

27. , . . . ,
.
. . . .,
<) = (/>1-1)...0>-1).
, , plt . . . , /,,
() = 1.
28. . s6; s== 1, 2,.... - j - .

(s6, a) = 6 , Is, -^- \ = 1 {, 2, . 1).


, ,

, ) a = p'...p"ft
() ,

> 0

d\a

29. ( )
\_

>
1
30.

d-=x

S(s-l
(s)

III
1,,
, 1 0 = 1 (mod 9),
= +,,_
H i (md 9).
, 3 , ,
, 3; 9 ,
9,
, 10=ai I (mod 11),
, 11 ,
, ( ) ,
, , 11.
.
1 (mod 101)
101 , (&1+&)
(&!+* + ...) 101.
.
= 1000-+c n _i 1 0 0 0 - J + . . . + c 1
1000 1 (mod 37)
= + _ ! + . . . + (mod 37).
37 , + _ 1 + . . . +
37.
1 (mod 7-1)
+ . . . ) - ( c , + c 4 +...)(mod7.11.13).
7, 11, 13 ,
(Ci + c s + . . . ) ( C J + C J + , . . ) ,
2, ) ,
a*-f-i ; + 0, 1, . . . . 1.

J
{E\Jy
\

{mV)

18, , . II,

111

133

3, . / + [\
.
-1

< ( / ) < + ; ={}. m<2ft+l .


> 2+1.
\

= 8 (),
m

< ( ) < i r = m [ft+e], . . . . m 1 ;


.

Is",

"-

.
m-l
2=0

'

, =|,|.
.
.

, = 1 + ^ - .

.
4. . Qn=Q' , ,
( 4, , . I)

m < Q n + i < ( ? + ! + 1 ) Qnes;CQn, ,


?j + 1 , '
H'Q' s m ' < . 3, ,

Al+W'p'-i

{Af + B}-ltf'Q' <-|c.

134

1 = H'Q', m t > 0,
Q" " ,
Q' ',

Jt=M,
s

Ms=Ms_l+Ifi >QW.
mlmlH"Q'
> 0,
V4

. .,

^ = 0.

+ -1

~
Q', Q", ,.., Q(*)
( 3, . I) fe=O(lnm) , , ,
, .
,
5, . , , S. = 3 .
< 4 0 . > 40.
AIi = [Q + l ] . <ii, ml,

iW2 = iVft + /nt, > m a , 8 ;


iVfg = iVfs+ms, , m8, 9j, . .,
Ms+1 = M3-\-ms 0<^[]Ms+i < 1 ].
3, ,

</'(*)

, -

. ,
mi
tn
2
<g

| 1 mlt m2
ms. at , .

135

III

""~

'

""

m l t > . . . , m s .
1, 2, , . . , [],

<2

+..

!/W}-4-(^-i

\Q<*<R
, 6 () = {/(.) + 1 }{/(*)},
<2.

= ( (;)
{ / ()} < 6 () lo, a { f (x)} =
= . |(1 <)1|>() ( Q ())| <2.. i .
, . 1, , . II.
4

2 ,

-=

T '
( 8, , . 11, 5, )

vf
\).

136


. ( I I , d 1, d, . II)

) = 2 < x< J T [ 1 L\ V"]''


L

>64. X < <. ~ ,


= 2

'<2.

, (In n) <
/ ( * ) = , <^'

( S, )

2-1

<<'{ }

{ \=*-(')+(
*

Inn),

( 8, , . II)

<

rt3 (lnrt) 2 )=/t(lnn + 2 1) + O ( n 3 (Inn) 1 ).


.

J_ J_ J_ J_ J_

' 2* 3 ' 4* 5 ' 6 ' ....

2"

L
4

6'

...,

J_

_1_

3*
6 ' ...
, N. 0 <
<a<N
{) . ,
DO ,
<< N

, s-ro <^ '.

1 3 7

III

, ,
9 < s < if

, (1) 1=\.
, (1) -
/, , / / + 1 .
((1))'
1

( (2))' ((3)) i ( (4))'


4
2
'
3
(4
2 " '
4
( (3))'

( (5))' ( (6))'
5
'
6
( (6))'
6
( (6))'

, N, ,
,
0< <

, s-ro

+-

, ,

, (1)
I / + 1.
d. / = 1 (2) . , (2)
- /, , I
/ + 1 .

() <.
, ,

() .

< < '

, s-ro
< ( (s)) (( (1))' + . . . + ( (IA's-i]))') < ( (s))' -^ (In ') 2 '" 1 .

138

( ) ,
,
)
0<SJV

, (2)

1 + 1.

7. s , 2' . s
, 2 , .
. ,
, , ,
2.
8, .
,
1 1
, = 3"--3' ~ -|-,. .-f-3-f-l, ,
, , _ ] , . . . , xi, $ 0, 1, 2, .. 0, 1,..., 2.
. m ^ j . - . m ^ ,
! . ..mj,,


= xi;
9 (mod ffl
..
9, . mim 2 ...m* , ^., .,

( , MSf ms)
M,xs = ^'$ (mod m f ), x f = Xs(modm f ),

Xj

b. ( (mi) (5).. .
, 12., .in/,,
(AfjX! -f JW S X 2 +
\- Mf,xk, ms) = (Mtxsi
ms) = 1,
m\tni...mi,. MiJCi+Al s x a -f .. .-\-^1
,...,

"ii,/ns,... ,tfi, mim a .../%.
mimj...m t ,
(
) (
m3) = . . . = {, ) = \. (.. .) =
()()
()
()
d. 1, 2,..., ,
, , , . .

139

III

, 2
1. (/7) = / ! ' . ( () ( () .
10,
i i i

I *ft A _ /

b. j " 1 ' ^

^)i) 1

""'+...+

'

JOT
ax ( M i i + . . . + M | i i t , . , , , Mitt)i-|-...

+\

'"ft

f fff (JT,.. . , OlH

. . <
\ .
.
11, . , ,

, ,

sinn(a)

-\

(a) ft*


m
T

m<m

i n

l n

m<

140

, 2+1 ,

v*

. 2+ 1

= --5'=~ mln/n

> ^ 1 2 > m
12, . = " ' . . . * .
" 1 = 1 , ...,/7 f t * = m 4 , 10,

, = 1

4 > 1, ms=psn^,

m-l
, m, w > 1. 2

aJI

( JL
m

= 0 . -

1 = 0

(, m) d
|J f ) .
.
8 -i-

, m = mod,

III

141

0 d< 1 d=tn. .
d. 10, .
e.
A (mi) ... () = - 2 S 5 , . . . sab. '
*
" *
. . . , &
mi, , ">* ( d)
.
.
13, .
|, ,
) .
. , ,

i\a

x=0

, = 0, 1, . . . , 1,
<().
14. , , -, , 1, , , , 0.
.
, 6, . . ().
15, .

s (mod /?),
. .
b. ftj=ftj= . . . = f t o s = l ,
c. (, ) \. Nu Nt, ...,Na

aP'?-
(p")s ,( m o d pa)i

m = p ! ' . . . /74* .
> ('") . 1 (mod /7?')

e ( m il{modm).

^ > 1 (mod / # ) ,

142

IV
1, .
11, , . III.
. d , = 4.
(, m) = d .

2 J 2 J

*>d2J

a 0 0 .
m,l

m . i

^ =d ' 2 2
' 2

"

=( 0 ).

. > 0, (, m) = d, a = ajd, m = mtfL, T


oxs=b (mod m).

=0 -=0

=0 j;=0
^ , ~ S I t '~2"' f "id, t d,
= m >, e
=.(
I 0
.
a ^ 0

d. (a, m) = dj, (6, dj) = d a , . . . . (/, d f _i) = (i f , m = dimly


idztnt, . . . . d f _ i = d , m f , d = dr,
m-1 m-1 m-1
^ 1 'CT 'CT

rp
'

ZJ

ZJ

ZJ

m-1
"VI
Zi

( + ^ + +/M+f)
m

= 0 i = 0 (/=0
=0
<f,-lm-l
m-1 . a. (!>!/+.. +/+)

=2 2 - 2

"

e. . d
.
(2)
(I, m)==do. (2) +
+ . + / t l l + f 0 (mod do)-
, g d', d' (a, .... f. dt) = (l, a,...
..., f, m), do~1d' . ,

IV

143

(2) , g &',
dra~ d' (-j~ ) dB = mrd' . ,
+ 1 . . , .
2, . ( ! 1 1 (modm), -{)-1 (mod m).
.
= *-2...(l)(raod/7),
, 1-2...(1), ,
, ) , 6
EeO(mod4). 2 2, b .
6 ^sft
. .
= ( m o d m).
2*
8 < k,

, . .
) , ms^O (mod 3).
3 3, b . ^

6 < ,

, . .
) . t
+ ml == 0 (mod /7). /7 /7,
(a, b-\-mt), aarf.
,
.
= =j (mod m).

! > 1,
, . .
.
3. * = [],
-1 ssyj (modm),
a-t = i/t (modm),
(3 '0 ^= m (mod /).

1 4 4


(. 4, , . II) (
) , t-\-\
^{);
0 < | | < . , ,
0 < < . , t + \ > , , .
4, , )
.
) 6 0 = 6 - f " m ' < '
6-fm/s= 0 (mod ); * = 6
, - .
7) (6 0 a, da )

+ d

b tfi+ad

ba

"
+

+ ad

$)
ft

do

bd

b, ) ( )
\\

(1)-1.2 ... a

[-\)()...()

1-2...

1-2. . .

2, b :

-1

(-1)(-2) ,

5, . s, s + 1 . . . . , s + n1
. s ( s + 1) .. (s + 1) ,
d
( 11, , . II). d = U i j . . . u n
. s = 0 (mod ut)i
s + 1 (moduj), ..., s +
n1^
a
a
. -.
1).

IV

145

d.

6, . , ,
jc=6i-f-"!iii t.
, , ,
mitsa by (mod m 2 ).
, bt
d. /,
, t to-\-pt',
t'; , ,

'; xu , = bt + m^,,.
.
=s 6, (mod m,), =5 62 (mod /ns)
, , JC = XI, s (mod mi ( 2 )-
xsssxi.s(modntii2),
x ss bs (mod ma)
, , = xt|2> s (mod mt,i, )-
Jess*!, , 8 (mod/!, , 8 ) , * = i i ( ( m o ( l m 4 )
, , x==xlt s - a i 4 (mod mi, t, s, J) - *
7, ) x ( ' x')

fa, b\

1 .
\ m j
P) x ,
' .
) = hz (mod m),

a^iX+aamty+mtX'+miy'

(
V) \


^' + ' ',

fli, 1\ /,

(mlaj + mXai, l\

146

.
.
8,

"+1~1+ ... + 0(1)()

... (-~ ) ssO(modp)

. . , , ,
.
9, . > 3 , 2, 3, . . . , 2,
'
' 1 (mod ); , HJ <='- ( 1) (:+1)
am (mod ); *== 1 = 1 .
2-3 . . . ( 2) 1 (mod p);
. > 2. ,
1 < < , 1 -2 . . .
10, .
:

1-2 . . . ( > 1) I (mod/;).



( 1 ) + 1 1 (mod u).
aji&al (modm).

-\- ajvc"-1 + . . , + aji si 0 (mod m),


. Q (x) R ()
f(). Q(x) (), <?(*) ,
R () .
/ (:) ^ 0 ( m o d p) .
(.i)0(mod;>); R () .
, i? () . / (:) Q ()
, ?;

/(x)H-0(modp),

Q () SE 0 (mod p)

. , .
ot = n, = .
. "

, -

. -

/
; ^ \~1

Ezi

ezi

" + " \)
( SZ1

, \
SZl

? "
\ " 1 / xt " I
.

11. % (mod .), ! (nred ) ( ) " ^ ( ' ) ;


, )
, . ^ A (mod ), " * A (mod ) ISES
5" (mod ), , 1/ (mod m),
</" EX I (mod m).

1 4 7

1. : (2 + )===
4ac(mod/n).
z z0 (mod m)
l
s
z ^b iac(modm)
2-f b = 0(mod m)
.
im

+1

2, . f ) = 1 a

m + 1

I (modp), (a

)-!S!a(njod

p),

xs= a"+i (mod p).


b. f ) = = 1

+ 2 ^ j . D (modp).

4+

im+1

= = 1 (modp), a

/ 2\
I 1 ==1

ss

! (modp),

2*

+ 2

=1 (modp). s,
0; 1,
c. = 2*+1. = 3 , ( ) = 1.

\ I
?"''*BE-I

{modp),

>*"

= 1 (modp), '**""' *1 (modp).

s s
2k-hNs,sk-.

_ j

( m o d p h

a2

ft- *#,,*-

( m o d

p )

ss
/-V'1*-S|(modrt,
, .; ,
"N^"=1

(modp),

o * - ^ 1 1 * - ' - * l(modp),

x*s

JVS*(modp).

d.
2 . . . (2) ... (2) ( 1)4 1 = 0(modp),
( 1 - 2 . . . 2nif+ 1 = 0 ( m o d p ) .
3, . (1) (2) ( h 2). (3) ,
( ) = 1. ( ) = (-)
\ I
\ I
V3/
^ \
/
1, & + 1 .
3 7 " ~ \ . 6 + 5 .
b. \, %
^
4 m + I , (2piPa . . . )2-|-1
plt pi, ..., Pt (2! . . . ) + 1 = 0 (mod p)
4 +
c. 1 ( , ...,
6 ! + 1 , ( 2 4 . . . ) + 3
/;,, , . . . , (21 . . . )*-\-3 = 0 (mod p)
6 m + l .

148

4. ,
, 2-2, , . . , = . , . ; ,
,
.
, . . ,
5, .

( )
a

= -ip ~ + .

(1)

-1

2*0*4
21

2 _ s

...

<h

Ol

2*0*3

2*0^!

"

xt

xl

as , * (1) .
0

Pl

= P i , ,

= . ,

Pi-\-2XfjX)-\-*=

(modp),

.. * 0 (*. ) = 1 xlt xt, . . . , xa-i


.
b.

149

at

**

1 ~

"

-1

^ . (, 2 ) = 1 1 = ,
XQXI+xl=xi+&^
(mod 2) 2 = 0. xt : 0 1.
1
, , > _ , 1 : 0 1. =3 =
=s I (mod8), 4 .
6. , Q, Q _
, , 2 ,
z. Q^2a'lza-1
(modp); , (Q, p)l
Q' QQ' 1 (mod;> a ).

_ ( 2 = (

) ( Va ) = ( ) 0 (mod p ),

(PQ'fr^a(QQ')!1^a(mo6pa).
7, =21

. . . pfk .

m=2aab, (, 6 ) = 1 , 2* .
= 0 . (1) (jc-f-l)s=0 (mod m) , &
: 1 (mod ); 1 (mod b).
, ^ ^ ^ ( m o d m). 2* .
1 .
* s l ( m o d 2 o ) ; 1 (mod 2b).
, j:sj; 0 (mod m). 2* .
= 2. a a b
1 (mod 2); =

1 (mod 2).

, =0 f mod -5 2 *

+1

150

^ .

1
= 1 (mod 2a);
x s = I (mod 2" b);
1
as 1 (mod 2 " " a); x = 1 (mod 2ft).
, * s i , I mod -" ) +!

2* .
8, . :' ' 1 (mudp),

, l-j-/,'A*' , 1.
.
.

-2

. 6 , (, 6 = 0 6 = 1 ) .

:
_ / , yi y = O;
s
" i 1 " \ 0, // ;
(^

/ / ! = > ( ) ;
,

\v>o

6, )

^^

^4 \^

X - Q zt"0

l ~ 0

1- V

151

Zi = z />-!. 1 ( , ( ) 1 . S=pQ Q1',


) )
T(Q0M0My<pQ.
T < p Q - \
) psZT> . > 5
). ,
,
, SX=Q = , JM + I, . . . , M-\-Q.
(Qa + 2Q Q 2 + 2Q + 1 )
p,
.
9, . (1).
= z 0 (mod m)
(5)
; == (mod m) ! (2).
,
(5) (2).
(5) (2)
(1). , = ,

zllQ = mP + r, | | < . , (2) ,


[ | a + Q a 3=0(modm). 0 < | \' + Q- < 2
m=|rp+Q2.
(\r\, Q) l

)^ - c g p + g j , . ^

(6)
( m o d Q)

| r\=r, rmsz0Q (mod nt) (6)


(5). | | = , z$Q saz o r (mod m), Q ==
z o | r\ (modm), =( 2 -)-|| (5).
(5) (1).
, = + * . \-\-\ (1) (5),
zoj/ (mod m), *! zoi/i (mod m) jri/! = !/ (mod m).
4 I = J : I ; / , (x, i/) = (x1, Jfi)=l =
y yi.
b. (3},
= 0 (mod p)

(7)

; as zi/ (mod p) (4).


,
(7) (4).
(7) (4), (3). , = ,

152

ZQQ = S r (mod />), | \ < Y - (4) ,


!
a
a
I | + a Q * = 0 (mod). 0 < | | + a Q < (1 +) s
2
2
, = 2 | |H-2Q =/>, \r\ + 2Q =
2
= 2. | I , | r | = 2 n , / > = Q + 2rf.
i
2
)
2
a
(1 = 3 | r | 4 - 3 Q = / . | | + 3 Q = 2/),

a
| | + 3Q = 3/>. : 4
0, 2. \\ 3, | | =
j, pQ
+ l
2
2
, = + p xt+ayt (3) (4),
x xlt \- ,
(4), sszy (mod p), xts=
zyi(moa ),
^ sss 0 (mod ),
0<

< (1+1) <.(*+ ) (xl+yl) < * .


, ) S (k) ^ .
)

=0
) 1 2plt

2
1

1 1 I

*=0
, %
( ] ; = ( 1) ( )
)) s + ft (S ()) = -!
10, .
2 DK =

. ! Ti > 1, xi, y^c \yi ~Xi | < , 0 < //,, ,


/

+ 1 <2i?i K D + 1, |*I? | < 2 Yo +1. >

> Ti \1 Y~D *i | > ,

Xs, !fi

| !Dyl | < 2 + \ . .

153

, 2 1 < / < 2 5 + 1
, *, *,, ^, , yt; . . . , D = k;
\lt | , 1)
?i e= (mod |/(), TiiSstiaimodlAI), 6. ] 6 + >] VD = (li + r\l Y~D) (g 3 1] 2 /75), ( )
4! (mod | 4|).
!o = I I H 10 = 41*1. 1 | D t ) 2 = l.
. , , (2), ( ) (1).
, , (1), , (2), 1,2, ...

(+ < + ]/~ < (*+</ *1, (-\-<, ,

\< + <

+ ,

(3)

( ) X ,

+ -

* + * ^ . - ( * + ) (*-/


X' 2 = 1 .

(4)

(4) 0 < XY < 1, (3) , X . (3)


(/,
II, .
m-lm-l
, a{l' + 2tx)

I s-. -r I" == 51 S

"'

1=0 *=0

t
0, , 21 .
.

2;
m = 2mj
|5| =

0 , 2 ( .

154

b, )
\Sa.l

-0

, lAbssa
,
)

(mod/>),

2, 72-

=0

={

, = 0, "jT 1 ^ < .

-\

1).
7)
. + Q.-I M + Q-I , -1 ,

.('-)

, = 0, -tS- .

1 . "i
fi) , , I
/>!

.)

t 1 , / > 1 I ) .
-

2(

2 V

( ):

I Sa,\ 3,3, i

<= 0

155

"

2l

/ > 0

1,

( 8 ) .

i])

)
M + Q-1

7 2*

* 1

=0

, = 0 , 0
, ( |) 1 1 , , . I l l )

> 2X) )
\i)

I 1 = 1

p(R2 + N*),

[ 1 = 1 2 p R N .

-1

p(RN)*.

= 0 0 , ,

+ 0-1
=

! l r i

=1

p(RHf < 4(1


V) , ,

- 1 /_ V-1V-I j -1 ,(---.)
=0 i=0

156

, . , = 0,
, ,

J*H +)<*
VI
1, . q aP^l (modg), q 6 = 1; />. 6 = 1
1 (modq), 6 = /> ql=2px;
.
b. q aP+\=sO(modq), =1 (mod?).
q
6=1,
2
2, , 2. = 1; . 6 = 2 1 (modq),
+ I (rnodg). = 2 q1=2; .
c. 2+1 , ,
21. 1 , . . . , ^-
2 + 1; (pypt . . . )~1

2 + 1, pit . . . , .
!
d. q 2 + 1 =0(modi?), 2 ! " ++1l = I (mod q).
2
q 2
, , q 1 = 2 1 - 1 ; .
2. , "1 . tp (a"1),
3, . - .
, ft- :
1, 2, . . . . 1 , , I , . . . . 2, 1, 2, . . .
,,., 1 , , , 1 , . . . , 2, 1, 2, . . .
, 1, 1 + 2 * , 1+2-2*. . . . .
1 + 2 * 2. , -
.
. .
4. x * = l ( m o d p )
-, 6' 6. 6' d
, d 1 (mod />). (6) 6'
}\,

S' =
<s\6

p(d)Sa,

S' S,J = - J .

1 5 7

VI

5, . ( 3; , ) ( 2 + I") ** ~"'"
g = 3 .
b. ( ) =

81 ^ 1 (mod2p4-l).

g.
c. ! . , j " 1 * g*^! (mod4p+l).
g = 2.
d. f gjj-^j-j 1 = 1, 2 " s I (mod 2"/>+ g=3.
6, , ) , 1, . !. 1,2
1 ,
, g, 2g, ,... {pl)g,
g .

-1

1 - 1

( )) .
. > 2
1.2... ( p _ j ) - g l + I + - - + ' | - l - . / 5 -
7. g" *" ^ a ( m o d p ) , ind g l a i n d ^ ^ == i n d ? a (modp1),
-I).
8, )
-lm-lm-l
2'""<"~)

\sr-<x

/i

| ) |
.
, , #i = </ .

|S|*
)

| ( u ) ";= u(modm), 4 ()
j / " V (mod m). | ()
( I I , . IV), () ( ) .

158

( )),

I S -^

VK<f (m) < (m) m^K Vlh.

) " 1 (mod m)
1 (mod 2 ) ,

- I (mod?>)

=> 1 /mod p=*).

(*} Yo(A)- 2 (g, 6), xsal (mod2 a ) nY(*)=U(modc), ( * ) ^


= 0 (mod ,,). 2 , . I (mod 2)
2 . , 5
=1 (rnodpf 1 ). . * " 1 fmodp?*\ .
, < 2*+*.
( I I , , . II)

, .

u=0li = l)

*=l

(u, v)
"^u(mod),

yLysszv(modp),

yi I, . . .
. . . , I.

p-ip-l

p-ip-i

=0=0

u = 0o=0

, iHO, 0 ) = p 1 ,
(, ) < 2ni v > 0.

(, 0) = 0 > 0

, V < * (1). ,
fS|4<.Vn,, \S\<~nJp~.

VII
,
M + Q-I

_1

159

(+-|
6=0

, 6 = 0, < ) (. 8).

d
3

7
7- V
_1'

.M + Q-I
* In p.

.
-"" A f + Q - l

-1

, fc = U,

_
~

""

"

VII
1, ) {, ) = 1 1 '-1 (mod p),

-1
-1

XX

=0

(*-!-*)

zLz 1, zt, , ( ) ! .

S=Q (p\)-Q (Ql) = (p Q) Q.


2, )

p-lp-1

,,;'-!)'

p-1

160


) (, ) . (, ) = \

) , , \S\i Ai+Bt.

))
.
-1 p-lp-l
,ind Zi + indz T,,2i+JC+J)
'

"

'

| |

? ! + , , no x .

xs

xl 0

, = 0, V.
(1v) Y^p ( )).
3, ) (, ) - I i s z (mod p)
, ind 6, 6
. ,

0
i n d * o e 2 0 ( m o d 6 ) .

)
= + *- 1 ;

" =0

*-I;

=, . . . . 1

21j

2((' 1 -'' + "-~ 1 ^)

(, ) = 1 . ( =

*
Sa,p*=
)
(, ps)=p,

V
2J

2-*+"
e

X = U +ps~a~lO,

=P*
U= 0

v0, .... po+l I,

,_
l
Sa,p.
pS-o-l_|

VII

161

ps _e2nia{unp~s+nun~xp

v)

(u, ) = 1 . ( = )

6) "'...* .

1 , . . , ^ ass ^^--,.. -\-^ (mod ),


( 12, d 9, , . III)

s = l

1 <s<^n,

(, )

1 <s<n,

(, ) = 1
\

j | = p - s + ! V / ? I - 1 < I;

, 5>,|7' ps\p~s+svp"~1\Sc

ps-n\\Ta

pi-n\

0 < s^n.
, , ,
4, )

=[

, = 0, ,

)
JM + Q I

01).
-1

a(ind*-s)

, ~0, ,
J ^ p In .

162

) , ^ [ 4 />] ,

p-l

, vK3. 7',0,
. ,

S) / f x ) = l ^', . . .
. . . , !<1{1 + (?1), ( 17, , . II)

s'= 5
S* (., 1) = 1, S' = H.
, S^ , d.

1,10,1=0.
)
|

(-t

, , \
1

1)) , , < ft, . "



I, . . . . Q;

<?[/(1/)]

VII

163

: )
, ,
, ft.

'

<, l n
o<in

ylnp+21nlnp

1 |i

ln

+O

fe)

'"/
lSJM

lnp

,
5.

-\ -\
axj/

v(i)=

,
(). (?)=- n
5)
(").
= (mod m)
u s5(/(modm)
( 8, ), . VI 11, . IV)

|v(*)|*<Kq>(/),

, ) 1 = p " I p J t . . . p * *
1 ; pi = 2. slt sj, s 3 , s't
sA, s'k , :
S!=0, s j = l ,
U i = l ,
si s i (mod 2),

0 < si < 2 a '

} , ai > 1,

, r> 1.

164

Mr = (pi)p~ r

'

, '

g- t
. ,
W = uvS.
,

2 S
%(x) gtzw= x(modp), a t\(y)
g't'sssy (mod p). , X = u, K = u (
8, ), . VI).

M+Q-l

p-l

2-^

,
(_1)0

1-^i - = .
-\
+Q-1
_

= 0,

I
1, . 17. . 23.

3. 22 .

6
i
i
5, . 2 -3 .". b. 2?.&-5 -7>-U .\7-23-37.
11
1. . 1312,
11

31
1
I;!
9
J
6
4
4
s
:l
2
3
. 2 -3
-5
.7 -1 l -13 -17 .19 -23*.29 -31 -37 -41 -43 -47 X
8

53 -5) -61 ".67-71 -73-79.83-89.97-101-103-107-109- .


2. . (5600) = 36;
S (5600) = 15 624.
. (116 424) = 96; S (116 424) = 410 400.
3. 1.
4. ) 1152; 0) 466 400.
5. DCCX 774.

III
1, . 70. , .
2, . 33-5'2-1 ia-2999. b. 7-13-37-73101 137-17-19-257.
IV
1, . 2 = 81 (mod 337). b. = 200; 751; 1302; 1853; 2404 (mod 2755).
2, b. *== 1630 (mod 2413).
3, = 94 + 1; j/ = 39 + 47f, t .
' 2 = 1 3 1 (mod 221*); 110 (mod 221); JC = 89 (mod 221).
. x = 11 151^ + 11 80062 + 1 6 875*8(mod 39 825).
5, a. * = 91 (mod 120). b. x = 8479 (mod 15015).
6, * = 1 0 0 (mod 143); y=i 111 (mod 143).
7, a. 32+22 s + 32 ! + 2*=s0(mod5).
8, :6 + 4^-(-221 + 7 + 70: + 524-39 = 0 (mod 101).
9, a. * = 16 (mod 27). b. * = 22; 53 (mod 64).
10, a. x s 113 (mod 125).
b. * = 43, 123, 168, 248, 293, 373, 418, 498, 543, 623 (mod 625).
11, a. JC = 2, 5, 11, 17, 20, 26 (mod 30).
b. *==76, 22, 176, 122 (mod 225).

166

V
1, . 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, 18,
b. 2. 5, 6, 8, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18. 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 29, 31, 32, 35.
2, . ) 0; 6) 2. . ) 0; ) 2.
) 0; ) 2. . ) 0; ) 2.
,.
. ) 9 (mod 19)-, ) x s s 1] (mod 29);
) 14 (mod 97).
. ) = 66 (mod 311); ) = 130 (mod 277);
) j s i 94 (mod 353).
5, . -sa 72 (mod 125). b. * = 127 (mod 243).
,. .1*3 13, 19, 45, 51 (mod 64). b. *=sHl,87, 1G9, 215 (mod 256).
VI
1,
2,
5,
6,

a.
a.
a.
a.

6.
3,
a)
a)

b. 18.
3, 3. b. 5, 5, 5. 7.
0; P) 1; y) 3. b. a) 0; p) 1; v) 10.
x==-40; 27 (mod 67); P) x =s 33 (mod 67);

7) JCS=8, 36,

b. a)
V)
7, . )
8, a. a)
b. a)
P)
9, a. a)
b. a)
P)
10, a)

28,

59,

31, 39 (mod

G7).

x=17(mod73), P) xs=50. 12, 35, 23, 61, 38(mcd73),


i a 3 , 24, 46 (mod 73).
; ) 4. b. a) 0; p) 7.
1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 16, 17; p) 1, 7, 8, 11, 12, 18.
1, 6, 8, 10, 11, 14, 23, 26, 27, 29, 31, 36;
1, 7, 9, 10, 12, 16, 2G. 33, 34.
7, 37; p) 3, 5, 12, 18, 19, 20, 26, 28, 20, 30, 33, 34.
3, 27; 41, 52;
2, (i, 7, 10, 17. 18, 26, 30, 31, 35, 43, 41, 51, 54, 55, 59.

N 1 P) N
7 0

1 3

V)

7 0 1

N 1 3 7 9

6)

V 0 0 0 0

N 1 5 7 11
y

To 0 1 3 2
e)

x)

1 2 4 7 8 11 13 14

0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15

Ti 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1

0 1 0 1 0 1 0

7s 0 2 1 3 0 3 2

To 0 3 1 2 2

N \\ 2 3 4
0 17 2

7 8

11 12 1314 16 17 18 19

21

3 0

22 23

5 3 14 16 9 19 f. 4 13 15 IS 12 17 II

s o|i

N 0
X

V)

2 3

X 0 1 0 Rc

0 1 2|3

6 7

X 0 1 0 C 0 Rc
1
R
R'

6 | 7

Rc

10

VII
= 2.

15

11

13

Rc

Rc
1

1
1

14

15

16

17

18

19

1
I

Rc

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

Rc

Rc

RCft
1

Rc

*?,
31

Rc 0
Rc0

33

Rr

29

30 | 31 32
0

27 2

35 36
0

37

38

3!)

Rc

Rr
l

Rc

Rc,

= 2,

fo~2,

167

3,
X

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 1

- -1 := 2,

- 5,

g=2
0

2 3 4 5 G 7 8 <1

1 3 2

If 2
0

oj.

2 3 4 5 U 7 8 9

"I

2 1 4 5 3

1 = 11,
0

0
1

2
2

;s

4 5 6 7 8 9

4 3

g"=3

p = 7, p-l=2-3,

,V I 0

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 || 1 2

P" - 1 = 2-.

0
0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

/ 1 = 2 - 5 ,

2 6 4 5

^ =

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 8 2 4 9 7 3 6

4 8 5 10 9 7 3 6

169


/>1=22-3,

p=lS,

''
1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 4
1 10 7 6

0
0
1

17,

0
1

--

1 2 4 8 3 6 12 11 9 5
10 7

1= 2 4

14 1 12 5 15

0
1

1 10 13 5 15 16 14
8 7 4 12 2 6

7 13 4 9 6 8

10 2

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0
0
1

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 2 16 4 1 18 19 6 10
0
t 3 9 20 1421 17 8 7 12 15
2 5 13 11
> = 29,

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 2 4 8 m | i 3 7 14 9 18
15 11 3 6 1 2 5 10

1=2-11,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1=

0 1 13 2 16 14 6 3 8
0
I 17 12 15 5 7 11 4 10 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

p= 19,

II 8

g=2

g=zb

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 5 2 10 4 20 8 17 16 11
1 9 22 1821 13 19 3 15 6 7
2 12 14

1=25-7, g"=

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0
0 1 5 2 22 6 12 3 10
1 23 25 7 18 1327 4 21 11 9
2 24 17 26 20 8 16 19 15 14

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 2 4 8 16 3 6 1224 19

I 9 18 7 1428 27 25 21 1326
2 23 17 5 1020 11 22 1

170

/?=31,

/>1 = 2.3-5,

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

I 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

/>=41,
iV 0
0

26 15 1222 13938 30
27 31 2537 24 33 16 9
2936 13 4 17 5 11 7
10 18 1921 23235 6

/>=43,

0
1 10
9 37
3 II
4 22

0
0
j

2
3

I 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

1 2 4 8 163227 1734 31
25 13 26 1530 23 9 1836 35
29 21 5 1020 3 6 1224
22 7 1428 19

1 == 1!-5,
.

I 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

0
8 3
2 34 14
3 23 28
4 20

r== 2

/ -1 =

0 126 2 23 2732 3 16
0
1 24 30 28 11 ,3313 4 7 1735
2 25 22 31 15 29 10 12 6 34 21
3 14 9 520 8 19 18

I 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

0 1 9 27 1926 16 1720 29
I 5 13 8 24 1030 28 22 4 12
2 5 15 14 II 2 6 1823 7 21

0 24 1 1820 25 28 (2 2
0
1 14 23 19 II22 21 6 7 2R 4
2 8 29 1727 13 10 5 3 16 9
3 15

P=37,

g-=3

=6

I 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

1 6 36 11 252739 29 10 19
0
1 32 28 4 24 21 3 182633 34
2 40 35 530 16 14 2 1231 22
3 9 13 37 1720 38 23 15 8 7

1 =z2-i

7,

e=

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

I 0

i 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 27 1 1225 28 35 39 2

0
1
1 10
2 14
3 11
4 24

3 9 273828 41 37 2532
30 4 1236 2223 2635 19
42 40 34 16 5 15 2 6 18
33 1339 31 7 21 20 17 8
29

30 1332 20 26 24 38 2!)19
36 15 1640 8 17 3 541
34 9 31 23 18 14 7 4 33
6 21

:47,

1=2.23,

1 2 3 4 5 G 7 8 9

0
0 1820 36 138 3? 8 40
1 19 7 10 II 4 21 26 16 1245
2 37 25 528 2 9 1422 35
3 39 3 44 ?.7
34 33 30 4 1731
4
6 15 24 134341 23

= ),
N

0 1 17 2 47 18 14 3 34

2
3
4

31 7 39 20 42 25 51 1646
33 5 23 11 9 36 30 38 41
45 3222 8 29 40 44 21 28
27 26

I 48 6 1924 15 12 4 103537

49
13
50
5 43

/ = 59,

g= 5

1 2 3 4

6 7 8 9

1 5 2531 23 21 II 8 40
0
1 12 13 1843 2741 1738 2 10
2 3 15 28 46 4222 163324 26
3 36 30 735 34 29 4 20 6 30
9 45 37 44 32 19
4

1 = 22. 3,

I 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

171

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

I 2 4 8 1632 11 2244 35
0
1 17 34 1530 7 1428 3 6 12
2 24 48 43 33 1326 52 51 49 45
3 37 21 4231 9 1836 1938 23
4 46 39 25 50 47 41 29 5 1020
5 40 27

1 =.2-2, S- = 2

I 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

I 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

0 I50 2 6 51 18 3 42

7 25 5245 1956 4 40 4338

I 21 42 2550 41 23 46 33 7 14

8 10 26 15531246 3420 28

57 4 5 1741 24 44 5539 37

9 14 11 33 27 48 1623 54 36

5 13 32 4722 35 31 21 30 29

1 2 4 8 1632 5 1020 40

28 56 53 47 35 11 22 4429 58

3 57 55 51 43 2754 49 39 1938
4

17 34 9 1836 1326 524531


3

6 1224 4837 1530

172

>=61, ~ 1 = 2-'-35,

, jo

I
2
3
4
5
6

23
24
29
25
45
30

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 I 6 2 22 7 49 3 12
15 8 40 50 28 4 47 1326
55 1657 9 44 41 18 51 35
59 5 21 48 11 143927 46
54 56 43 1734 5820 1038
53 4233 19 37 523236 31

P 67

p-\ -

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

16
17
55
18
31
56

0 139 2 1540 23 3 12
59 41 1924 54 4 64 13 10
62 60 28 4230 20 51 25 44
47 5 32 65 38 14 22 11 58
53 63 9 61 272950 4346
37 21 57 52 8 2649 4536
7 48 35 6 3433

p=V
N

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

34
40
60
46
62
66
35

0
1
2
3
4
5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

I
48
47
60
13
14

2 4 8 1632 3 6 1224
35 9 1836 11 22 44 27 54
33 5 10 20 40 1938 1530
59 57 53 45 29 5855 4937
26 52 43 2550 39 1734 7
28 56 51 41 21 4223 46 31

2-3. 11,

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1
19
26
25
6
47
22

2 4 8 163264 61 55 43
38 9 1836 5 102040 13
52 37 7 1428 5645 23 46
50 33 66 65 6359 51 35 3
12 24 48 29 58 49 3! 62 57
27 54 41 153060 53 39 11
44 21 42 1734

1 = 2-5 7,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 6 26 122832 1 18 52
31 38 39 7 54 24 49 58 16
27 37 1544 56 45 8 1368
11 30 5755 2964 202265
25 33 48 43 1021 9 50 2
5 51 23 1459 1942 4 3
69 1753 36 676347 61 41

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1
45
37
32
20
48
30

7 49 59 58 51 2 1427 47
31 4 28 54 23 1962 8 56
46 38 53 1641 3 21 5 35
11 6 42 1070 64 22 12 13
69 57 4424 2640 67 43 17
52 9 63 1534 2533 1855
68 50 6636 39 60 65 2961


? = 73,

0
1 9
2 17
3 15
4 25

10

6 23
7 42

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 8 6 16 1 14 3324 12
55 225941 7 32 21 20 62
39 634630 2 67 18 49 35
11 4061 29 34 28 64 70 65
4 4751 71 13 54 31 38 66
27 3 53 26 56 57 6843 5
58 1945 48 60 69 50 37 52
44 36

N
0
1
2
3
4

1 = 2' -3-,

79

/ 0

5
6
7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

67 43 69 5346 11
65 33 19 22 3739
38 44

555661 13
4926 57 66

23- 13,
/

0 4 1 8 62 553 12 2
9 34 5763 16 21 6 32

0
1
2
3
4

70 54 72 26 134638 3 61 11
67 56 20 69 2537 10 1936 35
74 75 58 49 766430 59 17 28
5 50 22 42 77 7 5265 33 15 31
6 71 45 60 5524 1873 4829 27
7 4] 51 14 44234740 43 39

1 5 25 52 41 59 3 15 2 10
0
1 50 31 9 45 6 30 4 2027 62
2 18 17 12 60 8 40 54 5136 34
3 24 47 16 73529 72 6848 21
4 32 14 70 5871 63 23 4264 28

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

66 68

173

5
6
7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 3 9 27 2 6 18 54 4 12
29 8 24 72 58 16 4865 37

36
32
46
76
50
62
20

17
59
70
71
28
60

51 74 64 3423 6949 68
19 57 13 3938 3526 78
52 77 73 61 25 7567 43
55 7 21 6331 14 42 47
5 154556 10 30 11 33
22 66 4041 44 53

/j == 83, P 1 =r241, g= :2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 172 2 2773 8 3 62
1 28 24 74 77 9 17 4 56 63 47
2 29 80 25 60 755478 52 10 12
3 18 38 5 14 5735 64 20 48 67
4 30 40 81 71 26 7 61 23 76 16

0
1 2 4 8 1632 64 45 7 14
1 28 56 29 58336649 1530 60

6 19 66 39 70 6 22 154558 50
7 36 33 65 69 21 44 493268 43
8 31 42 41

6
7
8

55 46 79 59

5351

11 37 13 34

2
3
4
5

37
40
41
69
23
63
21

74 65 47 1122 44 5 10 20
80 77 71 5935 70 5731 62
82 81 79 7567 51 1938 76
55 27 542550 17 34 68 53
46 9 1836 72 61 39 78 73
43 3 6 1224 48 13 26 52
42

174
p=zS9,

1=2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 16 132 70 1781 48 2

1 86 84 3323 9 71 64 6 1835

ff=

1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9

1 3 9 2781 65 1751 64 14

1 42 37 226620 60 2 6 18 54

14 82 1257 495239 3 2559

2 73 41 34 1339 288474 44 43

3 87 31 80 8522 6334 11 51 24

3 40 31 4 1236 195782 68 26

30 21 1029 28 727354 6574

5 68 7 5578 196641 36 7543

78 56 79 5988 8680 62 8 24

5 72 38 257547 5267236929

15 69 4783 8 5 13563858

87 83 7135 16485576 50 61

79 62 50 20 27 5367 774042

5 15 4546 49 5885 775370

46 4 37 61 26 76 4560 44

> = 97,

N
0

32 7 2163 11 331030

1 = 2 5 -3,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 3470 68 1 831 6 44

^ =

1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9

1 5 25284321 8 40 6 30

1 35 86 4225 65 7140 89 78 81

1 53 71 6429 484636 8327 38

2 69 5 24 77 76 259 18 3 13

93 77 948222 136534 7374

9 46 74 60 2732 169! 1995

79 7 3578 2 1050 5686 42

7 85 39 4 5845 1584 1462

16 80 1260 9 4531 589692

5 36 63 93 105287 37 5547 67

5 72 69 54 76895791 674426

6 43 64 8075 1226 94 5761 51

6 33 68 4951 61 14 70 59 4 20

7 66 11 50 282972 5321 3330

3 15 7584326324 231890

41 88 23 177330 38 839254

62 19 958747 41 11 5581 17

79 56 4920 228248

85 37 88 5266 39

< 4 0 7 0

1
2
5 2
7 3
2
13 2
17 3
19 2
23 5
29 2
31 3
37 2
41 6
43 3
47 5
53 2
59 2
61 2
67 2
71 7
73 5
79 3
83 2
89 3
97 5
101 2
103 5
107 2
109 6
113 3
127 3
131 2
137 3
139 2
149 2
151 6
157 5
163 2
167 5
173 2
2
3

179
181
191
193
197
199
211
223
227
229
233
239
241
251
257
263
269
271
277
281
283
293
307
311
313
317
331
337
347
349
353
359
367
373
379
383
389
397
401
409

2
2
19
5
2
3
2
3
2
6
3
7
7
6
3
5

419
421
431
433
439
443
449
457
461
463
467
479
487
491
499
503
509
521
523
541
547
557
563
569
571
577
587
593
599
601
607
613
617
619
631
641
643
647
653

6
5
3
3
2
5
17
10
2
3
10
2
2
3
7
6
2
2
5
2
5
3
21

||

2
2
7
5
15
2
3
13
2
3
2
13
3
2
7
5
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
5
2
3
7
7
3
2
3
2
3
3
11
5
2
659 2

661
673
677
683
691
701
709
719
727
733
739
743
751
757
761
769
773
787
797
809
811
821
823
827
829
839
853
857
859
863
877
881
883
887
907
911
919
929
937
941

1 ' 11
2
5
2
5
3
2
2
11

6
3
5
3
2
6
11
2
2
2
3
3
2
3
2
2
11
2
3
2
5
2
3
2
5
2
17
7
3
5
2

947
953
967
971
977
983
991
997
1009
1013
1019
1021
1031
1033
1039
1049
1051
1061
1063
1069
1087
1091
1093
1097
1103
1109
1117
1123
1129
1151
1153
1163
1171
1181
1187
1193
1201
1213
1217
1223

2 1229
3 1231
5 1237
6 1249
3 1259
5 1277
6 1279
7 1283
11 1289
3 1291
2 1297
10 1301
14 1303
5 1307
3 1319
3 1321
7 1327
2 1361
3 1367
6 1373
3 1381
2 1399
5 1409
3 1423
5 1427
2 1429
2 1433
2 1439
11 1447
17 1451
5 1453
5 1459
2 1471
7 1481
2 1483
3 1487
11 1489
2 1493
3 1499
5 1511

2
3
2
7
2
2
3
2
6
2
10

1523
1531
154.3
1549
1553
1559
1567
1571
1579
1583
1597
1601
1607
1609
1613
1619
1621
1627
1637
1657
1663
1667
1669
1693
1697
1699
1709
1721
1723
1733
1741
1747
1753
1759
1777
1783
1787
1789
1801
1811

2
2
5
2
3
19
3
2
3
5
11
3
5
7
3
2
2
3
2
11
3
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
7
6
5
10
2

11
6

6
2
13
13
3
3
5
2
2
13
3
3
2
6
3
7
3
2
2
5
6
3
2
5
14
2
2
11

4WCl.fl

176

1823
1831
1847
1861
1867
1871
1873
1877
1879
1889
1901
1907
1913
1931
1933
1949
1951
1973
1979
1987
1993
1997
1999
2003
2011
201?
2027
2029
2039
2053
2063
2069
2081
2083
2087
2089
2099
2111
2113
2129

2131
2137
2141
2 2143
2 2153
14 2161
10 2179
2 2203
6 2207
3 2213
2 2221
2 2237
3 2239
2 2243
5 2251
2 2267
3 2269
2 2273
2 2281
2 2287
5 2293
2 2297
3 2309
5 2311
3 2333
5 2339
2 2341
2 2347
7 2351
2 2357
5 2371
2 2377
3 2381
2 2383
5 2389
7 2393
2 2399
7 2411
5 2417
3 2423

2 2437
10 2441
2 2447
3 2459
3 2467
23 2473
7 2477
5 2503
5 2521
2 2531
2 2539
2 2543
3 2549
2 2551
7 2557
2 2579
2 2591
3 2593
7 2609
19 2617
2 2621
5 2633
2 2647
3 2657
2 2659
2 2663
7 2671
3 2677
13 2683
2 2687
2 2689
5 2693
3 2699
5 2707
2 2711
3 2713
11 2719
6 2729
3 2731
5 2741

g !

2 2749 6 3083 2 3433


6 2753 3089 3 3449

2767
2 2777
2 2789
5 2791
2 2797
3 2801
17 2803
2 2819
2 2833
5 2837
2 2843
6 2851
2 2857
2 2861
7 2879
7 2887
3 2897
5 2903
2 2909
3 2917
3 2927
3 2939
2 2953
5 2957
7 2963
2 2969
2 2971
5 2999
19 3001
2
2 3019
2 3023
7 3037
5 3041
3 3049
3 3061
3 3067
2 3079

3
2
6
2
3
2
2
5
2
2
2
11
2
7
5
3
5
2
5
5
2
13
2
2
3
10
17
14
2
2
5
2
3
11
6
2
6

3109
3119
3121
3137
3163
3167
3169
3181
3187
3191
3203
3209
3217
3221
3229
3251
3253
3257
3259
3271
3299
3301
3307
3313
3319
3323
3329
3331
3343
3347
3359
3361
3371
3373
3389
3391
3407
3413

6
7
7
3
3
5
7
7
2
11
2

3457
3461
3463
3467
3469
3491
3499
3511
3517
3527
3529
3 3533
5 3539
10 3541
6 3547
6 3557
2 3559
3 3571
3 3581
3 3583
2 3593
6 3607
2 3613
10 3617
6 3623
2 3631
3 3637
3 3643
5 3659
2 3671
11 3673
22 3677
2 3691
5 3697
3 3701
3 3709
5 3719
2 3727

7
2
3
2
2
2
2
7
2

17
2
2
7
2
2
3
2
2
3
3
5
2
3
5
15
2
2
2
13
5
2
2
5
2
2
7
3

1'

3733
3739
3761
3767
3769
3779
3793
3797
3803
3821
3823
3833
3847
3851
3853
3863
3877
3881
3889
3907
3911
3917
3919
3923
3929
31
3943
3947
3967
3989
4001
4003
4007
4013
4019
4021
4027
4049
4051
4057

2
7
3
5
7
2
5
2
2
3
3
3

5
2
2

2
13
11
2
13
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
6
2
3
2
5
2
2
2
3
3
6
5